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Sample records for additional evidence linking

  1. The Cretaceous OAE1a-Submarine Plateau Link: Additional Geochemical Evidence from Marine Sedimentary Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, R. A.; Tiraboschi, D.; Erba, E.; Walczak, P.; Clarke, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    We explore the proposed link between submarine plateau volcanism associated with construction of the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau (122 Ma) and early Aptian Ocean Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) through biostratigraphic data and trace metal abundance anomalies in marine sedimentary sections recovered in cores from DSDP Site 167 (Magellan Rise), ODP Sites 463 and 866 (Mid-Pacific Mountains), and at the Cismon and Piobbico on-land drillsites (Belluno and Umbria-Marche Basins, Italy). Sections were correlated using bio- and magneto-stratigraphic data, and the global d13C isotope anomaly associated with OAE1a. Bulk sediment samples that bracket the OAE1a interval at each site were analyzed by ICP-MS methods. After normalizing element concentrations to Zr to remove the variable contribution of terrigenous material to these sediments, we detected an interval of concentrated metal abundance anomalies that precedes the abrupt positive climb in the d13C isotope excursion, beginning near magnetic chron M0, continuing through the organic-rich interval of anoxic conditions. The metal abundance anomalies (e.g., Sc, Cu, Co, Sn, Cr, Ni, V, Cd, Ag, Bi, Se, W, Mo, Sb, Pb up to 100x background), variable in intensity and pattern of elements, indicate that intermittent hydrothermal activity, in the form of both water/rock exchange and magmatic degassing, introduced large concentrations of trace metals into the Cretaceous ocean at the same time that turnover in plankton communities and increases in isotopically light organic carbon burial occurred. The stratigraphic position of the intervals of trace metal anomalies matches events prior, during and after OAE1a and indicates that intermittent hydrothermal activity on a massive scale triggered abrupt changes in biota, carbon burial and deep ocean oxygen contents. Calcareous nannofossil abundance and composition display major changes in biogenic paleofluxes, temperature and fertility of surface waters, coeval with metal enrichments

  2. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  3. 20 CFR 725.410 - Submission of additional evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Submission of additional evidence. (a) After the district director completes the development of medical... the claim was filed by, or on behalf of, a miner, the schedule shall contain a summary of the complete... employer other than the employer who last employed the claimant as a miner, the district director...

  4. Senile Dementia and Glaucoma: Evidence for a Common Link

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sachin; Aref, Ahmad A.

    2015-01-01

    Dementia and glaucoma are both neurodegenerative conditions characterized by neuronal loss leading to cognitive and visual dysfunction, respectively. A variety of evidence exists linking the two diseases including structural signs, specifically degenerative changes within ganglion cells. Both diseases become more prevalent with increased age, but that alone is unlikely to account for the increased co-prevalence of the diseases found in various studies. Neurotoxic substances including abnormal hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid-β have been found in both disease processes suggesting possible pathophysiologic links between the diseases. The exact mechanism of apoptosis, whether by direct toxicity or potentiation, still needs to be established, but could prove important for both diseases. Another potential link relates to low intracranial pressure in patients with both diseases causing a high translaminar pressure gradient and optic nerve damage in certain patients. While this alone may not account for direct optic nerve damage, it could lead to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory failure causing increased neurotoxins along the optic nerves with resultant damage. All of this evidence suggests the need to further study links between the two diseases, as this could prove instrumental in understanding their overlapping pathophysiology and developing directed therapies for both diseases. While this is more thoroughly investigated, it may be prudent to have a lower threshold for a glaucoma work-up in patients with pre-existing dementia. PMID:26425322

  5. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum: Neuropathological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental question about essential tremor (ET) is whether its associated pathological changes and disease mechanisms are linkable to a specific brain region. To that end, recent tissue-based studies have made significant strides in elucidating changes in the ET brain. Emerging from these studies is increasing neuropathological evidence linking ET to the cerebellum. These studies have systematically identified a broad range of structural, degenerative changes in the ET cerebellum, spanning across all Purkinje cell compartments. These include the dendritic compartment (where there is an increase in number of Purkinje cell dendritic swellings, a pruning of the dendritic arbor, and a reduction in spine density), the cell body (where, aside from reductions in Purkinje cell linear density in some studies, there is an increase in the number of heterotopic Purkinje cell soma), and the axonal compartment (where a plethora of changes in axonal morphology have been observed, including an increase in the number of thickened axonal profiles, torpedoes, axonal recurrent collaterals, axonal branching, and terminal axonal sprouting). Additional changes, possibly due to secondary remodeling, have been observed in neighboring neuronal populations. These include a hypertrophy of basket cell axonal processes and changes in the distribution of climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. These changes all distinguish ET from normal control brains. Initial studies further indicate that the profile (i.e., constellation) of these changes may separate ET from other diseases of the cerebellum, thereby serving as a disease signature. With the discovery of these changes, a new model of ET has arisen, which posits that it may be a neurodegenerative disorder centered in the cerebellar cortex. These newly emerging neuropathological studies pave the way for anatomically focused, hypothesis-driven, molecular mechanistic studies of disease pathogenesis. PMID:26129713

  6. Is there evidence for additional neutrino species from cosmology?

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that recent cosmological and flavor-oscillation data favor the existence of additional neutrino species beyond the three predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. We apply Bayesian model selection to determine whether there is indeed any evidence from current cosmological datasets for the standard cosmological model to be extended to include additional neutrino flavors. The datasets employed include cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing power spectra, and measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale and the Hubble constant. We also consider other extensions to the standard neutrino model, such as massive neutrinos, and possible degeneracies with other cosmological parameters. The Bayesian evidence indicates that current cosmological data do not require any non-standard neutrino properties.

  7. Epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V

    2014-01-01

    Tea has been widely consumed around the world for thousands of years and drinking tea is a daily habit for people of all ages. Tea is a major source of flavonoids, which have become well known as antioxidants. Tea also contains caffeine and theanine, which have been found to associate with health benefits. Many animal and epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the link between tea consumption and human health. However, common questions that arise about tea consumption include: whether all teas are the same, why drinking tea is linked with health benefits, how do the different ways of tea preparation impact on availability of tea components, how much and how long a person should consume tea to obtain health benefits, and whether there is any negative health effect associated with drinking tea. To answer these questions, this paper outlines the tea components and their link to human health, discusses major factors affecting availability of tea components in a tea cup, and reviews the latest epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health. PMID:24237002

  8. Evidence linking coronal mass ejections with interplanetary magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.; Hildner, E.

    1983-01-01

    Using proxy data for the occurrence of those mass ejections from the solar corona which are directed earthward, we investigate the association between the post-1970 interplanetary magnetic clouds of Klein and Burlaga and coronal mass ejections. The evidence linking magnetic clouds following shocks with coronal mass ejections is striking; six of nine clouds observed at Earth were preceded an appropriate time earlier by meter-wave type II radio bursts indicative of coronal shock waves and coronal mass ejections occurring near central meridian. During the selected periods when no clouds were detected near Earth, the only type II bursts reported were associated with solar activity near the limbs. Where the proxy solar data to be sought are not so clearly suggested, that is, for clouds preceding interaction regions and clouds within cold magnetic enhancements, the evidence linking the clouds and coronal mass ejections is not as clear; proxy data usually suggest many candidate mass-ejection events for each cloud. Overall, the data are consistent with and support the hypothesis suggested by Klein and Burlaga that magnetic clouds observed with spacecraft at 1 AU are manifestations of solar coronal mass ejection transients.

  9. Direct Evidence Linking Soil Organic Matter Development to Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenbach, C.; Grandy, S.

    2013-12-01

    Despite increasing recognition of microbial contributions to soil organic matter (SOM) formation there is little experimental evidence linking microbial processes to SOM development and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Specifically, if stable SOM is largely comprised of microbial products, we need to better understand the soil conditions that influence microbial biomass production and ultimately its stability. Microbial physiology, such as microbial growth efficiency (MGE) and rate (MGR) have direct influences on microbial biomass production and are highly sensitive to resource quality. Therefore, the importance of resource quality on SOM is not necessarily a function of resistance to decay but the degree to which it optimizes microbial biomass production. While resource quality may have an indirect effect on SOM abundance via its influence on microbial physiology, SOM stabilization of labile microbial products may rely heavily on a soil's capacity to form organo-mineral interactions. To examine the relative importance of soil microbial community function, resource quality and mineralogy on direct microbial contributions to SOM formation and stability, an ongoing 15-mo incubation experiment was set up using artificial, initially C- and microbial-free soils. Soil microcosms were constructed by mixing sand with either kaolinite or montmorillonite clays followed with a natural soil microbial inoculum. For both soil mineral treatments, weekly additions of glucose, cellobiose, or syringol are carried out, with an additional treatment of plant leachate to serve as a reference. This simplified system allows us to determine if, in the absence of plant-derived C, microbial products using simple substrates can result in chemically complex SOM similar to natural soils. Over the course of the incubation, MGE, MGR, microbial activity, and SOM accumulation rates are monitored. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) is used to track the microbial

  10. Eating disorder diagnostic scale: additional evidence of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based diagnoses, convergent validity with risk factors for eating pathology, and internal consistency. Studies 2 and 3 found that the EDDS was sufficiently sensitive to detect the effects of eating disorder prevention programs. Regarding predictive validity, Studies 3 and 4 found that the EDDS predicted response to a prevention program and future onset of eating pathology and depression. Results provide additional evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale and suggest it may be useful in clinical and research applications. PMID:15023093

  11. Theoretical Basis, Laboratory Evidence, and Clinical Research of Chemical Surgery of the Cornea: Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    da Paz, Amanda C.; Bersanetti, Patrícia A.; Salomão, Marcella Q.; Ambrósio, Renato; Schor, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is increasingly performed in ophthalmology with high success rates for progressive keratoconus and other types of ectasia. Despite being an established procedure, some molecular and clinical aspects still require additional studies. This review presents a critical analysis of some established topics and others that are still controversial. In addition, this review examines new technologies and techniques (transepithelial and ultrafast CXL), uses of corneal CXL including natural products and biomolecules as CXL promoters, and evidence for in vitro and in vivo indirect effectiveness. PMID:25215226

  12. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum: Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Labiano-Fontcuberta, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) might be a family of diseases unified by the presence of kinetic tremor, but also showing etiological, pathological, and clinical heterogeneity. In this review, we will describe the most significant clinical evidence, which suggests that ET is linked to the cerebellum. Data for this review were identified by searching PUBMED (January 1966 to May 2015) crossing the terms "essential tremor" (ET) and "cerebellum," which yielded 201 entries, 11 of which included the term "cerebellum" in the article title. This was supplemented by articles in the author's files that pertained to this topic. The wide spectrum of clinical features of ET that suggest that it originates as a cerebellar or cerebellar outflow problem include the presence of intentional tremor, gait and balance abnormalities, subtle features of dysarthria, and oculomotor abnormalities, as well as deficits in eye-hand coordination, motor learning deficits, incoordination during spiral drawing task, abnormalities in motor timing and visual reaction time, impairment of social abilities, improvement in tremor after cerebellar stroke, efficacy of deep brain stimulation (which blocks cerebellar outflow), and cognitive dysfunction. It is unlikely, however, that cerebellar dysfunction, per se, fully explains ET-associated dementia, because the cognitive deficits that have been described in patients with cerebellar lesions are generally mild. Overall, a variety of clinical findings suggest that in at least a sizable proportion of patients with ET, there is an underlying abnormality of the cerebellum and/or its pathways. PMID:26521074

  13. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  14. Cognitive vulnerability to depression: A comparison of the weakest link, keystone and additive models

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Laura C.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Felton, Julia W.; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Anderson, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple theories of cognitive vulnerability to depression have been proposed, each focusing on different aspects of negative cognition and utilising different measures of risk. Various methods of integrating such multiple indices of risk have been examined in the literature, and each demonstrates some promise. Yet little is known about the interrelations among these methods, or their incremental validity in predicting changes in depression. The present study compared three integrative models of cognitive vulnerability: the additive, weakest link, and keystone models. Support was found for each model as predictive of depression over time, but only the weakest link model demonstrated incremental utility in predicting changes in depression over the other models. We also explore the correlation between these models and each model’s unique contribution to predicting onset of depressive symptoms. PMID:21851251

  15. Mythology and evidence-based oncology: An indivisible link.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Shrinivas; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Munshi, Anusheel

    2016-01-01

    Religion has an important role in the birth of medicine and shares a long history. Contradiction has separated spirituality and medicine. For so many years, the spiritual dimension of medicine was seen as unnecessary and inappropriate. However times are changing again and since the last few decades, recent literature and various ongoing studies have focused on unmet spiritual needs of physician and patient. This article focuses on the rejuvenating link between medicine and spirituality. PMID:27461604

  16. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum: Neurochemical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Marin-Lahoz, Juan; Gironell, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology and the exact anatomy of essential tremor (ET) is not well known. One of the pillars that support the cerebellum as the main anatomical locus in ET is neurochemistry. This review examines the link between neurochemical abnormalities found in ET and cerebellum. The review is based on published data about neurochemical abnormalities described in ET both in human and in animal studies. We try to link those findings with cerebellum. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of ET. There are several studies about GABA that clearly points to a main role of the cerebellum. There are few data about other neurochemical abnormalities in ET. These include studies with noradrenaline, glutamate, adenosine, proteins, and T-type calcium channels. One single study reveals high levels of noradrenaline in the cerebellar cortex. Another study about serotonin neurotransmitter results negative for cerebellum involvement. Finally, studies on T-type calcium channels yield positive results linking the rhythmicity of ET and cerebellum. Neurochemistry supports the cerebellum as the main anatomical locus in ET. The main neurotransmitter involved is GABA, and the GABA hypothesis remains the most robust pathophysiological theory of ET to date. However, this hypothesis does not rule out other mechanisms and may be seen as the main scaffold to support findings in other systems. We clearly need to perform more studies about neurochemistry in ET to better understand the relations among the diverse systems implied in ET. This is mandatory to develop more effective pharmacological therapies. PMID:26498765

  17. Links between Parents' Epistemological Stance and Children's Evidence Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Megan R.; Callanan, Maureen A.; Smilovic, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental research highlights young children's selectivity in learning from others. Little is known, however, about the patterns of information that children actually encounter in conversations with adults. This study investigated variation in parents' tendency to focus on testable evidence as a way to answer science-related questions…

  18. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Neuroimaging Evidence.

    PubMed

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor disorder in the world, and post-mortem evidence has shown that the cerebellum is the most consistent area of pathology in ET. In the last few years, advanced neuroimaging has tried to confirm this evidence. The aim of the present review is to discuss to what extent the evidence provided by this field of study may be generalised. We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms ET with the following keywords: MRI, VBM, MRS, DTI, fMRI, PET and SPECT. We summarised and discussed each study and placed the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the cerebellar involvement in ET. A total of 51 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 32 functional studies. Despite clinical and methodological differences, both functional and structural imaging studies showed similar findings but without defining a clear topography of neurodegeneration. Indeed, the vast majority of studies found functional and structural abnormalities in several parts of the anterior and posterior cerebellar lobules, but it remains to be established to what degree these neural changes contribute to clinical symptoms of ET. Currently, advanced neuroimaging has confirmed the involvement of the cerebellum in pathophysiological processes of ET, although a high variability in results persists. For this reason, the translation of this knowledge into daily clinical practice is again partially limited, although new advanced multivariate neuroimaging approaches (machine-learning) are proving interesting changes of perspective. PMID:26626626

  19. X-linked myotubular myopathy: clinical observations in ten additional cases.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M; Pai, G S; Holden, K R; Herman, G

    1995-11-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a recessively inherited disorder, lethal to males in the first months of life. Since the first report in 1969, at least 90 cases have been described in the literature. Diagnosis is confirmed by muscle biopsy. Linkage studies have localized the disorder to the Xq28 region, close to the loci for X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA syndrome. We report on 10 additional cases of XLMTM from six different families. In addition to classic clinical features of XLMTM, our patients showed interesting associated findings which included birth length > 90th centile and large head circumference with or without hydrocephalus in 70%, narrow, elongated face in 80%, and slender, long digits in 60% of cases. There was concordance in the occurrence and severity of hydrocephalus in most sib pairs. These features in a "floppy" male infant serve as clues for early clinical diagnosis of XLMTM, which can then be confirmed by muscle biopsy. Development of polyhydramnios was observed in the third trimester of an at-risk dizygotic twin gestation monitored by serial sonography with confirmation of XLMTM at birth. PMID:8588581

  20. The Good Housewife Exercise: Linking Citation to Practices, Evidence, and Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansberger, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Presents a one-class-period writing exercise (including handout) which uses a short excerpt from a 1948 book called "Making Housekeeping Easy" to teach the linking of claims to evidence as well as academic citation practices. (SR)

  1. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  2. Polymer-additive extraction via pressurized fluids and organic solvents of variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates).

    PubMed

    Nazem, N; Taylor, L T

    2002-04-01

    Variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates) (PMMAs) are synthesized with three additives incorporated at theoretically 1000 microg of the additive per gram of prepared polymer. The additives are Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, and Irgafos 168. The in-house" synthesized polyacrylates are then subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to determine if additive recovery is a function of percent cross-linking. Although considerable work in this regard has been performed with non-cross-linked polyolefins, the literature is lacking regarding polyacrylates. Some additive degradation apparently occurs during the synthesis, as judged by the increased complexity of the extract high-performance liquid chromatographic trace and the low percent recoveries observed especially for the Irganoxes. For low polymer cross-linking (1%), it appears that both PMMA synthetic reproducibility and readily observed polymer swelling during SFE are serious issues that adversely affect additive percent recovery and precision of results. Higher percent cross-linking yields more consistent analytical data than low percent cross-linking, even though the amount of additive extracted in all PMMA samples (regardless of cross-linking percentage) is essentially the same whether the extraction is via SFE or liquid-solid extraction with methylene chloride. Results for comparably cross-linked poly(ethylmethacrylate) and poly(butylmethacrylate) are similar to PMMA. PMID:12004935

  3. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty. PMID:22313219

  4. 20 CFR 416.805 - When additional evidence may be required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When additional evidence may be required. 416.805 Section 416.805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determination of Age § 416.805 When additional evidence may...

  5. CHARMM Additive All-Atom Force Field for Phosphate and Sulfate Linked to Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Mallajosyula, Sairam S.; Guvench, Olgun; Hatcher, Elizabeth; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2012-01-01

    Presented is an extension of the CHARMM additive all-atom carbohydrate force field to enable the modeling of phosphate and sulfate linked to carbohydrates. The parameters are developed in a hierarchical fashion using model compounds containing the key atoms in the full carbohydrates. Target data for parameter optimization included full two-dimensional energy surfaces defined by the glycosidic dihedral angle pairs in the phosphate/sulfate model compound analogs of hexopyranose monosaccharide phosphates and sulfates, as determined by quantum mechanical (QM) MP2/cc-pVTZ single point energies on MP2/6-31+G(d) optimized structures. In order to achieve balanced, transferable dihedral parameters for the dihedral angles, surfaces for all possible anomeric and conformational states were included during the parametrization process. In addition, to model physiologically relevant systems both the mono- and di-anionic charged states were studied for the phosphates. This resulted in over 7000 MP2/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-31G+(d) model compound conformational energies which, supplemented with QM geometries, were the main target data for the parametrization. Parameters were validated against crystals of relevant monosaccharide derivatives obtained from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and larger systems, namely inositol-(tri/tetra/penta) phosphates non-covalently bound to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and oligomeric chondroitin sulfate in solution and in complex with cathepsin K protein. PMID:22685386

  6. A novel CFTR disease-associated mutation causes addition of an extra N-linked oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, M M; Aleksandrov, A A; Chang, X B; Riordan, J R

    2000-11-01

    We have examined the influence of a novel missense mutation in the fourth extracytoplasmic loop (EL4) of CFTR detected in a patient with cystic fibrosis. This substitution (T908N) creates a consensus sequence (N X S/T) for addition of an N-linked oligosaccharide chain near the C-terminal end of EL4. Oligosaccharyl transferase generally does not have access to this consensus sequence if it is closer than about twelve amino acids from the membrane. However, the T908N site is used, even though it is within four residues of the predicted membrane interface and the oligosaccharide chain added binds calnexin, a resident chaperone of the ER membrane. The chloride channel activity of this variant CFTR is abnormal as evidenced by a reduced rate of (36)Cl(-) efflux and a noisy single channel open state. This may reflect some displacement of the membrane spanning sequence C-terminal of EL4 since it contains residues influencing the ion pore. PMID:11443282

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Modification of the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycan by EptC protein-mediated addition of phosphoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nichollas E; Nothaft, Harald; Edwards, Alistair V G; Labbate, Maurizio; Djordjevic, Steven P; Larsen, Martin R; Szymanski, Christine M; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2012-08-24

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni possesses an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate structures that decorate both protein and non-protein surface-exposed structures. An N-linked glycosylation system encoded by the pgl gene cluster mediates the synthesis of a rigidly conserved heptasaccharide that is attached to protein substrates or released as free oligosaccharide in the periplasm. Removal of N-glycosylation results in reduced virulence and impeded host cell attachment. Since the N-glycan is conserved, the N-glycosylation system is also an attractive option for glycoengineering recombinant vaccines in Escherichia coli. To determine whether non-canonical N-glycans are present in C. jejuni, we utilized high throughput glycoproteomics to characterize C. jejuni JHH1 and identified 93 glycosylation sites, including 34 not previously reported. Interrogation of these data allowed the identification of a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN)-modified variant of the N-glycan that was attached to multiple proteins. The pEtN moiety was attached to the terminal GalNAc of the canonical N-glycan. Deletion of the pEtN transferase eptC removed all evidence of the pEtN-glycan but did not globally influence protein reactivity to patient sera, whereas deletion of the pglB oligosaccharyltransferase significantly reduced reactivity. Transfer of eptC and the pgl gene cluster to E. coli confirmed the addition of the pEtN-glycan to a target C. jejuni protein. Significantly reduced, yet above background levels of pEtN-glycan were also observed in E. coli not expressing eptC, suggesting that endogenous E. coli pEtN transferases can mediate the addition of pEtN to N-glycans. The addition of pEtN must be considered in the context of glycoengineering and may alter C. jejuni glycan-mediated structure-function interactions. PMID:22761430

  9. The Impact of Educational Mismatch on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Linked Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We provide first evidence regarding the direct impact of educational mismatch on firm productivity. To do so, we rely on representative linked employer-employee panel data for Belgium covering the period 1999-2006. Controlling for simultaneity issues, time-invariant unobserved workplace characteristics, cohort effects and dynamics in the…

  10. Biochemical evidence for an alternate pathway in N-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Angelyn; Chang, Michelle M.; Whitworth, Garrett E.; Imperiali, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a complex protein modification conserved among all three domains of life. Herein we report the in vitro analysis of N-linked glycosylation from the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus voltae. Using a suite of synthetic and semisynthetic substrates, we show that AglK initiates N-linked glycosylation in M. voltae through the formation of α-linked dolichyl monophosphate N-acetylglucosamine (Dol-P-GlcNAc), which contrasts with the polyprenyl-diphosphate intermediates that feature in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Intriguingly, AglK exhibits high sequence homology to dolichyl-phosphate β-glucosyltransferases, including Alg5 in eukaryotes, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. The combined action of the first two enzymes, AglK and AglC, afforded an α-linked Dol-P-glycan that serves as a competent substrate for the archaeal oligosaccharyl transferase AglB. These studies provide the first biochemical evidence revealing that despite the apparent similarity of the overall pathways, there are actually two general strategies to achieve N-linked glycoproteins across the domains of life. PMID:23624439

  11. 43 CFR 3741.3 - Additional evidence required with application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional evidence required with application for patent. 3741.3 Section 3741.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 585; MULTIPLE MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...

  12. 43 CFR 3741.3 - Additional evidence required with application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional evidence required with application for patent. 3741.3 Section 3741.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 585; MULTIPLE MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...

  13. 20 CFR 10.120 - May a claimant submit additional evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a claimant submit additional evidence? 10.120 Section 10.120 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  14. 20 CFR 10.120 - May a claimant submit additional evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true May a claimant submit additional evidence? 10.120 Section 10.120 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  15. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  16. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  17. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  18. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  19. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  20. 30 CFR 1210.206 - Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR? 1210.206 Section 1210.206 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue FORMS AND REPORTS Production and...

  1. 38 CFR 20.709 - Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing. 20.709 Section 20.709 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Hearings on Appeal § 20.709 Rule 709. Procurement...

  2. Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: Experimental evidence for a causal link.

    PubMed

    Bratanova, Boyka; Loughnan, Steve; Klein, Olivier; Claassen, Almudena; Wood, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rising obesity represents a serious, global problem. It is now well established that obesity is associated with poverty and wealth inequality, suggesting that these factors may promote caloric intake. Whereas previous work has examined these links from an epidemiological perspective, the current paper examined them experimentally. In Study 1 we found that people experimentally induced to view themselves as poor (v. wealthy) exhibited increased calorie intake. In Study 2, participants who believed that they were poorer or wealthier than their interaction partners exhibited higher levels of anxiety compared to those in an equal partners condition; this anxiety in turn led to increased calorie consumption for people who had a strong need to belong. The findings provide causal evidence for the poverty-intake and inequality-intake links. Further, we identify social anxiety and a strong need to belong as important social psychological factors linking inequality to increased calorie intake. PMID:26809142

  3. The effect of an additional phosphite stabilizer on the properties of radiation cross-linked vitamin E blends of UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Oral, Ebru; Neils, Andrew; Yabannavar, Pooja; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-06-01

    Antioxidant stabilization of radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been introduced to improve the oxidative stability of total joint implant bearing surfaces. Blending of an antioxidant with UHMWPE resin powder followed by consolidation and radiation cross-linking has been cleared by the FDA for use in both total hips and total knees for designs incorporating two antioxidants, namely vitamin E and Covernox™ (a medical grade version of Irganox™ 1010). The antioxidants in the polymer are expected to protect the polymer during consolidation, during radiation cross-linking, on the shelf before implantation, and in vivo after implantation. To maximize the protection of the polymer afforded by the antioxidant in vivo, a novel approach may be the use of multiple antioxidants, especially to protect the primary antioxidant for a longer period of time. We hypothesized that the addition of a phosphite stabilizer (Irgafos 168™) commonly used in conjunction with hindered phenolic antioxidants in polymer processing could improve the oxidative stability of radiation cross-linked blends of vitamin E. To test our hypothesis, we prepared UHMWPE blends with 0.05 wt% Irgafos and 0.05 wt% vitamin E and compared its cross-link density, wear resistance, tensile properties, and impact strength to control blends containing only vitamin E. Our hypothesis was not supported; the cross-link density of UHMWPE was significantly decreased by the additive without additional benefit to oxidative stability. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt at using multiple stabilizers in medical grade UHMWPE. PMID:24536024

  4. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? Evidence from eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Eisma, Maarten C; Schut, Henk A W; Stroebe, Margaret S; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on cognitive avoidance theories of worry in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and rumination after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), others have suggested that rumination may serve to avoid painful aspects of the loss, thereby contributing to complicated grief. To examine if rumination is linked with loss avoidance, an eye-tracking study was conducted with 54 bereaved individuals (27 high and 27 low ruminators). On 24 trials, participants looked for 10 seconds at a picture of the deceased and a picture of a stranger, randomly combined with negative, neutral or loss-related words. High ruminators were expected to show initial vigilance followed by subsequent disengagement for loss stimuli (i.e., picture deceased with a loss word) in the first 1500 ms. Additionally, we expected high ruminators to avoid these loss stimuli and to show attentional preference for non-loss-related negative stimuli (i.e., picture stranger with a negative word) on longer exposure durations (1500-10000 ms). Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for an effect of rumination on vigilance and disengagement of loss stimuli in the first 1500 ms. However, in the 1500-10000 ms interval, high ruminators showed shorter gaze times for loss stimuli and longer gaze times for negative (and neutral) non-loss-related stimuli, even when controlling for depression and complicated grief symptom levels. Effects of rumination on average fixation times mirrored these findings. This suggests that rumination and loss avoidance are closely associated. A potential clinical implication is that rumination and grief complications after bereavement may be reduced through the use of exposure and acceptance

  5. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. PMID:24309271

  6. Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Jennifer A; Silins, Edmund; Hutchinson, Delyse; Mattick, Richard P; Hall, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five years, the release of cohort studies assessing the link between cannabis and psychosis has increased attention on this relationship. Existing reviews generally conclude that these cohort studies show cannabis has a causal relationship to psychosis, or at least that one cannot be excluded. Few studies have evaluated the relative strengths and limitations of these methodologically heterogeneous cohort studies, and how their relative merits and weaknesses might influence the way the link between cannabis use and psychosis is interpreted. This paper reviews the methodological strengths and limitations of major cohort studies which have looked at the link between cannabis and psychosis, and considers research findings against criteria for causal inference. Cohort studies that assessed the link between cannabis and psychosis were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and MEDline, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Reference lists of reviews and key studies were hand searched. Only prospective studies of general population cohorts were included. Findings were synthesised narratively. A total of 10 key studies from seven general population cohorts were identified by the search. Limitations were evident in the measurement of psychosis, consideration of the short-term effects of cannabis intoxication, control of potential confounders and the measurement of drug use during the follow-up period. Pre-existing vulnerability to psychosis emerged as an important factor that influences the link between cannabis use and psychosis. Whilst the criteria for causal association between cannabis and psychosis are supported by the studies reviewed, the contentious issue of whether cannabis use can cause serious psychotic disorders that would not otherwise have occurred cannot be answered from the existing data. Further methodologically robust cohort research is proposed and the implications of how evidence informs policy in the case of uncertainty is

  7. Mass spectrometry evidence for cisplatin as a protein cross-linking reagent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huilin; Zhao, Yao; Phillips, Hazel I. A.; Qi, Yulin; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Sadler, Peter J.; O’Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin is a potent anti-cancer drug, which functions by cross-linking adjacent DNA guanine residues. However within one day of injection, 65~98% of the platinum in the blood plasma is protein-bound. It is generally accepted that cisplatin binds to methionine and histidine residues, but what is often underappreciated is that platinum from cisplatin has a 2+ charge and can form up to four bonds. Thus, it has the potential to function as a cross-linker. In this report, the cross-linking ability of cisplatin is demonstrated by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (MS) with the use of standard peptides, the 16.8 kDa protein calmodulin (CaM), but was unsuccessful for the 64 kDa protein hemoglobin. The high resolution and mass accuracy of FTICR MS along with the high degree of fragmentation of large peptides afforded by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) are shown to be a valuable means of characterizing cross-linking sites. Cisplatin is different from current cross-linking reagents by targeting new functional groups, thioethers, and imidazoles groups, which provides complementarity with existing cross-linkers. In addition, platinum(II) inherently has two positive charges which enhance the detection of cross-linked products. Higher charge states not only promote the detection of cross-linking products with less purification, but result in more comprehensive MS/MS fragmentation and can assist the assignment of modification sites. Moreover, the unique isotopic pattern of platinum flags cross-linking products and modification sites by mass spectrometry. PMID:21591778

  8. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome - additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Koenighofer, M; Hung, C Y; McCauley, J L; Dallman, J; Back, E J; Mihalek, I; Gripp, K W; Sol-Church, K; Rusconi, P; Zhang, Z; Shi, G-X; Andres, D A; Bodamer, O A

    2016-03-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in 1 of 16 proteins in the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins; however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. PMID:25959749

  9. Bridging Multiple Lines Of Evidence To Quantify Plant Phenology And Assess Links To Dryland Ecosystem Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, D. M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Vivoni, E. R.; Maynard, J. J.; Karl, J.

    2015-12-01

    The clear and pressing need to reliably identify and predict shifts in plant phenology at landscape scales requires a critical link between mechanistic understanding of climate drivers and broad scale forecasts of plant responses to climate change. A multi-scale phenology study co-located with two eddy covariance towers was initiated on the Jornada Basin LTER in New Mexico in 2010 to bridge phenology patterns at the plant level with those representing aggregated signals at the landscape level. The study integrates phenology observations collected in the field along with those collected via remotely using imagery from phenocams, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and satellite sensors along with estimates of carbon flux. We applied the Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend (BFAST) time series algorithm to MODIS 250-m NDVI greenness index values to partition the NDVI signal into components representing the long-term trend, seasonal periodicity, and residuals and identified significant shifts in the NDVI signal (i.e., "breaks"). Previous work verified breaks representing significant deviations from the BFAST seasonal and trend models using field-estimated plant biomass collected between 2000 and 2014. We subsequently examine estimates of fractional cover by functional group derived from UAV images acquired 2010 through 2015. At a mixed grassland site, the BFAST algorithm detected four breaks in the trend model denoting significant increases in NDVI in May 2004, July 2006, and March 2010 and a significant decrease in May 2012. The 2004 and 2006 breaks corresponded to herbaceous vegetation responses to rainfall following prolonged periods of drought. The 2012 decrease in NDVI corresponded to the marked reduction of herbaceous biomass following an exceptionally dry period in late 2010-2011. Seasonal breaks representing changes in the timing and magnitude of NDVI identified in July 2006 and September 2008 coincide with rapid increases in production of annual species in

  10. Evidence of TAF1 dysfunction in peripheral models of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Aloysius; Amar, David; Grütz, Karen; Lee, Lillian V; Rosales, Raymond; Brüggemann, Norbert; Jamora, Roland Dominic; Cutiongco-Dela Paz, Eva; Rolfs, Arndt; Dressler, Dirk; Walter, Uwe; Krainc, Dimitri; Lohmann, Katja; Shamir, Ron; Klein, Christine; Westenberger, Ana

    2016-08-01

    The molecular dysfunction in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is not completely understood. Thus far, only noncoding alterations have been found in genetic analyses, located in or nearby the TATA-box binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1) gene. Given that this gene is ubiquitously expressed and is a critical component of the cellular transcription machinery, we sought to study differential gene expression in peripheral models by performing microarray-based expression profiling in blood and fibroblasts, and comparing gene expression in affected individuals vs. ethnically matched controls. Validation was performed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction in discovery and independent replication sets. We observed consistent downregulation of common TAF1 transcripts in samples from affected individuals in gene-level and high-throughput experiments. This signal was accompanied by a downstream effect in the microarray, reflected by the dysregulation of 307 genes in the disease group. Gene Ontology and network analyses revealed enrichment of genes involved in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, a pathway relevant to TAF1 function. Thus, the results converge on TAF1 dysfunction in peripheral models of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, and provide evidence of altered expression of a canonical gene in this disease. Furthermore, our study illustrates a link between the previously described genetic alterations and TAF1 dysfunction at the transcriptome level. PMID:26879577

  11. Evidence for DNA Damage as a Biological Link Between Diabetes and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shao Chin; Chan, Juliana CN

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review examines the evidence that: Diabetes is a state of DNA damage; pathophysiological factors in diabetes can cause DNA damage; DNA damage can cause mutations; and DNA mutation is linked to carcinogenesis. Data Sources: We retrieved information from the PubMed database up to January, 2014, using various search terms and their combinations including DNA damage, diabetes, cancer, high glucose, hyperglycemia, free fatty acids, palmitic acid, advanced glycation end products, mutation and carcinogenesis. Study Selection: We included data from peer-reviewed journals and a textbook printed in English on relationships between DNA damage and diabetes as well as pathophysiological factors in diabetes. Publications on relationships among DNA damage, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, were also reviewed. We organized this information into a conceptual framework to explain the possible causal relationship between DNA damage and carcinogenesis in diabetes. Results: There are a large amount of data supporting the view that DNA mutation is a typical feature in carcinogenesis. Patients with type 2 diabetes have increased production of reactive oxygen species, reduced levels of antioxidant capacity, and increased levels of DNA damage. The pathophysiological factors and metabolic milieu in diabetes can cause DNA damage such as DNA strand break and base modification (i.e., oxidation). Emerging experimental data suggest that signal pathways (i.e., Akt/tuberin) link diabetes to DNA damage. This collective evidence indicates that diabetes is a pathophysiological state of oxidative stress and DNA damage which can lead to various types of mutation to cause aberration in cells and thereby increased cancer risk. Conclusions: This review highlights the interrelationships amongst diabetes, DNA damage, DNA mutation and carcinogenesis, which suggests that DNA damage can be a biological link between diabetes and cancer. PMID:26021514

  12. Thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals: evidence for dose-dependent additivity or synergism.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Kevin M; Craft, Elena S; Hedge, Joan M; Gennings, Chris; Simmons, Jane E; Carchman, Richard A; Carter, W Hans; DeVito, Michael J

    2005-11-01

    Endocrine disruption from environmental contaminants has been linked to a broad spectrum of adverse outcomes. One concern about endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics is the potential for additive or synergistic (i.e., greater-than-additive) effects of mixtures. A short-term dosing model to examine the effects of environmental mixtures on thyroid homeostasis has been developed. Prototypic thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers have been shown to alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in this model primarily by up-regulating hepatic catabolism of thyroid hormones via at least two mechanisms. Our present effort tested the hypothesis that a mixture of TDCs will affect serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations in a dose-additive manner. Young female Long-Evans rats were dosed via gavage with 18 different polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons [2 dioxins, 4 dibenzofurans, and 12 PCBs, including dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs] for 4 consecutive days. Serum total T4 was measured via radioimmunoassay in samples collected 24 hr after the last dose. Extensive dose-response functions (based on seven to nine doses per chemical) were determined for individual chemicals. A mixture was custom synthesized with the ratio of chemicals based on environmental concentrations. Serial dilutions of this mixture ranged from approximately background levels to 100-fold greater than background human daily intakes. Six serial dilutions of the mixture were tested in the same 4-day assay. Doses of individual chemicals that were associated with a 30% TH decrease from control (ED30), as well as predicted mixture outcomes were calculated using a flexible single-chemical-required method applicable to chemicals with differing dose thresholds and maximum-effect asymptotes. The single-chemical data were modeled without and with the mixture data to determine, respectively, the expected mixture response (the additivity model

  13. Linking research to practice: the rise of evidence-based health sciences librarianship*

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The lecture explores the origins of evidence-based practice (EBP) in health sciences librarianship beginning with examples from the work of Janet Doe and past Doe lecturers. Additional sources of evidence are used to document the rise of research and EBP as integral components of our professional work. Methods: Four sources of evidence are used to examine the rise of EBP: (1) a publication by Doe and research-related content in past Doe lectures, (2) research-related word usage in articles in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association between 1961 and 2010, (3) Medical Library Association activities, and (4) EBP as an international movement. Results: These sources of evidence confirm the rise of EBP in health sciences librarianship. International initiatives sparked the rise of evidence-based librarianship and continue to characterize the movement. This review shows the emergence of a unique form of EBP that, although inspired by evidence-based medicine (EBM), has developed its own view of evidence and its application in library and information practice. Implications: Health sciences librarians have played a key role in initiating, nurturing, and spreading EBP in other branches of our profession. Our close association with EBM set the stage for developing our own EBP. While we relied on EBM as a model for our early efforts, we can observe the continuing evolution of our own unique approach to using, creating, and applying evidence from a variety of sources to improve the quality of health information services. PMID:24415915

  14. Further evidence for a fourth gene causing X-linked pure spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Starling, A; Rocco, P; Cambi, F; Hobson, G M; Passos Bueno, M R; Zatz, M

    2002-08-01

    X-linked hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) present with two distinct phenotypes: pure and complicated. The pure form is characterized by slowly progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs, whereas the complicated forms have additional features (optic neuropathy, retinopathy, extrapyramidal disturbance, dementia, epilepsy, ataxia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and deafness). Three X-linked loci have been identified for the complicated HSP, while mutations in the proteolipid gene (PLP) (locus SPG2) were implicated in both pure and complicated forms. The absence of identified mutations in the PLP gene in families with both complicated and pure HSP, linked to the SPG2 locus, suggests the existence of another gene in close proximity. We had previously reported a large pedigree with an X-linked form of pure HSP affecting 24 males [Zatz et al., 1976: J Med Genet 13:217-222]. Here, we present the results of linkage analysis in 19 members of this Brazilian family with markers in or near the PLP locus. Positive LOD scores were obtained with markers at the PLP locus (Zmax = 2.41 at Theta = 0); however, no mutation was found in the coding region of PLP, the intron-exon boundaries, or part of the promoter region. The possibility of a duplication of the PLP gene was also excluded. These results suggest either that there is another X-linked gene in close proximity to the PLP gene or that a novel mutation in the noncoding regions of the PLP gene may cause the disease in this family. PMID:12210342

  15. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium in chromosome 13-linked Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Othmane, K.B.; Speer, M.C.; Stauffer, J.

    1995-09-01

    Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy (DLMD) is an autosomal recessive Limb Girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) characterized by late age of onset, proximal muscle weakness leading to disability, high creatine kinase values, normal intelligence and normal dystrophin in muscle biopsy. We have shown previously that three DLMD families from Tunisia are linked to chromosome 13q12. To further localize the LGMD2C gene, we have investigated seven additional families (119 individuals). Both genotyping and two-point linkage analysis were performed as described elsewhere. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  17. Evidence against an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, R.M.; Davis, M.B.; Sweeney, M.G.; Wood, N.W.; Harding, A.E.

    1996-07-01

    Pedigree analysis of British families with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) closely fits a model in which a pathogenic mtDNA mutation interacts with an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus (VLSL). This model predicts that 60% of affected females will show marked skewing of X inactivation. Linkage analysis in British and Italian families with genetically proven LHON has excluded the presence of such a VLSL over 169 cM of the X chromosome both when all families were analyzed together and when only families with the bp 11778 mutation were studied. Further, there was no excess skewing of X inactivation in affected females. There was no evidence for close linkage to three markers in the pseudoautosomal region of the sex chromosomes. The mechanism of incomplete penetrance and male predominance in LHON remains unclear. 27 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Evidence from 12-year study links ecosystem changes in the Gulf of Maine with climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Balch, William; Drapeau, David; Bowler, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Investigators at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (East Boothbay, Maine) and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated to study ecosystem changes in the Gulf of Maine. As part of the Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series (GNATS), a comprehensive long-term study of hydrographic, biological, optical and chemical properties, multiple cruises have been conducted each year since 2001 by using a portable laboratory aboard different vessels (figure 1) and occasionally a remotely controlled glider (figure 2). Data collected during these cruises, when analyzed within the context of a century of climatological and streamflow data, document changes in temperature, salinity, and coastal ocean productivity that appear to be related to recent increases in precipitation and streamflow. These results are evidence of a link between changing hydrologic conditions on land and changes in coastal ocean productivity.

  19. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (< 0.5 cm thick) that accommodate inelastic shear and compaction of inter-granular volume. Measurements of porosity and grain size from non-deformed samples are used to define a set of capped strength envelopes for the Wingate Sandstone. These strength envelopes reveal that compactional deformation bands require at least ca. 0.7 GPa (and potentially more than 2.3 GPa) of effective mean stress in order to nucleate within this sandstone. We find that the most plausible geologic process capable of generating these required magnitudes of mean stress is a meteoritic impact. Therefore the compactional deformation bands observed within the Wingate Sandstone are additional evidence of an impact event at Upheaval Dome and support a post-Wingate (post-Early Jurassic) age for this impact.

  20. Warming and drying of the eastern Mediterranean: Additional evidence from trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohami, David; Dayan, Uri; Morin, Efrat

    2011-11-01

    The climate of the eastern Mediterranean (EM), at the transition zone between the Mediterranean climate and the semi-arid/arid climate, has been studied for a 39-year period to determine whether climate changes have taken place. A thorough trend analysis using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with Sen's slope estimator has been applied to ground station measurements, atmospheric reanalysis data, synoptic classification data and global data sets for the years 1964-2003. In addition, changes in atmospheric regional patterns between the first and last twenty years were determined by visual comparisons of their composite mean. The main findings of the analysis are: 1) changes of atmospheric conditions during summer and the transitional seasons (mainly autumn) support a warmer climate over the EM and this change is already statistically evident in surface temperatures having exhibited positive trends of 0.2-1°C/decade; 2) changes of atmospheric conditions during winter and the transitional seasons support drier conditions due to reduction in cyclogenesis and specific humidity over the EM, but this change is not yet statistically evident in surface station rain data, presumably because of the high natural precipitation variance masking such a change. The overall conclusion of this study is that the EM region is under climate change leading to warmer and drier conditions.

  1. An Additional Baurusuchid from the Cretaceous of Brazil with Evidence of Interspecific Predation among Crocodyliformes

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Pedro L.; Montefeltro, Felipe C.; Norell, Mark A.; Langer, Max C.

    2014-01-01

    A new Baurusuchidae (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia), Aplestosuchus sordidus, is described based on a nearly complete skeleton collected in deposits of the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous) of Brazil. The nesting of the new taxon within Baurusuchidae can be ensured based on several exclusive skull features of this clade, such as the quadrate depression, medial approximation of the prefrontals, rostral extension of palatines (not reaching the level of the rostral margin of suborbital fenestrae), cylindrical dorsal portion of palatine bar, ridge on the ectopterygoid-jugal articulation, and supraoccipital with restricted thin transversal exposure in the caudalmost part of the skull roof. A newly proposed phylogeny of Baurusuchidae encompasses A. sordidus and recently described forms, suggesting its sixter-taxon relationship to Baurusuchus albertoi, within Baurusuchinae. Additionally, the remains of a sphagesaurid crocodyliform were preserved in the abdominal cavity of the new baurusuchid. Direct fossil evidence of behavioral interaction among fossil crocodyliforms is rare and mostly restricted to bite marks resulting from predation, as well as possible conspecific male-to-male aggression. This is the first time that a direct and unmistaken evidence of predation between different taxa of this group is recorded as fossils. This discovery confirms that baurusuchids were top predators of their time, with sphagesaurids occupying a lower trophic position, possibly with a more generalist diet. PMID:24809508

  2. Evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in the brain of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are defined solely on the basis of behavioral observations. Therefore, ASD has traditionally been framed as a behavioral disorder. However, evidence is accumulating that ASD is characterized by certain physiological abnormalities, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation. While these abnormalities have been reported in studies that have examined peripheral biomarkers such as blood and urine, more recent studies have also reported these abnormalities in brain tissue derived from individuals diagnosed with ASD as compared to brain tissue derived from control individuals. A majority of these brain tissue studies have been published since 2010. The brain regions found to contain these physiological abnormalities in individuals with ASD are involved in speech and auditory processing, social behavior, memory, and sensory and motor coordination. This manuscript examines the evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation in the brain of ASD individuals, suggesting that ASD has a clear biological basis with features of known medical disorders. This understanding may lead to new testing and treatment strategies in individuals with ASD. PMID:24795645

  3. Evidence of a possible link between obesogenic food advertising and child overweight.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, T; Dibb, S

    2005-08-01

    A recent review of the literature concluded that advertising of foods on television may influence children's food choices and encourage unhealthy diets, but the review acknowledged there was a lack of clear evidence in coming to this conclusion. The present paper examines ecological evidence for a link between advertising to children and the risk of overweight using data from surveys of advertising on children's television and estimates of the prevalence of overweight among children, in the USA, Australia and eight European countries. A significant association was found between the proportion of children overweight and the numbers of advertisements per hour on children's television, especially those advertisements that encourage the consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods (r = 0.81, P < 0.005). A weaker, negative association was found between the proportion of children overweight and the number of advertisements encouraging healthier diets (r = -0.56, P < 0.10). The quantity of advertising on children's television appears to be related to the prevalence of excess body weight among children. Furthermore, the content of the advertising appears to have a specific effect. The findings justify the need for taking precautionary measures to reduce children's exposure to obesogenic marketing practices. PMID:16045635

  4. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2010-01-01

    Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment.

  5. A systematic review of evidence on the links between patient experience and clinical safety and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathal; Lennox, Laura; Bell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore evidence on the links between patient experience and clinical safety and effectiveness outcomes. Design Systematic review. Setting A wide range of settings within primary and secondary care including hospitals and primary care centres. Participants A wide range of demographic groups and age groups. Primary and secondary outcome measures A broad range of patient safety and clinical effectiveness outcomes including mortality, physical symptoms, length of stay and adherence to treatment. Results This study, summarising evidence from 55 studies, indicates consistent positive associations between patient experience, patient safety and clinical effectiveness for a wide range of disease areas, settings, outcome measures and study designs. It demonstrates positive associations between patient experience and self-rated and objectively measured health outcomes; adherence to recommended clinical practice and medication; preventive care (such as health-promoting behaviour, use of screening services and immunisation); and resource use (such as hospitalisation, length of stay and primary-care visits). There is some evidence of positive associations between patient experience and measures of the technical quality of care and adverse events. Overall, it was more common to find positive associations between patient experience and patient safety and clinical effectiveness than no associations. Conclusions The data presented display that patient experience is positively associated with clinical effectiveness and patient safety, and support the case for the inclusion of patient experience as one of the central pillars of quality in healthcare. It supports the argument that the three dimensions of quality should be looked at as a group and not in isolation. Clinicians should resist sidelining patient experience as too subjective or mood-oriented, divorced from the ‘real’ clinical work of measuring safety and effectiveness. PMID:23293244

  6. Aleutian lead isotopic data: additional evidence for the evolution of lithospheric plumbing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.D.; Marsh, B.D.

    1987-07-01

    Lead isotopic ratios and concentrations have been measured in lavas from the Aleutian volcanic centers of Adak (12) and Atka (12). Lead contents in lavas from Atka increase four-fold over the compositional range of the volcanic suite. In contrast, Adak lavas have concentration levels of 0.6-13 ppm and display no simple correlation with SiO/sub 2/. The lead isotopic data alone can be explained by three different processes. Model 1 assigns lead isotopic differences to original magma source heterogeneity. According to Model 2, the isotopic ratios of a primary, non-radiogenic component from the mantle are elevated by the addition of an isotopically enriched slab-derived component. In contrast, Model 3 assumes a primary radiogenic magma produced by melting of the slab is contaminated by a non-radiogenic lithospheric component during conduit formation. Because these models all adequately explain the lead isotopic data, supplementary geologic, petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data must be used to select the most likely model. Careful consideration of the evidence suggests Model 3 best explains their extensive lead isotopic data as well as other characteristics of Aleutian lavas. The authors study suggests detailed isotopic studies of individual volcanic centers can be extremely useful in understanding the complex processes of magma generation, extraction, ascent and evolution.

  7. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

  8. Sample data processing in an additive and reproducible taxonomic workflow by using character data persistently linked to preserved individual specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Norbert; Henning, Tilo; Plitzner, Patrick; Müller, Andreas; Güntsch, Anton; Stöver, Ben C.; Müller, Kai F.; Berendsohn, Walter G.; Borsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present the model and implementation of a workflow that blazes a trail in systematic biology for the re-usability of character data (data on any kind of characters of pheno- and genotypes of organisms) and their additivity from specimen to taxon level. We take into account that any taxon characterization is based on a limited set of sampled individuals and characters, and that consequently any new individual and any new character may affect the recognition of biological entities and/or the subsequent delimitation and characterization of a taxon. Taxon concepts thus frequently change during the knowledge generation process in systematic biology. Structured character data are therefore not only needed for the knowledge generation process but also for easily adapting characterizations of taxa. We aim to facilitate the construction and reproducibility of taxon characterizations from structured character data of changing sample sets by establishing a stable and unambiguous association between each sampled individual and the data processed from it. Our workflow implementation uses the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy Platform, a comprehensive taxonomic data management and publication environment to: (i) establish a reproducible connection between sampled individuals and all samples derived from them; (ii) stably link sample-based character data with the metadata of the respective samples; (iii) record and store structured specimen-based character data in formats allowing data exchange; (iv) reversibly assign sample metadata and character datasets to taxa in an editable classification and display them and (v) organize data exchange via standard exchange formats and enable the link between the character datasets and samples in research collections, ensuring high visibility and instant re-usability of the data. The workflow implemented will contribute to organizing the interface between phylogenetic analysis and revisionary taxonomic or monographic work

  9. Novel mitochondrial extensions provide evidence for a link between microtubule-directed movement and mitochondrial fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bowes, Timothy; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2008-11-07

    Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in a large number of cellular processes. Previously, we reported that treatment of mammalian cells with the cysteine-alkylators, N-ethylmaleimide and ethacrynic acid, induced rapid mitochondrial fusion forming a large reticulum approximately 30 min after treatment. Here, we further investigated this phenomenon using a number of techniques including live-cell confocal microscopy. In live cells, drug-induced fusion coincided with a cessation of fast mitochondrial movement which was dependent on microtubules. During this loss of movement, thin mitochondrial tubules extending from mitochondria were also observed, which we refer to as 'mitochondrial extensions'. The formation of these mitochondrial extensions, which were not observed in untreated cells, depended on microtubules and was abolished by pretreatment with nocodazole. In this study, we provide evidence that these extensions result from of a block in mitochondrial fission combined with continued application of motile force by microtubule-dependent motor complexes. Our observations strongly suggest the existence of a link between microtubule-based mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrial fission.

  10. Evidence for a Possible Link between Bedtime and Change in Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Lauren D.; McGlinchey, Eleanor; Harvey, Allison G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between bedtimes and body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood in a nationally representative sample. Design: Three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to assess the bedtimes and BMI of 3,342 adolescents between 1994 and 2009. Hypotheses were tested with hierarchical linear models using a two-level, random intercept and slopes model. Results: Later average bedtime during the workweek, in hours, from adolescence to adulthood was associated with an increase in BMI over time (b = 0.035 kg/m2 per min later bedtime per 6 years; standard error = 0.016; t = 2.12, degrees of freedom = 3,238, P < 0.05). These results remained significant after controlling for demographic characteristics and baseline BMI. Although sleep duration, screen time, and exercise frequency did not attenuate the relationship between workday bedtime and BMI over time, fast-food consumption was recognized as a significant partial mediator of the relationship between bedtimes and BMI longitudinally. Conclusions: The results highlight bedtimes as a potential target for weight management during adolescence and during the transition to adulthood. Citation: Asarnow LD, McGlinchey E, Harvey AG. Evidence for a possible link between bedtime and change in body mass index. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1523–1527. PMID:26194568

  11. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Few Middle Stone Age sites have yielded convincing evidence for a complex bone technology, a behavior often associated with the emergence of modern cultures. Here, we review the published evidence for Middle Stone Age bone tools from southern Africa, analyze an additional nine bone artifacts recently recovered from Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, describe an unpublished bone tool from probable Middle Stone Age levels at Peers Cave, examine a single bone awl found at Blombosch Sands (an open site near Blombos Cave), and reappraise marked bone artifacts and a bone point recovered from Klasies River. To determine the chronological and cultural attribution of these artifacts, document bone-manufacturing techniques associated with the southern African MSA, and discuss the symbolic significance of the markings present on some of these objects we use (1) available contextual information; (2) morphometric comparison of Later Stone Age, Modern San, and purported Middle Stone Age projectile points; (3) analysis of the carbon/nitrogen content of bone tools and faunal remains from Peers and Blombos caves; and (4) microscopic analysis of traces of manufacture and use. Previously undescribed bone artifacts from Blombos Cave include a massive point manufactured on weathered bone, two complete awls and two awl tips manufactured on small-sized mammal and bird bone, a probable projectile point with a tang manufactured by knapping and scraping, a shaft fragment modified by percussion, used as retoucher and bearing a set of incised lines on the middle of the periosteal surface, and two fragments with possible engravings. The point from Peers Cave can be assigned to the Middle Stone Age and bears tiny markings reminiscent of those recorded on projectile points from Blombos and used as marks of ownership on San arrow points. The awl from Blombosch Sands and the bone point from Klasies River can be attributed to the Later Stone Age. Two notched objects from Klasies are

  12. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  13. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:24260388

  14. A link between oxytocin and serotonin in humans: supporting evidence from peripheral markers.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Betti, Laura; Massimetti, Gabriele; Carmassi, Claudia; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Pharmacological studies indicate a functional interaction between the serotonergic and oxytocinergic systems. In particular, some selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors, such as citalopram and fluvoxamine, seem to exert part of their antidepressant effects through oxytocin (OT) release. Further, the administration of fenfluramine, a serotonergic agonist, to healthy subjects increases plasma OT levels. Interestingly, immunocytochemical and double-immunofluorescent techniques revealed a high degree of overlap between 5-HT transporter (SERT)-labeled fibers and OT-containing cells in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of primate hypothalamus. These findings suggest that the influence of 5-HT on OT system might be mediated by SERT. In this study, we explored the possible existence of a link between OT and SERT in human subjects, by means of two peripheral markers, the platelet SERT, as measured by [³H]-paroxetine ([³H]-Par) binding, and plasma OT levels. As far as [³H]-Par binding parameters are concerned, the Bmax (mean ± SD, fmol/mg protein) was 1155 + 130 and the Kd (mean ± SD, nM) was 1.31 ± 0.61. The OT plasma levels (mean ± SD, pg/ml) were 1.14 ± 1.07. A significant and positive correlation was found between plasma OT levels and Kd values (correlation coefficient: r: 0.466, p = .038). This result represents the first evidence of an interaction between OT and SERT, as measured by [³H]-Par binding, at peripheral levels in humans. Given the several activities mediated by both OT and 5-HT, such a relationship might provide new perspectives and insights into psychiatric disorders and/or social relationship disturbances, as well as novel treatment strategies overcoming and/or integrating the serotonergic paradigm. PMID:22297159

  15. Cenozoic right-lateral slip on the Great Glen Fault, Scotland: Additional Evidence and Possible Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, E.; Cobbold, P. R.; Zanella, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great Glen Fault (GGF) trends NNE-SSW across all of Northern Scotland, separating two Neoproterozoic supergroups (Moine and Dalradian). The GGF developed as a left-lateral fault during the Caledonian Orogeny (Ordovician to Early Devonian). However, according to previous studies (involving seismic data from the Moray Firth and analyses of Tertiary dyke swarms in NW Scotland), the GGF reactivated right-laterally in the Tertiary. Here we present additional evidence for this later phase, from a study of Jurassic outcrops along the GGF and the nearby Helmsdale Fault. At Eathie and Shandwick, on the NE coast of Scotland, Jurassic strata of marine origin (mostly shale) crop out along the GGF, in contact with Neoproterozoic basement or Devonian Old Red Sandstone. Minor folds and faults in these outcrops indicate post-depositional right-lateral slip, under transpression. In the shale, we have also found bedding-parallel calcite veins ('beef' and 'cone-in-cone'). If these veins provide evidence for overpressure development and maturation of organic matter at significant depth (as they do in other basins), the host sediment must have accumulated deeper offshore in the Moray Firth. Therefore, the Jurassic strata at Eathie and Shandwick must have been subject to Cenozoic exhumation during right-lateral displacement along the GGF. At Helmsdale, according to previous studies, the Jurassic 'Boulder Beds' accumulated during a period of normal faulting on the Helmsdale Fault. There the sedimentary facies are more proximal than those at Eathie and Shandwick and abundant conglomerate contains Devonian clasts but no 'beef'. However we have found steep calcite veins, which cut the entire Jurassic sequence. Their sigmoidal shapes indicate left-lateral slip along the Helmsdale fault zone. Such a motion is compatible with right-lateral displacement on the GGF. Indeed, according to previous studies, folds between the Helmsdale Fault and the GGF may have developed as a result of opposing

  16. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. PMID:26472270

  17. Kinks in subducted slabs: Petrological evidence points to additional hindrance to the exhumation of UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Klemd, R.; Scherer, E. E.; Rondenay, S.; Gao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sudden changes in the dip of subducted oceanic plates have been resolved by seismic imaging [1, 2]. Such kinking often coincides with the seismic disappearance of the low-velocity subducted oceanic crust, i.e., at a depth where eclogitization (dehydration) of the upper oceanic crust is nearly complete and the oceanic crust becomes almost seismically indistinguishable from mantle peridotite. We present petrological evidence for this phenomenon derived from oceanic blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks from the Chinese Tianshan. The peak-metamorphic conditions of the samples range between 330 and 580°C at 1.5 to 2.3 GPa. Such a wide range of peak conditions for intercalated high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks has also been reported from other Tianshan localities. These observations suggest that the rocks were derived from different depths within the subduction zone and later juxtaposed during exhumation within the subduction channel. Multi-point Lu-Hf isochrons from four high-pressure rocks yield consistent garnet-growth ages of around ~315 Ma, confirming that the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Tianshan high-pressure rocks resulted from a single subduction event in the Late Carboniferous. These ages, in conjunction with the ~311 Ma cluster of 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr white mica ages from the same localities imply rapid exhumation. Previously reported peak P-T estimates from UHP metasediments and eclogites all lie on a lower geothermal gradient—and thus on a colder P-T path at the slab-wedge interface—than that defined by the HP eclogites and meta-volcaniclastic rocks studied here. This suggests that the slab-subduction angle steepened sharply at approximately 90 km depth, just between the depths at which the HP and UHP rocks equilibrated. The increase in subduction angle may result from a greater slab pull resulting from eclogitization densification. An additional factor may be an ephemeral weakening of the slab as it undergoes eclogitization reactions [3, 4]. We

  18. Web Link Counts Correlate with ISI Impact Factors: Evidence from Two Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Liwen; Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study that compared counts of links to the Web home pages of academic journals with the citation based Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for two disciplines: library and information science, and law. Highlights include compiling the lists of journals (which are appended); locating Web pages; and correlations between JIF and link counts.…

  19. Link flexibility: evidence for environment-dependent adaptive foraging in a food web time-series.

    PubMed

    Henri, D C; Van Veen, F J F

    2016-06-01

    Temporal variability in the distribution of feeding links in a food web can be an important stabilizing factor for these complex systems. Adaptive foraging and prey choice have been hypothesized to cause this link flexibility as organisms adjust their behavior to variation in the prey community. Here, we analyze a 10-yr time series of monthly aphid-parasitoid-secondary-parasitoid networks and show that interaction strengths for polyphagous secondary parasitoids are generally biased toward the larger host species within their fundamental niche; however, in months of higher competition for hosts, size-based biases are reduced. The results corroborate a previous hypothesis stating that host selectivity of parasitoids should be correlated to the relative likelihood of egg limitation vs. time limitation. Our results evince adaptation of foraging behavior to varying conditions affects the distribution of host-parasitoid link strengths, where link-rewiring may be integral to stability in complex communities. PMID:27459769

  20. 38 CFR 20.304 - Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal. 20.304 Section 20.304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Filing § 20.304 Rule 304. Filing...

  1. Evidence for dose-additive effects of a type II pyrethroid mixture. In vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Ares, I; Ramos, E; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro. PMID:25688004

  2. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V.; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  3. Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome: No Evidence for a Link to Laminopathies

    PubMed Central

    Kortüm, F.; Chyrek, M.; Fuchs, S.; Albrecht, B.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Mütze, U.; Seemanova, E.; Tinschert, S.; Wieczorek, D.; Rosenberger, G.; Kutsche, K.

    2011-01-01

    Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (HSS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by malformations of the cranium and facial bones, congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, skin atrophy, hypotrichosis, proportionate short stature, teeth abnormalities, and a typical facial appearance with prominent forehead, small pointed nose, and micrognathia. The genetic cause of this developmental disorder is presently unknown. Here we describe 8 new patients with a phenotype of HSS. Individuals with HSS present with clinical features overlapping with some progeroid syndromes that belong to the laminopathies, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD). HGPS is caused by de novo point mutations in the LMNA gene, coding for the nuclear lamina proteins lamin A and C. MAD with type A and B lipodystrophy are recessive disorders resulting from mutations in LMNA and ZMPSTE24, respectively. ZMPSTE24 in addition to ICMT encode proteins involved in posttranslational processing of lamin A. We hypothesized that HSS is an allelic disorder to HGPS and MAD. As the nuclear shape is often irregular in patients with LMNA mutations, we first analyzed the nuclear morphology in skin fibroblasts of patients with HSS, but could not identify any abnormality. Sequencing of the genes LMNA, ZMPSTE24 and ICMT in the 8 patients with HSS revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1930C>T (p.R644C) in LMNA in 1 female. Extreme phenotypic diversity and low penetrance have been associated with the p.R644C mutation. In ZMPSTE24 and ICMT, no pathogenic sequence change was detected in patients with HSS. Together, we found no evidence that HSS is another laminopathy. PMID:22570643

  4. Cr Isotope Systematics in the Pallasite Eagle Station: Chronology and Evidence for a Genetic Link to Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    The study of the Mn-53-Cr-53 system in the pallasite Eagle Station has shown that it formed 4557.5 +/- 0.6 Ma ago. The Cr isotopic signature is different from that of the main group pallasites and suggests a genetic link to CV3 chondrites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: additional evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, D; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Gulf War (GW) have spurred concern about possible health consequences and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the northwest United States who report persistent, unexplained "Gulf War" symptoms (cases) and those who do not report those symptoms (controls). An epidemiological survey focused on exposures and symptoms was mailed to a random sample of GW veterans from Oregon and southwestern Washington. Volunteers recruited from survey respondents agreed to undergo a thorough medical examination and psychological and neurobehavioral assessment. Persistent symptoms with no medical explanation associated with Persian Gulf service (e.g., fatigue, muscle pain, memory deficits) beginning during or after the war qualified respondents as cases. The 239 cases with unexplained symptoms and the 112 controls without symptoms were administered a computerized assessment battery of 12 psychosocial and 6 neurobehavioral tests. Replicating and extending previous interim findings, a subgroup of veterans emerged from the initial analysis in the form of extreme outliers which produced a visually and quantitatively obvious bimodal distribution. This led, as it had previously, to analyses of the outliers as a separate group (labeled "slow ODTP"), which confirmed the initial findings of neurobehavioral differences between the outliers and the other cases and controls and provided more convincing evidence that the majority of cases who report neurobehavioral symptoms have no objective evidence of neurobehavioral deficits. However, the larger group of symptomatic veterans do have highly significant and compelling evidence of psychological distress based on scores from 11 separate psychological tests. Whereas the cases differed from the controls by poorer neurobehavioral test performance, extraction of the slow ODTP participants (almost all cases

  6. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  7. Additivity of semantic and phonological effects: Evidence from speech production in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuebing; Zhang, Qingfang; Damian, Markus F

    2016-11-01

    A number of previous studies using picture-word interference (PWI) tasks conducted with speakers of Western languages have demonstrated non-additive effects of semantic and form overlap between pictures and words, which may indicate underlying non-discrete processing stages in lexical retrieval. The present study used Mandarin speakers and presented Chinese characters as distractors. In two experiments, we crossed semantic relatedness with "pure" phonological (i.e., orthographically unrelated) relatedness and found statistically additive effects. In a third experiment, semantic relatedness was crossed with orthographic overlap (phonological overlap was avoided), and once again we found an additive pattern. The results are discussed with regard to possible cross-linguistic differences between Western and non-Western languages in terms of phonological encoding, as well as concerning the locus of relatedness effects in PWI tasks. PMID:26730809

  8. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  9. Linking Nurses with Evidence-Based Information via Social Media Tools: An Analysis of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Carter-Templeton, Heather; Krishnamurthy, Mangala; Nelson, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Many health professional believe that social media tools can play a pivotal role in sharing and facilitating the use of evidence-based information with patients and other healthcare providers. By understanding how social media tools function, healthcare professionals can capitalize on these interactive platforms to improve the health of others. However, limited information exists to guide nurse educators in preparing healthcare professionals to engage patients or share evidence-based information among peers. The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent to which professional development programs using social media for sharing evidence-based information have reported their research and/or experience in the published literature. PMID:27332455

  10. Additional evidence of far transfer of scientific reasoning skills acquired in a CLASP reformed physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.

  11. Additional evidence of EUV blank defects first seen by wafer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, Rik; Van den Heuvel, Dieter; Bret, Tristan; Hofmann, Thorsten; Magana, John; Aharonson, Israel; Meshulach, Doron; Hendrickx, Eric; Ronse, Kurt

    2011-11-01

    First experimental evidence is given that a second generation blank inspection tool has missed a number of printing reticle defects caused by an imperfection of its EUV mirror, i.e., so-called multi-layer defects (ML-defects). This work continued to use a combination of blank inspection (BI), patterned mask inspection (PMI) and wafer inspection (WI) to find as many as possible printing defects on EUV reticles. The application of more advanced wafer inspection, combined with a separate repeater analysis for each of the multiple focus conditions used for exposure on the ASML Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) at IMEC, has allowed to increase the detection capability for printing ML-defects. It exploits the previous finding that ML-defects may have a through-focus printing behavior. They cause a different grade of CD impact on the pattern in their neighborhood, depending on the focus condition. Subsequent reticle review is done on the corresponding locations with both SEM (Secondary Electron Microscope) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope). This review methodology has allowed achieving clear evidence of printing ML defects missed by this BI tool, despite of a too high nuisance rate, reported before. This establishes a next step in the investigation how essential actinic blank inspection (ABI) is. Presently it is the only known technique whose detection capability is considered independent from the presence of a (residual) distortion of the multi-layer at the top surface. This is considered an important asset for blank inspection, because the printability of a ML-defect in EUV lithography is determined by the distortion throughout the multilayer, not that at the top surface.

  12. Preliminary Evidence for an Automatic Link between Sex and Power among Men Who Molest Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphuis, Jan H.; De Ruiter, Corine; Janssen, Bas; Spiering, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Understanding critical motivational processes of sexual offenders may ultimately provide important clues to more effective treatments. Implicit, automatic cognitive processes have received minimal attention; however, a lexical decision experiment revealed automatic links between the concepts of power and sex among participants who self-reported…

  13. The Link between Speech Perception and Production Is Phonological and Abstract: Evidence from the Shadowing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitterer, Holger; Ernestus, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    This study reports a shadowing experiment, in which one has to repeat a speech stimulus as fast as possible. We tested claims about a direct link between perception and production based on speech gestures, and obtained two types of counterevidence. First, shadowing is not slowed down by a gestural mismatch between stimulus and response. Second,…

  14. Experimental Evidence Linking Elevated CO2, Rhizosphere C/N Stoichiometry and Microbial Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Y.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Pendall, E.; LeCain, D. R.; Morgan, J.

    2012-12-01

    expected to be more efficient in their C use. Decreasing the C/N ratio of roots decreased SOM respiration and increased the efficiency of SOM-consuming microbes. Direct N additions had a similar but stronger effect. Increased C efficiency with greater nutrient availability is consistent with theoretical expectations of C utilization under nutrient limitation. Notably, the response of C use to N treatments occurred only under eCO2 conditions. This functional contrast was supported by differential responses of microbial PLFA profiles to N treatments under CO2 treatments. Together, these results suggest that the eCO2 environment was more conducive to N limitation, via changes in microbial community structure and function. Our results provide direct experimental evidence of plant-mediated alteration of decomposer C efficiency due to changes in atmospheric CO2 and N availability from both plant and soil sources. An increase in SOM-consuming microbes efficiency in an eCO2 world is likely to have important ecosystem-level implications as it could enhance the amount of C that remains in soil relative to the amount released to the atmosphere. The interactive effects of CO2 and N treatments suggest that microbial efficiency will be more sensitive to changes in nutrient status under the future eCO2 atmosphere.

  15. Processing of multi-digit additions in high math-anxious individuals: psychophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA) and low-math anxious (LMA) individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA individuals were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase) and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase) were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources toward emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may have invested more attentional resources both when processing the addends (calculation phase) and when they had to report whether the proposed solution was correct or not (verification phase), as compared to their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC) for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. The smaller LPC shown by HMA individuals when verifying incorrect solutions suggests that these solutions may have been appeared more plausible to them than to their LMA counterparts. PMID:26347705

  16. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  17. National policy development for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia: the relationship between Context, Evidence and Links

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several frameworks have been constructed to analyse the factors which influence and shape the uptake of evidence into policy processes in resource poor settings, yet empirical analyses of health policy making in these settings are relatively rare. National policy making for cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) preventive therapy in developing countries offers a pertinent case for the application of a policy analysis lens. The provision of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis is an inexpensive and highly efficacious preventative intervention in HIV infected individuals, reducing both morbidity and mortality among adults and children with HIV/AIDS, yet evidence suggests that it has not been quickly or evenly scaled-up in resource poor settings. Methods Comparative analysis was conducted in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia, using the case study approach. We applied the ‘RAPID’ framework developed by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), and conducted a total of 47 in-depth interviews across the three countries to examine the influence of context (including the influence of donor agencies), evidence (both local and international), and the links between researcher, policy makers and those seeking to influence the policy process. Results Each area of analysis was found to have an influence on the creation of national policy on cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in all three countries. In relation to context, the following were found to be influential: government structures and their focus, donor interest and involvement, healthcare infrastructure and other uses of cotrimoxazole and related drugs in the country. In terms of the nature of the evidence, we found that how policy makers perceived the strength of evidence behind international recommendations was crucial (if evidence was considered weak then the recommendations were rejected). Further, local operational research results seem to have been taken up more quickly, while randomised controlled

  18. No Serological Evidence that Harbour Porpoises Are Additional Hosts of Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Bunskoek, Paulien E.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  19. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Elk, Cornelis E; Bunskoek, Paulien E; van de Vijver, David A M C; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  20. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy. PMID:26719191

  1. A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, M.; Gregorio, J.; Boué, G.; Mortier, A.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Maturi, M.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S.; Santos, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bound with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet gathered between 2009 May and 2011 September by using the 30-cm telescope at the Crow Observatory-Portalegre, and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O - C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M ≳ 100 Mearth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon in this system and determine that considering the scatter of the O - C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is however apparently ruled out by observations conducted by other researchers. In the case where the orbit of the moon is not coplanar, the accuracy of our transit timing and transit duration measurements prevents any significant statement. Interestingly, on the basis of our reanalysis of SOPHIE data we noted that WASP-3 passed from a less active (logR HK '=-4.95) to a more active (logR HK '=-4.8) state during the 3 yr monitoring period spanned by the observations. Despite the fact that no clear spot crossing has been reported for this system, this analysis suggests a more intensive monitoring of the activity level of this star in order to understand its impact on photometric and radial velocity measurements.

  2. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics. PMID:23729055

  3. Evidence that lamin B is modified by a thioether-linked derivative of mevalonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wolda, S.L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a derivative of mevalonic acid (MVA) is post-translationally incorporated into a number of specific proteins in Swiss 3T3 cells. These proteins are potentially of interest because of minor, non-sterol product of MVA have been implicated in the control of both DNA synthesis and cell morphology. An attempt is made to characterize the MVA-modified proteins of Swiss 3T3 and HeLa cells. The modification appeared to be linked to cysteine because lamin B that was biosynthetically labeled with ({sup 3}H)MVA and ({sup 35}S)cysteine and then extensively digested with proteases yielded {sup 3}H- or {sup 35}S-labeled products that cochromatographed in five successive systems. The cysteine appeared to be linked to the modification by a thioether bond because treatment of either partially purified {sup 3}H-labeled digestion product or intact lamin B with Raney nickel released radioactive, pentane-extractable material that was similar, though not identical to material that could be released from S-farnesyl cysteine. The modified cysteine residue seemed to be located at the carboxyl-terminal end of lamin B because treatment of {sup 3}H-labeled lamin B with cyanogen bromide yielded a single labeled polypeptide that mapped to a domain of the reported, cDNA inferred sequence of human lamin B that contains a single cysteine near the carboxyl-terminus.

  4. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction?

    PubMed

    McCann, Joyce C; Ames, Bruce N

    2008-04-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common in the United States; the elderly and African-Americans are at particularly high risk of deficiency. This review, written for a broad scientific readership, presents a critical overview of scientific evidence relevant to a possible causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and adverse cognitive or behavioral effects. Topics discussed are 1) biological functions of vitamin D relevant to cognition and behavior; 2) studies in humans and rodents that directly examine effects of vitamin D inadequacy on cognition or behavior; and 3) immunomodulatory activity of vitamin D relative to the proinflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction. We conclude there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function. However, direct effects of vitamin D inadequacy on cognition/behavior in human or rodent systems appear to be subtle, and in our opinion, the current experimental evidence base does not yet fully satisfy causal criteria. Possible explanations for the apparent inconsistency between results of biological and cognitive/behavioral experiments, as well as suggested areas for further research are discussed. Despite residual uncertainty, recommendations for vitamin D supplementation of at-risk groups, including nursing infants, the elderly, and African-Americans appear warranted to ensure adequacy. PMID:18056830

  5. Generation of antibody and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for the feed additive roxarsone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxy-phenyl arsonic acid) has been used in the poultry and swine industries as a feed additive to treat coccidiosis and other intestinal disorders as well as to improve feed efficiencies and weight gain. In animals, roxarsone is eliminated mostly as parent compound which may ...

  6. Targeted gene addition in human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells for correction of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    De Ravin, Suk See; Reik, Andreas; Liu, Pei-Qi; Li, Linhong; Wu, Xiaolin; Su, Ling; Raley, Castle; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Song, Alexander H; Chan, Andy; Pearl, Jocelynn R; Paschon, David E; Lee, Janet; Newcombe, Hannah; Koontz, Sherry; Sweeney, Colin; Shivak, David A; Zarember, Kol A; Peshwa, Madhusudan V; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Malech, Harry L

    2016-04-01

    Gene therapy with genetically modified human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) may be safer using targeted integration (TI) of transgenes into a genomic 'safe harbor' site rather than random viral integration. We demonstrate that temporally optimized delivery of zinc finger nuclease mRNA via electroporation and adeno-associated virus (AAV) 6 delivery of donor constructs in human HSPCs approaches clinically relevant levels of TI into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. Up to 58% Venus(+) HSPCs with 6-16% human cell marking were observed following engraftment into mice. In HSPCs from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), caused by mutations in the gp91phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase, TI of a gp91phox transgene into AAVS1 resulted in ∼15% gp91phox expression and increased NADPH oxidase activity in ex vivo-derived neutrophils. In mice transplanted with corrected HSPCs, 4-11% of human cells in the bone marrow expressed gp91phox. This method for TI into AAVS1 may be broadly applicable to correction of other monogenic diseases. PMID:26950749

  7. Barbie or Betty? Preschool children's preference for branded products and evidence for gender-linked differences.

    PubMed

    Pine, Karen J; Nash, Avril

    2003-08-01

    Children in the United Kingdom watch more television and are exposed to more advertising than children in any other European country. This article investigates the extent to which preschool children (aged 4-5 years) prefer brands advertised on television. Seventy-five children were interviewed and given a choice task in which they had to select the product, from eight pairs each comprising a branded and nonbranded product, that children of their own age and gender preferred. Products included popular drinks, snacks, toys, breakfast cereals, and sportswear. Nonbranded control products were carefully selected as close perceptual matches for the branded advertised products. Yet, on 68% of occasions, children chose the branded, advertised product in preference to the nonbranded product. This preference was reliably higher for girls (78%) than boys (58%). Gender-linked differences are discussed in relation to socialization theory and to girls' greater verbal ability and emotional sensitivity. PMID:12915793

  8. Neutrophil chemotaxis and arachidonic acid metabolism are not linked: evidence from metal ion probe studies

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Turner, R.A.; Smith, D.M.; Johnson, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    Heavy metal ions can inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism protect against ionophore cytotoxicity (ibid) and inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study they used Au/sup 3 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ as probes of the interrelationships among AA metabolism, ionophore-mediated cytotoxicity, and chemotaxis. Phospholipid deacylation was measured in ionophore-treated cells prelabeled with /sup 3/H-AA. Eicosanoid release from ionophore-treated cells was monitored by radioimmunoassay. Cytoprotection was quantitated as ability to exclude trypan blue. Chemotaxis toward f-met-leu-phe was measured by leading front analysis. The results imply that metal ions attenuate ionophore cytotoxicity by blocking phospholipid deacylation and eicosanoid release. In contrast to previous reports, no correlation between AA metabolism and chemotaxis was demonstrated, suggesting that these 2 processes are not linked.

  9. Coarticulatory nasalization in modern Greek: Evidence for a link between coarticulation and syllable structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakoumakou, Evanthia

    2005-04-01

    An acoustic analysis of the temporal extent of vowel nasalization in the productions of six native speakers of (Standard) Modern Greek showed that the temporal extent of anticipatory vowel nasalization is limited in all contexts, although it is more extensive before tautosyllabic than heterosyllabic nasals. (On average, in stressed syllables, heterosyllabic anticipatory nasalization was 27 ms long, tautosyllabic anticipatory was 48 ms long, and carryover was 70 ms.) Modern Greek patterns in this aspect with languages like Spanish, Italian, Ikalanga, which also show a tendency toward open syllables, and obstruents are, in general, dispreferred as codas. It is hypothesized that there may be a link between a tendency for open syllables in a language and limited extent of anticipatory nasalization and it is suggested that investigation of the prosodic organization of languages may prove fruitful in determining the factors that lead to cross-language coarticulatory differences regarding vowel nasalization.

  10. Evidence for a link between tail biting and central monoamine metabolism in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri

    2015-05-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. PMID:25728243

  11. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  12. Investigation of Cross-Linked and Additive Containing Polymer Materials for Membranes with Improved Performance in Pervaporation and Gas Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes. PMID:24958427

  13. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  14. Linking actions and emotions: evidence from 15- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Betty M

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 seconds to interact with the object. Infants were less likely to perform the target action after the models' expressed negative as opposed to positive or neutral affect. Although infants' imitative behaviour was influenced by the models' emotional displays, this social referencing effect was not apparent in their more general object-directed behaviour. For instance, infants in the negative emotion condition were just as quick to touch the object and spent the same amount of time touching the object as did infants in the neutral and positive emotion conditions. These findings suggest that infants understood that the models' negative affect was in response to the action, rather than the object itself. Infants apparently used this negative emotional information to appraise the action as one that was 'undesirable' or 'bad'. Consequently, infants were now loath to reproduce the action themselves. PMID:19994573

  15. Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals Evidence of Homologous Recombination Linked to Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Salinispora

    PubMed Central

    Freel, Kelle C.; Millán-Aguiñaga, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The three closely related species that currently comprise the genus Salinispora were analyzed using a multilocus sequence typing approach targeting 48 strains derived from four geographic locations. Phylogenetic congruence and a well-supported concatenated tree provide strong support for the delineation of the three species as currently described and the basal relationship of Salinispora arenicola to the more recently diverged sister taxa S. tropica and S. pacifica. The phylogeny of the initial region of the rpoB gene sequenced was atypical, placing the related genera Micromonospora and Verrucosispora within the Salinispora clade. This phylogenetic incongruence was subsequently ascribed to a homologous-recombination event in a portion of the gene associated with resistance to compounds in the rifamycin class, which target RpoB. All S. arenicola strains produced compounds in this class and possessed resistance-conferring amino acid changes in RpoB. The phylogeny of a region of the rpoB gene that is not associated with rifamycin resistance was congruent with the other housekeeping genes. The link between antibiotic resistance and homologous recombination suggests that incongruent phylogenies provide opportunities to identify the molecular targets of secondary metabolites, an observation with potential relevance for drug discovery efforts. Low ratios of interspecies recombination to mutation, even among cooccurring strains, coupled with high levels of within-species recombination suggest that the three species have been described in accordance with natural barriers to recombination. PMID:23892741

  16. Geophysical Evidence to Link Terrestrial Insect Diversity and Groundwater Availability in Non-Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehringer, M.; Carr, G.; Long, H.; Parsekian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wyoming, the third driest state in the United States, is home to a high level of biodiversity. In many cases, ecosystems are dependent on the vast systems of water resting just below the surface. This groundwater supports a variety of organisms that live far from surface water and its surrounding riparian zone, where more than 70% of species reside. In order to observe the correlation of groundwater presence and biodiversity in non-riparian ecosystems, a study was conducted to look specifically at terrestrial insect species linked to groundwater in Bighorn National Forest, WY. It was hypothesized that the more groundwater present, the greater the diversity of insects would be. Sample areas were randomly selected in non-riparian zones and groundwater was evaluated using a transient electromagnetic (TEM) geophysical instrument. Electrical pulses were transmitted through a 40m by 40m square of wire to measure levels of resistivity from near the surface to several hundred meters below ground. Pulses are echoed back to the surface and received by a smaller 10m by 10m square of wire, and an even smaller 1m by 1m square of wire set inside the larger transmitting wire. An insect population and species count was then conducted within the perimeter set by the outer transmitting wire. The results were not as hypothesized. More inferred groundwater below the surface resulted in a smaller diversity of species. Inversely, the areas with a smaller diversity held a larger total population of terrestrial insects.

  17. No evidence for melatonin-linked immunoenhancement over the annual cycle of an avian species.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Deborah M; Koolhaas, Anita; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Schwabl, Ingrid; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis; Tieleman, B Irene

    2009-05-01

    The winter immunoenhancement hypothesis associates long nights and increased exposure to melatonin with enhanced immune function in winter when resource availability is low and the chances of becoming ill are high. Thus, increased exposure to melatonin in the winter could be adaptive for species facing difficult winter conditions. This idea has found some support in studies of resident mammals. In birds, the link between day length and melatonin over the annual cycle is weaker, and contributions of melatonin to seasonal timing are unclear. Furthermore, many species, especially migrants, do not experience the most difficult conditions of their annual cycle in winter. In this study, we tested whether the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis holds in an avian species, the red knot Calidris canutus. We found that melatonin duration and amplitude varied significantly over the annual cycle with the highest values occurring in winter. However, peaks did not correspond to the winter solstice or with annual variation in immune function. Our findings do not support the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis in knots and question whether the idea that immune function should be bolstered in winter can be generalized to systems where winter is not the most difficult time of the year. PMID:19234709

  18. Evidence That Links Loss of Cyclooxygenase-2 With Increased Asymmetric Dimethylarginine

    PubMed Central

    Ahmetaj-Shala, Blerina; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Knowles, Rebecca; Al’Yamani, Malak; Mazi, Sarah; Wang, Zhen; Tucker, Arthur T.; Mackenzie, Louise; Armstrong, Paul C. J.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Tomlinson, James A. P.; Warner, Timothy D.; Leiper, James

    2015-01-01

    Background— Cardiovascular side effects associated with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor drugs dominate clinical concern. Cyclooxygenase-2 is expressed in the renal medulla where inhibition causes fluid retention and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms linking cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition and cardiovascular events are unknown and no biomarkers have been identified. Methods and Results— Transcriptome analysis of wild-type and cyclooxygenase-2−/− mouse tissues revealed 1 gene altered in the heart and aorta, but >1000 genes altered in the renal medulla, including those regulating the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and monomethyl-l-arginine. Cyclo-oxygenase-2−/− mice had increased plasma levels of ADMA and monomethyl-l-arginine and reduced endothelial nitric oxide responses. These genes and methylarginines were not similarly altered in mice lacking prostacyclin receptors. Wild-type mice or human volunteers taking cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors also showed increased plasma ADMA. Endothelial nitric oxide is cardio-protective, reducing thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Consequently, increased ADMA is associated with cardiovascular disease. Thus, our study identifies ADMA as a biomarker and mechanistic bridge between renal cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition and systemic vascular dysfunction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage. Conclusions— We identify the endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA as a biomarker and mechanistic bridge between renal cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition and systemic vascular dysfunction. PMID:25492024

  19. Deep-sea biostratigraphy of prograding platform margins (Neogene, Bahamas): key evidence linked to depositional rhythm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, B.H.; McNeill, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    New foraminiferal evidence from two boreholes on the paleoshelf and slope of western Great Bahama Bank has wide-ranging implications for understanding formation and evolution of carbonate-platform margins. The new data, abundant well-preserved planktic foraminifera, were obtained by disaggregating samples from intercalated pelagic layers and selected parts of thick hemipelagic limestone. The new data define six units in one hole and seven in the other, bracket the biozones present and their ages, indicate different sedimentation rates, and show that within the limits of biostratigraphic resolution the biozones are correlative between the holes. Most importantly, the revised ages show that the paleoshelf borehole probably penetrated the late Miocene rather than middle Miocene. -from Authors

  20. Evidence links increases in public health spending to declines in preventable deaths.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Smith, Sharla A

    2011-08-01

    Public health encompasses a broad array of programs designed to prevent the occurrence of disease and injury within communities. But policy makers have little evidence to draw on when determining the value of investments in these program activities, which currently account for less than 5 percent of US health spending. We examine whether changes in spending by local public health agencies over a thirteen-year period contributed to changes in rates of community mortality from preventable causes of death, including infant mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. We found that mortality rates fell between 1.1 percent and 6.9 percent for each 10 percent increase in local public health spending. These results suggest that increased public health investments can produce measurable improvements in health, especially in low-resource communities. However, more money by itself is unlikely to generate significant and sustainable health gains; improvements in public health practices are needed as well. PMID:21778174

  1. Evidence linking Arctic amplification to fewer mid-latitude cold extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Screen, James

    2015-04-01

    In spite of mean climate warming, an ostensibly large number of high-impact cold extremes have occurred in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes over the past decade. One explanation is that Arctic amplification -- the greater warming of the Arctic compared with lower latitudes associated with diminishing sea ice and snow cover -- is altering the polar jet stream and increasing temperature variability. Here we present evidence to the contrary, that in fact, temperature variability has decreased in the recent past and furthermore, that this decline is robustly projected to continue in the future. Observational evidence suggests that subseasonal cold-season temperature variability has significantly decreased over the mid- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere in recent decades. This is partly because northerly winds and associated cold days are warming more rapidly than southerly winds and warm days, and so Arctic amplification acts to reduce subseasonal temperature variance. Similar changes are robustly projected by the CMIP5 models in response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, in AGCM simulations forced by solely Arctic sea ice loss, and in highly-idealised GCM experiments. Using as an illustrative example, the cold extremes experienced over North America in early January 2014, we show that projected Arctic sea ice loss alone reduces the odds of such an event by one quarter to one third by the mid twenty-first century, and to zero (or near-zero) by the late twenty-first century. Both projected mean warming and a decrease in winter temperature variability contribute to the reduced risk of daily cold extremes.

  2. Implementing a journal club in a palliative care setting: a link in the chain of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Lera; Bennett, Peter; Gardner, Anne; Hawkins, Mary T; Wellman, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a journal club in a privately funded palliative care unit. Journal club meetings were initiated as part of a quality improvement process to foster the uptake of evidence-based practice. Nurses were presented with research articles each month and discussions were conducted focussing on methodological considerations of the research and implications of the research for patient care. The maximum number of attendees at any one meeting was nine and the minimum number was four. Overall, evaluations were positive about all aspects of the meetings. Attendees found that the selected articles were relevant, providing new information, stimulated discussion and reflection on clinical practice and encouraged further reading. One of the positive aspects of the meetings identified by participants was the facilitation style that enabled discussion in a safe and supportive environment. An important outcome of the meetings is the potential to explore evidence-based practices relevant to palliative care and to implement new practices or revise existing ones. As part of this process practice changes and clinical guidelines have been implemented. A dedicated facilitator with university links and a supportive organisational culture promoted club meetings as a practical way to provide clinical nurses with the opportunity to explore evidence-based research in the area of palliative care. PMID:19831148

  3. Evidence for a link between gut microbiota and hypertension in the Dahl rat.

    PubMed

    Mell, Blair; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Mathew, Anna V; Byun, Jaeman; Waghulde, Harshal; Zhang, Youjie; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Joe, Bina

    2015-06-01

    The gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining physiological homeostasis. This study was designed to evaluate whether gut microbial composition affects hypertension. 16S rRNA genes obtained from cecal samples of Dahl salt-sensitive (S) and Dahl salt-resistant (R) rats were sequenced. Bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes were higher in the S rats compared with the R rats. Furthermore, the family S24-7 of the phylum Bacteroidetes and the family Veillonellaceae of the phylum Firmicutes were higher in the S rats compared with the R rats. Analyses of the various phylogenetic groups of cecal microbiota revealed significant differences between S and R rats. Both strains were maintained on a high-salt diet, administered antibiotics for ablation of microbiota, transplanted with S or R rat cecal contents, and monitored for blood pressure (BP). Systolic BP of the R rats remained unaltered irrespective of S or R rat cecal transplantation. Surprisingly, compared with the S rats given S rat cecal content, systolic BP of the S rats given a single bolus of cecal content from R rats was consistently and significantly elevated during the rest of their life, and they had a shorter lifespan. A lower level of fecal bacteria of the family Veillonellaceae and increased plasma acetate and heptanoate were features associated with the increased BP observed in the S rats given R rat microbiota compared with the S rats given S rat microbiota. These data demonstrate a link between microbial content and BP regulation and, because the S and R rats differ in their genomic composition, provide the necessary basis to further examine the relationship between the host genome and microbiome in the context of BP regulation in the Dahl rats. PMID:25829393

  4. Cretaceous Anoxic Event 1a Linked with Submarine Plateau Volcanism: Geochemical Evidence from Marine Sedimentary Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, P. S.; Duncan, R. A.; Clarke, L. J.; Erba, E.

    2006-12-01

    We explore the proposed link between submarine plateau volcanism associated with construction of the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau (122 Ma) and Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) through major, minor and trace metal abundance anomalies in marine sedimentary sections recovered in cores from Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) Site 167 (Magellan Rise) and Site 463 (Mid-Pacific Mountains), and at the Cismon drillsite (Belluno Basin, N. Italy). Sites were correlated using bio- and magneto-stratigraphic data, and the global, positive ?13C isotope excursion associated with OAE1a. Bulk sediment samples that bracket the OAE1a interval at each site were powdered, digested and analyzed by ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. After normalizing element concentrations to Zr to remove the variable contribution of terrigenous material to these sediments, we detected an interval of concentrated metal abundance anomalies that coincides with the abrupt beginning of the d13C isotope excursion, near magnetic chron M0. The metal abundance anomalies (e.g., Sc, Cu, Co, Sn, Cr, Ni, V, Cd, Ag, Bi, Se, W, Mo, Sb, Pb up to 100x background) indicate that intermittent hydrothermal activity, in the form of both water/rock exchange and magmatic degassing, introduced large concentrations of trace metals into the Cretaceous ocean at the same time that extinctions of benthic species, turnover in plankton communities, and increases in isotopically light organic carbon burial occurred. The stratigraphic position of this interval of trace metal anomalies matches events associated with OAE1a and indicates that intermittent hydrothermal activity on a massive scale triggered abrupt changes in carbon burial and deep ocean oxygen contents. The geographical variation in abundances and patterns of trace metals is consistent with a source in the south-central Pacific.

  5. Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with pre-Triassic ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldowan, J. Michael; Dahl, Jeremy; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Huizinga, Bradley J.; Fago, Frederick J.; Shetty, Rupa; Watt, David S.; Peters, Kenneth E.

    1996-02-01

    New data from numerous detailed mass-spectrometric studies have detected triaromatic dinosteroids in Precambrian to Cenozoic rock samples. Triaromatic dinosteroids are organic geochemicals derived from dinosterols, compounds known in modern organisms to be the nearly exclusive widely occurring products of dinoflagellates. We observed the ubiquitous occurrence of these dinosteroids in 49 Late Triassic through Cretaceous marine source rocks and the absence of them in 13 Permian-Carboniferous source rocks synergistic with the dinoflagellate cyst record. However, finding dinosteroids in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian strata presents challenging results for molecular paleontologists, evolutionary biologists, palynologists, and especially for those concerned with the food web at various times of biological crisis. Other than the few species known as parasites and symbionts, many other dinoflagellate species are important as primary producers. The presence of Precambrian to Devonian triaromatic dinosteroids gives chemostratigraphic evidence of dinoflagellates (or other organisms with similar chemosynthetic capabilities) in rocks significantly older than the oldest undisputed dinoflagellate fossils (dinoflagellate cysts from the Middle Triassic, ˜ 240 Ma), and older than the putative Silurian ˜ 420 Ma) dinocyst,Arpylorus antiquus (Calandra) Sargent, from Tunisia. This systematic chemostratigraphic approach can shed light not only on lineages of dinoflagellates and their precursors, but potentially on many other lineages, especially bacteria, algae, plants, and possibly some metazoans.

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Linked to Depression and Cognitive Impairment: Evidence and Potential Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Nancy A; Roose, Steven P

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent but very frequently undiagnosed. OSA is an independent risk factor for depression and cognitive impairment/dementia. Herein the authors review studies in the literature pertinent to the effects of OSA on the cerebral microvascular and neurovascular systems and present a model to describe the key pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie the associations, including hypoperfusion, endothelial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation. Intermittent hypoxia plays a critical role in initiating and amplifying these pathologic processes. Hypoperfusion and impaired cerebral vasomotor reactivity lead to the development or progression of cerebral small vessel disease (C-SVD). Hypoxemia exacerbates these processes, resulting in white matter lesions, white matter integrity abnormalities, and gray matter loss. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability and neuroinflammation lead to altered synaptic plasticity, neuronal damage, and worsening C-SVD. Thus, OSA may initiate or amplify the pathologic processes of C-SVD and BBB dysfunction, resulting in the development or exacerbation of depressive symptoms and cognitive deficits. Given the evidence that adequate treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure improves depression and neurocognitive functions, it is important to identify OSA when assessing patients with depression or cognitive impairment. Whether treatment of OSA changes the deteriorating trajectory of elderly patients with already-diagnosed vascular depression and cognitive impairment/dementia remains to be determined in randomized controlled trials. PMID:27139243

  7. Evidence linking rapid Arctic warming to mid-latitude weather patterns

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jennifer; Skific, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of rapid Arctic warming and ice loss on weather patterns in the Northern Hemisphere is a topic of active research, lively scientific debate and high societal impact. The emergence of Arctic amplification—the enhanced sensitivity of high-latitude temperature to global warming—in only the last 10–20 years presents a challenge to identifying statistically robust atmospheric responses using observations. Several recent studies have proposed and demonstrated new mechanisms by which the changing Arctic may be affecting weather patterns in mid-latitudes, and these linkages differ fundamentally from tropics/jet-stream interactions through the transfer of wave energy. In this study, new metrics and evidence are presented that suggest disproportionate Arctic warming—and resulting weakening of the poleward temperature gradient—is causing the Northern Hemisphere circulation to assume a more meridional character (i.e. wavier), although not uniformly in space or by season, and that highly amplified jet-stream patterns are occurring more frequently. Further analysis based on self-organizing maps supports this finding. These changes in circulation are expected to lead to persistent weather patterns that are known to cause extreme weather events. As emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated, therefore, the continued amplification of Arctic warming should favour an increased occurrence of extreme events caused by prolonged weather conditions. PMID:26032322

  8. Current Status of the Epidemiologic Evidence Linking Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and the Role of Immune Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Hikel, Stephanie Moller; Adams, Kristen; Hinds, David; Moon, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although case–control studies conducted to date have largely affirmed the relationship between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), occupational cohort studies of PCB-exposed workers have been generally interpreted as negative, thereby raising doubts about a potential causal association. A common theme of immune dysregulation unifies many of NHL’s strongest risk factors, and several authors have posited that subclinical immune dysregulation may increase NHL risk by decreasing host resistance, reducing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation, and diminishing tumor surveillance mechanisms. Objectives: The goals of this review were a) to evaluate the epidemiological research examining the association between PCB exposure and NHL and discuss the contribution to the weight of evidence of case–control studies and occupational cohort studies; and b) to summarize the evidence for immune dysregulation as a means by which PCBs may cause NHL. Methods: We performed a literature search using PubMed and seven additional online biomedical and toxicological referencing libraries to identify literature published through August 2011. Discussion and Conclusions: Overall, we conclude that the weight of evidence supports a causal role of PCBs in lymphomagenesis. The strongest epidemiological evidence for the relationship between PCBs and NHL comes from case–control studies conducted among the general population. Epidemiological and toxicological data demonstrating immunosuppressive and inflammatory effects of PCBs further contribute to the weight of evidence by providing a plausible explanation for how PCBs can cause NHL through immune dysregulation. PMID:22552995

  9. Isolation of a homozygous X-linked translocation stock with two additional sex-chromosomes in the onion fly Hylemya antiqua Meigen.

    PubMed

    van Heemert, K

    1977-05-01

    The onion fly, Hylemya antiqua Meigen, was subjected to irradiation and selection based on observations of fertility and cytogenetics, in order to isolate structural chromosome mutations which might be used for genetic control of this species. To the present time, only a "simple" X-linked translocation could be obtained as a homozygous stock. Sibcrossing was carried out using translocation trisomics (TN + X) obtained from test-crossed translocation heterozygous females (TN) showing numerical nondisjunction. A homozygous stock was obtained with two additional sex-chromosomes. This is a unique case because normally an X-linked translocation can not be made homozygous in the male sex, which normally only carries one X-chromosome. PMID:24407169

  10. A Novel Review of the Evidence Linking Myopia and High Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ajai; Verma, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    The association between myopia and high intelligence has been the subject of much vexed debate in academic circles, particularly over the last two decades. This debate has risen from the observation that, over recent centuries, the prevalence of myopia amongst most populations has coincided with a marked increase in the average level of intelligence in these populations. The relationship between myopia and intelligence and theories surrounding this association is examined by the authors. Additionally, the various factors that confound the myopia and high intelligence debate, such as genetics, educational levels, ethnicity, and environmental factors were also explored by the authors. Whilst most studies found a positive correlation reaching statistical significance between myopia and high intelligence compared to emmetropes and hyperopes, further research is required to determine whether this association is causal. PMID:25653868

  11. Field evidence for linking Altosid applications with increased amphibian deformities in southern leopard frogs [abstract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    During the summer of 1997 we repeatedly sprayed Altosid, a formulation of 4% methoprene used for mosquito control, on six constructed macrocosms. Six additional macrocosms were sprayed with Abate4E, containing the organophosphate pesticide temephos, and six were sprayed with water (controls). The wetlands were created on an impermeable foundation for research purposes and averaged 215 m2 in area and 0.5 m deep. Application rates and frequency of Abate4E and Altosid followed label directions and mimicked procedures for mosquito control in National Wildlife Refuges. In early September juvenile frogs and metamorphing tadpoles were collected with dip nets from each pond and examined for deformities. In all, 91 juveniles and metamorph southern leopard frogs (Rana utricularia) were collected from Altosid sprayed wetlands with 14 (15%) demonstrating deformities. Seventyseven juveniles and metamorphs were collected from control wetlands with three (4%) showing deformities. Only six juveniles and metamorphs were collected from Abate4E wetlands and none showed deformities. Deformities included missing or deformed hind limbs (9 of 10 involving only the right hind limb), missing eyes, and abnormal color. The differences in rate of deformities was dependent on treatment (X2=6.44, p< 0.02). The number of leopard frogs caught per unit effort (tadpoles and juveniles) differed among treatments (p=0.032) with Abate4E wetlands producing fewer individuals per capture effort than either Altosid or control wetlands.

  12. Isotope evidence to link a suspect with a pipe bomb multimurder in Austria 1995.

    PubMed

    Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Horacek, Micha; Tesch, Roland

    2011-01-01

    A bomb attempt in Oberwart, Austria, on February 4, 1995, was the culmination of several pipe and letter bomb attempts mainly in Austria. The pipe bomb had been mounted on a self-made gypsum (plaster of Paris) pedestal and exploded when touched, killing four persons. With a level of 200 tritium units (TU), the water extracted from the gypsum pedestal was unusually enriched in tritium (³H) compared to an environmental level of about 20 TU at that time. Investigation of the ³H content of air moisture in the living room of an arrested suspect showed values of about 1000 TU (normally, 50 TU is not exceeded). Additionally, water used as sealing liquid in a glass with nitroglycerine found in the living room was also significantly enriched in ³H (>400 TU). The living room therefore offered the high ³H level environment necessary to lead to elevated ³H concentrations in the gypsum pedestal. PMID:21198616

  13. Evidence for links between feeding inhibition, population characteristics, and sensitivity to acute toxicity for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Agatz, Annika; Brown, Colin D

    2013-08-20

    A population experiment with Daphnia magna tested the hypothesis that short-term feeding inhibition provokes a shift in population structure that will vary with conspecific pressure (e.g., pressure occurring from individuals of the same species due to competition for food and space) and increases population sensitivity to a xenobiotic exposure due to size-dependent toxicity (e.g., decreasing sensitivity with increasing body length). Populations were exposed for one week to a feeding inhibitor (imidacloprid, 0.15 or 12.0 mg/L) followed by one week of recovery and one day of exposure to an acute toxin (carbaryl, 0.0098 mg/L). Identical exposure under low and high conspecific pressure was studied by delaying the start of exposure for half of the populations by two weeks; thus populations were in a different stage of population development when exposure occurred. Feeding inhibition of 97% (12.0 mg/L imidacloprid) caused a shift in population structure toward smaller individuals but also reduced population abundance by up to 56 ± 7% with a strong influence of conspecific pressure. Increased population sensitivity to carbaryl was observed after feeding inhibition of 97% as hypothesized. Carbaryl exposure for one day resulted in population decline of up to 23 ± 6% when populations were not previously exposed to imidacloprid. Identical carbaryl exposure provoked a four times stronger decline in population abundance when exposure occurred following feeding inhibition of 97%. In conflict with the hypothesis, this was at least in part due to changes in the reproductive strategy of daphnids following exposure to imidacloprid rather than driven by the shift in population structure. The differences in population sensitivity to additional stress (carbaryl) occurring one week after feeding inhibition caused by exposure to imidacloprid adds a further challenge to understanding potential impacts from multiple stressors as occurring in the field at the population level. PMID

  14. Link between pay for performance incentives and physician payment mechanisms: evidence from the diabetes management incentive in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Kantarevic, Jasmin; Kralj, Boris

    2013-12-01

    Pay for performance (P4P) incentives for physicians are generally designed as additional payments that can be paired with any existing payment mechanism such as a salary, fee-for-services and capitation. However, the link between the physician response to performance incentives and the existing payment mechanisms is still not well understood. In this article, we study this link using the recent primary care physician payment reform in Ontario as a natural experiment and the Diabetes Management Incentive as a case study. Using a comprehensive administrative data strategy and a difference-in-differences matching strategy, we find that physicians in a blended capitation model are more responsive to the Diabetes Management Incentive than physicians in an enhanced fee-for-service model. We show that this result implies that the optimal size of P4P incentives vary negatively with the degree of supply-side cost-sharing. These results have important implications for the design of P4P programs and the cost of their implementation. PMID:23203722

  15. Deciphering The Speed of Link: Experimental Evidence of a Rapid Increase in Soil Respiration Following the Onset of Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayler, Z. E.; Keitel, C.; Jansen, K.; Gessler, A.

    2011-12-01

    The degree of coupling between aboveground assimilation and transport with below-ground metabolism is an indicator of ecosystem nutrient cycling and energy turnover in the rhizosphere as well as having a large impact on their long-term storage capacity in the soil. Understanding how and when assimilates arrive below-ground for mineralization is necessary to predict how nutrient and energy cycles might be altered by current and future changes in climate, species distribution and land use. Currently, there are two proposed mechanisms that describe the link between assimilation and below-ground respiration via the phloem: 1) the transport of assimilates basipetally according to the Münch theory, and 2) pressure-concentration waves. The transport of assimilates through the phloem by mechanism 1 is often quantified through isotopic labeling studies. Thus, the time between isotopic labeling in the canopy and when the labeled carbon is respired from the rhizoshpere characterizes the degree of coupling between aboveground and below-ground metabolism. The timing between the uptake and below-ground respiration of the labeled carbon is termed the "speed of link". Based on statistical approaches, recent studies have reported a speed of link on the order of one day or less in mature forests, which is too fast for phloem transport by molecular diffusion or classical sink-source dynamics. These studies often cite mechanism 2 to support their conclusions despite the lack of experimental evidence. In this presentation, we report results from experiments designed to observe the mechanisms behind the speed of link of Douglas-fir saplings. We kept the plants for several days (0,1 and 6 days) in the dark to create a large carbon source-sink gradient with the intention of inducing a strong pressure-concentration wave. Following the no light treatment, in a controlled growth chamber, we introduced labelled CO2 prior to exposing the plant to light. Upon exposing the plants to light, the

  16. Evidence for Interannual to Decadal Variations in Hadley and Walker Circulations and Links to Water and Energy Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Bosilovich, Michael; Miller, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Mass and energy transports associated with the Hadley and Walker circulations are important components of the earth s climate system and are strongly linked to hydrologic processes. Interannual to decadal variation in these flows likely signify a combination of natural climate noise as well as a response to anthropgenic forcing. There remains considerable uncertainty in quantifying variations in these flows. Evidence in the surface pressure record supports a weakening of the Walker circulation over the Pacific in recent decades. Conversely the NCEP / NCAR and ERA 40 reanalyses indicate that the Hadley circulation has increased in strength over the last two decades, though these analyses depict significantly different mass circulation changes. Interestingly, the NCEP - II / DOE reanalysis contains essentially no Hadley circulation changes. Most climate model integrations anticipate a weakening of both tropical circulations associated with stronger static stability. Clearly there is much uncertainty not only with the mass transports, but also how they are linked to water and energy balance of the planet through variations in turbulent heat and radiative fluxes and horizontal exports / imports of energy. Here we examine heat and water budget variations from a number of reanalysis products and focus on the linear and nonlinear response of ENSO warm and cold events as opportunities to study budget variations over the past 15-20 years. Our analysis addresses such questions as To what extent do Hadley and Walker Cell variations compensate each other on mass and energy transport? Do static stability adjustments appear to constrain fractional precipitation response vs. fractional water vapor response? We appeal to constraints offered by GPCP precipitation, SSWI ocean evaporation estimates, and ISCCP-FD radiative fluxes, and other satellite data sets to interpret and confirm reanalysis-based diagnostics. Using our findings we also attempt to place in context the recent

  17. Tomographic, kinematic and gravitational evidence for a slab under Greenland and its potential links to Arctic magmatism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Grace; Spakman, Wim; Panet, Isabelle; Gaina, Carmen; Trønnes, Reidar

    2015-04-01

    Seismic tomography and recent satellite gravity data reveal regions of anomalous structure within Earth's present-day mantle. On scales of some tens to hundreds of kilometers in wavelength, individual subducted slabs and mantle plumes can be resolved. When linked with global plate reconstructions and models of mantle convection, subducted slabs of lithosphere can be related to distinct periods of ocean basin closure. Here we explore the origins for a distinct fast seismic feature under present-day Greenland that is apparent across several P and S-wave tomography models. The sub-rounded seismic anomaly of interest is distinct from the more westerly "Farallon" slab, and is located in the mid mantle between ~1000-1600 km depth. We include a discussion of mantle sinking rates, showing that taking 1600 km slab base depth and applying sinking rate of 1.2 cm/yr implies a subduction age of ~133 Ma. We supplement the tomographic evidence for this slab with independent, satellite-derived vertical gravity gradients. Preliminary analysis of the gravity reveals a possible mantle anomaly in the SW Greenland region, complementary in spatial extent to that inferred from tomography. Considering absolute and relative plate reference frames, we suggest that palaeo-Arctic subduction related to the opening of the Amerasia Basin in the Jurassic, may account for this mantle feature. We finally investigate potential geochemical links of this slab feature with high arctic magmatism in the Cretaceous, showing that a time-dependent consideration of surface kinematics and mantle dynamics may reveal new insights into the geodynamic evolution of the Arctic.

  18. Evidence for a Regulatory Link of Nitrogen Fixation and Photosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus via HvrA

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Monika; Kamp, Paul-Bertram; Paschen, Annette; Masepohl, Bernd; Klipp, Werner

    1998-01-01

    A Rhodobacter capsulatus reporter strain, carrying a constitutively expressed nifA gene and a nifH-lacZ gene fusion, was used for random transposon Tn5 mutagenesis to search for genes required for the NtrC-independent ammonium repression of NifA activity. A mutation in hvrA, which is known to be involved in low-light activation of the photosynthetic apparatus, released both ammonium and oxygen control of nifH expression in this reporter strain, demonstrating a regulatory link of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis via HvrA. In addition, a significant increase in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) content was found in cells under nitrogen-fixing conditions. HvrA was not involved in this up-regulation of BChla. Instead, the presence of active nitrogenase seemed to be sufficient for this process, since no increase in BChla content was observed in different nif mutants. PMID:9537402

  19. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure. PMID:25812798

  20. Evidence for Alzheimer's disease-linked synapse loss and compensation in mouse and human hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Krystina M; Molina-Campos, Elizabeth; Musial, Timothy F; Price, Andrea L; Oh, Kwang-Jin; Wolke, Malerie L; Buss, Eric W; Scheff, Stephen W; Mufson, Elliott J; Nicholson, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with alterations in the distribution, number, and size of inputs to hippocampal neurons. Some of these changes are thought to be neurodegenerative, whereas others are conceptualized as compensatory, plasticity-like responses, wherein the remaining inputs reactively innervate vulnerable dendritic regions. Here, we provide evidence that the axospinous synapses of human AD cases and mice harboring AD-linked genetic mutations (the 5XFAD line) exhibit both, in the form of synapse loss and compensatory changes in the synapses that remain. Using array tomography, quantitative conventional electron microscopy, immunogold electron microscopy for AMPARs, and whole-cell patch-clamp physiology, we find that hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in transgenic mice are host to an age-related synapse loss in their distal dendrites, and that the remaining synapses express more AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Moreover, the number of axonal boutons that synapse with multiple spines is significantly reduced in the transgenic mice. Through serial section electron microscopic analyses of human hippocampal tissue, we further show that putative compensatory changes in synapse strength are also detectable in axospinous synapses of proximal and distal dendrites in human AD cases, and that their multiple synapse boutons may be more powerful than those in non-cognitively impaired human cases. Such findings are consistent with the notion that the pathophysiology of AD is a multivariate product of both neurodegenerative and neuroplastic processes, which may produce adaptive and/or maladaptive responses in hippocampal synaptic strength and plasticity. PMID:25031178

  1. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  2. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Døssing, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony; Nielsen, Tove; Jokat, Wilfried; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone - East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic unconformity (IMU), which marks the termination of syn-rift deposition in the deep-sea basins and onset of: (i) thermo-mechanical coupling across the GFZ, (ii) basin compression, and (iii) contourite deposition, north of the EGR. The onset of coupling across the GFZ is constrained by results of 2-D flexural backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf-progradation on the NE Greenland margin. Given an estimated middle-to-late Miocene (~15-10 Ma) age of the IMU, we speculate that the event is synchronous with uplift of the East and West Greenland margins. The correlation between margin uplift and plate-motion changes further indicates that the uplift was triggered by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.

  3. Linking Evidence-Based Program Participant Data with Medicare Data: The Consenting Process and Correlates of Retrospective Participant Consents

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Philip Lloyd; Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Jiang, Luohua; Alonis, Audrey; Laurent, Diana D.; Lorig, Kate

    2015-01-01

    As part of a nation-wide study of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (National Study), older participants were asked to consent to have their Medicare data matched with study data. This provided an opportunity to examine the consenting process and compare consenters, refusers, and non-responders. We compared the three groups on a large number of variables. These included demographic, National Study participation, health indicator, health behavior, and health-care utilization variables. We assessed differences in 6-month change scores for time-varying variables. We also examined whether asking participants to consent prior to the final questionnaire impacted completion of that questionnaire. Of 616 possible participants, 42% consented, 44% refused, and 14% failed to respond. Differences by ethnicity were found, with Hispanics more likely to consent. There was a consistent tendency for those who participated most in the National Study to consent. With the exception of number of chronic diseases, there was no evidence of health indicators or health behaviors being associated with consenting. Participants with more physician visits and more nights in the hospital were also more likely to consent. Those asked to consent before the 12-month follow-up questionnaire were less likely to complete that questionnaire than those who were asked after. Fewer than half consented to link to their Medicare data. The greater willingness to consent by those who participated most suggests that willingness to consent may be part of program engagement. Consenters had more diseases, more MD visits, and more nights in the hospital, suggesting that greater contact with the medical system may be associated with willingness to consent. This indicates that examinations of Medicare data based only on those willing to consent could introduce bias. Asking for consent appears to reduce participation in the larger study. PMID:25964908

  4. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Døssing, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.; Nielsen, Tove; Jokat, Wilfried; Thybo, Hans; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

    2016-02-01

    Tectonic models predict that following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their postrift evolution. However, postbreakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone-East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic unconformity (IMU), which marks the termination of synrift deposition in the deep-sea basins and onset of (i) thermomechanical coupling across the GFZ, (ii) basin compression, and (iii) contourite deposition, north of the EGR. The onset of coupling across the GFZ is constrained by results of 2-D flexural backstripping. We explain the thermomechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf progradation on the NE Greenland margin. Given an estimated middle to late Miocene (~15-10 Ma) age of the IMU, we speculate that the event is synchronous with uplift of the east and west Greenland margins. The correlation between margin uplift and plate motion changes further indicates that the uplift was triggered by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intraplate stresses related to global tectonics.

  5. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  6. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  7. A constructionist review of morality and emotions: no evidence for specific links between moral content and discrete emotions.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C Daryl; Lindquist, Kristen A; Gray, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Morality and emotions are linked, but what is the nature of their correspondence? Many "whole number" accounts posit specific correspondences between moral content and discrete emotions, such that harm is linked to anger, and purity is linked to disgust. A review of the literature provides little support for these specific morality-emotion links. Moreover, any apparent specificity may arise from global features shared between morality and emotion, such as affect and conceptual content. These findings are consistent with a constructionist perspective of the mind, which argues against a whole number of discrete and domain-specific mental mechanisms underlying morality and emotion. Instead, constructionism emphasizes the flexible combination of basic and domain-general ingredients such as core affect and conceptualization in creating the experience of moral judgments and discrete emotions. The implications of constructionism in moral psychology are discussed, and we propose an experimental framework for rigorously testing morality-emotion links. PMID:25587050

  8. Linking Online Gaming and Addictive Behavior: Converging Evidence for a General Reward Deficiency in Frequent Online Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers. PMID:25426039

  9. Electrophysiological Evidence for a Direct Link between the Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Barroso, Victor; Ordaz-Sánchez, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Larriva-Sahd, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    It is accepted that the main- and accessory- olfactory systems exhibit overlapping responses to pheromones and odorants. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in adult rat olfactory bulb slices to define a possible interaction between the first central relay of these systems: the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB). This was tested by applying electrical field stimulation in the dorsal part of the MOB while recording large principal cells (LPCs) of the anterior AOB (aAOB). Additional recordings of LPCs were performed at either side of the plane of intersection between the aAOB and posterior-AOB (pAOB) halves, or linea alba, while applying field stimulation to the opposite half. A total of 92 recorded neurons were filled during whole-cell recordings with biocytin and studied at the light microscope. Neurons located in the aAOB (n = 6, 8%) send axon collaterals to the MOB since they were antidromically activated in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists (APV and CNQX). Recorded LPCs evoked orthodromic excitatory post-synaptic responses (n = 6, aAOB; n = 1, pAOB) or antidromic action potentials (n = 8, aAOB; n = 7, pAOB) when applying field stimulation to the opposite half of the recording site (e.g., recording in aAOB; stimulating in pAOB, and vice-versa). Observation of the filled neurons revealed that indeed, LPCs send axon branches that cross the linea alba to resolve in the internal cellular layer. Additionally, LPCs of the aAOB send axon collaterals to dorsal-MOB territory. Notably, while performing AOB recordings we found a sub-population of neurons (24% of the total) that exhibited voltage-dependent bursts of action potentials. Our findings support the existence of: 1. a direct projection from aAOB LPCs to dorsal-MOB, 2. physiologically active synapses linking aAOB and pAOB, and 3. pacemaker-like neurons in both AOB halves. This work was presented in the form of an Abstract on SfN 2014 (719.14/EE17). PMID:26858596

  10. Electrophysiological Evidence for a Direct Link between the Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs in the Adult Rat.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Barroso, Victor; Ordaz-Sánchez, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Larriva-Sahd, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    It is accepted that the main- and accessory- olfactory systems exhibit overlapping responses to pheromones and odorants. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in adult rat olfactory bulb slices to define a possible interaction between the first central relay of these systems: the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB). This was tested by applying electrical field stimulation in the dorsal part of the MOB while recording large principal cells (LPCs) of the anterior AOB (aAOB). Additional recordings of LPCs were performed at either side of the plane of intersection between the aAOB and posterior-AOB (pAOB) halves, or linea alba, while applying field stimulation to the opposite half. A total of 92 recorded neurons were filled during whole-cell recordings with biocytin and studied at the light microscope. Neurons located in the aAOB (n = 6, 8%) send axon collaterals to the MOB since they were antidromically activated in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists (APV and CNQX). Recorded LPCs evoked orthodromic excitatory post-synaptic responses (n = 6, aAOB; n = 1, pAOB) or antidromic action potentials (n = 8, aAOB; n = 7, pAOB) when applying field stimulation to the opposite half of the recording site (e.g., recording in aAOB; stimulating in pAOB, and vice-versa). Observation of the filled neurons revealed that indeed, LPCs send axon branches that cross the linea alba to resolve in the internal cellular layer. Additionally, LPCs of the aAOB send axon collaterals to dorsal-MOB territory. Notably, while performing AOB recordings we found a sub-population of neurons (24% of the total) that exhibited voltage-dependent bursts of action potentials. Our findings support the existence of: 1. a direct projection from aAOB LPCs to dorsal-MOB, 2. physiologically active synapses linking aAOB and pAOB, and 3. pacemaker-like neurons in both AOB halves. This work was presented in the form of an Abstract on SfN 2014 (719.14/EE17). PMID:26858596

  11. Addition of a Decision Point in Evidence-Based Practice Process Steps to Distinguish EBP, Research and Quality Improvement Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mick, JoAnn

    2015-06-01

    This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741--6787. PMID:25773966

  12. The Tishomingo Iron Meteorite and a Possible Genetic Link to Group IVB Iron Meteorites — Evidence from Molybdenum Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsham, E. A.; Walker, R. J.; Corrigan, C. M.; McCoy, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    Using Mo isotopes to support or reject a genetic link between the ungrouped iron meteorite Tishomingo and the IVB iron meteorite group is explored. Implications of the possible relationship for the evolution of the IVB parent body are also outlined.

  13. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  14. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  15. Initial evidence for the link between activities and health: Associations between a balance of activities, functioning and serum levels of cytokines and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Dür, Mona; Steiner, Günter; Stoffer, Michaela Alexandra; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Dejaco, Clemens; Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Prodinger, Birgit; Binder, Alexa; Smolen, Josef; Stamm, Tanja Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence shows interrelations of psychological factors, neurological and immunological processes. Therefore, constructs like a balance of activities, the so called "occupational balance", could also have biological correlates. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between occupational balance, functioning, cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients suffering from a chronic inflammatory disease like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy people. Moreover, we wanted to explore potential differences in gender and employment status. A descriptive study in patients with RA and healthy people was conducted using the Occupational Balance-Questionnaire (OB-Quest) and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Serum levels of cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), interferon alpha (INFα), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), rheumatoid factor (RF) and of CRP were measured. Descriptive statistics, as well as Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearmen's rank correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated. One-hundred-thirty-two patients with RA and 76 healthy people participated. Occupational balance was associated with functioning, cytokines and CRP. The strongest associations were identified in the unemployed healthy-people sample with cytokines and CRP being within the normal range. For example, the OB-Quest item challenging activities was associated with IL-8 (rs=-0.63, p=0.04) and the SF-36 sub-scale bodily pain was associated with IFNα (rs=-0.69, p=0.02). The items rest and sleep (rs=-0.71, p=0.01) and variety of different activities (rs=-0.74, p<0.01) correlated with the SF-36 sub-scale social functioning. Employed and unemployed people differed in their age and CRP levels. Additionally, gender differences were found in two OB-Quest items in that fewer women were able to adapt their activities to changing living conditions and fewer men were overstressed. In conclusion, we found preliminary biological evidence for the link

  16. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  17. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  18. Twelfth-Grade Student Work Intensity Linked to Later Educational Attainment and Substance Use: New Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jerald G.; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Freedman-Doan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Long hours of paid employment during high school have been linked to a variety of problem behaviors, but questions remain about whether and to what extent work intensity makes any causal contribution. This study addresses those questions by focusing on how 12th-grade work intensity is associated with substance use and educational attainment in the…

  19. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  20. Evidence of microevolution of Salmonella Typhimurium during a series of egg-associated outbreaks linked to a single chicken farm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Between 2005–2008 a series of S. Typhimurium outbreaks occurred in Tasmania, Australia, that were all traced to eggs originating from a single chicken farm. We sequenced the genomes of 12 isolates linked to these outbreaks, in order to investigate the microevolution of a pathogenic S. Typhimurium clone in a natural, spatiotemporally restricted population. Results The isolates, which shared a phage type similar to DT135 known locally as 135@ or 135a, formed a clade within the S. Typhimurium population with close similarity to the reference genome SL1334 (160 single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs). Ten of the isolates belonged to a single clone (<23 SNPs between isolate pairs) which likely represents the population of S. Typhimurium circulating at the chicken farm; the other two were from sporadic cases and were genetically distinct from this clone. Divergence dating indicated that all 12 isolates diverged from a common ancestor in the mid 1990s, and the clone began to diversify in 2003–2004. This clone spilled out into the human population several times between 2005–2008, during which time it continued to accumulate SNPs at a constant rate of 3–5 SNPs per year or 1x10-6 substitutions site-1 year-1, faster than the longer-term (~50 year) rates estimated previously for S. Typhimurium. Our data suggest that roughly half of non-synonymous substitutions are rapidly removed from the S. Typhimurium population, after which purifying selection is no longer important and the remaining substitutions become fixed in the population. The S. Typhimurium 135@ isolates were nearly identical to SL1344 in terms of gene content and virulence plasmids. Their phage contents were close to SL1344, except that they carried a different variant of Gifsy-1, lacked the P2 remnant found in SL1344 and carried a novel P2 phage

  1. Geophysical constraints on the link between cratonization and orogeny: Evidence from the Tibetan Plateau and the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Teng, Jiwen; Romanelli, Fabio; Braitenberg, Carla; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xuemei; Fang, Lihua; Zhang, Sufang; Wu, Jianping; Deng, Yangfan; Ma, Ting; Sun, Ruomei; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the geodynamic process of orogeny and cratonization, and their transition is among the key topics of research in evaluating the link between plate tectonics and continental dynamics. The Tibetan Plateau and the North China Craton (NCC), two key areas in mainland China, offer excellent laboratories to understand continental tectonics over a broad span of Earth history. Particularly, the deep structure of the lithosphere as imaged from geophysical data on the Tibetan Plateau and the NCC provide important clues in understanding orogeny and cratonization. The Tibetan Plateau is the largest and highest plateau on Earth in terms of mean altitude, and is an important region for understanding the mechanisms of continent-continent collision and Cenozoic plateau uplift. The NCC is an Archean craton that underwent lithospheric disruption during the Mesozoic. Here we reconstruct the main features of the structure of the crust and upper mantle from surface wave tomography and gravity modeling in Tibet and its neighboring regions, in order to understand the modality of the convergence and collision process between the Indian and Eurasian plates, and the influence of this process on the uplift of the plateau. In the NCC, geological, geochemical, geophysical and tectonic investigations demonstrate that lithospheric destruction mainly occurred in the Eastern Block. The crustal structure of the NCC is reconstructed from ambient noise surface wave tomography and the different possible disruption mechanisms are evaluated. The Vs (shear-wave velocity) tomography results, and the density (ρ) structure of the crust and upper mantle (to about 350 km depth) demonstrate the lateral variation of the thickness of the metasomatic lid between the south and north of the Bangong-Nujiang suture (BNS) and the west and east of Tibet, which suggest that the leading edge of the subducting Indian slab reaches the BNS. The subduction angle of Indian Plate indicates a transition from steep

  2. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2015-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  4. Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neuronal excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Heck, A.; Fastenrath, M.; Ackermann, S.; Auschra, B.; Bickel, H.; Coynel, D.; Gschwind, L.; Jessen, F.; Kaduszkiewicz, H.; Maier, W.; Milnik, A.; Pentzek, M.; Riedel-Heller, S.G.; Ripke, S.; Spalek, K.; Sullivan, P.; Vogler, C.; Wagner, M.; Weyerer, S.; Wolfsgruber, S.; de Quervain, D.; Papassotiropoulos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene-set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2’824), and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32’143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene-set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages, and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene-set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene-set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity and psychopathology. PMID:24529980

  5. Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neuronal excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Heck, Angela; Fastenrath, Matthias; Ackermann, Sandra; Auschra, Bianca; Bickel, Horst; Coynel, David; Gschwind, Leo; Jessen, Frank; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Ripke, Stephan; Spalek, Klara; Sullivan, Patrick; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2,824) and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32,143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity, and psychopathology. PMID:24529980

  6. Variable X-linked recessive hypopituitarism with evidence of gonadotropin deficiency in two pre-pubertal males.

    PubMed

    Zipf, W B; Kelch, R P; Bacon, G E

    1977-04-01

    Two half-brothers with short stature secondary to growth hormone deficiency and a family history implicating X-linked transmission were studied extensively for other endocrine abnormalities. The proband had a normal physical examination, except for small stature and small external genitalia. ACTH and TSH release were normal. LH and FSH responses during an i.v. GnRH test were severely blunted. His half-brother also had a normal physical examination, except for severe short stature and very small external genitalia. Deficiencies of ACTH, and TSH as well as GH were documented. An i.v. GnRH test showed no LH or FSH response. These studies support the existence of an X-linked recessive form of hypopituitarism and portend the clinical usefulness of the i.v. GnRH test in evaluating gonadotropin reserve. PMID:192503

  7. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities: Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Beltz, Adriene M; McHale, Susan M; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2016-10-01

    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were mediated by gender identity and moderated by hormones. Gender attitudes (i.e., gender-role attitudes and attitudes about being a girl), gender identity, and gender-typed activities were reported by 54 girls aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure, including 40 girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical (NC) CAH exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Both girls with C-CAH and NC-CAH reported positive attitudes about being a girl and egalitarian gender attitudes, consistent with their female-typical gender identity. In contrast, girls with C-CAH had more male-typed activity interest and participation than girls with NC-CAH. Gender attitudes were linked to activities in both groups, with gender identity mediating the links. Specifically, gender-role attitudes and positive attitudes about being a girl were associated with feminine gender identity, which in turn was associated with decreased male-typed activity interests and participation, and increased female-typed activity interests. Our results are consistent with schema theories, with attitudes more closely associated with gender identity than with prenatal androgens. PMID:26940967

  8. Evolutionary Strata on the X Chromosomes of the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia: Evidence From New Sex-Linked Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Forrest, Alan; Kamau, Esther; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X–Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum divergence (and thus the age of this plant's sex chromosome system) has remained uncertain. More genes are therefore needed. Here, by segregation analysis of intron size variants (ISVS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identify three new Y-linked genes, one being duplicated on the Y chromosome, and test for evolutionary strata. All the new genes have homologs on the X and Y chromosomes. Synonymous divergence estimated between the X and Y homolog pairs is within the range of those already reported. Genetic mapping of the new X-linked loci shows that the map is the same in all three families that have been studied so far and that X–Y divergence increases with genetic distance from the pseudoautosomal region. We can now conclude that the divergence value is saturated, confirming the cessation of X–Y recombination in the evolution of the sex chromosomes at ∼10–20 MYA. PMID:17287532

  9. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity. PMID:26148720

  10. Stimulus modality and working memory performance in Greek children with reading disabilities: additional evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Evripidou, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of stimulus presentation modality on working memory performance in children with reading disabilities (RD) and in typically developing children (TDC), all native speakers of Greek. It was hypothesized that the visual presentation of common objects would result in improved learning and recall performance as compared to the auditory presentation of stimuli. Twenty children, ages 10-12, diagnosed with RD were matched to 20 TDC age peers. The experimental tasks implemented a multitrial verbal learning paradigm incorporating three modalities: auditory, visual, and auditory plus visual. Significant group differences were noted on language, verbal and nonverbal memory, and measures of executive abilities. A mixed-model MANOVA indicated that children with RD had a slower learning curve and recalled fewer words than TDC across experimental modalities. Both groups of participants benefited from the visual presentation of objects; however, children with RD showed the greatest gains during this condition. In conclusion, working memory for common verbal items is impaired in children with RD; however, performance can be facilitated, and learning efficiency maximized, when information is presented visually. The results provide further evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis and the theory that pictorial presentation of verbal stimuli is adequate for dual coding. PMID:21942734

  11. Genetic Evidence for a Link Between Favorable Adiposity and Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension, and Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lotta, Luca A; Tyrrell, Jessica; Smit, Roelof A J; Jones, Sam E; Donnelly, Louise; Beaumont, Robin; Campbell, Archie; Tuke, Marcus A; Hayward, Caroline; Ruth, Katherine S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Jukema, J Wouter; Palmer, Colin C; Hattersley, Andrew; Freathy, Rachel M; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Sattar, Naveed; Pearson, Ewan; Scott, Robert A; Frayling, Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    Recent genetic studies have identified some alleles that are associated with higher BMI but lower risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. These "favorable adiposity" alleles are collectively associated with lower insulin levels and higher subcutaneous-to-visceral adipose tissue ratio and may protect from disease through higher adipose storage capacity. We aimed to use data from 164,609 individuals from the UK Biobank and five other studies to replicate associations between a genetic score of 11 favorable adiposity variants and adiposity and risk of disease, to test for interactions between BMI and favorable adiposity genetics, and to test effects separately in men and women. In the UK Biobank, the 50% of individuals carrying the most favorable adiposity alleles had higher BMIs (0.120 kg/m(2) [95% CI 0.066, 0.174]; P = 1E-5) and higher body fat percentage (0.301% [0.230, 0.372]; P = 1E-16) compared with the 50% of individuals carrying the fewest alleles. For a given BMI, the 50% of individuals carrying the most favorable adiposity alleles were at lower risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 0.837 [0.784, 0.894]; P = 1E-7), hypertension (OR 0.935 [0.911, 0.958]; P = 1E-7), and heart disease (OR 0.921 [0.872, 0.973]; P = 0.003) and had lower blood pressure (systolic -0.859 mmHg [-1.099, -0.618]; P = 3E-12 and diastolic -0.394 mmHg [-0.534, -0.254]; P = 4E-8). In women, these associations could be explained by the observation that the alleles associated with higher BMI but lower risk of disease were also associated with a favorable body fat distribution, with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (-0.004 cm [95% CI -0.005, -0.003] 50% vs. 50%; P = 3E-14), but in men, the favorable adiposity alleles were associated with higher waist circumference (0.454 cm [0.267, 0.641] 50% vs. 50%; P = 2E-6) and higher waist-to-hip ratio (0.0013 [0.0003, 0.0024] 50% vs. 50%; P = 0.01). Results were strengthened when a meta-analysis with five additional studies was conducted

  12. Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan

    2013-12-01

    Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PMID:24295381

  13. Phylogeny of the Heelwalkers (Insecta: Mantophasmatodea) based on mtDNA sequences, with evidence for additional taxa in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Jakob; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D; Buder, Gerda

    2008-05-01

    We examined the phylogeny of Mantophasmatodea from southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia) using approx. 1300 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the genes encoding COI and 16S. The taxon sample comprised multiple specimens from eight described species (Namaquaphasma ookiepense, Austrophasma rawsonvillense, A. caledonense, A. gansbaaiense, Lobatophasma redelinghuysense, Hemilobophasma montaguense, Karoophasma botterkloofense, K. biedouwense) and four undescribed species of Austrophasmatidae; three specimens of Sclerophasma paresisense (Mantophasmatidae); and two specimens of Praedatophasma maraisi and one of Tyrannophasma gladiator (not yet convincingly assigned to any family). For outgroup comparison a broad selection from hemimetabolous insect orders was included. Equally weighted parsimony analyses of the combined COI+16S data sets with gaps in 16S scored as a fifth character state supported Austrophasmatidae and all species and genera of Mantophasmatodea as being monophyletic. Most species were highly supported with 98-100% bootstrap/7-39 Bremer support (BS), but K. biedouwense had moderate support (87/4) and A. caledonense low support (70/1). Mantophasmatodea, Austrophasmatidae, and a clade Tyrannophasma gladiator+Praedatophasma maraisi were all strongly supported (99-100/12-25), while relationships among the two latter clades and Mantophasmatidae remain ambiguous. Concerning the relationships among genera of Austrophasmatidae, support values are moderately high for some nodes, but not significant for others. We additionally calculated the partitioned BS values of COI and 16S for all nodes in the strict consensus of the combined tree. COI and 16S are highly congruent at the species level as well as at the base of Mantophasmatodea, but congruence is poor for most intergeneric relationships. In forthcoming studies, deeper relationships in the order should be additionally explored by nuclear genes, such as 18S and 28S, for a reduced sample of specimens

  14. Oblique fault systems crossing the Seattle Basin: Geophysical evidence for additional shallow fault systems in the central Puget Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Chris G.; Keranen, Katie M.

    2012-03-01

    Upper plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. We map fault networks in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using existing marine multichannel seismic reflection data sets with widely distributed profiles to extend the results of previous work. We identify a NE-SW zone of recent high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone and is distinct from previously mapped fault systems. Faults in this zone cut or deform sediments at the seafloor, and the zone trends across the central Puget Lowland at an oblique angle to major regional structures. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. Aeromagnetic lineations extend the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation of shallow sediment in the Puget Sound with deformation of shallow sediment in the Hood Canal. These oblique fault structures may partially control the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland and should be considered in seismic hazard assessments.

  15. Evidence for Mito-Nuclear and Sex-Linked Reproductive Barriers between the Hybrid Italian Sparrow and Its Parent Species

    PubMed Central

    Sætre, Glenn-Peter; Bailey, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97%) and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function (“mother's curse”) at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome, have spread

  16. Localization of a novel X-linked progressive cone dystrophy gene to Xq27: evidence for genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, A A; Pinckers, A J

    1997-01-01

    Clinical reexamination and DNA linkage analysis were carried out in an X-linked progressive cone dystrophy (XLPCD) family, previously described by Pinckers and Timmerman in 1981. In a large pedigree segregating XLPCD, by use of > or = 27 markers spanning the entire X chromosome, a novel locus for XLPCD was identified in Xq27. All other regions on the chromosome could be excluded. Since this novel locus is distinct from previously identified genes or regions involved in XLPCD, we further establish genetic heterogeneity underlying this disease entity. PMID:9199568

  17. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  18. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences. PMID:20623674

  19. Arrest Histories of High-Risk Gay and Bisexual Men in Miami: Unexpected Additional Evidence For Syndemic Theory†

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men continue to suffer the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Since the beginning of the epidemic, substance abuse has been shown to be one of the strongest predictors of sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion among this population. Recent research has focused on additional aspects of health risk disparities among gay and bisexual men, including depression and other mental health problems, childhood sexual abuse, and adult victimization, suggesting that these men are impacted by a syndemic of health risks. The involvement of gay and bisexual men with the criminal justice system is largely absent from the literature. This article describes the nature, extent and predictors of the arrest histories of a sample of gay and bisexual substance users at very high risk for HIV infection and/or transmission. These histories are surprisingly extensive, and are strongly associated with poverty, severe mental distress, substance abuse and dependence, and victimization. The involvement of gay and bisexual men in the criminal justice system deserves a stronger research focus because of the unique challenges facing such men and also because arrests are yet another marker for a host of health risks among them. PMID:19283955

  20. Evidence for the involvement of human DNA polymerase N in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links

    PubMed Central

    Zietlow, Laura; Smith, Leigh Anne; Bessho, Mika; Bessho, Tadayoshi

    2009-01-01

    Human DNA polymerase N (PolN) is an A-family nuclear DNA polymerase whose function is unknown. This study examines the possible role of PolN in DNA repair in human cells treated with PolN-targeted siRNA. HeLa cells with siRNA-mediated knockdown of PolN were more sensitive than control cells to DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC), but were not hyper-sensitive to UV irradiation. The MMC hyper-sensitivity of PolN knockdown cells was rescued by the overexpression of DNA polymerase-proficient PolN but not by DNA polymerase-deficient PolN. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that purified PolN conducts low efficiency non-mutagenic bypass of a psoralen DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL), whose structure resembles an intermediate in the proposed pathway of ICL repair. These results suggest that PolN might play a role in translesion DNA synthesis during ICL repair in human cells. PMID:19908865

  1. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: evidence for moderation by parenting.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Haroon I; Joanisse, Marc F; Mackrell, Sarah M; Kryski, Katie R; Smith, Heather J; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent-child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001). Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05), with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations. PMID:25379418

  2. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Haroon I.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Mackrell, Sarah M.; Kryski, Katie R.; Smith, Heather J.; Singh, Shiva M.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001). Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05), with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations. PMID:25379418

  3. Linking anthropological analysis and epidemiological evidence: formulating a narrative of HIV transmission in Acholiland of northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Westerhaus, M

    2007-08-01

    For twenty years, a region of northern Uganda known as Acholiland has been heavily affected by war, leading to the formation of internally displaced people's camps, rape, transactional sex and child abductions. While it is clear that the war has had onerous consequences for the health of the Acholi people, the specific impact of the war on HIV transmission remains unclear, as the epidemiological evidence presents an ambiguous picture of HIV prevalence patterns. Other than a few non-governmental organization reports, very little qualitative data exists about the impact of HIV on the Acholi population. Attempting to formulate a clearer narrative of HIV transmission in Acholiland, this paper jointly analyses the historical and political context of the Acholi people and the war, the epidemiologic evidence of HIV prevalence patterns, and the ethnographic perspectives of Acholi healthcare workers and patients living with HIV/AIDS. Juxtaposing these sources of information allows for the emergence of a rich understanding of HIV in Acholiland. It is argued that three specific forms of violence--physical, symbolic and structural--create vulnerability to HIV infection in Acholiland, although to variable degrees dependent on location. The ethnographic evidence presented regarding HIV's impact on Acholiland suggests that an incorporation of historical, political, cultural and social factors must form the backbone of efforts both to understand HIV transmission and design strategies for curbing the epidemic in war settings. PMID:18071611

  4. Two sources and two kinds of trace evidence: Enhancing the links between clothing, footwear and crime scene.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Webb, Judy A; Edwards, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    The body of a murdered woman was found on the planted periphery of a busy roundabout in Dundee, United Kingdom. A suspect was apprehended and his footwear yielded a similar palynological (botanical and mycological) profile to that obtained from the ground and vegetation of the crime scene, and to that of the victim's clothing. The sources of palynomorphs at the roundabout were the in situ vegetation, and macerated woody mulch which had been laid on the ground surface. The degree of rarity of individual forensic markers, the complexity of the overall profile, and the application of both botanical and mycological expertise, led to a high level of resolution in the results, enabling the exhibits to be linked to the crime scene. The suspect was convicted of murder. The interpretation of the results allowed conclusions which added to the list of essential protocols for crime scene sampling as well the requirement for advanced expertise in identification. PMID:26187768

  5. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: Phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.R.; Zandvoort, P. van; Abeling, N.G.G.M.; Gennip, A.H. van; Ropers, H.H.; Oost, B.A. van ); Wolters, E.C.; Kuiper, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    The authors have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) monoamine metabolism. These data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Survivor-Defined Practice in Domestic Violence Work: Measure Development and Preliminary Evidence of Link to Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Thomas, Kristie; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Heimel, Deborah; Woulfe, Julie; Chong, Siu Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Survivor-defined practice, characterized by an emphasis on client choice, partnership, and sensitivity to the unique needs, contexts, and coping strategies of individual survivors, is an aspirational goal of the domestic violence (DV) movement, assumed to be a key contributor to empowerment and other positive outcomes among survivors. Despite its central role in DV program philosophy, training, and practice, however, our ability to assess its presence and its presumed link to well-being has been hampered by the absence of a way to measure it from survivors' perspectives. As part of a larger university-community collaboration, this study had two aims: (a) to develop a measure of survivor-defined practice from the perspective of participants, and (b) to assess its relationship to safety-related empowerment after controlling for other contributors to survivor well-being (e.g., financial stability and social support). Results supported the reliability and validity of the Survivor-Defined Practice Scale (SDPS), a nine-item measure that assesses participants' perception of the degree to which their advocates help them achieve goals they set for themselves, facilitate a spirit of partnership, and show sensitivity to their individual needs and styles. The items combined to form one factor indicating that the three theoretical aspects of survivor-defined practice may be different manifestations of one underlying construct. Results also support the hypothesized link between survivor-defined practice and safety-related empowerment. The SDPS offers DV programs a mechanism for process evaluation that is rigorous and rooted in the feminist empowerment philosophy that so many programs espouse. PMID:25381271

  7. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  8. Early life seizures: evidence for chronic deficits linked to autism and intellectual disability across species and models.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Paul B; Benke, Tim A

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in Exp Neurol by Lugo et al. (2014b) demonstrated chronic alterations in sociability, learning and memory following multiple early life seizures (ELS) in a mouse model. This work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the detrimental nature of ELS on the developing brain to contribute to aspects of an autistic phenotype with intellectual disability. Review of the face validity of behavioral testing and the construct validity of the models used informs the predictive ability and thus the utility of these models to translate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms into future human studies. PMID:25284323

  9. New geochronology and evidence for magma mixing and comingling in the linked River Mountains-Wilson Ridge system, Nevada and Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honn, D. K.; Smith, E. I.; Simon, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    The application of micro-techniques (SIMS, LA-ICPMS, EPMA, CL and BSE imaging) provides evidence for magma mixing/comingling and supports the link between the coeval River Mountains (RM) volcanic suite and the Wilson Ridge pluton (WRP) of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Previously, the RM-WRP link was based on similar lithology, structure, geochronology, magnesio-riebeckite mineralization, and geochemistry (immobile trace elements, REE distributions, Sr and Nd isotopes). New evidence for this link includes high Ba concentrations (2.9 wt. %; EPMA) in feldspars from both the RM and WRP. Ba-rich feldspars are not present in nearby igneous systems. New U/Pb SIMS dates (± 1 sigma) for zircon bracket the lifetime of magmatic activity in the RM-WRP to between 14.11 ± 0.87 Ma and 12.19 ± 0.72 Ma. This magmatic timeframe is shorter than that previously determined by using U/Pb LA-ICP-MS dates for zircon of 17.0 ± 0.6 to 13.9 ± 0.6 Ma. The longer timeframe suggested by LA-ICPMS likely reflects the presence of xenocrysts and inherited cores in the sampled population. Evidence for magma mixing and comingling in the RM-WRP includes several populations of mafic enclaves with crenulate margins, comagmatic mafic dikes, and schlieren. Detailed thin section petrography and EPMA BSE imaging demonstrate the presence of dissolution surfaces, overgrowths, and resorbed cores in feldspars. CL images of zircons show dissolution surfaces and antecrystic cores. LA-ICP-MS dates of antecrystic cores were as much as 4.2 m.y. older than their rims. EPMA rim-core-rim traverses on zircon phenocrysts indicate order of magnitude changes in Y2O3 (0.05 to 0.6 wt. %) and ThO2 (0.01 to 0.14 wt. %) within single grains, suggesting new growth of zircon during magma mixing events. Ti-in-quartz thermometry is also being used to test the magma mixing hypothesis. The sum of field and analytical data support the conclusion that the RM and WRP represent a linked volcano-plutonic complex.

  10. 15N electron nuclear double resonance of the primary donor cation radical P+.865 in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: additional evidence for the dimer model.

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, W; Isaacson, R A; Abresch, E C; Feher, G

    1984-01-01

    Four 15N hyperfine coupling constants, including signs, have been measured by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron nuclear nuclear triple resonance (TRIPLE) for the bacteriochlorophyll a radical cation, BChla+., in vitro and for the light-induced primary donor radical cation, P+.865, in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26. A comparison of the data shows that the hyperfine coupling constants have the same sign in both radicals and are, on the average, smaller by a factor of 2 in P+.865. These results provide additional evidence that P+.865 is a bacteriochlorophyll dimer and are in contradiction with the monomer structure of P+.865 recently proposed by O'Malley and Babcock. The reduction factors of the individual 15N couplings, together with the evidence from proton ENDOR data and molecular orbital calculations, indicate a dimer structure in which only two rings (either I and I or III and III) of the bacteriochlorophyll macrocycles overlap. PMID:6096857

  11. Evidence for r- and K-selection in a wild bird population: a reciprocal link between ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Visser, Marcel E; Grøtan, Vidar; Engen, Steinar

    2016-04-27

    Understanding the variation in selection pressure on key life-history traits is crucial in our rapidly changing world. Density is rarely considered as a selective agent. To study its importance, we partition phenotypic selection in fluctuating environments into components representing the population growth rate at low densities and the strength of density dependence, using a new stochastic modelling framework. We analysed the number of eggs laid per season in a small song-bird, the great tit, and found balancing selection favouring large clutch sizes at small population densities and smaller clutches in years with large populations. A significant interaction between clutch size and population size in the regression for the Malthusian fitness reveals that those females producing large clutch sizes at small population sizes also are those that show the strongest reduction in fitness when population size is increased. This provides empirical support for ongoing r- and K-selection in this population, favouring phenotypes with large growth rates r at small population sizes and phenotypes with high competitive skills when populations are close to the carrying capacity K This selection causes long-term fluctuations around a stable mean clutch size caused by variation in population size, implying that r- and K-selection is an important mechanism influencing phenotypic evolution in fluctuating environments. This provides a general link between ecological dynamics and evolutionary processes, operating through a joint influence of density dependence and environmental stochasticity on fluctuations in population size. PMID:27122550

  12. Rapid chain generation of interpostsynaptic functional LINKs can trigger seizure generation: Evidence for potential interconnections from pathology to behavior.

    PubMed

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I

    2016-06-01

    The experimental finding that a paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS), an electrophysiological correlate of seizure activity, is a giant excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) necessitates a mechanism for spatially summating several EPSPs at the level of the postsynaptic terminals (dendritic spines). In this context, we will examine reversible interpostsynaptic functional LINKs (IPLs), a proposed mechanism for inducing first-person virtual internal sensations of higher brain functions concurrent with triggering behavioral motor activity for possible pathological changes that may contribute to seizures. Pathological conditions can trigger a rapid chain generation and propagation of different forms of IPLs leading to seizure generation. A large number of observations made at different levels during both ictal and interictal periods are explained by this mechanism, including the tonic and clonic motor activity, different types of hallucinations, loss of consciousness, gradual worsening of cognitive abilities, a relationship with kindling (which uses an augmented stimulation protocol than that used for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP), which is an electrophysiological correlate of behavioral makers of internal sensation of memory), effect of a ketogenic diet on seizure prevention, dendritic spine loss in seizure disorders, neurodegenerative changes, and associated behavioral changes. The interconnectable nature of these findings is explained as loss of function states of a proposed normal functioning of the nervous system. PMID:27085478

  13. The link between logic, mathematics and imagination: evidence from children with developmental dyscalculia and mathematically gifted children.

    PubMed

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Devine, Amy; Nobes, Alison; Szűcs, Dénes

    2013-07-01

    This study examined performance on transitive inference problems in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), typically developing controls matched on IQ, working memory and reading skills, and in children with outstanding mathematical abilities. Whereas mainstream approaches currently consider DD as a domain-specific deficit, we hypothesized that the development of mathematical skills is closely related to the development of logical abilities, a domain-general skill. In particular, we expected a close link between mathematical skills and the ability to reason independently of one's beliefs. Our results showed that this was indeed the case, with children with DD performing more poorly than controls, and high maths ability children showing outstanding skills in logical reasoning about belief-laden problems. Nevertheless, all groups performed poorly on structurally equivalent problems with belief-neutral content. This is in line with suggestions that abstract reasoning skills (i.e. the ability to reason about content without real-life referents) develops later than the ability to reason about belief-inconsistent fantasy content.A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90DWY3O4xx8. PMID:23786472

  14. Disease Comorbidity Network Guides the Detection of Molecular Evidence for the Link Between Colorectal Cancer and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Li, Li; Xu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The genetic connection between CRC and obesity is multifactorial and inconclusive. In this study, we hypothesize that the study of shared comorbid diseases between CRC and obesity can offer unique insights into common genetic basis of these two diseases. We constructed a comorbidity network based on mining health data for millions of patients. We developed a novel approach and extracted the diseases that play critical roles in connecting obesity and CRC in the comorbidity network. Our approach was able to prioritize metabolic syndrome and diabetes, which are known to be associated with obesity and CRC through insulin resistance pathways. Interestingly, we found that osteoporosis was highly associated with the connection between obesity and CRC. Through gene expression meta-analysis, we identified novel genes shared among CRC, obesity and osteoporosis. Literature evidences support that these genes may contribute in explaining the genetic overlaps between obesity and CRC. PMID:26306270

  15. Disease Comorbidity Network Guides the Detection of Molecular Evidence for the Link Between Colorectal Cancer and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Li, Li; Xu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The genetic connection between CRC and obesity is multifactorial and inconclusive. In this study, we hypothesize that the study of shared comorbid diseases between CRC and obesity can offer unique insights into common genetic basis of these two diseases. We constructed a comorbidity network based on mining health data for millions of patients. We developed a novel approach and extracted the diseases that play critical roles in connecting obesity and CRC in the comorbidity network. Our approach was able to prioritize metabolic syndrome and diabetes, which are known to be associated with obesity and CRC through insulin resistance pathways. Interestingly, we found that osteoporosis was highly associated with the connection between obesity and CRC. Through gene expression meta-analysis, we identified novel genes shared among CRC, obesity and osteoporosis. Literature evidences support that these genes may contribute in explaining the genetic overlaps between obesity and CRC. PMID:26306270

  16. A Canadian national expert consensus on neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer: linking practice to evidence and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, C.E.; Hogeveen, S.; Leonard, R.; Rajmohan, Y.; Han, D.; Wong, A.; Lee, J.; Brackstone, M.; Boileau, J.F.; Dinniwell, R.; Gandhi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of the neoadjuvant approach to treat breast cancer patients has increased since the early 2000s, but the overall pathway of care for such patients can be highly variable. The aim of our project was to establish a multidisciplinary consensus among clinicians with expertise in neoadjuvant therapy (nat) for breast cancer and to determine if that consensus reflects published methods used in randomized controlled trials (rcts) in this area. Methods A modified Delphi protocol, which used iterative surveys administered to 85 experts across Canada, was established to obtain expert consensus concerning all aspects of the care pathway for patients undergoing nat for breast cancer. All rcts published between January 1, 1967, and December 1, 2012, were systematically reviewed. Data extracted from the rcts were analyzed to determine if the methods used matched the expert consensus for specific areas of nat management. A scoring system determined the strength of the agreement between the literature and the expert consensus. Results Consensus was achieved for all areas of the pathway of care for patients undergoing nat for breast cancer, with the exception of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-treatment or preoperative setting. The levels of agreement between the consensus statements and the published rcts varied, primarily because specific aspects of the pathway of care were not well described in the reviewed literature. Conclusions A true consensus of expert opinion concerning the pathway of care appropriate for patients receiving nat for breast cancer has been achieved. A review of the literature illuminated gaps in the evidence about some elements of nat management. Where evidence is available, agreement with expert opinion is strong overall. Our study is unique in its approach to establishing consensus among medical experts in this field and has established a pathway of care that can be applied in practice for patients receiving nat. PMID

  17. Educational differences in incidence of cancer in Lithuania, 2001-2009: evidence from census-linked cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, Giedre; Jasilionis, Domantas; Vincerzevskiene, Ieva; Krilaviciute, Agne; Ambrozaitiene, Dalia; Stankuniene, Vladislava; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2015-05-01

    This study used population-based census-linked cancer incidence data to identify patterns of educational differentials in the risk of cancer by detailed sites of cancer in Lithuania. The study is based on the linkage between all records of the 2001 population census, all records from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry (cancer incidence), and all death and emigration records from Statistics Lithuania for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009. The study population (cohort) includes all permanent residents of Lithuania aged 30-74 years on the day of the census (6 April 2001). The study found that cancers of the lip, mouth, and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, urinary bladder, pancreas, and lung for men and cancers of the cervix uteri, lung, and colon for women show a statistically significant inverse educational gradient with excess incidence in the lowest educational group. At the same time, a reversed cancer risk gradient with the highest incidence for the higher education group was observed for thyroid cancer, melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. This group also includes prostate cancer, kidney cancer, and multiple myeloma for men and cancer of the pancreas, breast cancer, cancer of the colon, and cancer of the uterus for women. The associations between education and cancer incidence observed in this study reflect the concordance between social status and lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer. Cancer awareness in society has also contributed toward the observed higher risk of cancer, which is usually promoted more by patients with higher education. PMID:24743349

  18. U-Pb ages of zircons from sites in Spain and Italy provide more evidence linking the Chicxulub impact to the global K-P boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. V.; Kamo, S.; Lana, C.

    2010-12-01

    The K-P boundary layer possesses an extra-terrestrial signature and contains highly shocked terrestrial minerals. The only plausible explanation for the K-P layer is that it was formed when a large meteorite hit the Earth, causing the ejection of both meteoritic material and shocked fragments of target rock around the globe. There is now universal agreement that the Chicxulub structure is an impact crater, and dating of the impact melt rocks within the crater place it close in age to the K-P boundary. Two significant lines of evidence indicate a genetic link between Chicxulub and the global K-P layer: 1) the size of the ejected particles in the layer decreases with palaeodistance from Chicxulub, and 2) U-Pb dating of shocked zircons from the Chicxulub impact site and in several K-P sites in North America are near-identical in age, texture and lead-loss pattern. However, even with such apparently incontrovertible evidence linking Chicxulub and the K-P boundary, a minority continue to question the link and suggest that the Chicxulub impact occurred ~300 ka before the K-P boundary. Here we present the results of U-Pb isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) for shock-metamorphosed zircon crystals from the K-P boundary layer at Caravaca, Spain, and Petriccio, Italy. We find that the determined ages form a mixing line between a primary source age of ~549 Ma and the approximate time of impact. This is analytically identical to ages obtained previously for similarly shocked zircon grains at Chicxulub and from K-P boundary sites in North America. Caravaca and Petriccio are the most distal K-P sites that can be directly linked to Chicxulub through the dating of individual shocked zircon grains. These results, along with the completeness of the K-P transition at several sites around the globe, including Caravaca, cannot be explained by the alternative scenario that the Chicxulub impact occurred ~300 ka prior to the K-P boundary.

  19. Role of Nucleus Accumbens in Neuropathic Pain: Linked Multi-Scale Evidence in the Rat Transitioning to Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Ching; Pollema-Mays, Sarah Lynn; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Procissi, Daniel; Contini, Massimos; Baria, Alex Tomas; Martina, Macro; Apkarian, Apkar Vania

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent evidence implicating the nucleus accumbens (NAc) as causally involved in the transition to chronic pain in humans, underlying mechanisms of this involvement remain entirely unknown. Here we elucidate mechanisms of NAc reorganizational properties (longitudinally and cross-sectionally), in an animal model of neuropathic pain (spared nerve injury, SNI). We observed inter-related changes: 1) In resting-state fMRI, functional connectivity of the NAc to dorsal striatum and cortex was reduced 28 days (but not 5 days) after SNI; 2) contralateral to SNI injury, gene expression of NAc dopamine 1A, 2, and κ-opioid receptors decreased 28 days after SNI; 3) In SNI (but not sham) covariance of gene expression was upregulated at 5 days and settled to a new state at 28 days; and 4) NAc functional connectivity correlated with dopamine receptor gene expression and with tactile allodynia. Moreover, interruption of NAc activity (via lidocaine infusion) reversibly alleviated neuropathic pain in SNI animals. Together, these results demonstrate macroscopic (fMRI) and molecular reorganization of NAc and indicate that NAc neuronal activity is necessary for full expression of neuropathic pain-like behavior. PMID:24607959

  20. Breaking The Link Between Legal Access To Alcohol And Motor Vehicle Accidents: Evidence From New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Lindo, Jason M; Siminski, Peter; Yerokhin, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    A large literature has documented significant public health benefits associated with the minimum legal drinking age in the USA, particularly because of the resulting effects on motor vehicle accidents. These benefits form the primary basis for continued efforts to restrict youth access to alcohol. It is important to keep in mind that policymakers have a wide variety of alcohol-control options available to them, and understanding how these policies may complement or substitute for one another can improve policy making moving forward. Towards this end, we propose that investigating the causal effects of the minimum legal drinking age in New South Wales, Australia, provides a particularly informative case study, because Australian states are among the world leaders in their efforts against drunk driving. Using an age-based regression discontinuity design applied to restricted-use data from several sources, we find no evidence that legal access to alcohol has effects on motor vehicle accidents of any type in New South Wales, despite having large effects on drinking and on hospitalizations due to alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26095332

  1. Evidence of Shared Genome-Wide Additive Genetic Effects on Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Generalized Vulnerability to Drug Dependence in a Population of Substance Users.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Rohan H C; Nugent, Nicole R; Brick, Leslie A; Bidwell, Cinnamon L; McGeary, John E; Keller, Matthew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with an increased risk for drug dependence and poorer response to substance abuse treatment (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002; Jaycox, Ebener, Damesek, & Becker, 2004). Despite this evidence, the reasons for the observed associations of trauma and the general tendency to be dependent upon drugs of abuse remain unclear. Data (N = 2,596) from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment were used to analyze (a) the degree to which commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; minor allele frequency > 1%) in the human genome explains exposure to interpersonal traumatic experiences, and (b) the extent to which additive genetic effects on trauma are shared with additive genetic effects on drug dependence. Our results suggested moderate additive genetic influences on interpersonal trauma, h(2) SNP-Interpersonal = .47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.10, .85], that are partially shared with additive genetic effects on generalized vulnerability to drug dependence, h(2) SNP-DD = .36, 95% CI [.11, .61]; rG-SNP = .49, 95% CI [.02, .96]. Although the design/technique does not exclude the possibility that substance abuse causally increases risk for traumatic experiences (or vice versa), these findings raise the possibility that commonly occurring SNPs influence both the general tendency towards drug dependence and interpersonal trauma. PMID:27214850

  2. Cross-linking Evidence for Multiple Interactions of the PsbP and PsbQ Proteins in a Higher Plant Photosystem II Supercomplex*

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Kunio; Nield, Jon; Fukao, Yoichiro; Nishimura, Taishi; Sato, Fumihiko; Ifuku, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    The extrinsic subunits of membrane-bound photosystem II (PSII) maintain an essential role in optimizing the water-splitting reaction of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), even though they have undergone drastic change during the evolution of oxyphototrophs from symbiotic cyanobacteria to chloroplasts. Two specific extrinsic proteins, PsbP and PsbQ, bind to the lumenal surface of PSII in green plants and maintain OEC conformation and stabilize overall enzymatic function; however, their precise location has not been fully resolved. In this study, PSII-enriched membranes, isolated from spinach, were subjected to chemical cross-linking combined with release-reconstitution experiments. We observed direct interactions between PsbP and PsbE, as well as with PsbR. Intriguingly, PsbP and PsbQ were further linked to the CP26 and CP43 light-harvesting proteins. In addition, two cross-linked sites, between PsbP and PsbR, and that of PsbP and CP26, were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These data were used to estimate the binding topology and location of PsbP, and the putative positioning of PsbQ and PsbR on the lumenal surface of the PSII. Our model gives new insights into the organization of PSII extrinsic subunits in higher plants and their function in stabilizing the OEC of the PSII supercomplex. PMID:24914208

  3. Petrology and Geochemistry of Plagioclase-Phyric Basaltic Lava Flows on St. George Island, Alaska: Evidence for a Genetic Link Between Magmatic Centers of the Pribilof Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraps, M. R.; Feeley, T. C.; Underwood, S. J.; Winer, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    suggest that one endmember was produced by olivine + clinopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxide ± plagioclase fractionation of high MgO, high SiO2 parental magmas. Fractionation of high MgO parental magmas with lower SiO2 contents can yield the other endmember. Compositionally, the latter endmember is nearly identical to young plagioclase-phyric lavas erupted on St. Paul Island, and it was likely produced by similar differentiation processes. The plagioclase-phyric lavas on St. George Island thus provide cryptic evidence for a genetic link between major volcanic centers in the Pribilof Islands. Specifically, a late-stage shift in the St. George magmatic system to a system similar to that presently active on St. Paul is suggested by the high stratigraphic positions and petrologic similarities of plagioclase-phyric lavas on both islands.

  4. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology: Evidence from a new Danish bioenergy concept.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-01-15

    The interest in sustainable bioenergy solutions has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce GHG emissions and to meet environmental policy targets, not least for the protection of groundwater and surface water quality. In the Municipality of Solrød in Denmark, a novel bioenergy concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under construction, was designed to handle an annual input of up to 200,000 t of biomass based on four main fractions: pectin wastes, carrageenan wastes, manure and beach-cast seaweed. This paper describes how this bioenergy concept can contribute to strengthening the linkages between climate change mitigation strategies and Water Framework Directive (WFD) action planning. Our assessments of the projected biogas plant indicate an annual reduction of GHG emissions of approx. 40,000 t CO2 equivalents, corresponding to approx. 1/3 of current total GHG emissions in the Municipality of Solrød. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63 t yr.(-1) and 9 tyr.(-1), respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions. PMID:26476058

  5. 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Azo-Linked to Procainamide Acts as an Anticolitic Mutual Prodrug via Additive Inhibition of Nuclear Factor kappaB.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseong; Nam, Joon; Lee, Sunyoung; Jeong, Seongkeun; Jung, Yunjin

    2016-06-01

    To improve the anticolitic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a colon-specific mutual prodrug of 5-ASA was designed. 5-ASA was coupled to procainamide (PA), a local anesthetic, via an azo bond to prepare 5-(4-{[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl}phenylazo)salicylic acid (5-ASA-azo-PA). 5-ASA-azo-PA was cleaved to 5-ASA and PA up to about 76% at 10 h in the cecal contents while remaining stable in the small intestinal contents. Oral gavage of 5-ASA-azo-PA and sulfasalazine, a colon-specific prodrug currently used in clinic, to rats showed similar efficiency in delivery of 5-ASA to the large intestine, and PA was not detectable in the blood after 5-ASA-azo-PA administration. Oral gavage of 5-ASA-azo-PA alleviated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rat colitis. Moreover, combined intracolonic treatment with 5-ASA and PA elicited an additive ameliorative effect. Furthermore, combined treatment with 5-ASA and PA additively inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) activity in human colon carcinoma cells and inflamed colonic tissues. Finally, 5-ASA-azo-PA administered orally was able to reduce inflammatory mediators, NFκB target gene products, in the inflamed colon. 5-ASA-azo-PA may be a colon-specific mutual prodrug acting against colitis, and the mutual anticolitic effects occurred at least partly through the cooperative inhibition of NFκB activity. PMID:27112518

  6. Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

    2014-01-01

    The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a “size-advantage” hypothesis – that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition – that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density – as well as local density of just reproductive individuals – was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had – in the following growing season – a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a ‘reproductive-economy-advantage’ – that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand

  7. Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

    2014-04-01

    The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a "size-advantage" hypothesis - that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition - that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density - as well as local density of just reproductive individuals - was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had - in the following growing season - a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a 'reproductive-economy-advantage' - that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring - and hence

  8. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate. PMID:25728471

  9. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    PubMed

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge. PMID:24066636

  10. Optimization of the β-Elimination/Michael Addition Chemistry on Reversed-Phase Supports for Mass Spectrometry Analysis of O-Linked Protein Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    We previously adapted the β-elimination/Michael addition chemistry to solid-phase derivatization on reversed-phase supports, and demonstrated the utility of this reaction format to prepare phosphoseryl peptides in unfractionated protein digests for mass spectrometric identification and facile phosphorylation-site determination. Here, we have expanded the use of this technique to β-N-acetylglucosamine peptides, modified at serine/threonine, phosphothreonyl peptides, and phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides, followed in sequence by proline. The consecutive β-elimination with Michael addition was adapted to optimize the solid-phase reaction conditions for throughput and completeness of derivatization. The analyte remained intact during derivatization and was recovered efficiently from the silica-based, reversed-phase support with minimal sample loss. The general use of the solid-phase approach for enzymatic dephosphorylation was demonstrated with phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl peptides and was used as an orthogonal method to confirm the identity of phosphopeptides in proteolytic mixtures. The solid-phase approach proved highly suitable to prepare substrates from low-level amounts of protein digests for phosphorylation-site determination by chemical-targeted proteolysis. The solid-phase protocol provides for a simple, robust, and efficient tool to prepare samples for phosphopeptide identification in MALDI mass maps of unfractionated protein digests, using standard equipment available in most biological laboratories. The use of a solid-phase analytical platform is expected to be readily expanded to prepare digest from O-glycosylated- and O-sulfonated proteins for mass spectrometry-based structural characterization. PMID:23997661

  11. Promoting Evidence to Policy Link on the Control of Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria: Outcome of A Multi-Stakeholders Policy Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ebeh Ezeoha, Abel; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Nigeria, malaria, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis are among infectious diseases of poverty (IDP) with severe health burden and require effective policy strategies for their control. In this study, we investigated the value of policy brief and policy dialogue as excellent policymaking mechanisms that enable policymakers to adapt effective evidence informed policy for IDP control. Methods: A policy brief was developed on the control of malaria, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis and subjected to deliberations in a one-day multi-stakeholder policy dialogue held in Ebonyi State Nigeria. A modified cross sectional intervention study design was used in this investigation. Structured pre-tested questionnaires were used to evaluate the policy brief document and policy dialogue process at the end of the policy dialogue. Results: Forty-seven policymakers participated in the dialogue. An analysis of the response on the policy brief regarding context, different features of the problem; policy options and key implementation considerations indicated the mean ratings (MNRs) mostly ranged from 6.40-6.85 on 7 point scale. The over-all assessment of the policy brief had MNR at 6.54. The analysis of the response on the policy dialogue regarding the level of priority of policy issue, opportunity to discuss different features of the problem and options for addressing the problem, and the MNRs mostly ranged from 6.50-6.82. The overall assessment of the policy dialogue had MNR at 6.72. Conclusion: Policy dialogues can allow research evidence to be considered together with views, experiences and tacit knowledge of policymakers and can enhance evidence-to-policy link. PMID:26290826

  12. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H{sub 2} FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thrower, J. D.; Jorgensen, B.; Friis, E. E.; Baouche, S.; Luntz, A. C.; Andersen, M.; Hammer, B.; Hornekaer, L.; Mennella, V.

    2012-06-10

    Mass spectrometry measurements show the formation of highly superhydrogenated derivatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule coronene through H atom addition reactions. The observed product mass distribution provides evidence also for abstraction reactions resulting in H{sub 2} formation, in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H{sub 2} loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H{sub 2} formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that highly superhydrogenated PAHs could well be formed and could act as efficient catalysts for H{sub 2} formation in the interstellar medium in low UV flux regions.

  13. Genetic evidence for male-biased dispersal in the Qinghai toad-headed agamid Phrynocephalus vlangalii and its potential link to individual social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yin; Yang, Weizhao; Lu, Bin; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    Sex-biased dispersal has profound impacts on a species' biology and several factors have been attributed to its evolution, including mating system, inbreeding avoidance, and social complexity. Sex-biased dispersal and its potential link to individual social interactions were examined in the Qinghai toad-headed agamid (Phrynocephalus vlangalii). We first determined the pattern of sex-biased dispersal using population genetic methods. A total of 345 specimens from 32 sites in the Qaidam Basin were collected and genotyped for nine microsatellite DNA loci. Both individual-based assignment tests and allele frequency-based analyses were conducted. Females revealed much more genetic structure than males and all results were consistent with male-biased dispersal. First-generation migrants were also identified by genetic data. We then examined eight social interaction-related morphological traits and explored their potential link to sex-biased dispersal. Female residents had larger heads and longer tails than female migrants. The well-developed signal system among females, coupled with viviparity, might make remaining on natal sites beneficial, and hence promote female philopatry. Dominant females with larger heads were more likely to stay. Contrary to females, male migrants had larger heads and belly patches than residents, suggesting that dispersal might confer selective advantages for males. Such advantages may include opportunities for multiple mating and escaping from crowded sites. Large belly patches and several other morphological traits may assist their success in obtaining mates during dispersal. Furthermore, a relatively high relatedness (R = 0.06) among females suggested that this species might have rudimentary social structure. Case studies in “less” social species may provide important evidence for a better understanding of sex-biased dispersal. PMID:23762509

  14. Using a Simulated Infobutton Linked to an Evidence-Based Resource to Research Drug-Drug Interactions: A Pilot Study with Third-Year Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Irina F; Newman, Michael; Stark, Paul; Steffensen, Bjorn; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-11-01

    Many health professions students and clinicians are using evidence-based databases that allow for quicker and more accurate clinical decisions. The aims of this pilot study were to compare third-year dental students' speed and accuracy in researching questions about drug-drug interactions (DDI) when using two different methods: a simulated infobutton linked to the evidence-based clinical decision support resource UpToDate versus traditional Internet resources accessed through a computer or smart device. Students researched two simulated cases during two sessions. In the first session, half the students used the infobutton, while the other half used traditional electronic tools only. In the second session, ten days later, a cross-over took place. The sessions were timed, and after researching the case, students answered three questions on the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and local anesthetics. Of the 50 students who volunteered for the study, two were excluded, and 44 participated in both sessions and the exam. The results showed that the students took a similar amount of time to identify DDI whether they used the infobutton (mean=286.5 seconds) or traditional tools (265.2 seconds); the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.429). Their scores using the two research methods were similar in all three content areas: antibiotics (p=0.797), analgesics (p=0.850), and local anesthetics (p=0.850). In a post-intervention survey, students were generally favorable about infobutton and UpToDate, reporting the tool was easy to use (62.5%), provided the answer they were looking for (53.1%), was fast (50%), and they would use it again (68.8%). This pilot study found that the time and accuracy of these students conducting DDI research with the infobutton and UpToDate were about the same as using traditional Internet resources. PMID:26522641

  15. Additional Evidence for Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus Sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java)

    PubMed Central

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  16. Additional evidence for morpho-dimensional tooth crown variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java).

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  17. Additional enhancer copies, with intact cdx binding sites, anteriorize Hoxa-7/lacZ expression in mouse embryos: evidence in keeping with an instructional cdx gradient.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Stephen J; Cockley, Adam; Drage, Deborah

    2004-09-01

    Expression of a Hoxa-7/lacZ reporter construct in transgenic mouse embryos is shifted anteriorly when the upstream enhancer is multimerized. The shift occurs in spinal ganglia, neurectoderm and in both paraxial and lateral plate mesoderms. Much of the multimer effect is inhibited by destruction of a single caudal (cdx) binding motif in the additional copies of the enhancer. These observations are in agreement with earlier enhancer multimerization analyses made for Hoxb-8 (Charite et al., 1998). Our findings therefore provide further evidence that the anterior limit of a Hox gene's expression domain is normally dependent upon and is determined by, the dosage of transcription factor(s) which bind to its enhancer element(s) and that these factors may be, or must include, the cdx proteins. We consider these findings in terms of both instructional (morphogen-like) gradient and timing models for the establishment of Hox gene expression domains. Enhancer multimerization results in an earlier onset of Hoxa-7/lacZ activity in the embryo. In neurectoderm at 8.7 days and in mesoderm at 10.5 days, the anterior boundaries of expression are located posterior to those seen at some earlier stages of development. We discuss how these findings are in keeping with a model where Hox expression boundaries become set along instructional cdx gradients, formed by cdx decay in cells moving away from the primitive streak region. PMID:15470633

  18. Additional Evidence that Juvenile Oyster Disease Is Caused by a Member of the Roseobacter Group and Colonization of Nonaffected Animals by Stappia stellulata-Like Strains†

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Katherine J.; Barber, Bruce J.; Singer, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Juvenile oyster disease (JOD) causes significant annual mortalities of hatchery-produced Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, cultured in the Northeast. We have reported that a novel species of the α-proteobacteria Roseobacter group (designated CVSP) was numerically dominant in JOD-affected animals sampled during the 1997 epizootic on the Damariscotta River, Maine. In this study we report the isolation of CVSP bacteria from JOD-affected oysters during three separate epizootics in 1998. These bacteria were not detected in nonaffected oysters at the enzootic site, nor in animals raised at a JOD-free site. Animals raised at the JOD enzootic site that were unaffected by JOD were stably and persistently colonized by Stappia stellulata-like strains. These isolates (designated M1) inhibited the growth of CVSP bacteria in a disk-diffusion assay and thus may have prevented colonization of these animals by CVSP bacteria in situ. Laboratory-maintained C. virginica injected with CVSP bacteria experienced statistically significant elevated mortalities compared to controls, and CVSP bacteria were recovered from these animals during the mortality events. Together, these results provide additional evidence that CVSP bacteria are the etiological agent of JOD. Further, there are no other descriptions of specific marine α-proteobacteria that have been successfully cultivated from a defined animal host. Thus, this system presents an opportunity to investigate both bacterial and host factors involved in the establishment of such associations and the role of the invertebrate host in the ecology of these marine α-proteobacteria. PMID:10966410

  19. Interaction between extracellular matrix molecules and microbial pathogens: evidence for the missing link in autoimmunity with rheumatoid arthritis as a disease model

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Wait, Robin; Robertson, Saralili D.; Baines, Deborah L.; Baker, Emma H.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation followed by tissue rebuilding or fibrosis. A failure by the body to regulate inflammation effectively is one of the hallmarks of RA. The interaction between the external environment and the human host plays an important role in the development of autoimmunity. In RA, the observation of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) to autoantigens is well recognized. Citrullination is a post-translational modification mediated by peptidyl arginine deiminases, which exist in both mammalian and bacterial forms. Previous studies have shown how proteins expressed in the human extracellular matrix (ECM) acquire properties of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in RA and include collagens, tenascin-C, and fibronectin (FN). ECM DAMPs can further potentiate tissue damage in RA. Recent work has shown that citrullination in RA occurs at mucosal sites, including the oral cavity and lung. Mucosal sites have been linked with bacterial infection, e.g., periodontal disease, where exogenous pathogens are implicated in the development of autoimmunity via an infectious trigger. Proteases produced at mucosal sites, both by bacteria and the human host, can induce the release of ECM DAMPs, thereby revealing neoepitopes which can be citrullinated and lead to an autoantibody response with further production of ACPA. In this perspectives article, the evidence for the interplay between the ECM and bacteria at human mucosal surfaces, which can become a focus for citrullination and the development of autoimmunity, is explored. Specific examples, with reference to collagen, fibrinogen, and FN, are discussed. PMID:25642219

  20. No evidence for parasitism-linked changes in immune function or oxidative physiology over the annual cycle of an avian species.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; Sesarman, Alina; Vágási, Csongor I; Buehler, Deborah M; Pătraş, Laura; Versteegh, Maaike A; Banciu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Temporally changing environmental conditions occur in most parts of the world and can exert strong pressure on the immune defense of organisms. Seasonality may result in changes in physiological traits over the year, and such changes may be essential for the optimization of defense against infections. Evidence from field and laboratory studies suggest the existence of links between environmental conditions, such as infection risk, and the ability of animals to mount an immune response or to overcome infections; however, the importance of parasites in mediating seasonal change in immune defense is still debated. In this study, we test the hypothesis that seasonal change in immune function and connected physiological traits is related to parasite infection. We sampled captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) once every 2 mo over 14 mo and compared the annual variation in 12 measures of condition, immune function, antioxidant status, and oxidative damage among birds naturally infested with coccidians or medicated against these parasites. We found significant variation in 10 of 12 traits over the year. However, we found little support for parasite-mediated change in immune function and oxidative status in captive house sparrows. Of the 12 measures, only one was slightly affected by parasite treatment. In support of the absence of any effect of coccidians on the annual profile of the condition and physiological traits, we found no consistent relationships between the intensity of infestation and these response variables over the year. Our results show that chronic coccidian infections have limited effect on the seasonal changing of physiological traits and that the patterns of these measures are probably more affected by acute infection and/or virulent parasite strains. PMID:25244384

  1. Limited Addition of the 6-Arm β1,2-linked N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) Residue Facilitates the Formation of the Largest N-Glycan in Plants.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Yong; Ko, Ki Seong; Seo, Hyun-Kyeong; Park, Seongha; Fanata, Wahyu Indra Duwi; Harmoko, Rikno; Ramasamy, Nirmal Kumar; Thulasinathan, Thiyagarajan; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Lim, Jae-Min; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyun Oh

    2015-07-01

    The most abundant N-glycan in plants is the paucimannosidic N-glycan with core β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues (Man3XylFuc(GlcNAc)2). Here, we report a mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana that efficiently produces the largest N-glycan in plants. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that the addition of the 6-arm β1,2-GlcNAc residue by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnTII) is less effective than additions of the core β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues by XylT, FucTA, and FucTB in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, analysis of gnt2 mutant and 35S:GnTII transgenic plants shows that the addition of the 6-arm non-reducing GlcNAc residue to the common N-glycan acceptor GlcNAcMan3(GlcNAc)2 inhibits additions of the core β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues. Our findings indicate that plants limit the rate of the addition of the 6-arm GlcNAc residue to the common N-glycan acceptor as a mechanism to facilitate formation of the prevalent N-glycans with Man3XylFuc(GlcNAc)2 and (GlcNAc)2Man3XylFuc(GlcNAc)2 structures. PMID:26001781

  2. A Low‐Frequency Variant in MAPK14 Provides Mechanistic Evidence of a Link With Myeloperoxidase: A Prognostic Cardiovascular Risk Marker

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Dawn M.; Li, Li; Scott, Robert; Warren, Liling; Gillson, Christopher; Aponte, Jennifer; Sarov‐Blat, Lea; Sprecher, Dennis; Dupuis, Josée; Reiner, Alex; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Lin, Honghuang; McPherson, Ruth; Chissoe, Stephanie; Wareham, Nick; Ehm, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetics can be used to predict drug effects and generate hypotheses around alternative indications. To support Losmapimod, a p38 mitogen‐activated protein kinase inhibitor in development for acute coronary syndrome, we characterized gene variation in MAPK11/14 genes by exome sequencing and follow‐up genotyping or imputation in participants well‐phenotyped for cardiovascular and metabolic traits. Methods and Results Investigation of genetic variation in MAPK11 and MAPK14 genes using additive genetic models in linear or logistic regression with cardiovascular, metabolic, and biomarker phenotypes highlighted an association of RS2859144 in MAPK14 with myeloperoxidase in a dyslipidemic population (Genetic Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome Study), P=2.3×10−6). This variant (or proxy) was consistently associated with myeloperoxidase in the Framingham Heart Study and Cardiovascular Health Study studies (replication meta‐P=0.003), leading to a meta‐P value of 9.96×10−7 in the 3 dyslipidemic groups. The variant or its proxy was then profiled in additional population‐based cohorts (up to a total of 58 930 subjects) including Cohorte Lausannoise, Ely, Fenland, European Prospective Investigation of Cancer, London Life Sciences Prospective Population Study, and the Genetics of Obesity Associations study obesity case–control for up to 40 cardiovascular and metabolic traits. Overall analysis identified the same single nucleotide polymorphisms to be nominally associated consistently with glomerular filtration rate (P=0.002) and risk of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, P=0.004). Conclusions As myeloperoxidase is a prognostic marker of coronary events, the MAPK14 variant may provide a mechanistic link between p38 map kinase and these events, providing information consistent with current indication of Losmapimod for acute coronary syndrome. If replicated, the association with glomerular filtration rate, along with previous biological findings

  3. IPD-Work consortium: pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data strengthen evidence base for a link between psychosocial factors and health.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E; Batty, G David; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-05-01

    Established in 2008 and comprising over 60 researchers, the IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium is a collaborative research project that uses pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data from multiple cohort studies representing a range of countries. The aim of the consortium is to estimate reliably the associations of work-related psychosocial factors with chronic diseases, disability, and mortality. Our findings are highly cited by the occupational health, epidemiology, and clinical medicine research community. However, some of the IPD-Work's findings have also generated disagreement as they challenge the importance of job strain as a major target for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention, this is reflected in the critical discussion paper by Choi et al (1). In this invited reply to Choi et al, we aim to (i) describe how IPD-Work seeks to advance research on associations between work-related psychosocial risk factors and health; (ii) demonstrate as unfounded Choi et al's assertion that IPD-Work has underestimated associations between job strain and health endpoints; these include the dichotomous measurement of job strain, potential underestimation of the population attributable risk (PAR) of job strain for CHD, and policy implications arising from the findings of the IPD-Work consortium; and (iii) outline general principles for designing evidence-based policy and prevention from good-quality evidence, including future directions for research on psychosocial factors at work and health. In addition, we highlight some problems with Choi et al's approach. PMID:25654401

  4. Evidence for a Functional O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) System in the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermobaculum terrenum.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Adam; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Ferenbach, Andrew T; Lebedev, Andrey A; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2015-12-18

    Post-translational modification of proteins is a ubiquitous mechanism of signal transduction in all kingdoms of life. One such modification is addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues, known as O-GlcNAcylation. This unusual type of glycosylation is thought to be restricted to nucleocytoplasmic proteins of eukaryotes and is mediated by a pair of O-GlcNAc-transferase and O-GlcNAc hydrolase enzymes operating on a large number of substrate proteins. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is responsive to glucose and flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Thus, a close relationship is thought to exist between the level of O-GlcNAc proteins within and the general metabolic state of the cell. Although isolated apparent orthologues of these enzymes are present in bacterial genomes, their biological functions remain largely unexplored. It is possible that understanding the function of these proteins will allow development of reductionist models to uncover the principles of O-GlcNAc signaling. Here, we identify orthologues of both O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in the genome of the thermophilic eubacterium Thermobaculum terrenum. The O-GlcNAcase and O-GlcNAc-transferase are co-expressed and, like their mammalian orthologues, localize to the cytoplasm. The O-GlcNAcase orthologue possesses activity against O-GlcNAc proteins and model substrates. We describe crystal structures of both enzymes, including an O-GlcNAcase·peptide complex, showing conservation of active sites with the human orthologues. Although in vitro activity of the O-GlcNAc-transferase could not be detected, treatment of T. terrenum with an O-GlcNAc-transferase inhibitor led to inhibition of growth. T. terrenum may be the first example of a bacterium possessing a functional O-GlcNAc system. PMID:26491011

  5. Evidence for a Functional O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) System in the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermobaculum terrenum*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Adam; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins is a ubiquitous mechanism of signal transduction in all kingdoms of life. One such modification is addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues, known as O-GlcNAcylation. This unusual type of glycosylation is thought to be restricted to nucleocytoplasmic proteins of eukaryotes and is mediated by a pair of O-GlcNAc-transferase and O-GlcNAc hydrolase enzymes operating on a large number of substrate proteins. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is responsive to glucose and flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Thus, a close relationship is thought to exist between the level of O-GlcNAc proteins within and the general metabolic state of the cell. Although isolated apparent orthologues of these enzymes are present in bacterial genomes, their biological functions remain largely unexplored. It is possible that understanding the function of these proteins will allow development of reductionist models to uncover the principles of O-GlcNAc signaling. Here, we identify orthologues of both O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in the genome of the thermophilic eubacterium Thermobaculum terrenum. The O-GlcNAcase and O-GlcNAc-transferase are co-expressed and, like their mammalian orthologues, localize to the cytoplasm. The O-GlcNAcase orthologue possesses activity against O-GlcNAc proteins and model substrates. We describe crystal structures of both enzymes, including an O-GlcNAcase·peptide complex, showing conservation of active sites with the human orthologues. Although in vitro activity of the O-GlcNAc-transferase could not be detected, treatment of T. terrenum with an O-GlcNAc-transferase inhibitor led to inhibition of growth. T. terrenum may be the first example of a bacterium possessing a functional O-GlcNAc system. PMID:26491011

  6. Phylogeographic Evidence for a Link of Species Divergence of Ephedra in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Adjacent Regions to the Miocene Asian Aridification

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ai-Li; Wang, Ming-Ming; Cun, Yu-Zhi; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ran, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) has become one of the hotspots for phylogeographical studies due to its high species diversity. However, most previous studies have focused on the effects of the Quaternary glaciations on phylogeographical structures and the locations of glacial refugia, and little is known about the effects of the aridization of interior Asia on plant population structure and speciation. Here the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) trnT-trnF and trnS-trnfM sequences were used to investigate the differentiation and phylogeographical history of 14 Ephedra species from the QTP and northern China, based on a sampling of 107 populations. The phylogeographical analysis, together with phylogenetic reconstruction based on combined four cpDNA fragments (rbcL, rpl16, rps4, and trnS-trnfM), supports three main lineages (eastern QTP, southern QTP, and northern China) of these Ephedra species. Divergence of each lineage could be dated to the Middle or Late Miocene, and was very likely linked to the uplift of the QTP and the Asian aridification, given the high drought and/or cold tolerance of Ephedra. Most of the Ephedra species had low intraspecific variation and lacked a strong phylogeographical structure, which could be partially attributed to clonal reproduction and a relatively recent origin. In addition, ten of the detected 25 cpDNA haplotypes are shared among species, suggesting that a wide sampling of species is helpful to investigate the origin of observed haplotypes and make reliable phylogeographical inference. Moreover, the systematic positions of some Ephedra species are discussed. PMID:23418542

  7. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  8. TRP's: links to schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Chahl, Loris A

    2007-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder the cause of which is unknown. It is considered to be a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Direct evidence for links between schizophrenia and TRP channels is lacking. However, several aspects of the pathophysiology of the disorder point to a possible involvement of TRP channels. In this review evidence for links between TRP channels and schizophrenia with respect to neurodevelopment, dopaminergic and cannabinoid systems, thermoregulation, and sensory processes, is discussed. Investigation of these links holds the prospect of a new understanding of schizophrenia with resultant therapeutic advances. PMID:17587552

  9. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  10. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  11. Rumination as a Mechanism Linking Stressful Life Events to Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Longitudinal Evidence in Early Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Michl, Louisa C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shepherd, Kathrine; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressful life events predicted subsequent increases in rumination. We also investigated whether rumination served as a mechanism underlying the longitudinal association between self-reported stressful life events and internalizing symptoms. Self-reported stressful life events, rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 separate longitudinal samples. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months. A sample of adults (N = 1,132) was assessed at 2 time points spanning 12 months. In both samples, self-reported exposure to stressful life events was associated longitudinally with increased engagement in rumination. In addition, rumination mediated the longitudinal relationship between self-reported stressors and symptoms of anxiety in both samples and the relationship between self-reported life events and symptoms of depression in the adult sample. Identifying the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that explain a greater propensity for rumination following stressors remains an important goal for future research. This study provides novel evidence for the role of stressful life events in shaping characteristic responses to distress, specifically engagement in rumination, highlighting potentially useful targets for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of depression and anxiety. PMID:23713497

  12. Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Michl, Louisa C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Shepherd, Kathrine; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Rumination is a well-established risk factor for the onset of major depression and anxiety symptomatology in both adolescents and adults. Despite the robust associations between rumination and internalizing psychopathology, there is a dearth of research examining factors that might lead to a ruminative response style. In the current study, we examined whether social environmental experiences were associated with rumination. Specifically, we evaluated whether self-reported exposure to stressful life events predicted subsequent increases in rumination. We also investigated whether rumination served as a mechanism underlying the longitudinal association between self-reported stressful life events and internalizing symptoms. Self-reported stressful life events, rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 separate longitudinal samples. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at 3 time points spanning 7 months. A sample of adults (N = 1,132) was assessed at 2 time points spanning 12 months. In both samples, self-reported exposure to stressful life events was associated longitudinally with increased engagement in rumination. In addition, rumination mediated the longitudinal relationship between self-reported stressors and symptoms of anxiety in both samples and the relationship between self-reported life events and symptoms of depression in the adult sample. Identifying the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that explain a greater propensity for rumination following stressors remains an important goal for future research. This study provides novel evidence for the role of stressful life events in shaping characteristic responses to distress, specifically engagement in rumination, highlighting potentially useful targets for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of depression and anxiety. PMID:23713497

  13. Oligocene shoshonitic rocks of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula): Evidence of petrogenetic links to the formation of Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borojević Šoštarić, S.; Cvetković, V.; Neubauer, F.; Palinkaš, L. A.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2012-09-01

    This study focuses on age and evolution of the Oligocene quartz latite of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula), in order to better understand the link between magmatism and formation of Pb-Zn ± Ag mineralization. New 40Ar/39Ar biotite and amphibole plateau ages suggest that the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite originated through a continuous volcanic episode from 27.3 ± 0.1 to 29.5 ± 0.1 Ma which was immediately followed by a hydrothermal phase. The quartz latites are hypocrystalline porphyritic with phenocrysts and microphenocrysts (~ 60 vol.%) of plagioclase (An37-49), biotite Mg# [100 × Mg / (Mg + Fetot)] < 50, calcic amphibole, quartz, sanidine clinopyroxene and phlogopite (Mg# = 79 to 84). The rocks display numerous disequilibrium textures, such as: sieved plagioclase phenocrysts, dissolution effects on quartz, phlogopitized biotite and amphibole crystals, and phlogopite microphenocrysts showing effects of incomplete growth (or dissolution?) and biotitization. The Rogozna Mts. quartz latites are shoshonitic in character with Na2O/K2O < 1, high LILE/HFSE ratios, strong depletions at Nb and Ti and K, Pb and U peaks on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. They are similar to other potassic/ultrapotassic rocks in this region, in particular to those of Veliki Majdan and Rudnik (West Serbia), which are also related to Pb-Zn deposits. The evolution of the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite is modeled using a trace element binary mixing model adopting a lamproite magma and a dacite-like calc-alkaline melt as end-members. The model implies that a fractionating magma chamber (~ 4.5-9.5 km) undergoes cooling in the range of > 850 °C-~720 °C and injection of lamproite-like melts. The injection causes an increase of temperature and a decrease of viscosity of the resulting hybrid magma, facilitating its upwelling and triggering pyroclastic eruptions. The addition of new volatiles by lamproitic melts most probably established the conditions for a hydrothermal phase above the

  14. A high CO2 -driven decrease in plant transpiration leads to perturbations in the hydrological cycle and may link terrestrial and marine loss of biodiversity: deep-time evidence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Woodward, F. Ian; Surlyk, Finn; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2013-04-01

    CO2 is obtained and water vapor simultaneously transpired through plant stomata, driving the water uptake of roots. Stomata are key elements of the Earth's hydrological cycle, since a large part of the evapotranspiration from the surface to the atmosphere takes place via stomatal pores. Plants exercise stomatal control, by adjusting stomatal size and/or density in order to preserve water while maintaining carbon uptake for photosynthesis. A global decrease in stomatal density and/or size causes a decrease in transpiration and has the potential to increase global runoff. Here we show, from 91 fossil leaf cuticle specimens from the Triassic/Jurassic boundary transition (Tr-J) of East Greenland, that both stomatal size and density decreased dramatically during the Tr-J, coinciding with mass extinctions, major environmental upheaval and a negative C-isotope excursion. We estimate that these developmental and structural changes in stomata resulted in a 50-60% drop in stomatal and canopy transpiration as calibrated using a stomatal model, based on empirical measurements and adjusted for fossil plants. We additionally present new field evidence indicating a change to increased erosion and bad-land formation at the Tr-J. We hypothesize that plant physiological responses to high carbon dioxide concentrations at the Tr-J may have increased runoff at the local and perhaps even regional scale. Increased runoff may result in increased flux of nutrients from land to oceans, leading to eutrophication, anoxia and ultimately loss of marine biodiversity. High-CO2 driven changes in stomatal and canopy transpiration therefore provide a possible mechanistic link between terrestrial ecological crisis and marine mass extinction at the Tr-J.

  15. X chromosome-linked and mitochondrial gene control of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: evidence from segregation analysis for dependence on X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Bu, X D; Rotter, J I

    1991-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, we show that the available pedigree data for LHON are most consistent with a two-locus disorder, with one responsible gene being mitochondrial and the other nuclear and X chromosome-linked. Furthermore, we have been able to extend the two-locus analytic method and demonstrate that a proportion of affected females are likely heterozygous at the X chromosome-linked locus and are affected due to unfortunate X chromosome inactivation, thus providing an explanation for the later age of onset in females. The estimated penetrance for a heterozygous female is 0.11 +/- 0.02. The calculated frequency of the X chromosome-linked gene for LHON is 0.08. Among affected females, 60% are expected to be heterozygous, and the remainder are expected to be homozygous at the responsible X chromosome-linked locus. PMID:1896469

  16. X chromosome-linked and mitochondrial gene control of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: Evidence from segregation analysis for dependence on X chromosome inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Xiangdong Bu; Rotter, J.I. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1991-09-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, the authors show that the available pedigree data for LHON are most consistent with a two-locus disorder, with one responsible gene being mitochondrial and the other nuclear and X chromosome-linked. Furthermore, they have been able to extend the two-locus analytic method and demonstrate that a proportion of affected females are likely heterozygous at the X chromosome-linked locus and are affected due to unfortunate X chromosome inactivation, thus providing an explanation for the later age of onset in females. The estimated penetrance for a heterozygous female is 0.11{plus minus}0.02. The calculated frequency of the X chromosome-linked gene for LHON is 0.l08. Among affected females, 60% are expected to be heterozygous, and the remainder are expected to be homozygous at the responsible X chromosome-linked locus.

  17. Evidence-Based Design for Project-Based Learning: A Case Study for a 50,000 SF Addition Dedicated to the New Tech Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Richard D.; Conte, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    The Seaford School District, Seaford, Delaware, determined that a component of their "reinvention" of Seaford High School would be the creation of a New Tech Academy, affiliated with the New Tech Network and housed in an addition to that building. The New Tech Network, headquartered in Napa, California, is a rapidly growing association of New Tech…

  18. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer's disease, and shows evidence for additional susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Denise; Abraham, Richard; Hollingworth, Paul; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Hamshere, Marian; Singh Pahwa, Jaspreet; Moskvina, Valentina; Dowzell, Kimberley; Williams, Amy; Jones, Nicola; Thomas, Charlene; Stretton, Alexandra; Morgan, Angharad; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John; Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C.; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Morgan, Kevin; Brown, Kristelle; Passmore, Peter; Craig, David; McGuinness, Bernadette; Todd, Stephen; Holmes, Clive; Mann, David; Smith, A. David; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Hardy, John; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick; Rossor, Martin; Collinge, John; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Schürmann, Britta; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Heuser, Isabella; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Dichgans, Martin; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Hüll, Michael; Rujescu, Dan; Goate, Alison; Kauwe, John S.K.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Nowotny, Petra; Morris, John C.; Mayo, Kevin; Sleegers, Kristel; Bettens, Karolien; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Livingston, Gill; Bass, Nicholas J.; Gurling, Hugh; McQuillin, Andrew; Gwilliam, Rhian; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Tsolaki, Magda; Singleton, Andrew; Guerreiro, Rita; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H-Erich; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Younkin, Steven G.; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael; Owen, Michael J.; Williams, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study of Alzheimer's disease involving over 16,000 individuals. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the APOE locus (most significant SNP: rs2075650, p= 1.8×10−157) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two novel loci: rs11136000 in the CLU or APOJ gene (p= 1.4×10−9) and rs3851179, a SNP 5′ to the PICALM gene (p= 1.9×10−8). Both novel associations were supported in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with AD in the combined dataset (rs11136000: p= 8.5×10−10, odds ratio= 0.86; rs3851179: p= 1.3×10−9, odds ratio= 0.86). We also observed more variants associated at p< 1×10−5 than expected by chance (p=7.5×10−6), including polymorphisms at the BIN1, DAB1 and CR1 loci. PMID:19734902

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Palmo-Plantar hyperkeratosis, intellectual disability, and spastic paraplegia in two maternal half brothers: further evidence for an X-linked inheritance.

    PubMed

    Isidor, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Tiphaine; Barbarot, Sébastien; Perrier, Julie; Mercier, Sandra; Péréon, Yann; Le Caignec, Cédric; David, Albert

    2013-06-01

    In 1983, Fitzsimmons et al. reported four brothers with an unrecognized disorder characterized by intellectual disability, spastic paraplegia, and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis (OMIM 309500). In this report, we describe a family in which two males, maternal half-brothers, had learning disabilities. Both patients also showed spasticity in the lower limbs and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis. The mother of the affected boys had learning difficulties but did not show any dermatological symptoms. This report confirms that the association of features reported by Fitzsimmons et al. is a distinct entity and further suggests an X-linked mode of inheritance. PMID:23613454

  2. Sub-meter desiccation crack patterns imaged by Curiosity at Gale Crater on Mars shed additional light on former lakes evident from examined outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Mangold, N.; Oehler, D. Z.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bish, D. L.; Heydari, E.; Rubin, D. M.; Rowland, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Small-scale desiccation crack patterns (mudcrack-like arrays of uniform ~0.1 to 1 m polygonal domains separated by linear or curving cracks in exposed bedding) imaged by Curiosity in Gale Crater, Mars complement a wealth of diverse data obtained from exposures of sedimentary rocks that point to deposition "in fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments" including an "intracrater lake system likely [to have] existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years …"(e.g. Grotzinger et al., 2015, Science, submitted). We interpret these mudcrack-like patterns, found on many of the bedrock exposures imaged by Curiosity, as desiccation cracks that developed either of two ways: 1) at the soft sediment-air interface like common mudcracks, or 2) at or below the sediment-water interface by synaeresis or diastasis (involving differential compaction). In the context of recent studies of terrestrial mudcracks, and cracks formed experimentally in various wet powders as they loose moisture, these desiccation features reflect diverse aspects of the formative environment. If they formed as mudcracks, some of the lakes were shallow enough to permit the recurrent drying and wetting that can lead to the geometric regularity characteristic of several of sets of mudcracks. Moreover, the water likely contained little suspended sediment otherwise the mudcracks would be buried too rapidly for the crack pattern to persist and to mature into regular polygonal patterns. The preservation of these desiccation crack patterns does not require, but does not exclude, deep burial and exhumation. Although invisible from satellite because of their size, a multitude of Mastcam and Navcam images reveals these informative features in considerable detail. These images complement much evidence, mostly from HiRISE data from several regions, suggesting that potential desiccation polygons on larger scales may be more common on the surface of Mars than generally recognized.

  3. Cytogenetics of nine species of mediterranean blennies and additional evidence for an unusual multiple sex-chromosome system in Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes, Blenniidae).

    PubMed

    Caputo, V; Machella, N; Nisi-Cerioni, P; Olmo, E

    2001-01-01

    The chromosomal complements of nine species of Blenniidae (Aidablennius sphylnx, Blennius ocellaris, Lypophris adriaticus, L. pavo, L. trigloides, Parcablennius gattorugine, P. ponticus, P. sanguinolentus, P. tentacularis) from the Adriatic Sea were analysed with several banding methods and in-situ hybridization. In all species, the diploid set consists of 48 mostly acrocentric chromosomes and has a similar location (terminal centromeric) of NORs, except for L. pavo (interstitial pericentric) and P. ponticus (terminal on the long arm). There are major differences in karyotype with regard to the amount and distribution of heterochromatin. Parablennius tentacularis shows a distinctive sex-chromosome system involving 2n = 48 males with a large totally heterochromatic Y chromosome, and males with 2n = 47. This difference is likely to be the consequence of a translocation of an autosome on the original Y. This finding constitutes an additional instance of the great variability in origins of multiple sex chromosome systems in vertebrates. PMID:11272790

  4. Oblique Fault Systems Crossing the Seattle Basin: Seismic and Aeromagnetic Evidence for Additional Shallow Fault Systems in the Central Puget Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Mace, C.

    2011-12-01

    Upper-plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. To extend the results of the previous work, we mapped fault networks and patterns of sediment deposition in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using a combination of existing multi-channel seismic reflection datasets with widely distributed profiles and aeromagnetic data. We identify a NE-SW zone of high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone (SFZ), offsetting aeromagnetic anomalies along the SFZ by 1.2 km in a dextral sense. Aeromagnetic lineations trace the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation within the Puget Sound and the Hood Canal. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. We also interpreted five regional seismic horizons, representing erosional unconformities, throughout our dataset, and created sediment thickness maps for each time interval. The thickness maps reveal changing patterns of sediment deposition through time, possibly controlled by changes in the regional pattern of deformation. Holocene sediment deposition shows strong control by the oblique fault systems. These oblique fault structures may be partially responsible for the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland.

  5. Evidence that the penetrance of mutations at the RP11 locus causing dominant retinitis pigmentosa is influenced by a gene linked to the homologous RP11 allele.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, T L; Devoto, M; Ott, J; Berson, E L; Dryja, T P

    1997-01-01

    A subset of families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) display reduced penetrance with some asymptomatic gene carriers showing no retinal abnormalities by ophthalmic examination or by electroretinography. Here we describe a study of three families with reduced-penetrance RP. In all three families the disease gene appears to be linked to chromosome 19q13.4, the region containing the RP11 locus, as defined by previously reported linkage studies based on five other reduced-penetrance families. Meiotic recombinants in one of the newly identified RP11 families and in two of the previously reported families serve to restrict the disease locus to a 6-cM region bounded by markers D19S572 and D19S926. We also compared the disease status of RP11 carriers with the segregation of microsatellite alleles within 19q13.4 from the noncarrier parents in the newly reported and the previously reported families. The results support the hypothesis that wild-type alleles at the RP11 locus or at a closely linked locus inherited from the noncarrier parents are a major factor influencing the penetrance of pathogenic alleles at this locus. PMID:9345108

  6. Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the association between rurality and health in Scotland, after adjusting for differences in individual and practice characteristics. Methods Design: Mortality and hospital record data linked to two cross sectional health surveys. Setting: Respondents in the community-based 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Survey who consented to record-linkage follow-up. Main outcome measures: Hypertension, all-cause premature mortality, total hospital stays and admissions due to coronary heart disease (CHD). Results Older age and lower social class were strongly associated with an increased risk of each of the four health outcomes measured. After adjustment for individual and practice characteristics, no consistent pattern of better or poorer health in people living in rural areas was found, compared to primary cities. However, individuals living in remote small towns had a lower risk of a hospital admission for CHD and those in very remote rural had lower mortality, both compared with those living in primary cities. Conclusion This study has shown how linked data can be used to explore the possible influence of area of residence on health. We were unable to find a consistent pattern that people living in rural areas have materially different health to that of those living in primary cities. Instead, we found stronger relationships between compositional determinants (age, gender and socio-economic status) and health than contextual factors (including rurality). PMID:22340710

  7. Core-linked LPS expression of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 O-antigen in live Salmonella Typhi vaccine vector Ty21a: preclinical evidence of immunogenicity and protection.

    PubMed

    Xu, De Qi; Cisar, John O; Osorio, Manuel; Wai, Tint T; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2007-08-14

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae 1) causes severe shigellosis that is typically associated with high mortality. Antibodies against Shigella serotype-specific O-polysaccharide (O-Ps) have been shown to be host protective. In this study, the rfb locus and the rfp gene with their cognate promoter regions were PCR-amplified from S. dysenteriae 1, cloned, and sequenced. Deletion analysis showed that eight rfb ORFs plus rfp are necessary for biosynthesis of this O-Ps. A tandemly-linked rfb-rfp gene cassette was cloned into low copy plasmid pGB2 to create pSd1. Avirulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Ty21a harboring pSd1 synthesized S. Typhi 9, 12 LPS as well as typical core-linked S. dysenteriae 1 LPS. Animal immunization studies showed that Ty21a (pSd1) induces protective immunity against high stringency challenge with virulent S. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617. These data further demonstrate the utility of S. Typhi Ty21a as a live, bacterial vaccine delivery system for heterologous O-antigens, supporting the promise of a bifunctional oral vaccine for prevention of shigellosis and typhoid fever. PMID:17629369

  8. Molecular evidence that the p55 gene is not responsible for either of two Xq28-linked disorders: Emery-Deifuss muscular dystrophy and dyskeratosis congenita

    SciTech Connect

    Metzenberg, A.B.; Pan, Y.; Das, S.; Gitschier, J. ); Pai, G.S. )

    1994-05-01

    Mapping studies have indicated that over two dozen genetic diseases lie on Xq28, the distal long arm of the X chromosome. In most cases the responsible gene has not yet been isolated. Most of these diseases occur at low frequency, and together with small family sizes and the lack of associated cytogenetic aberrations, this characteristic has made isolation of the genes difficult. Identification of the genes responsible for inherited disorders should eventually lead to a greater understanding of biochemical and developmental pathways. We and others are attempting to find these genes by examining genes that are candidates by virtue of their map location. One candidate is the Xq28-linked gene MPP-1, which encodes the p55 protein. In this study, we asked whether mutations in the p55 gene are present in patients affected with the Xq28-linked disorders dyskeratosis congenita and Emergy-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. The p55 cDNA is [approx]2 kb in length. The strategy for mutation detection in this sequence involved reverse transciption (RT)-PCR amplification of patient and control cDNA, yielding five sets of overlapping fragments, each set consisting of 400 bp, followed by SSCP analysis of each fragment. In no case was a true mutation in the p55 gene discovered. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that mutations in the p55 gene are responsible for any cases of dyskeratosis congenita or Emergy-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  9. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-01-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  10. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  11. Selective neurotoxic effects of nicotine on axons in fasciculus retroflexus further support evidence that this a weak link in brain across multiple drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J; Armstrong, B; Switzer, R C; Ellison, G

    2000-10-01

    When administered continuously for several days at relatively low plasma levels, a variety of drugs of abuse with strong dopaminergic actions induce degeneration in axons traveling from the lateral habenula through the sheath of fasciculus retroflexus to midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. With some of these drugs, such as cocaine, this is virtually the only degeneration induced in brain. Nicotine given continuously also selectively induces degeneration in fasciculus retroflexus, but in the other half of the tract: the cholinergic axons running from medial habenula in the core of the tract to the interpeduncular nucleus. Fasciculus retroflexus appears to be a weak link in brain for diverse drugs of abuse when administered incessantly for several days. Alterations in this tract would be predicted to be especially important for the genesis of the symptomatology which develops during drug binges, residual effects of such binges, and the processes underlying relapse. PMID:11044749

  12. Evidence for cross-linking DNA by bis-intercalators with rigid and extended linkers is provided by knotting and catenation.

    PubMed Central

    Annan, N K; Cook, P R; Mullins, S T; Lowe, G

    1992-01-01

    A new series of DNA bis-intercalators is reported in which acridine moieties are connected by rigid and extended pyridine-based linkers of varied length. Cross-linking of DNA by bis-intercalation is inferred from the unwinding and folding of linear DNA induced by the compounds; after ligation and removal of the bis-intercalator, superhelical circles, catenanes and knots that bear a residual imprint of the bis-intercalator are observed. These novel bis-intercalators are of interest because they can be used to probe the spatial organization of DNA, especially near sites of replication, recombination or topoisomerase action where two duplexes must be in close proximity. Preliminary results on the effects of the various compounds on the cloning efficiency of bacteria and replication by permeabilized human cells are also presented. Images PMID:1549510

  13. Synchronous mid-Holocene climate deteriorations in circum-Mediterranean and their links with ancient civilizations: first speloethem and archeological evidences from N-Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jiaoyang; Kherbouche, Farid; Genty, Dominique; Cheng, Hai; Dewilde, Fabien; Blamart, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decades, ancient civilizations during the Holocene were heavily studied at many places around the Mediterranean region such as Libya and Italy, and changes in the past social activities were widely assumed to be linked to regional climate variability. However, in many cases the climatic records were apart from the archaeological sites and the archaeological chronologies were not well constrained, which makes these links uncertain. Here we present a 230Th-dated decadal resolution climate record for 6034-3185yr BP based on the δ18O and δ13C analyses of two overlapping stalagmites from Gueldaman GLD1 Cave (36°26'N, 4°34'E, 507 m asl), N-Algeria. Recent archaeological work in this cave brought first information about the Neolithisation process since ca 7000yr cal BP in the region where little was known before. Together with new charcoal 14C dates from the digging sections we test the link between past climate change and human activities in the cave. GLD1 stalagmite records reveal a dry event at ca 5700-5500yr BP and a drying trend toward extreme aridity, since ca 4700yr BP, peaking at ca 4200yr BP. These climatic deteriorations in N-Algeria, within dating errors, are synchronous with dry phases observed on speleothem records from central (Corchia Cave and Renella Cave, Italy) and eastern (Soreq Cave, Israel) Mediterranean. Specifically, climatic condition was harsher at ca 4200yr BP than at ca 5700-5500yr BP in central and W-Mediterranean; while it was harsher at ca 5700-5500yr BP in E-Mediterranean. The new 14C dates relatively well anchor the age of sediment layers with the richest anthropogenic deposits (i.e. charcoal, bone and Neolithic pottery) to ca 4900-4400yr cal BP, coinciding with the wettest period inferred from the stalagmite records. Shortly following this period, archaeological remains were becoming very rare in the sediments, which might be the consequence of establishing extremely arid phase at ca 4200yr BP. This suggests a possible

  14. Evidence against an X-linked locus close to DXS7 determining visual loss susceptibility in British and Italian families with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.G.; Davis, M.B.; Lashwood, A.; Brockington, M.; Harding, A.E. ); Toscano, A. )

    1992-10-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is associated with mutations of mtDNA, but two features of LHON pedigrees are not explicable solely on the basis of mitochondrial inheritance. There is a large excess of affected males, and not all males at risk develop the disease. These observations could be explained by the existence of an X-linked visual loss susceptibility gene. This hypothesis was supported by linkage studies in Finland, placing the susceptibility locus at DXS7, with a maximum lod score of 2.48 at a recombination fraction of 0. Linkage studies in 1 Italian and 12 British families with LHON, analyzed either together or separately depending on the associated mtDNA mutation, have excluded the presence of such a locus from an interval of about 30 cM around DXS7 in these kindreds, with a total lod score of -26.51 at a recombination fraction of 0. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Identification and quantification of major maillard cross-links in human serum albumin and lens protein. Evidence for glucosepane as the dominant compound.

    PubMed

    Biemel, Klaus M; Friedl, D Alexander; Lederer, Markus O

    2002-07-12

    Glycation reactions leading to protein modifications (advanced glycation end products) contribute to various pathologies associated with the general aging process and long term complications of diabetes. However, only few relevant compounds have so far been detected in vivo. We now report on the first unequivocal identification of the lysine-arginine cross-links glucosepane 5, DOGDIC 6, MODIC 7, and GODIC 8 in human material. For their accurate quantification by coupled liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, (13)C-labeled reference compounds were synthesized independently. Compounds 5-8 are formed via the alpha-dicarbonyl compounds N(6)-(2,3-dihydroxy-5,6-dioxohexyl)-l-lysinate (1a,b), 3-deoxyglucosone (), methylglyoxal (), and glyoxal (), respectively. The protein-bound dideoxyosone 1a,b seems to be of prime significance for cross-linking because it presumably is not detoxified by mammalian enzymes as readily as 2-4. Hence, the follow-up product glucosepane 5 was found to be the dominant compound. Up to 42.3 pmol of 5/mg of protein was identified in human serum albumin of diabetics; the level of 5 correlates markedly with the glycated hemoglobin HbA(1c). In the water-insoluble fraction of lens proteins from normoglycemics, concentration of 5 ranges between 132.3 and 241.7 pmol/mg. The advanced glycoxidation end product GODIC 8 is elevated significantly in brunescent lenses, indicating enhanced oxidative stress in this material. Compounds 5-8 thus appear predestined as markers for pathophysiological processes. PMID:11978796

  16. Experimental evidence of a link between breeding conditions and the decision to breed or to help in a colonial cooperative bird.

    PubMed Central

    Covas, Rita; Doutrelant, Claire; du Plessis, Morné A.

    2004-01-01

    In many species mature individuals delay independent reproduction and may help others to reproduce. This behaviour is often explained through ecological constraints, although recently attention has also been paid to the variation in habitat quality. If the quality of vacant habitat influences the fitness trade-off between delaying reproduction and breeding independently, individuals should delay reproduction when conditions for breeding are poor. Yet, no study has experimentally manipulated habitat quality or the conditions experienced during the breeding period to test this assertion conclusively. We report results from an experiment conducted on a colonial cooperative bird with no territory constraints on reproduction. We artificially improved breeding conditions in several colonies of sociable weavers, Philetairus socius, through the provision of an easily obtainable and unlimited supply of food. We provide experimental evidence showing that under enhanced conditions some individuals reduce their age at first reproduction, a greater proportion of colony members engage in independent breeding and proportionally fewer birds act as helpers. Hence, these results also provide evidence for a direct influence of reproductive costs on life-history decisions such as age at first reproduction and breeding and helping behaviours. PMID:15255101

  17. Assertions and Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need to provide evidence when making claims, particularly when reporting research results. Suggests evidence should be precise; be wary of generalizations; question authority; and link the manuscript together in a coherent manner. (LRW)

  18. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  19. Topography and polypeptide distribution of terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues on the surfaces of intact cells. Evidence for O-linked GlcNAc

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Mendez, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Bovine milk galactosyltransferase has been used, in conjunction with UDP-({sup 3}H) galactose, as an impermeant probe for accessible GlcNAc residues on the surfaces of lymphocytes, red blood cells and macrophages. Kinetics of labeling are biphasic, leveling off at approximately 30 minutes. The data strongly indicate vectorial surface labeling and covalent attachment of galactose. Thymocytes, T-lymphocytes, and B-lymphocytes have approximately 10{sup 6}, 3 {times} 10{sup 6}, and 5 {times} 10{sup 6} galactosylatable sites on their cell surfaces, respectively. Numerous proteins are exo-galactosylated that differ quantitatively among the major functional subsets of lymphocytes. In thymocytes 49% of the exo-galactosylated oligosaccharides are alkali-labile, whereas 80% and 90% of that derived from T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes can be {beta}-eliminated, respectively. Composition, size, and HPLC on two types of high-resolution columns establish that the bulk of the exo-galactosylated, {beta}-eliminated oligosaccharides are Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAcitol. These data suggest the presence of O-glycosidically linked GlcNAc monosaccharide on many lymphocyte cell-surface proteins. These studies not only describe dramatic differences in the amounts and distribution of terminal GlcNAc residues on phenotypically different lymphocyte populations, but they also describe the presence of a novel protein-saccharide linkage, which is present on numerous lymphocyte proteins.

  20. Primary structure of cytochrome c' of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath: evidence of a phylogenetic link between P460 and c'-type cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, D J; Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    2000-01-01

    Cytochrome c' of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is involved in electron flow from the enzyme responsible for hydroxylamine oxidation, cytochrome P460, to cytochrome C555. This cytochrome is spectrally similar to other cytochromes c' but is larger (16,000 Da) and has a lower midpoint potential (-205 mV). By a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectroscopy, and gene sequencing, we have obtained the primary structure of cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath. The cytochrome shows low sequence similarity to other cytochromes c', only residues R12, Y53, G56, and the C-terminal heme-binding region (GXXCXXCHXXXK) being conserved. In contrast, cytochrome c' from M. capsulatus Bath shows considerable sequence similarity to cytochromes P460 from M. capsulatus Bath (31% identity) and from Nitrosomonas europaea (18% identity). This suggests that P460-type cytochromes may have originated from a c'-type cytochrome which developed a covalent cross-link between a lysine residue and the c'-heme. PMID:10648101

  1. The Mg isotopic composition of Cenozoic seawater - evidence for a link between Mg-clays, seawater Mg/Ca, and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, John A.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2015-04-01

    Cooling of Earth's climate over the Cenozoic has been accompanied by large changes in the magnesium and calcium content of seawater whose origins remain enigmatic. The processes that control these changes affect the magnesium isotopic composition of seawater, rendering it a useful tool for elucidating the processes that control seawater chemistry on geologic timescales. Here we present a Cenozoic magnesium isotope record of carbonate sediments and use a numerical model of seawater chemistry and the carbon cycle to test hypotheses for the covariation between Cenozoic seawater chemistry and climate. Records are consistent with a 2-3× increase in seawater Mg/Ca and little change in the Mg isotopic composition of seawater. These observations are best explained by a change in the cycling of Mg-silicates. We propose that Mg/Ca changes were caused by a reduction in removal of Mg from seawater in low-temperature marine clays, though an increase in the weathering of Mg-silicates cannot be excluded. We attribute the reduction in the Mg sink in marine clays to changes in ocean temperature, directly linking the major element chemistry of seawater to global climate and providing a novel explanation for the covariation of seawater Mg/Ca and climate over the Cenozoic.

  2. Evidence for distinct leptomeningeal cell-dependent paracrine and EGF-linked autocrine regulatory pathways for suppression of fibrillar collagens in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Heck, Nicolas; Garwood, Jeremy; Dobbertin, Alexandre; Calco, Valérie; Sirko, Swetlana; Mittmann, Thomas; Eysel, Ulf T; Faissner, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    A unique and unresolved property of the central nervous system is that its extracellular matrix lacks fibrillar elements. In the present report, we show that astrocytes secrete triple helices of fibrillar collagens type I, III and V in culture, while no astroglial collagen expression could be detected in vivo. We discovered two inhibitory mechanisms that could underlie this apparent discrepancy. Thus, we uncover a strong inhibitory effect of meningeal cells on astrocytic collagen expression in coculture assays. Furthermore, we present evidence that EGF-receptor activation downregulates collagen expression in astrocytes via an autocrine loop. These investigations provide a rational framework to explain why the brain is devoid of collagen fibers, which is a unique feature that characterizes the structure of the neural extracellular matrix. Moreover, fibrillar collagens were found transiently upregulated in a laser-induced cortical lesion, suggesting that these could contribute to the glial scar that inhibits axonal regeneration. PMID:17689979

  3. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  4. Link Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  5. Serological evidence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection in farmed fishes, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Kibenge, Molly T; Opazo, Beatriz; Rojas, Alejandro H; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2002-08-15

    Antibody detection tests are rarely used for diagnostic purposes in fish diseases. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) caused by ISA virus (ISAV) is an emerging disease of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The virus has also been isolated from diseased coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that should facilitate serodiagnosis of ISAV infection, the study of epidemiology, and the control of ISA in farmed fishes has been developed using purified ISAV as the coating antigen, and monoclonal antibodies that detect fish immunoglobulins bound to the antigen on the plate. Application of the test to a random sample of farmed Atlantic salmon from the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, positively identified 5 of the 7 ISAV RT-PCR-positive fish, and all 10 RT-PCR-negative fish were also negative in the ELISA. Some RT-PCR-negative fish had an elevated non-specific antibody reactivity suggestive of chronic infection or resistance to ISAV. This test was also able to detect 11 of the 14 coho salmon pooled serum samples from a clinically affected farm in Chile that were positive by the virus neutralization (VN) test, and 2 of the 4 VN-negative samples. We conclude that this ELISA would be suitable as a routine test for ISAV infection or for assessing ISAV vaccine efficacy before placing smolts in sea cages, and for testing fishes in sea cages to detect level of resistance to ISA. The assay enables vaccination in combination with depopulation control methods. PMID:12240966

  6. 2-PMPA, a NAAG peptidase inhibitor, attenuates magnetic resonance BOLD signals in brain of anesthetized mice: evidence of a link between neuron NAAG release and hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Baslow, Morris H; Dyakin, Victor V; Nowak, Karen L; Hungund, Basalingappa L; Guilfoyle, David N

    2005-01-01

    N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a dipeptide derivative of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu), is present in neurons. Upon neurostimulation, NAAG is exported to astrocytes where it activates a specific metabotropic Glu surface receptor (mGluR3), and is then hydrolyzed by an astrocyte-specific enzyme, NAAG peptidase, liberating Glu, which can then be taken up by the astrocyte. NAAG is a selective mGluR3 agonist, one of several mGluRs that, when activated, triggers Ca2+ waves that spread to astrocytic endfeet in contact with the vascular system, where a secondary release of vasoactive agents induces a focal hyperemic response providing increased oxygen and nutrient availability to the stimulated neurons. Changes in blood oxygen levels can be assessed in vivo using a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging technique that reflects a paramagnetic effect of deoxyhemoglobin. In this study we used the competitive NAAG peptidase inhibitor 2-(phosphonomethyl) pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) as a probe to interrupt the NAAG-mGluR3- Glu-astrocyte Ca2+ activation sequence. Using this probe, we investigated the relationship between release of the endogenous neuropeptide NAAG and brain blood oxygenation levels, as measured by changes in BOLD signals. In an anesthetized mouse, using an overtly nontoxic dose of 2-PMPA of 250 mg/kg i.p., there was an initial global BOLD signal increase of about 3% above control, lasting about 4 min, followed by a decrease from control of about 4%, sustained over a 32.5-min period of the drug test procedure. Similar changes, but of reduced magnitude and duration, were observed at a dose of 167 mg/kg. The 2-PMPA-induced decreases in BOLD signals appear to indicate that blood deoxyhemoglobin is elevated when endogenous NAAG cannot be hydrolyzed, thus linking the efflux of NAAG from neurons and its hydrolysis by astrocytes to hyperemic oxygenation responses in brain. PMID:15968081

  7. X-linked Angelman-like syndrome caused by Slc9a6 knockout in mice exhibits evidence of endosomal-lysosomal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Strømme, Petter; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Sillitoe, Roy V; Gulinello, Maria; Ali, Nafeeza F; Davidson, Cristin; Micsenyi, Matthew C; Stephney, Gloria; Ellevog, Linda; Klungland, Arne; Walkley, Steven U

    2011-11-01

    Mutations in solute carrier family 9 isoform 6 on chromosome Xq26.3 encoding sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6, a protein mainly expressed in early and recycling endosomes are known to cause a complex and slowly progressive degenerative human neurological disease. Three resulting phenotypes have so far been reported: an X-linked Angelman syndrome-like condition, Christianson syndrome and corticobasal degeneration with tau deposition, with each characterized by severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, autistic behaviour and ataxia. Hypothesizing that a sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 deficiency would most likely disrupt the endosomal-lysosomal system of neurons, we examined Slc9a6 knockout mice with tissue staining and related techniques commonly used to study lysosomal storage disorders. As a result, we found that sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 depletion leads to abnormal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and unesterified cholesterol within late endosomes and lysosomes of neurons in selective brain regions, most notably the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, the CA3 and CA4 regions and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and some areas of cerebral cortex. In these select neuronal populations, histochemical staining for β-hexosaminidase activity, a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of GM2 ganglioside, was undetectable. Neuroaxonal dystrophy similar to that observed in lysosomal disease was observed in the cerebellum and was accompanied by a marked and progressive loss of Purkinje cells, particularly in those lacking the expression of Zebrin II. On behavioural testing, Slc9a6 knockout mice displayed a discrete clinical phenotype attributable to motor hyperactivity and cerebellar dysfunction. Importantly, these findings show that sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6 loss of function in the Slc9a6-targeted mouse model leads to compromise of endosomal-lysosomal function similar to lysosomal disease and to conspicuous neuronal abnormalities in specific brain regions, which in concert

  8. Mesophyll versus epidermal anthocyanins as potential in vivo antioxidants: evidence linking the putative antioxidant role to the proximity of oxy-radical source.

    PubMed

    Kytridis, Velissarios-Phaedon; Manetas, Yiannis

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis that anthocyanins in red leaves may be potential in vivo antioxidants whose efficiency is linked to their proximity with the oxy-radical source was tested. Advantage was taken of intra-individual and intra-species variations in the anthocyanic trait and green and red leaves on the same individuals or leaves of green and red phenotypes were compared for the extent of PSII damage by reactive oxygen species generated by methyl viologen treatment in the light. Two species possessing anthocyanins in the mesophyll (Cistus creticus and Photinia x fraseri) and two in the epidermis (Rosa sp. and Ricinus communis) were used, while red actinic light (which is not absorbed by anthocyanins) allowed discrimination between an indirect sunscreen and a direct antioxidant function. Red leaves whose anthocyanins were located in the mesophyll were more resistant to methyl viologen treatment than their green counterparts. In one of these species (Cistus creticus), where anthocyanins are induced in some individuals within the natural population after bright cool days in winter, both green and future-red morphs displayed the same sensitivity to methyl viologen before anthocyanin induction. Immediately after reddening, however, resistance to methyl viologen was considerably increased in the red morphs. By contrast, red leaves whose anthocyanins were restricted to epidermal cells were more sensitive to the herbicide. Total leaf phenolic levels in green/red pairs were similar. The results indicate that vacuolar anthocyanins may be an effective in vivo target for oxy-radicals, provided that the oxy-radical source and the anthocyanic detoxifying sink are in close vicinity. PMID:16714309

  9. Evidence that the negative relationship between seed mass and relative growth rate is not physiological but linked to species identity: a within-family analysis of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jorge; Reich, Peter B; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Guerrero, Juan D

    2008-07-01

    Seed mass and relative growth rate (RGR) are important determinants of early seedling growth, and hence seedling establishment. Although a positive interspecific relationship between seed mass and seedling dry mass is well established, much less is known about the relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within species. We examined relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within and among maternal plant lines of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To assess the effects of seed mass and maternal origin on RGR, individual seeds from two seed crops (years 2004 and 2005) of ten maternal plants growing under nursery conditions were weighed and then germinated. Seed mass was strongly determined by maternal plant, and seedling mass was largely determined by seed mass, with a positive correlation between these variables both across and within maternal plants. In contrast, RGR was weakly related to seed mass, with no consistent pattern in the sign of the relationship. It is well known that species differ in RGR and that RGR is related to seed mass across species. Lack of consistent evidence for this relationship within maternal lines, and for Scots pine overall, suggests that the relationship is not directly causal, but reflects consistent evolutionary covariation in these two physiologically independent traits. PMID:18450572

  10. Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequities--evidence, gaps, and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Beckfield, Jason; Krieger, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    A new focus within both social epidemiology and political sociology investigates how political systems and priorities shape health inequities. To advance-and better integrate-research on political determinants of health inequities, the authors conducted a systematic search of the ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases and identified 45 studies, commencing in 1992, that explicitly and empirically tested, in relation to an a priori political hypothesis, for either 1) changes in the magnitude of health inequities or 2) significant cross-national differences in the magnitude of health inequities. Overall, 84% of the studies focused on the global North, and all clustered around 4 political factors: 1) the transition to a capitalist economy; 2) neoliberal restructuring; 3) welfare states; and 4) political incorporation of subordinated racial/ethnic, indigenous, and gender groups. The evidence suggested that the first 2 factors probably increase health inequities, the third is inconsistently related, and the fourth helps reduce them. In this review, the authors critically summarize these studies' findings, consider methodological limitations, and propose a research agenda-with careful attention to spatiotemporal scale, level, time frame (e.g., life course, historical generation), choice of health outcomes, inclusion of polities, and specification of political mechanisms-to address the enormous gaps in knowledge that were identified. PMID:19474091

  11. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  12. Time-dependent effect of ethanol force-feeding on glycogen repletion: NMR evidence of a link with ATP turnover in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Gin, Henri; Roumes, Hélène; Kassem, Cendrella; Couzigou, Patrice; Gallis, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    The purpose was to study the hepatic effects of low-dose ethanol on the links between ATP and glycogen production. Fasted male Wistar rats received a single force-feeding of glucose plus ethanol or isocaloric glucose. At different times after force-feeding (0-10 h), glycogen repletion and ATP characteristics (content, apparent catalytic time constant, mitochondrial turnover) were monitored by (13)C- or (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in perfused and isolated liver. In vivo glycogen repletion after force-feeding was slower after glucose plus ethanol vs. glucose (12.04 ± 0.68 and 8.50 ± 0.86 μmol/h/g liver wet weight [ww], respectively), reaching a maximum at the 6th hour. From the 3rd to the 8th hour, glycogen content was lower after glucose plus ethanol vs. glucose. After glucose plus ethanol, the correlation between glycogen and ATP contents presented two linear steps: before and after the 3rd hour (30 and 102 μmol glycogen/g ww per μmol ATP/g ww, respectively, the latter being near the single step measured in glucose). After glucose plus ethanol, ATP turnover remained stable for 2 h, was 3-fold higher from the 3rd hour to the 8th hour, and was higher than after glucose (2.59 ± 0.45 and 1.39 ± 0.19 μmol/min/g ww, respectively). In the 1st hour, glucose plus ethanol induced a transient acidosis and an increase in the phosphomonoesters signal. In conclusion, after ethanol consumption, a large part of the ATP production was diverted to redox re-equilibrium during the first 2 h, thereby reducing the glycogen synthesis. Thereafter, the maintenance of a large oxidative phosphorylation allowed the stimulation of glycogen synthesis requiring ATP. PMID:26254966

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Ultrabasic-basic evolution of upper mantle magmas: petrogenetic links between diamond-bearing peridotites and eclogites (on evidence of physico-chemical experiments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Y.

    2012-04-01

    1. Upper mantle primordial and differentiated rocks. Present notion of primordial "pyrolitic" (Ringwood, 1962) and differentiated rocks is based on peridotite-pyroxenite and eclogite-grospydite xenoliths in kimberlites. Peridotites are dominant (~95%) respectively to eclogites (~5%) but Roberts-Victor mine is more eclogitic (80%) than peridotitic (20%). Bimineral Cpx-Grt eclogites present ~63% of eclogites, that was explained by "eclogitic thermal barrier" stable over 27 GPa (O'Hara, 1968). This led to subduction version of eclogite formation contrary to mechanism of mantle peridotite differentiation that was expanding to relationship between diamond-bearing varieties. Nevertheless, Qtz/Coes-Opx and Ky/Crd eclogites exist. This stimulates experimental searching for physico-chemical mechanism of formation of all eclogite verieties from primordial peridotite during ultrabasic-basic magmatic differentiation. 2. Physico-chemical reasons for "eclogitic thermal barrier". Liquidus of primordial multicomponent peridotite (Litvin, 1991) is determined by univariant curves Ol+Opx+Cpx+L, Ol+Opx+Grt+L, Opx+Cpx+Grt+L linking together to form invariant peritectics Ol+Opx+Cpx+Grt+L (primary melt is komatiitic). Univariant curve Ol+Cpx+Grt+L emerges from the peritectics. Liquidus of peridotite-eclogite system includes "eclogitic" peritectics Coes+Opx+Cpx+Grt+L tied by emerging univariant curve Coes+ Cpx+Grt+L with another "eclogitic" peritectics Coes+Ky+Cpx+Grt+L. "Eclogitic thermal barrier" is located on Opx-Cpx-Grt plane (separating peridotitic and eclogitic compositions) as temperature maximum of univariant curve Opx+Cpx+Grt+L being connecting link between peridotitic Ol+Opx+Cpx+Grt+L and eclogitic Coes+Opx+Cpx+Grt+L peritectics. "Eclogitic thermal barrier" is insuperable obstacles for ultrabasic-basic magmatic differentiation for both equilibrium and fractional crystallization mechanisms. 3. Fractional crystallization of ultrabasic-basic magmas and continuous change-over from

  16. Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Express Several Functional Sex Hormone Receptors—Novel Evidence for a Potential Developmental Link Between Hematopoiesis and Primordial Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia; Suszynska, Ewa; Suszynska, Malwina; Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Maj, Magda; Pedziwiatr, Daniel; Adamiak, Mateusz; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Kakar, Sham S.; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) share several markers with the germline, a connection supported by reports that prolactin, androgens, and estrogens stimulate hematopoiesis. To address this issue more directly, we tested the expression of receptors for pituitary-derived hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), on purified murine bone marrow (BM) cells enriched for HSPCs and tested the functionality of these receptors in ex vivo signal transduction studies and in vitro clonogenic assays. We also tested whether administration of pituitary- and gonad-derived sex hormones (SexHs) increases incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into HSPCs and expansion of hematopoietic clonogenic progenitors in mice and promotes recovery of blood counts in sublethally irradiated animals. We report for the first time that HSPCs express functional FSH and LH receptors and that both proliferate in vivo and in vitro in response to stimulation by pituitary SexHs. Furthermore, based on our observations that at least some of CD45− very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) may become specified into CD45+ HSPCs, we also evaluated the expression of pituitary and gonadal SexHs receptors on these cells and tested whether these quiescent cells may expand in vivo in response to SexHs administration. We found that VSELs express SexHs receptors and respond in vivo to SexHs stimulation, as evidenced by BrdU accumulation. Since at least some VSELs share several markers characteristic of migrating primordial germ cells and can be specified into HSPCs, this observation sheds new light on the BM stem cell hierarchy. PMID:25607657

  17. Evidence for a Functional Link between Uncoating of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Core and Nuclear Import of the Viral Preintegration Complex

    PubMed Central

    Dismuke, David J.; Aiken, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles begin their replication upon fusion with the plasma membrane of target cells and release of the viral core into the host cell cytoplasm. Soon thereafter, the viral capsid, which is composed of a polymer of the CA protein, disassociates from the internal ribonucleoprotein complex. While this disassembly process remains poorly understood, the available evidence indicates that proper uncoating of the core is a key step in infection. Defects in uncoating most often lead to a failure of the virus to undergo reverse transcription, resulting in an inability to form a functional viral preintegration complex (PIC). In a previous study, we reported that an HIV-1 mutant containing two substitutions in CA (Q63A/67A) was unusual in that it was poorly infectious yet synthesized normal levels of viral DNA. Here we report that this mutant is impaired for nuclear entry. Quantitative analysis of viral DNA synthesis from infected cells by Southern blotting and real-time PCR revealed that the Q63A/Q67A mutant is impaired in the synthesis of one-long terminal repeat (1-LTR) and 2-LTR circles. Isolation of PICs from acutely infected cells revealed that the Q63A/Q67A mutant produces protein-DNA complexes similar to wild-type in yield and overall composition, but these PICs contained elevated levels of CA and were impaired for integration in vitro. These results demonstrate that mutations in CA can have deleterious effects on both nuclear targeting and integration, suggesting that these steps in the HIV-1 life cycle are dependent on proper uncoating of the viral core. PMID:16571788

  18. Longevity of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism: Isotopic evidence linking the Siletzia LIP (56 Ma) and early Columbia River Basalt Group (17 Ma) mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Wells, R. E.; Graham, D. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Harrison, B. K.; Haileab, B.

    2015-12-01

    Siletzia is a Paleocene-Eocene accreted terrane of submarine and subaerially erupted mafic lavas exposed in the Cascadia forearc. This large igneous province [LIP] is exposed in multiple volcanic sections from Vancouver Island, B.C., to southern Oregon [~700 km]. We estimate Siletzia magmatism at ~2.3 x 106 km3 west of the Cascades and may reach 4.6 x 106 km3 if correlative with Alaskan Yakutat terrane and significant portions of the LIP filled the Oregon Embayment. 40Ar-39Ar ages show the bulk of Siletzia erupted over a 6-7 Myr interval beginning at 56 Ma, implying eruption rates of 0.3-0.7 km3/yr. In Oregon, Siletz River volcanism began in the south [56-53 Ma] and migrated northward [54-50 Ma]. Concurrent eruptions of Metchosin and Crescent basalts do not show a southerly age progression. Therefore, Siletzia likely erupted south of the Kula-Farallon spreading center with ridge collision at or north of the Metchosin igneous complex. Isotopic data for 29 Siletzia lavas have initial 7/6Sr 0.7030-0.7037, ΕNd +4.9 - +7.7, 6/4Pb 18.70-19.94, 7/4Pb 15.49-15.63 and 8/4Pb 38.27-39.53. Olivine yield 3He/4He from 9.4 to 13.7 (R/Ra) and high MgO lavas display a narrow 187Os/188Os range (0.131-0.134) when age corrected. Both He and Os tracers are elevated above typical depleted MORB mantle and indicate plume involvement. Pb-Pb and Pb-Nd arrays suggest 3 mantle components for Siletzia volcanism: a depleted source with isotopic and trace element characteristics expected for spreading center lavas (i.e., Ku-Fa) influenced by a plume, a HIMU contaminant (i.e., high 6/4Pb; low 7/6Sr) confined to southern Siletzia, and a plume source (6/4Pb 19.00; 7/4Pb 15.55; 8/4Pb 38.60; 7/6Sr; 0.7033; ΕNd +6.4; γOs +5.0). Siletzia plume mantle is a close match to recent Yellowstone plume estimates based on early CRBG lavas. Mounting geophysical and geochemical evidence supports the contention that Siletzia is an early product of the Yellowstone hot spot in a sub-oceanic setting.

  19. New evidence of CO2 soil degassing anomalies on Piton de la Fournaise volcano and the link with volcano tectonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, M.; Di Muro, A.; Giudice, G.; Michon, L.; Ferrazzini, V.; Gurrieri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) is recognized as one of the world's most active volcanoes in terms of eruptive frequency and the substantial quantity of lava produced. Yet with the sole exception of rather modest intracrateric fumarole activity, this seems to be in contrast with an apparent absence of any type of natural fluid emission during periods of quiescence. Measurement campaigns were undertaken during a long-lasting quiescent period (2012-2014) and just after a short-lived summit eruption (June 2014) in order to identify potential degassing areas in relation to the main structural features of the volcano (e.g., rift zones) with the aim of developing a broader understanding of the geometry of the plumbing and degassing system. In order to assess the possible existence of anomalous soil CO2 flux, 513 measurements were taken along transects roughly orthogonal to the known tectonic lineaments crossing PdF edifice. In addition, 53 samples of gas for C isotope analysis were taken at measurement points that showed a relatively high CO2 concentration in the soil. CO2 flux values range from 10 to 1300 g m-2 d-1 while δ13C are between -26.6 and -8‰. The results of our investigation clearly indicate that there is a strong spatial correlation between the anomalous high values of diffusive soil emissions and the main rift zones cutting the PdF massif and, moreover, that generally high soil CO2 fluxes show a δ13C signature clearly related to a magmatic origin.

  20. Linked Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

  1. The link between bottom-simulating reflections and methane flux into the gas hydrate stability zone - new evidence from Lima Basin, Peru Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecher, Ingo A.; Kukowski, Nina; Huebscher, Christian; Greinert, Jens; Bialas, Joerg; Geopeco Working Group

    2001-02-01

    Bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are probably the most commonly used indicators for gas hydrates in marine sediments. It is now widely accepted that BSRs are primarily caused by free gas beneath gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. However, our insight into BSR formation to date is mostly limited to theoretical studies. Two endmember processes have been suggested to supply free gas for BSR formation: (i) dissociation of gas hydrates and (ii) migration of methane from below. During a recent campaign of the German Research Vessel Sonne off the shore of Peru, we detected BSRs at locations undergoing both tectonic subsidence and non-sedimentation or seafloor erosion. Tectonic subsidence (and additionally perhaps seafloor erosion) causes the base of gas hydrate stability to migrate downward with respect to gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. This process rules out dissociation of gas hydrates as a source of free gas for BSRs at these locations. Instead, free gas at BSRs is predicted to be absorbed into the gas hydrate stability zone. BSRs appear to be confined to locations where the subsurface structure suggests focusing of fluid flow. We investigated the seafloor at one of these locations with a TV sled and observed fields of rounded boulders and slab-like rocks, which we interpreted as authigenic carbonates. Authigenic carbonates are precipitations typically found at cold vents with methane expulsion. We retrieved a small carbonate-cemented sediment sample from the seafloor above a BSR about 20 km away. This supported our interpretation that the observed slabs and boulders were carbonates. All these observations suggest that BSRs in Lima Basin are maintained predominantly by gas that is supplied from below, demonstrating that this endmember process for BSR formation exists in nature. Results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 112 showed that methane for gas hydrate formation on the Peru lower slope and the methane in hydrocarbon gases on the upper slope is mostly of biogenic

  2. The link between bottom-simulating reflections and methane flux into the gas hydrate stability zone - new evidence from Lima Basin, Peru Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GEOPECO Working Group

    2001-02-01

    Bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are probably the most commonly used indicators for gas hydrates in marine sediments. It is now widely accepted that BSRs are primarily caused by free gas beneath gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. However, our insight into BSR formation to date is mostly limited to theoretical studies. Two endmember processes have been suggested to supply free gas for BSR formation: (i) dissociation of gas hydrates and (ii) migration of methane from below. During a recent campaign of the German Research Vessel Sonne off the shore of Peru, we detected BSRs at locations undergoing both tectonic subsidence and non-sedimentation or seafloor erosion. Tectonic subsidence (and additionally perhaps seafloor erosion) causes the base of gas hydrate stability to migrate downward with respect to gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. This process rules out dissociation of gas hydrates as a source of free gas for BSRs at these locations. Instead, free gas at BSRs is predicted to be absorbed into the gas hydrate stability zone. BSRs appear to be confined to locations where the subsurface structure suggests focusing of fluid flow. We investigated the seafloor at one of these locations with a TV sled and observed fields of rounded boulders and slab-like rocks, which we interpreted as authigenic carbonates. Authigenic carbonates are precipitations typically found at cold vents with methane expulsion. We retrieved a small carbonate-cemented sediment sample from the seafloor above a BSR about 20 km away. This supported our interpretation that the observed slabs and boulders were carbonates. All these observations suggest that BSRs in Lima Basin are maintained predominantly by gas that is supplied from below, demonstrating that this endmember process for BSR formation exists in nature. Results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 112 showed that methane for gas hydrate formation on the Peru lower slope and the methane in hydrocarbon gases on the upper slope is mostly of biogenic

  3. Brazil-Africa geological links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  4. The gene for familial Mediterranean fever in both Armenians and non-Ashkenazi Jews is linked to the alpha-globin complex on 16p: evidence for locus homogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Shohat, M; Bu, X; Shohat, T; Fischel-Ghodsian, N; Magal, N; Nakamura, Y; Schwabe, A D; Schlezinger, M; Danon, Y; Rotter, J I

    1992-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recurrent inflammatory disorder characterized by short episodes of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. While FMF has been shown to be inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion in both non-Ashkenazi Jews and Armenian families, clinical differences have raised the possibility of genetic heterogeneity. As its pathogenesis is unknown, mapping of the gene for FMF may provide the first objective method for early and accurate diagnosis of this disease. After excluding 45% of the entire human genome, we studied 14 Armenian and 9 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families with FMF and tested linkage with the alpha-globin locus on chromosome 16. Analysis of the PvuII length polymorphism of the 3' HVR (hypervariable region) probe showed significant linkage with the FMF gene (maximum lod score [lodmax] = 9.76 at maximum recombination fraction [theta] = .076). In the Armenians, the lodmax = 3.61 at theta = .10; and for the non-Ashkenazi Jews, lodmax = 6.28 at theta = .06. There was no evidence for genetic heterogeneity between the Armenians and the non-Ashkenazi Jews (chi 2 = 1.28; P = .26) or within either ethnic group (chi 2 = .00; P = .50). Thus, the gene for FMF is linked to the alpha-globin complex on chromosome 16p in both non-Ashkenazi Jews and Armenians. PMID:1463015

  5. Transatlantic link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  6. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  7. Moderators of the Dynamic Link between Alcohol Use and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between…

  8. Multiple Pathways Linking Racism to Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Camara Jules P.; Burford, Tanisha I.; Cage, Brandi N.; Nelson, Travette McNair; Shearon, Sheronda; Thompson, Adrian; Green, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This commentary discusses advances in the conceptual understanding of racism and selected research findings in the social neurosciences. The traditional stress and coping model holds that racism constitutes a source of aversive experiences that, when perceived by the individual, eventually lead to poor health outcomes. Current evidence points to additional psychophysiological pathways linking facets of racist environments with physiological reactions that contribute to disease. The alternative pathways emphasize prenatal experiences, subcortical emotional neural circuits, conscious and preconscious emotion regulation, perseverative cognitions, and negative affective states stemming from racist cognitive schemata. Recognition of these pathways challenges change agents to use an array of cognitive and self-controlling interventions in mitigating racism’s impact. Additionally, it charges policy makers to develop strategies that eliminate deep-seated structural aspects of racism in society. PMID:22518195

  9. Dominant X linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and lissencephaly syndrome (XSCLH/LIS): evidence for the occurrence of mutation in males and mapping of a potential locus in Xq22.

    PubMed Central

    des Portes, V; Pinard, J M; Smadja, D; Motte, J; Boespflüg-Tanguy, O; Moutard, M L; Desguerre, I; Billuart, P; Carrie, A; Bienvenu, T; Vinet, M C; Bachner, L; Beldjord, C; Dulac, O; Kahn, A; Ponsot, G; Chelly, J

    1997-01-01

    X linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and lissencephaly syndrome (XSCLH/ LIS) is an intriguing disorder of cortical development, which causes classical lissencephaly with severe mental retardation and epilepsy in hemizygous males, and subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH) associated with milder mental retardation and epilepsy in heterozygous females. Here we report an exclusion mapping study carried out in three unrelated previously described families in which males are affected with lissencephaly and females with SCLH, using 38 microsatellite markers evenly distributed on the X chromosome. Most of the X chromosome was excluded and potential intervals of assignment in Xq22.3-q23 or in Xq27 are reported. Although the number of informative meioses did not allow a decision between these two loci, it is worth noting that the former interval is compatible with the mapping of a breakpoint involved in a de novo X;autosomal balanced translocation 46,XX,t(X;2)(q22;p25) previously described in a female with classical lissencephaly. In addition, haplotype inheritance in two families showed a grandpaternal origin of the mutation and suggested in one family the presence of mosaicism in germline cells of normal transmitting males. Images PMID:9132485

  10. Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data

    PubMed Central

    Tosas Auguet, Olga; Betley, Jason R.; Stabler, Richard A.; Patel, Amita; Ioannou, Avgousta; Marbach, Helene; Hearn, Pasco; Aryee, Anna; Goldenberg, Simon D.; Otter, Jonathan A.; Desai, Nergish; Karadag, Tacim; Grundy, Chris; Gaunt, Michael W.; Cooper, Ben S.; Edgeworth, Jonathan D.; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    the English Indices of Deprivation 2010 (including the Index of Multiple Deprivation and several deprivation domains and subdomains) and the 2011 England and Wales census demographic and socioeconomic indicators (including numbers of households by deprivation dimension) and indicators of population health. Both CA-and HA-MRSA were associated with household deprivation (CA-MRSA relative risk [RR]: 1.72 [1.03–2.94]; HA-MRSA RR: 1.57 [1.06–2.33]), which was correlated with hospital attendance (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.76). HA-MRSA was also associated with poor health (RR: 1.10 [1.01–1.19]) and residence in communal care homes (RR: 1.24 [1.12–1.37]), whereas CA-MRSA was linked with household overcrowding (RR: 1.58 [1.04–2.41]) and wider barriers, which represent a combined score for household overcrowding, low income, and homelessness (RR: 1.76 [1.16–2.70]). CA-MRSA was also associated with recent immigration to the UK (RR: 1.77 [1.19–2.66]). For the area-level variation in RR for CA-MRSA, 28.67% was attributable to the spatial arrangement of target geographies, compared with only 0.09% for HA-MRSA. An advantage to our study is that it provided a representative sample of usual residents receiving care in the catchment areas. A limitation is that relationships apparent in aggregated data analyses cannot be assumed to operate at the individual level. Conclusions There was no evidence of community transmission of HA-MRSA strains, implying that HA-MRSA cases identified in the community originate from the hospital reservoir and are maintained by frequent attendance at health care facilities. In contrast, there was a high risk of CA-MRSA in deprived areas linked with overcrowding, homelessness, low income, and recent immigration to the UK, which was not explainable by health care exposure. Furthermore, areas adjacent to these deprived areas were themselves at greater risk of CA-MRSA, indicating community transmission of CA-MRSA. This ongoing

  11. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... one of the sex chromosomes, which are the X and Y chromosomes. Dominant inheritance occurs when an ...

  12. Sex-linked recessive

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked recessive; Genetics - sex-linked recessive; X-linked recessive ... X-linked recessive diseases usually occur in males. Males have only one X chromosome. A single recessive ...

  13. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  14. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  15. Probing PrPSc structure using chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry: evidence of the proximity of Gly90 amino termini in the PrP 27-30 aggregate.

    PubMed

    Onisko, Bruce; Fernández, Esteban Guitián; Freire, María Louro; Schwarz, Anja; Baier, Michael; Camiña, Félix; García, Javier Rodríguez; Rodríguez-Segade Villamarín, Santiago; Requena, Jesús R

    2005-08-01

    Elucidation of the structure of PrP(Sc) continues to be one of the most important and difficult challenges in prion research. This task, essential for gaining an understanding of the basis of prion infectivity, has been hampered by the insoluble, aggregated nature of this molecule. We used a combination of chemical cross-linking, proteolytic digestion, and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and nanoLC-ESI-QqTOF), in an attempt to gain structural information about PrP 27-30 purified from the brains of Syrian hamsters infected with scrapie. The rationale of this approach is to identify pairs of specific amino acid residues that are close enough to each other to react with a bifunctional reagent of a given chain length. We cross-linked PrP 27-30 with the amino-specific reagent bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)), obtaining dimers, trimers, and higher-order oligomers that were separated by SDS-PAGE. In-gel digestion followed by mass spectrometric analysis showed that BS(3) reacted preferentially with Gly90. A cross-link involving two Gly90 amino termini was found in cross-linked PrP 27-30 dimers, but not in intramolecularly cross-linked monomers or control samples. This observation indicates the spatial proximity of Gly90 amino termini in PrP 27-30 fibrils. The Gly90-Gly90 cross-link is consistent with a recent model of PrP 27-30, based on electron crystallographic data, featuring a fiber composed of stacked trimers of PrP monomers; specifically, it is compatible with cross-linking of monomers stacked vertically along the fiber axis but not those adjacent to each other horizontally in the trimeric building block. Our results constitute the first measured distance constraint in PrP(Sc). PMID:16042387

  16. Time resolved structural dynamics of butadiyne-linked porphyrin dimers

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Franco V. A.; Hall, Christopher R.; Anderson, Harry L.; Meech, Stephen R.; Heisler, Ismael A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the timescales and mechanisms associated with the structural dynamics of butadiyne-linked porphyrin dimers are investigated through time resolved narrowband pump/broadband probe transient absorption spectroscopy. Our results confirm previous findings that the broadening is partly due to a distribution of structures with different (dihedral) angular conformations. Comparison of measurements with excitations on the red and blue sides of the Q-band unravel the ground and excited state conformational re-equilibration timescales. Further comparison to a planarized dimer, through the addition of a ligand, provides conclusive evidence for the twisting motion performed by the porphyrin dimer in solution. PMID:26798839

  17. Preferential nitration with tetranitromethane of a specific tyrosine residue in penicillinase from Staphylococcus aureus PCl. Evidence that the preferentially nitrated residue is not part of the active site but that loss of activity is due to intermolecular cross-linking.

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, A F; Virden, R

    1978-01-01

    1. Nitration of tyrosine residues of staphylococal penicillinase was accompanied by a partial loss of enzymic activity, which was not readily explained by nitration of a single residue. 2. Loss of activity correlated with low recovery of tyrosine plus nitrotyrosine, which was consistent with cross-linking. 3. The fraction of treated enzyme that was eluted from Sephadex G-75 earlier than native penicillinase was similar to the fraction of enzyme activity lost. Protein eluted in positions corresponding to monomer, dimer and higher oligomers respectively showed major bands in corresponding positions in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, indicating that the increase in molecular weight was due to intermolecular cross-linking. Monomeric enzyme containing up to 4 mol of nitrotyrosine/mol retained full catalytic activity. Dimeric enzyme retained 50% of normal activity, whereas higher oligomers retained an average of 8-15% of normal activity. 4. Monomeric enzyme isolated after treatment with equimolar tetranitromethane was nitrated predominantly at tyrosine-72.5. Reaction of reduced nitrated monomer with 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene gave a monomeric, apparently cross-linked product with full catalytic activity. 6. It is concluded that tyrosine-72 plays no part in the active site. Its preferential nitration may be due to its being insufficiently exposed to be available for intermolecular cross-linking. This poperty may make it useful for attachment of a reporter group. PMID:629760

  18. Communications Link Characterization Experiment (CLCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of the data which were acquired, reduced, and analyzed from the Communications Link Characterization Experiment (CLCE) while utilizing the CTS satellite are presented. The test data obtained from the stations consisted of the results of various TV tests, attenuation and rain rate data. An additional meteorological parameter was measured and it consists of the back scatter returns of the multifrequency weather radar.

  19. Carbodiimide cross-linking of amniotic membranes in the presence of amino acid bridges.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jui-Yang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the carbodiimide cross-linking of amniotic membrane (AM) in the presence of amino acid bridges. The biological tissues were treated with glycine, lysine, or glutamic acid and chemically cross-linked to examine the role of amino acid types in collagenous biomaterial processing. Results of zeta potential measurements showed that the use of uncharged, positively and negatively charged amino acids dictates the charge state of membrane surface. Tensile strength and water content measurements demonstrated that the addition of lysine molecules to the cross-linking system can increase the cross-linking efficiency and dehydration degree while the introduction of glutamic acid in the AM samples decreases the number of cross-links per unit mass of chemically modified tissue collagen. The differences in the cross-linking density further determined the thermal and biological stability by differential scanning calorimetry and in vitro degradation tests. As demonstrated in matrix permeability studies, the improved formation of covalent cross-linkages imposed by lysine facilitated construction of stronger cross-linking structures. In contrast, the added glycine molecules were insufficient to enhance the resistances of the proteinaceous matrices to thermal denaturation and enzymatic degradation. The cytocompatibility of these biological tissue membranes was evaluated by using human corneal epithelial cell cultures. Results of cell viability, metabolic activity, and pro-inflammatory gene expression level showed that the AM materials cross-linked with carbodiimide in the presence of different types of amino acids are well tolerated without evidence of detrimental effect on cell growth. In addition, the amino acid treated and carbodiimide cross-linked AM implants had good biocompatibility in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye model. Our findings suggest that amino acid type is a very important engineering parameter to mediate

  20. Alcohol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: Weighing the Overall Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Goyal, Abhishek; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to an approximate 30-50% increased risk in breast cancer. Case-control and cohort studies have consistently observed this modest increase. We highlight recent evidence from molecular epidemiologic studies and studies of intermediate markers like mammographic density that provide additional evidence that this association is real and not solely explained by factors/correlates of the exposure and outcome present in non-randomized studies. We also review evidence from studies of higher risk women including BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the incidence of heart disease is higher than breast cancer and modest alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of heart disease, we examine the latest evidence to evaluate if alcohol reduction should be targeted to women at high risk for breast cancer. We also review the most recent evidence on the effect of alcohol use on tumor recurrence and survival for those diagnosed with breast cancer. PMID:24265860

  1. The process of EDC-NHS cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, D. V. Shepherd, J. H.; Cameron, R. E.; Best, S. M.; Ghose, S.; Kew, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear fibrillar structure comparable to native collagen was observed which was not observed in the non-cross-linked fibre. The amide III doublet in the Raman spectra provided additional evidence of alignment in the cross-linked fibres. Raman spectroscopy also indicated no residual polyethylene glycol (from the fibre forming buffer) or water in any of the fibres.

  2. Considerations relating to geostationary intersatellite links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, H. J.

    Factors affecting the frequency reuse potential of geostationary intersatellite links and their impact on orbit spectrum utilization efficiency are discussed. The use of such links may be to interconnect widely separated earth stations, to alleviate satellite orbit location constraints, and to permit international programs exchange. The links offer high reuse potential and may accommodate several hundred intersatellite links within acceptable interference bonds. It is found that reuse potential is improved by a high sidepole discrimination and low orbit ellipticals, resulting in the highest orbit spectrum utilization efficiency. In addition, interleaving is not possible in short links with codirectional frequency assignments, but higher antenna discrimination and lower orbit ellipticity allow the smallest possible link length. It seems that a maximum antenna beamwidth for links and maximum orbit eccentricity for space stations are worth developing.

  3. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  4. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  5. Hierarchical Linked Views

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  6. Linking | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Links to individual pages within the Smokefree.gov Web site are permissible, provided attribution is made to Smokefree.gov and any descriptive notes accurately reflect the content of the linked page(s).

  7. Association and Evidence for Linked Recognition of Type IV Secretion System Proteins VirB9-1, VirB9-2, and VirB10 in Anaplasma marginale

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Kaitlyn; Norimine, Junzo; Palmer, Guy H.; Sutten, Eric L.; Baszler, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    Like several other bacterial pathogens, Anaplasma marginale has an outer membrane that induces complete protection from infection and disease. However, the proteins that confer protective immunity and whether protection requires interacting proteins and/or linked T-cell and immunoglobulin G epitopes are not known. Our goal is to target the conserved type IV secretion system (T4SS) to identify conserved, immunogenic membrane proteins that are interacting and linked recognition candidates. Linked recognition is a process by which a B cell is optimally activated by a helper T cell that responds to the same, or physically associated, antigen. A. marginale T4SS proteins VirB2, VirB4-1, VirB4-2, VirB6-1, VirB7, VirB8-2, VirB9-1, VirB9-2, VirB10, VirB11, and VirD4 were screened for their ability to induce IgG and to stimulate CD4+ T cells from outer membrane-vaccinated cattle. VirB9-1, VirB9-2, and VirB10 induced the strongest IgG and T-cell responses in the majority of cattle, although three animals with major histocompatibility complex class II DRB3 restriction fragment length polymorphism types 8/23, 3/16, and 16/27 lacked T-cell responses to VirB9-1, VirB9-1 and VirB9-2, or VirB9-2 and VirB10, respectively. For these animals, VirB9-1-, VirB9-2-, and VirB10-specific IgG production may be associated with T-cell help provided by responses to an interacting protein partner(s). Interacting protein partners indicated by far-Western blotting were confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays and revealed, for the first time, specific interactions of VirB9-1 with VirB9-2 and VirB10. The immunogenicity and interactions of VirB9-1, VirB9-2, and VirB10 justify their testing as a linked protein vaccine against A. marginale. PMID:22038917

  8. A 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle: Additional Evidence for the Common Occurrence of Balancing Selection in Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Karim, Latifa; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Panitz, Frank; Aamand, Gert Pedersen; Schulman, Nina; Georges, Michel; Vilkki, Johanna; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Druet, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation. This probably results from the loss of RNASEH2B, which is known to cause embryonic death in mice. Despite its dramatic effect on fertility, 13%, 23% and 32% of the animals carry the deletion in Danish, Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle, respectively. To explain this, we searched for favorable effects on other traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part of the negative genetic correlation. Our study adds to the evidence that structural variants contribute to animal phenotypic variation, and that balancing selection might be more common in livestock species than previously appreciated. PMID:24391517

  9. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  10. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  11. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  12. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  13. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  14. Expanding the Chemical Cross-Linking Toolbox by the Use of Multiple Proteases and Enrichment by Size Exclusion Chromatography*

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Alexander; Reischl, Roland; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Herzog, Franz; Bohn, Stefan; Förster, Friedrich; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometric analysis offers the potential to obtain low-resolution structural information from proteins and protein complexes. Identification of peptides connected by a cross-link provides direct evidence for the physical interaction of amino acid side chains, information that can be used for computational modeling purposes. Despite impressive advances that were made in recent years, the number of experimentally observed cross-links still falls below the number of possible contacts of cross-linkable side chains within the span of the cross-linker. Here, we propose two complementary experimental strategies to expand cross-linking data sets. First, enrichment of cross-linked peptides by size exclusion chromatography selects cross-linked peptides based on their higher molecular mass, thereby depleting the majority of unmodified peptides present in proteolytic digests of cross-linked samples. Second, we demonstrate that the use of proteases in addition to trypsin, such as Asp-N, can additionally boost the number of observable cross-linking sites. The benefits of both SEC enrichment and multiprotease digests are demonstrated on a set of model proteins and the improved workflow is applied to the characterization of the 20S proteasome from rabbit and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. PMID:22286754

  15. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  16. Evidence that maturation of the N-linked glycans of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) glycoproteins is required for virus-mediated cell fusion: The effect of {alpha}-mannosidase inhibitors on RSV infectivity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Terence P.; Jeffree, Chris E.; Li, Ping; Rixon, Helen W. McL.; Brown, Gaie; Aitken, James D.; MacLellan, Kirsty; Sugrue, Richard J. . E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg

    2006-07-05

    Glycan heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein was demonstrated by proteomics. The effect of maturation of the virus glycoproteins-associated glycans on virus infectivity was therefore examined using the {alpha}-mannosidase inhibitors deoxymannojirimycin (DMJ) and swainsonine (SW). In the presence of SW the N-linked glycans on the F protein appeared in a partially mature form, whereas in the presence of DMJ no maturation of the glycans was observed. Neither inhibitor had a significant effect on G protein processing or on the formation of progeny virus. Although the level of infectious virus and syncytia formation was not significantly affected by SW-treatment, DMJ-treatment correlated with a one hundred-fold reduction in virus infectivity. Our data suggest that glycan maturation of the RSV glycoproteins, in particular those on the F protein, is an important step in virus maturation and is required for virus infectivity.

  17. Evidence of a close link between petrology and isotope records: constraints from SEM, EMP, TEM and in situ 40Ar- 39Ar laser analyses on multiple generations of white micas (Lanterman Range, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Ghiribelli, Barbara; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Palmeri, Rosaria

    2001-10-01

    K-Ar ages from white mica are commonly interpreted to record cooling below a certain temperature with the implicit assumption that all the requirements of the volume diffusion theory are fulfilled. Nevertheless, studies on metamorphic white micas have highlighted discrepancies with previously inferred closure temperatures and have evidenced a close link between petrology and argon isotope age records. This study uses the in situ 40Ar- 39Ar laserprobe method in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to examine the relations between argon isotope records and microtextural, microchemical and microstructural variations in white mica. Gneisses and micaschists belonging to three different tectono-metamorphic complexes of the Lanterman Range (Antarctica) contain multiple generations of potassic white micas and are well-suited to investigate the relation between petrology and argon dating. Texturally resolvable white mica generations show microchemical and microstructural (TEM scale) variations that suggest development under different P- T deformation regimes, ranging from an eclogite facies stage down to low greenschist facies conditions. In situ 40Ar- 39Ar laserprobe analyses on white mica samples from the three complexes reveal a complex intragrain and intergrain spatial distribution of argon ages which is closely linked to microtextural, microchemical and microstructural variations: texturally, compositionally and microstructurally older generations yield older ages whereas the younger ones yield younger ages. Results show that in the absence of re-crystallisation, white mica preserves argon isotope records pertaining to the high-pressure stage which survived amphibolite retrogression at temperatures of 550-650°C. The texture, petrology and isotope record of white micas in the studied samples preserve a nearly continuous record of P, T and deformation history within the same orogenic

  18. Characterization of the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter: Evidence of two cis-regulatory regions, LP-[alpha] and LP-[beta] of importance for the differentation-linked induction of the LPL gene during adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Enerbaeck, S.; Ohlsson, B.G.; Samuelsson, L.; Bjursell, G. )

    1992-10-01

    When preadipocytes differentiate into adipocytes, several differentiation-linked genes are activated. Lipo-protein lipase (LPL) is one of the first genes induced during this process. To investigate early events in adipocyte development, we have focused on the transcriptional activation of the LPL gene. For this purpose, we have cloned and fused different parts of intragenic and flanking sequences with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. Transient transfection experiments and DNase I hypersensitivity assays indicate that several positive as well as negative elements contribute to transcriptional regulation of the LPL gene. When reporter gene constructs were stably introduced into preadipocytes, we were able to monitor and compare the activation patterns of different promoter deletion mutants at selected time points representing the process of adipocyte development. We could delimit two cis-regulatory elements important for gradual activation of the LPL gene during adipocyte development in vitro. These elements, LP-[alpha] (-702 to -666) and LP-[beta] (-468 to -430), contain a striking similarity to a consensus sequence known to bind the transcription factors HNF-3 and fork head. Results of gel mobility shift assays and DNase I and exonuclease III in vitro protection assays indicate that factors with DNA-binding properties similar to those of the HNF-3/fork head family of transcription factors are present in adipocytes and interact with LP-[alpha] and LP-[beta]. We also demonstrate that LP-[alpha] and LP-[beta] were both capable of conferring a differentiation-linked expression pattern to a heterolog promoter, thus mimicking the expression of the endogenous LPL gene during adipocyte differentiation. These findings indicate that interactions with LP-[alpha] and LP-[beta] could be a part of a differentiation switch governing induction of the LPL gene during adipocyte differentiation. 48 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Wireless optical links for avionics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Eric; Koshinz, Dennis; Krug, William; Hager, Harold

    2011-06-01

    Recently there has been strong interest in wireless optical (WO) communication link applications in airplanes and avionics platforms for size, weight, power, cost, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) reduction. Wireless optical link has additional advantage of providing network security because the optical signal from wireless optical link is well confined within an airplane or avionics vehicle. In this paper we discuss some potential wireless optical link applications in commercial airplanes and the challenges in the implementation of wireless optical links for these applications. We will present our experimental results on using white LED (WLED), visible laser source and free-space small-form-factor (SFF) optical transceivers to demonstrate the viability of applying wireless optical links in avionics platforms.

  20. Improving interdependent networks robustness by adding connectivity links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Chen, Guo; Tang, Fei; Wei, Daqian; Tu, Lian

    2016-02-01

    Compared with a single and isolated network, interdependent networks have two types of links: connectivity link and dependency link. This paper aims to improve the robustness of interdependent networks by adding connectivity links. Firstly, interdependent networks failure model and four frequently used link addition strategies are briefly reviewed. Furthermore, by defining inter degree-degree difference, two novel link addition strategies are proposed. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of our proposed link addition strategies by comparing with the current link addition strategies in three different network models. The simulation results show that, given the number of added links, link allocation strategies have great effects on the robustness of interdependent networks, i.e., the double-network link allocation strategy is superior to single-network link allocation strategy. Link addition strategies proposed in this paper excel the current strategies, especially for BA interdependent networks. Moreover, our work can provide guidance on how to allocate limited resources to an existing interdependent networks system and optimize its topology to avoid the potential cascade failures.

  1. Object linking in repositories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  2. Mitogen-stimulated events in nuclei of Swiss 3T3 cells. Evidence for a direct link between changes of inositol lipids, protein kinase C requirement and the onset of DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Martelli, A M; Gilmour, R S; Neri, L M; Manzoli, L; Corps, A N; Cocco, L

    1991-06-01

    Two different clones of Swiss 3T3 cells belonging to the same original cell line have been obtained, one of which was unresponsive to mitogenic stimulation (e.g. insulin-like growth factor-I, bombesin, insulin-like growth factor-I + bombesin), while the other clone showed a very high rate of DNA synthesis under identical conditions as demonstrated by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Both types of cells expressed the IGF-I receptor and showed high contact inhibition. When highly purified nuclei from responsive cells, treated for a short time with bombesin and insulin-like growth factor-I or insulin-like growth factor-I alone, were incubated with [gamma-32P]adenosine triphosphate, the labelling of phosphatidylinositol-mono- and diphosphate decreased when compared to controls, while this transient effect did not appear in the nuclei from unresponsive cells. Similarly nuclear protein kinase C is activated only in responsive cells. Therefore, it seems that a direct link exists between polyphosphoinositide metabolism, protein kinase C activation and the early events leading to cell division, since the rapid changes in the labelling of both phosphatidylinositol mono- and di-phosphate occur only in nuclei from Swiss 3T3 cells, which respond to the mitogenic stimulus determined by insulin-like growth factor-I on its own, or in combination with bombesin. PMID:1646120

  3. Linking roots and rhizospheres to hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    There is ample evidence that shows how plants can exert very significant and often dominant -controls" over the manner and magnitude by which water and other soil-borne resources cycle through diverse ecosystems on Earth. The use and redistribution of soil water resources by root systems has been a particularly important addition to our understanding of how the movement of soil water resources can impact hydrological processes at a range of scales. When soil and plant water relations data are coupled with land-use and climatic change data and predictive models for seasonally-dry ecosystems they have revealed new insights into how the water cycle is also changing and the role that plant root functions plays in shaping fundamental aspects of the hydrological cycle. I will highlight the ways my research group as well as the work of others have used a range of methods to explore the links between roots and rhizospheres and hydrological processes. The detailed analyses of the stable isotope composition of plant and soil water and precipitation and the temporal and spatial patterns of water use by diverse trees in temperate and tropical biomes when coupled with ongoing modeling research has revealed new insights into how belowground and aboveground plant water use behaviors can impact the manned and magnitude of water cycling on local and regional scales. Further, new results clearly show the impacts that plant water uptake and use have on ecosystem carbon fixation and both temperature and precipitation patterns over vast regions like the Amazon as well as other parts of the globe covered by trees and deeply rooted woody vegetation. The combination of empirical and theoretical research results shows that plants can help sustain water recycling, can significantly impact carbon and nutrient cycles, and impact regional climate, drought and its seasonality thereby establishing a direct link between plant functioning, resource movement and the climate system across the globe.

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  6. HLA-linked rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Hasstedt, S.J.; Clegg, D.O.; Ingles, L.; Ward, R.H.

    1994-10-01

    Twenty-eight pedigrees were ascertained through pairs of first-degree relatives diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA was confirmed in 77 pedigree members including probands; the absence of disease was verified in an additional 261 pedigree members. Pedigree members were serologically typed for HLA. We used likelihood analysis to statistically characterize the HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus. The genetic model assumed tight linkage to HLA. The analysis supported the existence of an HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus, estimated the lifetime penetrance as 41% in male homozygotes and as 48% in female homozygotes. Inheritance was recessive in males and was nearly recessive in females. In addition, the analysis attributed 78% of the variance within genotypes to genetic or environmental effects shared by siblings. The genetic model inferred in this analysis is consistent with previous association, linkage, and familial aggregation studies of RA. The inferred HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus accounts for approximately one-fifth of the RA in the population. Although other genes may account for the remaining familial RA, a large portion of RA cases may occur sporadically. 79 refs., 9 tabs.

  7. Synthesising Topological Links

    PubMed Central

    Baas, Nils A.; Seeman, Nadrian C.; Stacey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the chemical synthesis of topological links, in particular higher order links which have the Brunnian property (namely that removal of any one component unlinks the entire system). Furthermore, we suggest how to obtain both two dimensional and three dimensional objects (surfaces and solids, respectively) which also have this Brunnian property. PMID:25678732

  8. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  9. Object links in the repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon; Eichmann, David

    1991-01-01

    Some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life-cycle of software development are explored. In particular, we wish to consider a model which provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The model we consider uses object-oriented terminology. Thus, the lattice is viewed as a data structure which contains class objects which exhibit inheritance. A description of the types of objects in the repository is presented, followed by a discussion of how they interrelate. We discuss features of the object-oriented model which support these objects and their links, and consider behavior which an implementation of the model should exhibit. Finally, we indicate some thoughts on implementing a prototype of this repository architecture.

  10. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  11. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  12. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  13. Interspeaker Variation in Habitual Speaking Rate: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Ying-Chiao; Weismer, Gary; Iqbal, Kamran

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that talkers previously classified by Y.-C. Tsao and G. Weismer (1997) as habitually fast versus habitually slow would show differences in the way they manipulated articulation rate across the rate continuum. Method: Thirty talkers previously classified by Tsao and Weismer (1997)…

  14. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  15. Additional evidence of nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Taleyarkhan, R P; Cho, J S; West, C D; Lahey, R T; Nigmatulin, R I; Block, R C

    2004-03-01

    Time spectra of neutron and sonoluminescence emissions were measured in cavitation experiments with chilled deuterated acetone. Statistically significant neutron and gamma ray emissions were measured with a calibrated liquid-scintillation detector, and sonoluminescence emissions were measured with a photomultiplier tube. The neutron and sonoluminescence emissions were found to be time correlated over the time of significant bubble cluster dynamics. The neutron emission energy was less than 2.5 MeV and the neutron emission rate was up to approximately 4 x 10(5) n/s. Measurements of tritium production were also performed and these data implied a neutron emission rate due to D-D fusion which agreed with what was measured. In contrast, control experiments using normal acetone did not result in statistically significant tritium activity, or neutron or gamma ray emissions. PMID:15089363

  16. Molecular Mechanics of Tip-Link Cadherins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Marcos; Weihofen, Wilhelm A.; Gaudet, Rachelle; Corey, David P.

    2011-11-01

    The hair-cell tip link, a fine filament directly conveying force to mechanosensitive transduction channels, is likely composed of two proteins, protocadherin-15 and cadherin-23, whose mutation causes deafness. However, their complete molecular structure, elasticity, and deafness-related structural defects remain largely unknown. We present crystal structures of extracellular (EC) tip-link cadherin repeats involved in hereditary deafness and tip link formation. In addition, we show that the deafness mutation D101G, in the linker region between the repeats EC1 and EC2 of cadherin-23, causes a slight bend between repeats and decreases Ca2+ affinity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tip-link cadherin repeats are stiff and that either removing Ca2+ or mutating Ca2+-binding residues reduces rigidity and unfolding strength. The structures and simulations also suggest mechanisms underlying inherited deafness and how cadherin-23 may bind with protocadherin-15 to form the tip link.

  17. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  18. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  19. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  20. Fiber optic communication links

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Fiber optics is a new, emerging technology which offers relief from many of the problems which limited past communications links. Its inherent noise immunity and high bandwidth open the door for new designs with greater capabilities. Being a new technology, certain problems can be encountered in specifying and installing a fiber optic link. A general fiber optic system is discussed with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages. It is not intended to be technical in nature, but a general discussion. Finally, a general purpose prototype Sandia communications link is presented.

  1. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  2. Corneal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Randleman, J Bradley; Khandelwal, Sumitra S; Hafezi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the late 1990s, corneal cross-linking has grown from an interesting concept to a primary treatment for corneal ectatic disease worldwide. Using a combination of ultraviolet-A light and a chromophore (vitamin B2, riboflavin), the cornea can be stiffened, usually with a single application, and progressive thinning diseases such as keratoconus arrested. Despite being in clinical use for many years, some of the underlying processes, such as the role of oxygen and the optimal treatment times, are still being worked out. More than a treatment technique, corneal cross-links represent a physiological principle of connective tissue, which may explain the enormous versatility of the method. We highlight the history of corneal cross-linking, the scientific underpinnings of current techniques, evolving clinical treatment parameters, and the use of cross-linking in combination with refractive surgery and for the treatment of infectious keratitis. PMID:25980780

  3. CERES Web Links

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-21

    ...   Web Links to Relevant CERES Information Relevant information about CERES, CERES references, ... Instrument Working Group Home Page Aerosol Retrieval Web Page  (Center for Satellite Applications and Research) ...

  4. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Latest Research: Genetic Links Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... laboratories is one way the NEI is expanding genetic testing of eye diseases. Photo courtesy of National ...

  5. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  6. A linked electron pair functional.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Peter J; Cooper, Bridgette

    2010-12-14

    A modification of the variational configuration interaction functional in the first-order interacting space for molecular electronic structure is presented. The modified functional is a fully linked expression that by construction is extensive and invariant to transformations of the underlying orbital basis and is exact for an ensemble of separated two-electron subsystems. In addition, an approximation to variational coupled cluster is generated through truncation of the exponential cluster operator. When combined, these methods demonstrate accuracy that exceeds that of the standard coupled-cluster method, in particular in situations where the reference Slater determinant is not a good approximation. PMID:21171682

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  12. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890418

  13. Linked Ocean Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  14. Hypercholesterolemia links hematopoiesis with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Soehnlein, Oliver; Swirski, Filip K

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the progressive accumulation of lipids and leukocytes in the arterial wall. Leukocytes such as macrophages accumulate oxidized lipoproteins in the growing atheromata and give rise to foam cells, which can then contribute to the necrotic core of lesions. Lipids and leukocytes also interact in other important ways. In experimental models, systemic hypercholesterolemia is associated with severe neutrophilia and monocytosis. Recent evidence indicates that cholesterol-sensing pathways control the proliferation of hematopoietic stem-cell progenitors. Here we review some of the studies that are forging this particular link between metabolism and inflammation, and propose several strategies that could target this axis for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23228326

  15. Publishing Data on Physical Samples Using the GeoLink Ontology and Linked Data Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, P.; Arko, R. A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Song, L.; Carter, M. R.; Hsu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA), one of partners in EarthCube GeoLink project, seeks to explore the extent to which the use of GeoLink reusable Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) and linked data platforms in IEDA data infrastructure can make research data more easily accessible and valuable. Linked data for the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR) is the first effort of IEDA to show how linked data enhance the presentation of IEDA data system architecture. SESAR Linked Data maps each table and column in SESAR database to RDF class and property based on GeoLink view, which build on the top of GeoLink ODPs. Then, uses D2RQ dumping the contents of SESAR database into RDF triples on the basis of mapping results. And, the dumped RDF triples is loaded into GRAPHDB, an RDF graph database, as permanent data in the form of atomic facts expressed as subjects, predicates and objects which provide support for semantic interoperability between IEDA and other GeoLink partners. Finally, an integrated browsing and searching interface build on Callimachus, a highly scalable platform for publishing linked data, is introduced to make sense of data stored in triplestore. Drill down and through features are built in the interface to help users locating content efficiently. The drill down feature enables users to explore beyond the summary information in the instance list of a specific class and into the detail from the specific instance page. The drill through feature enables users to jump from one instance to another one by simply clicking the link of the latter nested in the former region. Additionally, OpenLayers map is embedded into the interface to enhance the attractiveness of the presentation of instance which has geospatial information. Furthermore, by linking instances in the SESAR datasets to matching or corresponding instances in external sets, the presentation has been enriched with additional information about related classes like person, cruise, etc.

  16. Photoinduced intermolecular cross-linking of gas phase triacylglycerol lipid ions.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuai; Pham, Huong T; Blanksby, Stephen J; Reid, Gavin E

    2015-01-01

    Complex mixtures of plant derived triglycerol (TG) lipids are commonly used as feedstock components for the production of industrial polymers. However, there remains a need for the development of analytical strategies to investigate the intrinsic intermolecular cross-linking reactivity of individual TG molecules within these mixtures as a function of their structures and physicochemical properties, and for the characterization of the resultant products. Here, to address this need, we describe a novel multistage tandem mass spectrometry based method for intermolecular cross-linking and subsequent structural characterization of TG lipid ions in the gas phase. Cross-linking reactions were initiated using 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation tandem mass spectrometry (UVPD-MS/MS) of saturated or unsaturated TG dimers introduced via electrospray ionization into a linear ion trap mass spectrometer as noncovalent complexes with protonated 3,4-, 2,4- or 3,5- diiodoaniline (diIA). UVPD resulted in the initial formation of an anilinyl biradical via the sequential loss of two iodine radicals, which underwent further reaction to yield multiple cross-linked TG products along with competing noncross-linking processes. These chemistries are proposed to occur via sequential combinations of hydrogen abstraction (H-abstraction), radical addition and radical recombination. Multistage collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS(n)) was used to obtain evidence for the structures and mechanisms of formation for these products, as a function of both the TG lipid and diIA ion structures. The efficiency of the UVPD reaction was shown to be dependent on the number of unsaturation sites present within the TG lipids. However, when unsaturation sites were present, formation of the cross-linked and noncross-linked product ions via H-abstraction and radical addition mechanisms was found to be competitive. Finally, the identity of the anilinyl biradical (e.g., 3,4- versus 2

  17. Vitamin B6: a challenging link between nutrition and inflammation in CVD.

    PubMed

    Lotto, Valentina; Choi, Sang-Woon; Friso, Simonetta

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present review is to highlight the relationship between low vitamin B6 status and CVD through its link with inflammation. While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon in clinical practice, increasing evidence suggests that marginal vitamin B6 deficiency is rather frequent in a consistent proportion of the population and is related to an increased risk of inflammation-related diseases. Ample evidence substantiates the theory of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease, and low plasma vitamin B6 concentrations have been related to increased CVD risk. Several studies have also shown that low vitamin B6 status is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, both of which hold an underlying chronic inflammatory condition. Furthermore, the inverse association observed between inflammation markers and vitamin B6 supports the notion that inflammation may represent the common link between low vitamin B6 status and CVD risk. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, there are a number of cell culture and animal studies that have suggested several possible mechanisms relating impaired vitamin B6 status with chronic inflammation. A mild vitamin B6 deficiency characterises, in most cases, a subclinical at-risk condition in inflammatory-linked diseases which should be addressed by an appropriate individually tailored nutritional preventive or therapeutic strategy. PMID:21486513

  18. Linking epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition and epigenetic modifications

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Sonja C.; Allis, C. David

    2012-01-01

    Cancer, as well as other human disorders, has long been considered to result from the consequence of genetic mutations in key regulatory genes that reside in pathways controlling proliferation, cellular differentiation, DNA damage and repair. In the case of cancer, mutations are well documented to arise in key oncogenes and critically important tumor-suppressor genes as part of the disease progression process. In addition to more accepted, genetic mutations, a rapidly increasing body of evidence supports the general view that profound alterations also occur in ‘epigenes’, whose products serve to define the ‘epigenetic landscape’ of tumor cells. Aberrant changes in epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and expression of micro RNAs play an important role in cancer and contribute to malignant transitions. Here we review recent studies linking epigenetic mechanisms to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as defined in normal processes, as well as abnormal transitions that lead to oncogensis. PMID:22706095

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  20. Cross-linked informofers.

    PubMed Central

    Prosvirnin, V V; Ruzidic, S; Samarina, O P

    1979-01-01

    The proteins of 30S RNP particles containing pre-mRNA (hnRNA) were cross-linked with bifunctional reagents (dimethyl-suberimidate and dimethyl-3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate). Further treatment with 1 or 2 M NaCl dissociates all RNA from protein. However, a significant part of protein particles--informofers being cross-linked survived high salt treatment. Their sedimentation coefficients were close to those of original particles. No RNA could be detected in the informofers even after labeling the cells with a precursor for a long period of time. Sodium dodecylsulfate or urea dissociated cross-linked informofers into oligomeric polypeptides. They could be dissociated by beta-mercaptoethanol treatment if a reversible cross-linked reagent had been used. The resulting polypeptides were represented by informatin. RNP particles (30S RNP or poly-particles) were reconstituted upon mixing of cross-linked informofers with pre-mRNA and removal of 2 M NaCl. PMID:503864

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  5. X-linked Agammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Suri, Deepti; Rawat, Amit; Singh, Surjit

    2016-04-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is one of the commonest primary immune deficiencies encountered in pediatric clinical practice. In adults, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). It is an X-linked disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacteria, severe hypergammaglobulinemia and absent circulating B cells in the peripheral blood. Replacement immunoglobulin therapy is the main cornerstone of treatment. Aggressive management of intercurrent infections and prophylactic antimicrobials are needed. This review attempts to highlight varied clinical manifestations and management of XLA, especially in the context of developing country. PMID:26909497

  6. Sirtuins Link Inflammation and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vachharajani, Vidula T.; Liu, Tiefu; Wang, Xianfeng; Hoth, Jason J.; Yoza, Barbara K.; McCall, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins (SIRT), first discovered in yeast as NAD+ dependent epigenetic and metabolic regulators, have comparable activities in human physiology and disease. Mounting evidence supports that the seven-member mammalian sirtuin family (SIRT1–7) guard homeostasis by sensing bioenergy needs and responding by making alterations in the cell nutrients. Sirtuins play a critical role in restoring homeostasis during stress responses. Inflammation is designed to “defend and mend” against the invading organisms. Emerging evidence supports that metabolism and bioenergy reprogramming direct the sequential course of inflammation; failure of homeostasis retrieval results in many chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. Anabolic glycolysis quickly induced (compared to oxidative phosphorylation) for ROS and ATP generation is needed for immune activation to “defend” against invading microorganisms. Lipolysis/fatty acid oxidation, essential for cellular protection/hibernation and cell survival in order to “mend,” leads to immune repression. Acute/chronic inflammations are linked to altered glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, at least in part, by NAD+ dependent function of sirtuins. Therapeutically targeting sirtuins may provide a new class of inflammation and immune regulators. This review discusses how sirtuins integrate metabolism, bioenergetics, and immunity during inflammation and how sirtuin-directed treatment improves outcome in chronic inflammatory diseases and in the extreme stress response of sepsis. PMID:26904696

  7. Sirtuins Link Inflammation and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, Vidula T; Liu, Tiefu; Wang, Xianfeng; Hoth, Jason J; Yoza, Barbara K; McCall, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins (SIRT), first discovered in yeast as NAD+ dependent epigenetic and metabolic regulators, have comparable activities in human physiology and disease. Mounting evidence supports that the seven-member mammalian sirtuin family (SIRT1-7) guard homeostasis by sensing bioenergy needs and responding by making alterations in the cell nutrients. Sirtuins play a critical role in restoring homeostasis during stress responses. Inflammation is designed to "defend and mend" against the invading organisms. Emerging evidence supports that metabolism and bioenergy reprogramming direct the sequential course of inflammation; failure of homeostasis retrieval results in many chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. Anabolic glycolysis quickly induced (compared to oxidative phosphorylation) for ROS and ATP generation is needed for immune activation to "defend" against invading microorganisms. Lipolysis/fatty acid oxidation, essential for cellular protection/hibernation and cell survival in order to "mend," leads to immune repression. Acute/chronic inflammations are linked to altered glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, at least in part, by NAD+ dependent function of sirtuins. Therapeutically targeting sirtuins may provide a new class of inflammation and immune regulators. This review discusses how sirtuins integrate metabolism, bioenergetics, and immunity during inflammation and how sirtuin-directed treatment improves outcome in chronic inflammatory diseases and in the extreme stress response of sepsis. PMID:26904696

  8. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  9. Activation of exocytosis by cross-linking of the IgE receptor is dependent on ADP-ribosylation factor 1-regulated phospholipase D in RBL-2H3 mast cells: evidence that the mechanism of activation is via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Way, G; O'luanaigh, N; Cockcroft, S

    2000-01-01

    The physiological stimulus to exocytosis in mast cells is the cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonR1, with antigen. We demonstrate a novel function for ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in the regulation of antigen-stimulated secretion using cytosol-depleted RBL-2H3 mast cells for reconstitution of secretory responses. When antigen is used as the stimulus, ARF1 also reconstitutes phospholipase D activation. Using ethanol to divert the phosphatidic acid (the product of phospholipase D activity) to phosphatidylethanol causes inhibition of ARF1-reconstituted secretion. In addition. ARF1 causes an increase in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) levels at the expense of phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate. The requirement for PIP(2) in exocytosis was confirmed by using phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITPalpha) to increase PIP(2) levels. Exocytosis, restored by either ARF1 or PITPalpha, was inhibited when PIP(2) levels were depleted by phospholipase Cdelta1. We conclude that the function of ARF1 and PITPalpha is to increase the local synthesis of PIP(2), the function of which in exocytosis is likely to be linked to lipid-protein interactions, whereby recruitment of key components of the exocytotic machinery are targeted to the appropriate membrane compartment. PMID:10657240

  10. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Mills, Dominic C; Jervis, Adrian J; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed that they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB. The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally, a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesized by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. PMID:26610891

  11. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dominic C.; Jervis, Adrian J.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E.; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB . The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesised by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. PMID:26610891

  12. Music in the Home: New Evidence for an Intergenerational Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehr, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    This study had three goals: (1) to investigate the potential connection between music experiences in early childhood and later music making as a parent, (2) to report the frequency of music making in a sample of American families with young children along with parents' opinions on possible benefits of music classes, and (3) to compare…

  13. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Animal Model Evidence.

    PubMed

    Handforth, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we hope to stimulate interest in animal models as opportunities to understand tremor mechanisms within the cerebellar system. We begin by considering the harmaline model of essential tremor (ET), which has ET-like anatomy and pharmacology. Harmaline induces the inferior olive (IO) to burst fire rhythmically, recruiting rhythmic activity in Purkinje cells (PCs) and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). This model has fostered the IO hypothesis of ET, which postulates that factors that promote excess IO, and hence PC complex spike synchrony, also promote tremor. In contrast, the PC hypothesis postulates that partial PC cell loss underlies tremor of ET. We describe models in which chronic partial PC loss is associated with tremor, such as the Weaver mouse, and others with PC loss that do not show tremor, such as the Purkinje cell degeneration mouse. We postulate that partial PC loss with tremor is associated with terminal axonal sprouting. We then discuss tremor that occurs with large lesions of the cerebellum in primates. This tremor has variable frequency and is an ataxic tremor not related to ET. Another tremor type that is not likely related to ET is tremor in mice with mutations that cause prolonged synaptic GABA action. This tremor is probably due to mistiming within cerebellar circuitry. In the final section, we catalog tremor models involving neurotransmitter and ion channel perturbations. Some appear to be related to the IO hypothesis of ET, while in others tremor may be ataxic or due to mistiming. In summary, we offer a tentative framework for classifying animal action tremor, such that various models may be considered potentially relevant to ET, subscribing to IO or PC hypotheses, or not likely relevant, as with mistiming or ataxic tremor. Considerable further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of tremor in animal models. PMID:26660708

  14. Broadcasting satellite feeder links - Characteristics and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiebler, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of recent studies by the Feeder Link Sub-Working Group of the FCC Advisory Committee for the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference (RARC). These studies conclude that specification of a few key parameters will make feeder link planning relatively straightforward. Feeder links can be located anywhere within a country if satellite orbit locations are separated by 10 deg for adjacent service areas and key parameter values presented in the paper are adopted. Colocated satellites serving a common service area need special attention to attain sufficient isolation between a desired channel and its adjacent cross-polarized channels and alternate co-polarized channels. In addition to presenting planning conclusions by the Advisory Committee, the paper presents and analyzes actions of the International Radio Consultative Committee's Conference Planning Meeting (CPM) concerning feeder links. The CPM reached conclusions similar to, and compatible with, those of the Advisory Committee.

  15. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs. PMID:24571214

  16. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  17. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  18. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  19. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  20. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  1. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  2. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average ..beta.. and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned.

  3. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  4. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  5. The link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Ghada N.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are common age-related conditions associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and disability. Traditionally, these two conditions were considered unrelated and their coexistence was attributed to independent age-related processes. However, an increasing body of biological and epidemiological evidence has provided support for a link between the two conditions that cannot be explained by age alone. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between osteoporosis and CVD including: 1) shared risk factors, 2) common pathophysiological mechanisms, 3) common genetic factors, or 4) a causal association. This review highlights the epidemiologic literature on the association of bone density with cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and subclinical measures of atherosclerosis. It also summarizes the different potential mechanisms involved in the link between osteoporosis and CVD. PMID:22460842

  6. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  7. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  8. Optimal search strategies on complex multi-linked networks

    PubMed Central

    Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of optimal search strategies on multi-linked networks, i.e. graphs whose nodes are endowed with several independent sets of links. We focus preliminarily on agents randomly hopping along the links of a graph, with the additional possibility of performing non-local hops to randomly chosen nodes with a given probability. We show that an optimal combination of the two jump rules exists that maximises the efficiency of target search, the optimum reflecting the topology of the network. We then generalize our results to multi-linked networks with an arbitrary number of mutually interfering link sets. PMID:25950716

  9. A note on deep space optical communication link parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S. J.; Yuen, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Topical communication in the context of a deep space communication link. Communication link analysis at the optical frequencies differs significantly from that at microwave frequencies such as the traditional S and X-bands used in deep space applications, due to the different technology of transmitter, antenna, modulators, and receivers. In addition, the important role of quantum noise in limiting system performance is quite different than that of thermal noise. The optical link design is put in a design control table format similar to a microwave telecom link design. Key considerations unique to the optical link are discussed.

  10. High stability radio links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, E. Robert

    1989-01-01

    Radio telecommunication links are used for communication with deep space probes. These links consist of sinusoidal carrier signals at radio frequencies (RF) modulated with information sent between the spacecraft and the earth. This carrier signal is a very pure and stable sinusoid, typically derived from an atomic frequency standard whose frequency and phase are used to measure the radial velocity of the probe and from this and other data types derive its trajectory. This same observable can be used to search for space-time distortions cased by low frequency (0.1 to 100 MHz) gravitation radiation. How such a system works, what its sensitivity limitations are, and what potential future improvements can be made are discussed.

  11. Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular Risk: Is There a Major Link?

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Frier, Brian M; Pistrosch, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Severe hypoglycemia is recognized to be one of the strongest predictors of macrovascular events, adverse clinical outcomes, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it is uncertain whether a direct pathophysiological link exists or whether hypoglycemia is primarily a marker of vulnerability to these events. Large clinical trials have reported an increased hazard ratio for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe hypoglycemia, but such an association has not been demonstrated in prospective trials of people with type 1 diabetes. Several cardiovascular effects occur during hypoglycemia either as a result of low blood glucose levels per se or through activation of the sympathoadrenal response: hemodynamic changes with an increase in cardiac work load and potential attenuation of myocardial perfusion, electrophysiological changes that may be arrhythmogenic, induction of a prothrombotic state, and release of inflammatory markers. Although the potential for a causal relationship has been demonstrated in mechanistic studies, the evidence from large prospective studies that hypoglycemia is a major causal contributor to cardiovascular events is limited to date. Other preexisting cardiovascular risk factors in addition to hypoglycemia may be the major link to the final cardiovascular event, but a low blood glucose level can trigger these events in patients with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:27440834

  12. The missing link.

    PubMed

    Dracup, Kathleen

    2002-06-01

    The uniqueness of nursing research is derived from the philosophical view of the individual as a biopsychosocial being. Nurse scientists are prepared to illuminate the linkages among the biophysiological, psychological, and social domains, and this study is much enhanced by the increasing availability of valid and reliable biomarkers. Researchers need to develop expertise in the use of biomarkers and secure appropriate funding for their use. Missing links may be missing no longer. PMID:12122766

  13. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  14. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  15. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  16. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  17. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  18. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  19. Cross-linking Chemistry of Squid Beak*

    PubMed Central

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J. Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  20. Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.

    PubMed

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

    2010-12-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  1. Changing ozone: Evidence for a perturbed atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Penkett, S.A. )

    1991-04-01

    There is much legitimate concern about the dramatic loss of ozone that is observed in the stratosphere over Antarctica in the Austral spring. There should be even more concern about the increasing losses of ozone observed recently in polar and midlatitude regions of the stratosphere in the northern hemisphere. In addition to the ozone losses occurring in the stratosphere, there is now compelling evidence that the ozone concentration in large parts of the northern hemisphere troposphere is increasing steadily. This is almost certainly caused by emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides from combustion processes of many kinds, but principally transport and biomass burning. It is hoped that these extensive studies of ozone in the background troposphere materialize and allow us to develop a clear quantitative link between emissions of pollutants and their effects. The changes already observed in the ozone concentrations throughout the atmosphere clearly demonstrate the capacity for human activity to influence the fundamental workings of the atmosphere.

  2. Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Mohammed, Selina A; Williams, David R

    2007-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the existing empirical research of the multiple ways by which discrimination can affect health. Institutional mechanisms of discrimination such as restricting marginalized groups to live in undesirable residential areas can have deleterious health consequences by limiting socio-economic status (SES) and creating health-damaging conditions in residential environments. Discrimination can also adversely affect health through restricting access to desirable services such as medical care and creating elevated exposure to traditional stressors such as unemployment and financial strain. Central to racism is an ideology of inferiority that can adversely affect non-dominant groups because some members of marginalized populations will accept as true the dominant society's ideology of their group's inferiority. Limited empirical research indicates that internalized racism is inversely related to health. In addition, the existence of these negative stereotypes can lead dominant group members to consciously and unconsciously discriminate against the stigmatized. An overview of the growing body of research examining the ways in which psychosocial stress generated by subjective experiences of discrimination can affect health is also provided. We review the evidence from the United States and other societies that suggest that the subjective experience of discrimination can adversely affect health and health enhancing behaviours. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between discrimination and health requires improved assessment of the phenomenon of discrimination and increased attention to identifying the psychosocial and biological pathways that may link exposure to discrimination to health status. PMID:18032807

  3. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    PubMed Central

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  4. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks.

    PubMed

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  5. EEE Links. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Robert (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The EEE Links Newsletter is a quarterly publication produced by Code 562 in support of the NASA HQ funded NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The newsletter is produced as an electronic format deliverable made available via the referenced www site administered by Code 562, The newsletter publishes brief articles on topics of interest to NASA programs and projects in the area of electronic parts and packaging. The newsletter does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. The information provided is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at national and international conferences.

  6. Restoring women's link with nature.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J

    1989-01-01

    The welfare of families throughout the developing world is largely dependent upon the women who run them. Their link to the environment is fundamental in a way that women in the developed world are not. In the developing world, women must extract food, fuel, water, and shelter in a sustainable way from their local environment. This symbiotic relationship is breaking down because of the well intentioned efforts of international development agencies. Mandate-style development programs have been the most environmentally destructive. This effect upsets the delicate balance of nutrition, health, and shelter usually maintained by women. As women's options close, they are forced to use nonsustainable methods to survive. Tomorrow's feed corn becomes today's meal and the tree she planted for her daughter becomes tonight's fire. Women are systematically ignored in the planning and policies of larger scale development projects. Dams, irrigation, clear cutting, and other forms of development can destroy the environment in which many women live. In the agencies that are beginning to recognize the value of women as protectors of the environment, their role as unpaid laborers is become more evident. It is of the highest importance that the already intolerable work burdens are not increased. They cannot be consigned to continue in the role of invisible environmental care takers. Programs must be developed that compensate women for their work and value their contribution properly. PMID:12282456

  7. Linking Policy | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Links to individual pages within the Smokefree.gov Web site are permissible, provided attribution is made to Smokefree.gov and any descriptive notes accurately reflect the content of the linked page(s).

  8. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-06-13

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain /sup 32/P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO/sub 4//mole link protein.

  9. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  10. Link Analysis for Space Communication Links Using ARQ Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lau, Chi-Wung; Lee, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In space communications, standard link analysis assumes that messages are sent once. For a communication link that uses an error-correction coding scheme, bit-error-rate (BER) or frame-error-rate (FER), and link margins are common metrics that characterize the quality of a link, and they are used to determine the supportable data rate. With the advent of Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ) protocols, when messages are corrupted during transmission, they can be resent multiple times automatically until they are correctly received and acknowledged. The concept of BER, FER, and link margin cannot be directly applied, and the link analysis approach for ARQ links needs to be re-examined.

  11. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network’s probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms.

  12. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network’s probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:26961965

  13. Predicting missing links and identifying spurious links via likelihood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liming; Zhou, Tao; Lü, Linyuan; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Real network data is often incomplete and noisy, where link prediction algorithms and spurious link identification algorithms can be applied. Thus far, it lacks a general method to transform network organizing mechanisms to link prediction algorithms. Here we use an algorithmic framework where a network's probability is calculated according to a predefined structural Hamiltonian that takes into account the network organizing principles, and a non-observed link is scored by the conditional probability of adding the link to the observed network. Extensive numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm has remarkably higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods in uncovering missing links and identifying spurious links in many complex biological and social networks. Such method also finds applications in exploring the underlying network evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:26961965

  14. Security Concepts for Satellite Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Rathje, R.; Weigl, A.; Gorecki, Ch.; Michalik, H.

    2008-08-01

    The high costs to develop, launch and maintain a satellite network makes protecting the assets imperative. Attacks may be passive such as eavesdropping on the payload data. More serious threat are active attacks that try to gain control of the satellite, which may lead to the total lost of the satellite asset. To counter these threats, new satellite and ground systems are using cryptographic technologies to provide a range of services: confidentiality, entity & message authentication, and data integrity. Additionally, key management cryptographic services are required to support these services. This paper describes the key points of current satellite control and operations, that are authentication of the access to the satellite TMTC link and encryption of security relevant TM/TC data. For payload data management the key points are multi-user ground station access and high data rates both requiring frequent updates and uploads of keys with the corresponding key management methods. For secure satellite management authentication & key negotiation algorithms as HMAC-RIPEMD160, EC- DSA and EC-DH are used. Encryption of data uses algorithms as IDEA, AES, Triple-DES, or other. A channel coding and encryption unit for payload data provides download data rates up to Nx250 Mbps. The presented concepts are based on our experience and heritage of the security systems for all German MOD satellite projects (SATCOMBw2, SAR-Lupe multi- satellite system and German-French SAR-Lupe-Helios- II systems inter-operability) as well as for further international (KOMPSAT-II Payload data link system) and ESA activities (TMTC security and GMES).

  15. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  16. Linked Gravitational Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Amy; Swearngin, Joseph; Wickes, Alexander; Willem Dalhuisen, Jan; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    The electromagnetic knot is a topologically nontrivial solution to the vacuum Maxwell equations with the property that any two field lines belonging to either the electric, magnetic, or Poynting vector fields are closed and linked exactly once [1]. The relationship between the vacuum Maxwell and linearized Einstein equations, as expressed in the form of the spin-N massless field equations, suggests that gravitational radiation possesses analogous topologically nontrivial field configurations. Using twistor methods we find the analogous spin-2 solutions of Petrov types N, D, and III. Aided by the concept of tendex and vortex lines as recently developed for the physical interpretation of solutions in general relativity [2], we investigate the physical properties of these knotted gravitational fields by characterizing the topology of their associated tendex and vortex lines.[4pt] [1] Ranada, A. F. and Trueba, J. L., Mod. Nonlinear Opt. III, 119, 197 (2002).[2] Nichols, D. A., et al., Phys. Rev. D, 84 (2011).

  17. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  18. Mixtures with relatives and linked markers.

    PubMed

    Dørum, Guro; Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas; Vigeland, Magnus Dehli; Egeland, Thore

    2016-05-01

    Mixture DNA profiles commonly appear in forensic genetics, and a large number of statistical methods and software are available for such cases. However, most of the literature concerns mixtures where the contributors are assumed unrelated and the genetic markers are unlinked. In this paper, we consider mixtures of linked markers and related contributors. If no relationships are involved, linkage can be ignored. While unlinked markers can be treated independently, linkage introduces dependencies. The use of linked markers presents statistical and computational challenges, but may also lead to a considerable increase in power since the number of markers available is much larger if we do not require the markers to be unlinked. In addition, some cases that cannot be solved with an unlimited number of unlinked autosomal markers can be solved with linked markers. We focus on two special cases of linked markers: pairs of linked autosomal markers and X-chromosomal markers. A framework is presented for calculation of likelihood ratios for mixtures with general relationships and with linkage between any number of markers. Finally, we explore the effect of linkage disequilibrium, also called allelic association, on the likelihood ratio. PMID:26614310

  19. Hierarchical link clustering algorithm in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodlaj, Jernej; Batagelj, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Hierarchical network clustering is an approach to find tightly and internally connected clusters (groups or communities) of nodes in a network based on its structure. Instead of nodes, it is possible to cluster links of the network. The sets of nodes belonging to clusters of links can overlap. While overlapping clusters of nodes are not always expected, they are natural in many applications. Using appropriate dissimilarity measures, we can complement the clustering strategy to consider, for example, the semantic meaning of links or nodes based on their properties. We propose a new hierarchical link clustering algorithm which in comparison to existing algorithms considers node and/or link properties (descriptions, attributes) of the input network alongside its structure using monotonic dissimilarity measures. The algorithm determines communities that form connected subnetworks (relational constraint) containing locally similar nodes with respect to their description. It is only implicitly based on the corresponding line graph of the input network, thus reducing its space and time complexities. We investigate both complexities analytically and statistically. Using provided dissimilarity measures, our algorithm can, in addition to the general overlapping community structure of input networks, uncover also related subregions inside these communities in a form of hierarchy. We demonstrate this ability on real-world and artificial network examples.

  20. Hierarchical link clustering algorithm in networks.

    PubMed

    Bodlaj, Jernej; Batagelj, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Hierarchical network clustering is an approach to find tightly and internally connected clusters (groups or communities) of nodes in a network based on its structure. Instead of nodes, it is possible to cluster links of the network. The sets of nodes belonging to clusters of links can overlap. While overlapping clusters of nodes are not always expected, they are natural in many applications. Using appropriate dissimilarity measures, we can complement the clustering strategy to consider, for example, the semantic meaning of links or nodes based on their properties. We propose a new hierarchical link clustering algorithm which in comparison to existing algorithms considers node and/or link properties (descriptions, attributes) of the input network alongside its structure using monotonic dissimilarity measures. The algorithm determines communities that form connected subnetworks (relational constraint) containing locally similar nodes with respect to their description. It is only implicitly based on the corresponding line graph of the input network, thus reducing its space and time complexities. We investigate both complexities analytically and statistically. Using provided dissimilarity measures, our algorithm can, in addition to the general overlapping community structure of input networks, uncover also related subregions inside these communities in a form of hierarchy. We demonstrate this ability on real-world and artificial network examples. PMID:26172761

  1. Kojak: Efficient analysis of chemically cross-linked protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hoopmann, Michael R.; Zelter, Alex; Johnson, Richard S.; Riffle, Michael; MacCoss, Michael J.; Davis, Trisha N.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry enable the analysis of protein-protein interactions and protein topologies, however complicated cross-linked peptide spectra require specialized algorithms to identify interacting sites. The Kojak cross-linking software application is a new, efficient approach to identify cross-linked peptides, enabling large-scale analysis of protein-protein interactions by chemical cross-linking techniques. The algorithm integrates spectral processing and scoring schemes adopted from traditional database search algorithms, and can identify cross-linked peptides using many different chemical cross-linkers, with or without heavy isotope labels. Kojak was used to analyze both novel and existing datasets, and was compared with existing cross-linking algorithms. The algorithm provided increased cross-link identifications over existing algorithms, and equally importantly, the results in a fraction of computational time. The Kojak algorithm is open-source, cross-platform, and freely available. This software provides both existing and new cross-linking researchers alike an effective way to derive additional cross-link identifications from new or existing datasets. For new users, it provides a simple analytical resource resulting in more cross-link identifications than other methods. PMID:25812159

  2. Discordant phenotype in siblings with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Bykowsky, M.J.; Veksler, K.S.; Sullivan, K.E.

    1996-03-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a congenital humoral immunodeficiency caused by a defect in a B-cell-specific signaling molecule, Btk. There has been little concordance of phenotype with genotype in this disorder, and defects in Btk cause immunodeficiencies that range from mild impairment to complete inability to produce antibodies. The factors modifying the phenotype of XLA are not understood. The current study is the first description of two male siblings with identical T{sup 134}{yields}C mutations in the translation initiation ATG of Btk who have different clinical phenotypes as well as different laboratory phenotypes. The proband lacks immunoglobulins and B cells and has recurrent infections, while the elder, affected brother has normal levels of IgG and IgM and very few infections. Both have undetectable levels of Btk kinase activity in circulating mononuclear cells. Complete sequencing of Btk gene transcripts in both brothers revealed no additional mutations to account for the discordant phenotypes. This description provides unequivocal evidence that the phenotype of XLA is influenced by factors additional to the Btk gene. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Shields, Gregory A.; Sternberg, Assaf

    2012-06-20

    Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

  4. Search for linking transitions in 143Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerma, F.; Lafosse, D. R.; Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D. G.; Asztalos, S.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; MacLeod, R. W.; Baktash, C.; Brinkman, M. J.; Rudolph, D.

    1997-10-01

    An experiment was performed with the Gammasphere Ge-detector array, and the Microball charged particle detector, to search for transitions involved in the decay from the yrast superdeformed band in 143Eu. Sum spectra in coincidence with single, double, and triple gates on SD transitions were produced to search for previously reported two-step links between the superdeformed and the near-yrast ND levels. The sum spectra contained no evidence of peaks corresponding to sums of two-step linking transitions. Several discrete γ rays were observed in coincidence with the yrast SD band. One previously reported single-step transition at 3361 keV was confirmed to decay out of the SD band.

  5. Soft Drinks and Weight Gain: How Strong Is the Link?

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Emily; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18924641

  6. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Linking Science and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna M.; Davis, Betty Jo; Brazier, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    We successfully integrated science and language arts in a third-grade classroom. The students used "scientist's eyes" and "poet's eyes" to write original poetry. In addition, they created habitat posters about a swamp organism. Scoring guides for the habitat poems and posters are also included. (Contains 5 figures and 2 tables.)

  8. Linking LEGO and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Edwards, Thomas G.; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    In mathematics, students should represent, model, and work with such real-world situations as those found in the physical world, the public policy realm, and society (CCSSI 2010). Additionally, students need to make decisions and be flexible enough to improve their decisions after analyzing realistic situations. The LEGO® Pets activity does just…

  9. Monitoring the internal structure of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) microgels with variable cross-link concentration.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Florian; Balaceanu, Andreea; Feoktystov, Artem; Pipich, Vitaliy; Wu, Yaodong; Allgaier, Jürgen; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Pich, Andrij; Schneider, Gerald J

    2014-12-23

    The combination of a set of complementary techniques allows us to construct an unprecedented and comprehensive picture of the internal structure, temperature dependent swelling behavior, and the dependence of these properties on the cross-linker concentration of microgel particles based on N-vinylcaprolactam (VCL). The microgels were synthesized by precipitation polymerization using different amounts of cross-linking agent. Characterization was performed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) using two complementary neutron instruments to cover a uniquely broad Q-range with one probe. Additionally we used dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Previously obtained nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) results on the same PVCL particles are utilized to round the picture off. Our study shows that both the particle radius and the cross-link density and therefore also the stiffness of the microgels rises with increasing cross-linker content. Hence, more cross-linker reduces the swelling capability distinctly. These findings are supported by SANS and AFM measurements. Independent DLS experiments also found the increase in particle size but suggest an unchanged cross-link density. The reason for the apparent contradiction is the indirect extraction of the parameters via a model in the evaluation of DLS measurements. The more direct approach in AFM by evaluating the cross section profiles of observed microgel particles gives evidence of significantly softer and more deformable particles at lower cross-linker concentrations and therefore verifies the change in cross-link density. DSC data indicate a minor but unexpected shift of the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) to higher temperatures and exposes a more heterogeneous internal structure of the microgels with increasing cross-link density. Moreover, a change in the total energy transfer during the VPT gives evidence that the strength

  10. Linking to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    my copy of JCE in the mail each month, and I expect you do too. I can glance at the cover to get an overview of an issue's content, and I usually am enticed inside by intriguing cover art. I can scan the table of contents to find articles I want to read, or I can just browse through the issue to see what looks interesting. Usually the editors have juxtaposed related articles so that I often find a small treasure trove. The printed Journal is quite portable and can be read in a car or airplane. It will last a long time, and until the paper deteriorates, I will never have a problem reading back issues. I have almost every issue from the first day I subscribed and have even added some older ones from collections of retired colleagues who no longer had shelf space for them. I certainly would not want to give up my printed copies, and I want to keep getting them. I find that JCE Online provides a different kind of resource that is equally valuable. It contains more information, and information that is more appropriate in electronic form. It links related ideas into a much more complex web of information than is possible in print. And it opens pathways to lots of information that is not part of JCE but resides elsewhere. Using this issue as an example, let's take a tour of what JCE Online can do.

    • Point your Web browser to http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu
    • Click on Journal and then on Current Issue (unless September 1999 is no longer the current issue, in which case you will find it in Past Issues).
    • In the table of contents, find the article "UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens". Click on the title.
    • When the abstract appears, click on Full Text (PDF) to see the article, just as it appears on page 1199 in this issue.
    • When you are prompted, enter the name and subscriber number from your address label.
    • At the end of the article you will find that supplementary materials are available (including a procedure for testing

    • The linking number in systems with Periodic Boundary Conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Panagiotou, E.

      2015-11-01

      Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC) are often used for the simulation of complex physical systems. Using the Gauss linking number, we define the periodic linking number as a measure of entanglement for two oriented curves in a system employing PBC. In the case of closed chains in PBC, the periodic linking number is an integer topological invariant that depends on a finite number of components in the periodic system. For open chains, the periodic linking number is an infinite series that accounts for all the topological interactions in the periodic system. In this paper we give a rigorous proof that the periodic linking number is defined for the infinite system, i.e., that it converges for one, two, and three PBC models. It gives a real number that varies continuously with the configuration and gives a global measure of the geometric complexity of the system of chains. Similarly, for a single oriented chain, we define the periodic self-linking number and prove that it also is defined for open chains. In addition, we define the cell periodic linking and self-linking numbers giving localizations of the periodic linking numbers. These can be used to give good estimates of the periodic linking numbers in infinite systems. We also define the local periodic linking number associated to chains in the immediate cell neighborhood of a chain in order to study local linking measures in contrast to the global linking measured by the periodic linking numbers. Finally, we study and compare these measures when applied to a PBC model of polyethylene melts.

    • Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.

      1993-01-01

      networks. Conclusions are presented, including a graphical analysis of results depicting the ordered set of links versus the set of all possible links based on the computed Bit Error Rate (BER). Finally, future research is discussed which includes enhancements to the HALO algorithm, network simulation, and the addition of an intelligent routing algorithm for BP.

    • Accelerating coordination in temporal networks by engineering the link order

      PubMed Central

      Masuda, Naoki

      2016-01-01

      Social dynamics on a network may be accelerated or decelerated depending on which pairs of individuals in the network communicate early and which pairs do later. The order with which the links in a given network are sequentially used, which we call the link order, may be a strong determinant of dynamical behaviour on networks, potentially adding a new dimension to effects of temporal networks relative to static networks. Here we study the effect of the link order on linear coordination (i.e., synchronisation) dynamics. We show that the coordination speed considerably depends on specific orders of links. In addition, applying each single link for a long time to ensure strong pairwise coordination before moving to a next pair of individuals does not often enhance coordination of the entire network. We also implement a simple greedy algorithm to optimise the link order in favour of fast coordination. PMID:26916093

    • Accelerating coordination in temporal networks by engineering the link order

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Masuda, Naoki

      2016-02-01

      Social dynamics on a network may be accelerated or decelerated depending on which pairs of individuals in the network communicate early and which pairs do later. The order with which the links in a given network are sequentially used, which we call the link order, may be a strong determinant of dynamical behaviour on networks, potentially adding a new dimension to effects of temporal networks relative to static networks. Here we study the effect of the link order on linear coordination (i.e., synchronisation) dynamics. We show that the coordination speed considerably depends on specific orders of links. In addition, applying each single link for a long time to ensure strong pairwise coordination before moving to a next pair of individuals does not often enhance coordination of the entire network. We also implement a simple greedy algorithm to optimise the link order in favour of fast coordination.

    • Maternal Condition but Not Corticosterone Is Linked to Offspring Sex Ratio in a Passerine Bird

      PubMed Central

      Henderson, Lindsay J.; Evans, Neil P.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Adams, Aileen; Arnold, Kathryn E.

      2014-01-01

      There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT) is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms. PMID:25347532

    • Protective link for superconducting coil

      DOEpatents

      Umans, Stephen D.

      2009-12-08

      A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

    • Using ATM over SATCOM links

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Comparetto, Gary M.

      1995-01-01

      The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol is studied from the standpoint of determining what limitations, if any, exist in using it over satellite links. It is concluded that, while there is nothing intrinsic about ATM that would generally preclude its use over satellite links, there are, however, several intrinsic characteristics of satellite links, as well as some satellite system configuration-specific issues, that must be taken into account.

    • Evidence and Clinical Trials.

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Goodman, Steven N.

      1989-11-01

      This dissertation explores the use of a mathematical measure of statistical evidence, the log likelihood ratio, in clinical trials. The methods and thinking behind the use of an evidential measure are contrasted with traditional methods of analyzing data, which depend primarily on a p-value as an estimate of the statistical strength of an observed data pattern. It is contended that neither the behavioral dictates of Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing methods, nor the coherency dictates of Bayesian methods are realistic models on which to base inference. The use of the likelihood alone is applied to four aspects of trial design or conduct: the calculation of sample size, the monitoring of data, testing for the equivalence of two treatments, and meta-analysis--the combining of results from different trials. Finally, a more general model of statistical inference, using belief functions, is used to see if it is possible to separate the assessment of evidence from our background knowledge. It is shown that traditional and Bayesian methods can be modeled as two ends of a continuum of structured background knowledge, methods which summarize evidence at the point of maximum likelihood assuming no structure, and Bayesian methods assuming complete knowledge. Both schools are seen to be missing a concept of ignorance- -uncommitted belief. This concept provides the key to understanding the problem of sampling to a foregone conclusion and the role of frequency properties in statistical inference. The conclusion is that statistical evidence cannot be defined independently of background knowledge, and that frequency properties of an estimator are an indirect measure of uncommitted belief. Several likelihood summaries need to be used in clinical trials, with the quantitative disparity between summaries being an indirect measure of our ignorance. This conclusion is linked with parallel ideas in the philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.

    • Covalently linked organic networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tsotsalas, Manuel; Addicoat, Matthew

      2015-02-01

      In this review, we intend to give an overview of the synthesis of well-defined covalently-bound organic network materials such as covalent organic frameworks (COFs), conjugated microporous frameworks (CMPs) and other “ideal polymer networks” and discuss the different approaches in their synthesis and their potential applications. In addition we will describe the common computational approaches and highlight recent achievements in the computational study of their structure and properties. For further information the interested reader is referred to several excellent and more detailed reviews dealing with the synthesis [Dawson 2012; Ding 2013; Feng 2012] and computational aspects [Han 2009; Colón 2014] of the materials presented here.

    • The chain of cross-contamination: link-by-link.

      PubMed

      Schwartz, Jeanne

      2002-01-01

      Conscious efforts must be made to break the chain of cross-contamination--link-by-link. Pay attention to detail Avoid being careless Avoid touching objects while wearing soiled gloves Frequently wash hands (15-second hand washing) to remove pathogens--before and after gloving, and before handling food or drink Wear all PPE, and change accordingly. PMID:12518502

  1. Improving personalized link prediction by hybrid diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by traditional link prediction and to solve the problem of recommending friends in social networks, we introduce the personalized link prediction in this paper, in which each individual will get equal number of diversiform predictions. While the performances of many classical algorithms are not satisfactory under this framework, thus new algorithms are in urgent need. Motivated by previous researches in other fields, we generalize heat conduction process to the framework of personalized link prediction and find that this method outperforms many classical similarity-based algorithms, especially in the performance of diversity. In addition, we demonstrate that adding one ground node that is supposed to connect all the nodes in the system will greatly benefit the performance of heat conduction. Finally, better hybrid algorithms composed of local random walk and heat conduction have been proposed. Numerical results show that the hybrid algorithms can outperform other algorithms simultaneously in all four adopted metrics: AUC, precision, recall and hamming distance. In a word, this work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effect of physical processes in personalized link prediction.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association. PMID:25877901

  3. Parkinson's Disease: The Mitochondria-Iron Link

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Carlos M.; Núñez, Marco T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage are conditions often found in damaged brain areas of Parkinson's disease. We propose that a causal link exists between these three events. Mitochondrial dysfunction results not only in increased reactive oxygen species production but also in decreased iron-sulfur cluster synthesis and unorthodox activation of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1), a key regulator of cell iron homeostasis. In turn, IRP1 activation results in iron accumulation and hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. These three occurrences—mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage—generate a positive feedback loop of increased iron accumulation and oxidative stress. Here, we review the evidence that points to a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation as early events in the development of sporadic and genetic cases of Parkinson's disease. Finally, an attempt is done to contextualize the possible relationship between mitochondria dysfunction and iron dyshomeostasis. Based on published evidence, we propose that iron chelation—by decreasing iron-associated oxidative damage and by inducing cell survival and cell-rescue pathways—is a viable therapy for retarding this cycle. PMID:27293957

  4. X-linked disorders with cerebellar dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    X-linked disorders with cerebellar dysgenesis (XLCD) are a genetically heterogeneous and clinically variable group of disorders in which the hallmark is a cerebellar defect (hypoplasia, atrophy or dysplasia) visible on brain imaging, caused by gene mutations or genomic imbalances on the X-chromosome. The neurological features of XLCD include hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability, ataxia and/or other cerebellar signs. Normal cognitive development has also been reported. Cerebellar dysgenesis may be isolated or associated with other brain malformations or multiorgan involvement. There are at least 15 genes on the X-chromosome that have been constantly or occasionally associated with a pathological cerebellar phenotype. 8 XLCD loci have been mapped and several families with X-linked inheritance have been reported. Recently, two recurrent duplication syndromes in Xq28 have been associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. Given the report of several forms of XLCD and the excess of males with ataxia, this group of conditions is probably underestimated and families of patients with neuroradiological and clinical evidence of a cerebellar disorder should be counseled for high risk of X-linked inheritance. PMID:21569638

  5. Elemental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    He set out to prove that ocean sediments contain elevated levels of the rare element iridium because of the natural weathering of the continents. Instead, what Ariel Anbar found was new evidence that a meteorite may have had a role in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous era.By studying the geochemical properties of iridium, Anbar, a professor of earth and environmental sciences and chemistry at the University of Rochester, found that the residence time—a measure of the rate at which an element settles out of water into sediments—of iridium in ocean water is 2000 to 20,000 years. That finding suggests that a large deposit of iridium could have lingered in the world's oceans long enough to explain the thickness of the iridium-rich sediment layers at the K-T boundary.

  6. Fishy evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adding to the ongoing debate over the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous period, a paleontologist from Purdue University recently uncovered a bed of 65-million-year old fish bones that bears the fingerprints of a meteorite impact. Gathering the fossils from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, William Zinsmeister discovered what he has termed a "horizon of death," a 12-square-kilometer bone bed resting just above a layer of iridium. The element is rare on Earth but common to most meteorites.The Purdue professor of geosciences believes the site provides strong evidence that the impact of an extraterrestrial object played at least some part in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous.

  7. The Drosophila ETV5 Homologue Ets96B: Molecular Link between Obesity and Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J; Klockars, Anica; Eriksson, Anders; Voisin, Sarah; Dnyansagar, Rohit; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Kasagiannis, Anna; Akram, Mehwish; Kheder, Sania; Ambrosi, Valerie; Hallqvist, Emilie; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Several reports suggest obesity and bipolar disorder (BD) share some physiological and behavioural similarities. For instance, obese individuals are more impulsive and have heightened reward responsiveness, phenotypes associated with BD, while bipolar patients become obese at a higher rate and earlier age than people without BD; however, the molecular mechanisms of such an association remain obscure. Here we demonstrate, using whole transcriptome analysis, that Drosophila Ets96B, homologue of obesity-linked gene ETV5, regulates cellular systems associated with obesity and BD. Consistent with a role in obesity and BD, loss of nervous system Ets96B during development increases triacylglyceride concentration, while inducing a heightened startle-response, as well as increasing hyperactivity and reducing sleep. Of notable interest, mouse Etv5 and Drosophila Ets96B are expressed in dopaminergic-rich regions, and loss of Ets96B specifically in dopaminergic neurons recapitulates the metabolic and behavioural phenotypes. Moreover, our data indicate Ets96B inhibits dopaminergic-specific neuroprotective systems. Additionally, we reveal that multiple SNPs in human ETV5 link to body mass index (BMI) and BD, providing further evidence for ETV5 as an important and novel molecular intermediate between obesity and BD. We identify a novel molecular link between obesity and bipolar disorder. The Drosophila ETV5 homologue Ets96B regulates the expression of cellular systems with links to obesity and behaviour, including the expression of a conserved endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone complex known to be neuroprotective. Finally, a connection between the obesity-linked gene ETV5 and bipolar disorder emphasizes a functional relationship between obesity and BD at the molecular level. PMID:27280443

  8. The Drosophila ETV5 Homologue Ets96B: Molecular Link between Obesity and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Eriksson, Anders; Voisin, Sarah; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Kasagiannis, Anna; Kheder, Sania; Ambrosi, Valerie; Hallqvist, Emilie; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggest obesity and bipolar disorder (BD) share some physiological and behavioural similarities. For instance, obese individuals are more impulsive and have heightened reward responsiveness, phenotypes associated with BD, while bipolar patients become obese at a higher rate and earlier age than people without BD; however, the molecular mechanisms of such an association remain obscure. Here we demonstrate, using whole transcriptome analysis, that Drosophila Ets96B, homologue of obesity-linked gene ETV5, regulates cellular systems associated with obesity and BD. Consistent with a role in obesity and BD, loss of nervous system Ets96B during development increases triacylglyceride concentration, while inducing a heightened startle-response, as well as increasing hyperactivity and reducing sleep. Of notable interest, mouse Etv5 and Drosophila Ets96B are expressed in dopaminergic-rich regions, and loss of Ets96B specifically in dopaminergic neurons recapitulates the metabolic and behavioural phenotypes. Moreover, our data indicate Ets96B inhibits dopaminergic-specific neuroprotective systems. Additionally, we reveal that multiple SNPs in human ETV5 link to body mass index (BMI) and BD, providing further evidence for ETV5 as an important and novel molecular intermediate between obesity and BD. We identify a novel molecular link between obesity and bipolar disorder. The Drosophila ETV5 homologue Ets96B regulates the expression of cellular systems with links to obesity and behaviour, including the expression of a conserved endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone complex known to be neuroprotective. Finally, a connection between the obesity-linked gene ETV5 and bipolar disorder emphasizes a functional relationship between obesity and BD at the molecular level. PMID:27280443

  9. A Genomic Map of the Effects of Linked Selection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Elyashiv, Eyal; Hu, Tina T.; Strutsovsky, Alon; McVicker, Graham; Andolfatto, Peter; Sella, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection at one site shapes patterns of genetic variation at linked sites. Quantifying the effects of “linked selection” on levels of genetic diversity is key to making reliable inference about demography, building a null model in scans for targets of adaptation, and learning about the dynamics of natural selection. Here, we introduce the first method that jointly infers parameters of distinct modes of linked selection, notably background selection and selective sweeps, from genome-wide diversity data, functional annotations and genetic maps. The central idea is to calculate the probability that a neutral site is polymorphic given local annotations, substitution patterns, and recombination rates. Information is then combined across sites and samples using composite likelihood in order to estimate genome-wide parameters of distinct modes of selection. In addition to parameter estimation, this approach yields a map of the expected neutral diversity levels along the genome. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we apply it to genome-wide resequencing data from 125 lines in Drosophila melanogaster and reliably predict diversity levels at the 1Mb scale. Our results corroborate estimates of a high fraction of beneficial substitutions in proteins and untranslated regions (UTR). They allow us to distinguish between the contribution of sweeps and other modes of selection around amino acid substitutions and to uncover evidence for pervasive sweeps in untranslated regions (UTRs). Our inference further suggests a substantial effect of other modes of linked selection and of adaptation in particular. More generally, we demonstrate that linked selection has had a larger effect in reducing diversity levels and increasing their variance in D. melanogaster than previously appreciated. PMID:27536991

  10. A Genomic Map of the Effects of Linked Selection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Elyashiv, Eyal; Sattath, Shmuel; Hu, Tina T; Strutsovsky, Alon; McVicker, Graham; Andolfatto, Peter; Coop, Graham; Sella, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Natural selection at one site shapes patterns of genetic variation at linked sites. Quantifying the effects of "linked selection" on levels of genetic diversity is key to making reliable inference about demography, building a null model in scans for targets of adaptation, and learning about the dynamics of natural selection. Here, we introduce the first method that jointly infers parameters of distinct modes of linked selection, notably background selection and selective sweeps, from genome-wide diversity data, functional annotations and genetic maps. The central idea is to calculate the probability that a neutral site is polymorphic given local annotations, substitution patterns, and recombination rates. Information is then combined across sites and samples using composite likelihood in order to estimate genome-wide parameters of distinct modes of selection. In addition to parameter estimation, this approach yields a map of the expected neutral diversity levels along the genome. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we apply it to genome-wide resequencing data from 125 lines in Drosophila melanogaster and reliably predict diversity levels at the 1Mb scale. Our results corroborate estimates of a high fraction of beneficial substitutions in proteins and untranslated regions (UTR). They allow us to distinguish between the contribution of sweeps and other modes of selection around amino acid substitutions and to uncover evidence for pervasive sweeps in untranslated regions (UTRs). Our inference further suggests a substantial effect of other modes of linked selection and of adaptation in particular. More generally, we demonstrate that linked selection has had a larger effect in reducing diversity levels and increasing their variance in D. melanogaster than previously appreciated. PMID:27536991

  11. Investigation of cross-linking characteristics of novel hole-transporting materials for solution-processed phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemin; Ameen, Shahid; Lee, Changjin

    2016-04-01

    After the success of commercialization of the vacuum-evaporated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solutionprocessing or printing of OLEDs are currently attracting much research interests. However, contrary to various kinds of readily available vacuum-evaporable OLED materials, the solution-processable OLED materials are still relatively rare. Hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials for solution-processed OLEDs are especially limited, because they need additional characteristics such as cross-linking to realize multilayer structures in solution-processed OLEDs, as well as their own electrically hole-transporting characteristics. The presence of such cross-linking characteristics of solutionprocessable HTL materials therefore makes them more challenging in the development stage, and also makes them essence of solution-processable OLED materials. In this work, the structure-property relationships of thermally crosslinkable HTL materials were systematically investigated by changing styrene-based cross-linking functionalities and modifying the carbazole-based hole-transporting core structures. The temperature dependency of the cross-linking characteristics of the HTL materials was systematically investigated by the UV-vis. absorption spectroscopy. The new HTL materials were also applied to green phosphorescent OLEDs, and their device characteristics were also investigated based on the chemical structures of the HTL materials. The device configuration was [ITO / PEDOT:PSS / HTL / EML / ETL / CsF / Al]. We found out that the chemical structures of the cross-linking functionalities greatly affect not only the cross-linking characteristics of the resultant HTL materials, but also the resultant OLED device characteristics. The increase of the maximum luminance and efficiency of OLEDs was evident as the cross-linking temperature decreases from higher than 200°C to at around 150°C.

  12. Characterization of the specificities of human blood group H gene-specified alpha 1,2-L-fucosyltransferase toward sulfated/sialylated/fucosylated acceptors: evidence for an inverse relationship between alpha 1,2-L-fucosylation of Gal and alpha 1,6-L-fucosylation of asparagine-linked GlcNAc.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; Matta, K L

    1996-07-01

    Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc beta 1,6(Gal beta 1,3) GalNAc alpha-O-Bn, the enzyme had a higher affinity ( > 3-fold) for the Gal linked to GlcNAc. (q) With respect to Gal beta 1,- 3GlcNAc beta-O-Bn (3.0 mM), fetuin triantennary asialo glycopeptide (2.4 mM), bovine IgG diantennary glycopeptide (2.8 mM), asialo Cowper's gland mucin (0.06 mM), and the acrylamide copolymers (0.125 mM each) containing Gal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta-, Gal beta 1,3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta-, Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha-, Gal beta 1,3Gal beta-, or Gal alpha 1,3Gal beta- units were 153.6%, 43.0%, 6.2%, 52.5%, 94.9%, 14.7%, 23.6%, and 15.6% active, respectively. (r) Fucosylation by alpha 1,2-L-FT of the galactosyl residue which occurs on the antennary structure of the bovine IgG glycopeptide was adversely affected by the presence of an alpha 1,6-L-fucosyl residue located on the distant glucosaminyl residue that is directly attached to the asparagine of the protein backbone. This became evident from the 4-fold activity of alpha 1,2-L-FT toward bovine IgG glycopeptide after approximately 5% removal of alpha 1,6-linked Fuo. PMID:8688427

  13. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  14. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  15. The Link between Radioactive Fallout and SAT Scores Is Nonexistent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Robert

    1983-01-01

    This study objects to the "very specious statistical arguments" of Ernest Sternglass and Steven Bell in the April issue of this magazine, in which illogical and inconsistent statistical evidence suggested cognitive damage during infancy may be linked to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons from 1954 to 1963. (PB)

  16. The Link, 1995-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Link, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the 16 issues of the newsletter "The Link" published during 1995-98. The Link disseminates resources, recent educational research findings, and other information of interest to practitioners in the four states served by Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL): Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Feature…

  17. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    PubMed

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type. PMID:132916

  18. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs. PMID:26155754

  19. 19 CFR 171.43 - Evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence required. 171.43 Section 171.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Restoration of Proceeds of Sale § 171.43 Evidence required. In addition to such other evidence as...

  20. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  1. Household Chaos--Links with Parenting and Child Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldwell, Joanne; Pike, Alison; Dunn, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Background: The study aimed to confirm previous findings showing links between household chaos and parenting in addition to examining whether household chaos was predictive of children's behaviour over and above parenting. In addition, we investigated whether household chaos acts as a moderator between parenting and children's behaviour. Method:…

  2. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  3. Food additives and contaminants. An update.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Conner, M W

    1986-10-15

    Food additives continue to be a source of benefits to the consuming public but there are also perceived risks. Concern for the latter in the last decade has produced a society afflicted with cancer phobia. The intentional additives including sugars, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose make up 90% of the direct additives. These, along with a limited number of familiar items make up a large proportion of the remainder of the additives. Such common ingredients as nitrates and nitrites, solanine, cyanogenetic compounds, arsenic, etc., are unavoidably consumed in the diet and with little if any evidence for public health consequences. Major concern on the part of the public in recent years has been focused on man-made chemicals which are intentionally added to foods to enhance flavors and acceptability, nutrient value, shelf life and increased availability. These include food colors, nonnutritive and low-nutrient sweeteners, (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame); antioxidants; and nitrites. Contaminants, sometimes incorrectly included in lists of food additives, present the greatest potential threat to public health. Such contaminants as mycotoxins, nitrosamines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, among others, provide a continuing challenge to our regulatory agencies and to public health authorities. Evidence to date indicate that these responsible for food safety are doing an admirable job, and as a society, our food supply has never been better, or safer, and, as a population, we have never been healthier. Aside from contaminants, major concerns relate to an excess of good food and to obesity. These comments should not be taken to infer that we should relax our concern and surveillance; instead more concern and surveillance should be exerted toward those uncontrolled substances such as natural plant products and alleged natural nutrients, roots, herbs, etc., which are given much credit for positive health effects, without meeting the high standards of our

  4. Is Synovial Macrophage Activation the Inflammatory Link Between Obesity and Osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Sun, Antonia RuJia; Friis, Thor; Sekar, Sunderajhan; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin; Prasadam, Indira

    2016-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease, affecting nearly 25 % of the world population (WHO reports), leading to pain and disability. There are as yet no clinically proven therapies to halt OA onset or progression; the development of such therapies is, therefore, a national as well as international research priority. Obesity-related metabolic syndrome has been identified as the most significant, but also an entirely preventable risk factor for OA; however, the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. We have examined the available literature linking OA and metabolic syndrome. The two conditions have a shared pathogenesis in which chronic low-grade inflammation of affected tissues is recognized as a major factor that is associated with systemic inflammation. In addition, the occurrence of metabolic syndrome appears to alter systemic and local pro-inflammatory cytokines that are also related to the development of OA-like pathologies. Recent findings highlight the importance not only of the elevated number of macrophage in inflamed synovium but also the activation and amplification of the inflammatory state and other pathological changes. The role of local inflammation on the synovium is now considered to be a pharmacological target against which to aim disease-modifying drugs. In this review, we evaluate evidence linking OA, synovitis and metabolic syndrome and discuss the merits of targeting macrophage activation as a valid treatment option for OA. PMID:27422277

  5. Moderators of the Dynamic Link between Alcohol Use and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one’s own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129

  6. Mechanisms Linking Colorectal Cancer to the Consumption of (Processed) Red Meat: A Review.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, Daniel; Mertens, Birgit; De Smet, Stefaan; Ulens, Michèle

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. The vast majority of CRC cases have been linked to environmental causes rather than to heritable genetic changes. Over the last decades, epidemiological evidence linking the consumption of red and, more convincingly, of processed red meat to CRC has accumulated. In parallel, hypotheses on carcinogenic mechanisms underlying an association between CRC and the intake of red and processed red meat have been proposed and investigated in biological studies. The hypotheses that have received most attention until now include (1) the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines, two groups of compounds recognized as carcinogenic, (2) the enhancing effect of (nitrosyl)heme on the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and lipid peroxidation. However, none of these hypotheses completely explains the link between red and processed red meat intake and the CRC risk. Consequently, scientists have proposed additional mechanisms or refined their hypotheses. This review first briefly summarizes the development of CRC followed by an in-depth overview and critical discussion of the different potential carcinogenic mechanisms underlying the increased CRC risk associated with the consumption of red and processed red meat. PMID:25975275

  7. Laterality strength is linked to stress reactivity in Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni).

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Evan E; Vila Pouca, Catarina; Brown, Culum

    2016-05-15

    Cerebral lateralization is an evolutionarily deep-rooted trait, ubiquitous among the vertebrates and present even in some invertebrates. Despite the advantages of cerebral lateralization in enhancing cognition and facilitating greater social cohesion, large within population laterality variation exists in many animal species. It is proposed that this variation is maintained due links with inter-individual personality trait differences. Here we explored for lateralization in Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) using T-maze turn and rotational swimming tasks. Additionally, we explored for a link between personality traits, boldness and stress reactivity, and cerebral lateralization. Sharks demonstrated large individual and sex biased laterality variation, with females demonstrating greater lateralization than males overall. Stress reactivity, but not boldness, was found to significantly correlate with lateralization strength. Stronger lateralized individuals were more reactive to stress. Demonstrating laterality in elasmobranchs for the first time indicates ancient evolutionary roots of vertebrate lateralization approximately 240 million years old. Greater lateralization in female elasmobranchs may be related enhancing females' ability to process multiple stimuli during mating, which could increase survivability and facilitate insemination. Despite contrasting evidence in teleost fishes, the results of this study suggest that stress reactivity, and other personality traits, may be linked to variation in lateralization. PMID:26946274

  8. Moderators of the dynamic link between alcohol use and aggressive behavior among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129

  9. Biological plausibility linking sleep apnoea and metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2016-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a very common disorder that affects 10-25% of the general population. In the past two decades, OSA has emerged as a cardiometabolic risk factor in both paediatric and adult populations. OSA-induced metabolic perturbations include dyslipidaemia, atherogenesis, liver dysfunction and abnormal glucose metabolism. The mainstay of treatment for OSA is adenotonsillectomy in children and continuous positive airway pressure therapy in adults. Although these therapies are effective at resolving the sleep-disordered breathing component of OSA, they do not always produce beneficial effects on metabolic function. Thus, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which OSA influences metabolic dysfunction might yield improved therapeutic approaches and outcomes. In this Review, we summarize the evidence obtained from animal models and studies of patients with OSA of potential mechanistic pathways linking the hallmarks of OSA (intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation) with metabolic dysfunction. Special emphasis is given to adipose tissue dysfunction induced by sleep apnoea, which bears a striking resemblance to adipose dysfunction resulting from obesity. In addition, important gaps in current knowledge and promising lines of future investigation are identified. PMID:26939978

  10. X-linked dominant protoporphyria: The first reported Japanese case.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yukiko; Kokunai, Yasuhito; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Akasaka, Eijiro; Nakano, Hajime; Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    A 12-year-old boy with photosensitivity since 3 years of age presented with small concavities on both cheeks, the nasal root and the dorsal surface of both hands. According to the clinical features, erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was suspected. Urine and blood samples were tested for porphyrin derivatives, which revealed a markedly elevated level of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and a diagnosis of EPP was made. The patient's mother had no photosensitivity, however, lesions appearing slightly as small scars were found on the dorsum of her right hand; his elder sister and father showed no rash. The EP levels were elevated in samples from his mother and mildly elevated in those from his elder sister and father. To obtain a definitive diagnosis, genetic analyses were performed using samples from all family members, which revealed no mutations in the ferrochelatase-encoding gene (FECH), which is responsible for EPP. Instead, a pathological mutation of the 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase-encoding gene (ALAS2) was identified in samples from the patient, his mother and his elder sister, confirming a definitive diagnosis of X-linked dominant protoporphyria (XLDPP). This is the first Japanese family reported to have XLDPP, demonstrating evidence of the condition in Japan. In addition, because XLDPP is very similar to EPP in its clinical aspects and laboratory findings, a genetic analysis is required for the differential diagnosis. PMID:26387792

  11. AAH Cage Out-Link and In-Link Antenna Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeutter, Dean C.

    1998-01-01

    This final report encapsulates the accomplishments of the third year of work on an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS). Overall MU/ABTS project objectives are to provide a biotelemetry system that can collect data from and send commands to an implanted biotransceiver. This system will provide for studies of rodent development in space. The system must be capable of operating in a metal animal cage environment. An important goal is the development of a small, "smart", micropower, implantable biotransceiver with eight-channel data output and single channel command input capabilities with the flexibility for easy customization for a variety of physiologic investigations. The NASA Ames/Marquette University Joint Research work has been devoted to the system design of such a new state of the art biotelemetry system, having multiple physiologic inputs, and bi-directional data transfer capabilities. This work has provided a successful prototype system that connects, by two-way radio links, an addressable biotelemetry system that provides communication between an animal biotelemeter prototype and a personal computer. The operational features of the prototype system are: (1) two-way PCM communication with implanted biotelemeter; (2) microcontroller based biotelemeter; (3) out-link: wideband FSK (60 kBaud); (4) in-link: OOK (2.4 kbaud); (5) septum antenna arrays (In/Out-Links); and (6) personal computer data interface. The important requirement of this third year's work, to demonstrate two-way communication with transmit and receive antennas inside the metal animal cage, has been successfully accomplished. The advances discussed in this report demonstrate that the AAH cage antenna system can provide Out-link and In-link capability for the ABTS bi-directional telemetry system, and can serve as a benchmark for project status. Additions and enhancements to the most recent (April 1997) prototype cage and antenna have been implemented. The implementation, testing, and

  12. Linked and knotted chimera filaments in oscillatory systems.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hon Wai; Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-07-01

    While the existence of stable knotted and linked vortex lines has been established in many experimental and theoretical systems, their existence in oscillatory systems and systems with nonlocal coupling has remained elusive. Here, we present strong numerical evidence that stable knots and links such as trefoils and Hopf links do exist in simple, complex, and chaotic oscillatory systems if the coupling between the oscillators is neither too short ranged nor too long ranged. In this case, effective repulsive forces between vortex lines in knotted and linked structures stabilize curvature-driven shrinkage observed for single vortex rings. In contrast to real fluids and excitable media, the vortex lines correspond to scroll wave chimeras [synchronized scroll waves with spatially extended (tubelike) unsynchronized filaments], a prime example of spontaneous synchrony breaking in systems of identical oscillators. In the case of complex oscillatory systems, this leads to a topological superstructure combining knotted filaments and synchronization defect sheets. PMID:27575065

  13. Linked and knotted chimera filaments in oscillatory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hon Wai; Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-07-01

    While the existence of stable knotted and linked vortex lines has been established in many experimental and theoretical systems, their existence in oscillatory systems and systems with nonlocal coupling has remained elusive. Here, we present strong numerical evidence that stable knots and links such as trefoils and Hopf links do exist in simple, complex, and chaotic oscillatory systems if the coupling between the oscillators is neither too short ranged nor too long ranged. In this case, effective repulsive forces between vortex lines in knotted and linked structures stabilize curvature-driven shrinkage observed for single vortex rings. In contrast to real fluids and excitable media, the vortex lines correspond to scroll wave chimeras [synchronized scroll waves with spatially extended (tubelike) unsynchronized filaments], a prime example of spontaneous synchrony breaking in systems of identical oscillators. In the case of complex oscillatory systems, this leads to a topological superstructure combining knotted filaments and synchronization defect sheets.

  14. No Generalization of Practice for Nonzero Simple Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Beech, Leah C.

    2014-01-01

    Several types of converging evidence have suggested recently that skilled adults solve very simple addition problems (e.g., 2 + 1, 4 + 2) using a fast, unconscious counting algorithm. These results stand in opposition to the long-held assumption in the cognitive arithmetic literature that such simple addition problems normally are solved by fact…

  15. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  16. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  17. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  18. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  19. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  20. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  1. A new nonsyndromic X-linked sensorineural hearing impairment linked to Xp21.2

    SciTech Connect

    Lalwani, A.K.; Brister, J.R.; Fex, J.; Grundfast, K.M.; Pikus, A.T.; Ploplis, B.; San Agustin, T.; Skarka, H.; Wilcox, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    X-linked deafness is a rare cause of hereditary hearing impairment. We have identified a family with X-linked dominant sensorineural hearing impairment, characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in carrier females, that is linked to the Xp21.2, which contains the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus. The auditory impairment in affected males was congenital, bilateral, profound, sensorineural, affecting all frequencies, and without evidence of radiographic abnormality of the temporal bone. Adult carrier females manifested bilateral, mild-to-moderate high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment of delayed onset during adulthood. Eighteen commercially available polymorphic markers from the X chromosome, generating a 10-15-cM map, were initially used for identification of a candidate region. DXS997, located within the DMD gene, generated a two-point LOD score of 2.91 at {theta} = 0, with every carrier mother heterozygous at this locus. Recombination events at DXS992 (located within the DMD locus, 3{prime} to exon 50 of the dystrophin gene) and at DXS1068 (5{prime} to the brain promoter of the dystrophin gene) were observed. No recombination events were noted with the following markers within the DMD locus: 5{prime}DYS II, intron 44, DXS997, and intron 50. There was no clinical evidence of Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy in any family member. It is likely that this family represents a new locus on the X chromosome, which when mutated results in nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and is distinct from the heterogeneous group of X-linked hearing losses that have been previously described. 57 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  3. Random links enhance the sensitivity of networks to heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep Rungta, Pranay; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2015-12-01

    In this work we investigate the dynamics of networks of bistable elements with varying degrees of randomness in connections, considering both static random links and time-varying random links. We explore how the presence of a few dissimilar elements affects the collective features of this system, and find that a network with random links is hyper-sensitive to heterogeneity. Namely, counter-intuitively, even a small number of distinct elements manages to drastically influence the collective dynamics of the network, with the mean-field swinging to the steady state of the minority elements. We find that the transition in the collective field gets sharper as the fraction of random links increases, for both static and time-varying links. We also demonstrate that networks where the links are switched more frequently, synchronize faster. Lastly, we show that as global bias tends to a critical value, even a single different element manages to drag the entire system to the natural stable state of the minority element. So it is evident that when coupling connections are random, a network with even a very small number of links per node, has the ability to become ultra-sensitive to heterogeneity.

  4. Links and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    At the end of June a new website was launched to enable young people to get involved with the UK's national Foresight programme and to help shape the future. `School of the Future - Young people with Foresight' will provide young people with the means to contribute to the national programme which develops scenarios of the future, looking at possible needs, opportunities or threats and deciding what should be done now to make sure these challenges can be met. The site can be found at www.asset.org.uk and it will be run by the Association for Schools' Science, Engineering and Technology (ASSET). The latest round of Foresight began in April and panels are taking a look at the aging population, crime prevention, built environment and transport, aerospace and systems, energy and the natural environment, information, communications and media, materials and sustainable development, amongst other topics. Information about Foresight activities and events can be obtained from the Office of Science and Technology or the Foresight Knowledge pool at www.foresight.gov.uk. The pool will act as a unique and freely accessible electronic library of views and information about the future that young people will be able to draw on for assistance and reference material. Futher assistance for students will also be on offer from museums and art galleries from now on, thanks to additional funding which has been made available over the next three years. Forty museums and galleries will share up to #2.5m for projects intended to improve students' literacy, numeracy and science skills as well as their understanding of history and art. Examples of the imaginative projects which have been put forward include use of the large collection of steam engines at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester to assist boys' science and literacy skills. The Museum of London will be working with over 2000 schools in the South East to provide materials for the schools' own mini-museums on the Romans

  5. Saturn and Enceladus Electrical Link

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated graphic shows how Saturn and its moon Enceladus are electrically linked. Magnetic field lines, invisible to the human eye but detectable by the fields and particles instruments on NAS...

  6. Abelian link invariants and homology

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnini, Enore; Mancarella, Francesco

    2010-06-15

    We consider the link invariants defined by the quantum Chern-Simons field theory with compact gauge group U(1) in a closed oriented 3-manifold M. The relation of the Abelian link invariants with the homology group of the complement of the links is discussed. We prove that, when M is a homology sphere or when a link--in a generic manifold M--is homologically trivial, the associated observables coincide with the observables of the sphere S{sup 3}. Finally, we show that the U(1) Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery invariant of the manifold M is not a function of the homology group only, nor a function of the homotopy type of M alone.

  7. 77 FR 58912 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...) (individual) Linked To: CONSTRUCTORA FR DE VENEZUELA, C.A. Entity: 2. CONSTRUCTORA FR DE VENEZUELA, C.A. (a.k... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign...

  8. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  9. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  10. Khovanov homology of graph-links

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, Igor M

    2012-08-31

    Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

  11. Sex-linked barring in chickens is controlled by the CDKN2A /B tumour suppressor locus.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Anders R; Sundström, Elisabeth; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Honaker, Christa F; Sahlqvist, Anna-Stina; Jensen, Per; Kämpe, Olle; Siegel, Paul B; Kerje, Susanne; Andersson, Leif

    2010-08-01

    Sex-linked barring, a common plumage colour found in chickens, is characterized by black and white barred feathers. Previous studies have indicated that the white bands are caused by an absence of melanocytes in the feather follicle during the growth of this region. Here, we show that Sex-linked barring is controlled by the CDKN2A/B locus, which encodes the INK4b and ARF transcripts. We identified two non-coding mutations in CDKN2A that showed near complete association with the phenotype. In addition, two missense mutations were identified at highly conserved sites, V9D and R10C, and every bird tested with a confirmed Sex-linked barring phenotype carried one of these missense mutations. Further work is required to determine if one of these or a combined effect of two or more CDKN2A mutations is causing Sex-linked barring. This novel finding provides the first evidence that the tumour suppressor locus CDKN2A/B can affect pigmentation phenotypes and sheds new light on the functional significance of this gene. PMID:20374521

  12. G-Links: a gene-centric link acquisition service

    PubMed Central

    Oshita, Kazuki; Tomita, Masaru; Arakawa, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    With the availability of numerous curated databases, researchers are now able to efficiently use the multitude of biological data by integrating these resources via hyperlinks and cross-references. A large proportion of bioinformatics research tasks, however, may include labor-intensive tasks such as fetching, parsing, and merging datasets and functional annotations from distributed multi-domain databases. This data integration issue is one of the key challenges in bioinformatics. We aim to provide an identifier conversion and data aggregation system as a part of solution to solve this problem with a service named G-Links, 1) by gathering resource URI information from 130 databases and 30 web services in a gene-centric manner so that users can retrieve all available links about a given gene, 2) by providing RESTful API for easy retrieval of links including facet searching based on keywords and/or predicate types, and 3) by producing a variety of outputs as visual HTML page, tab-delimited text, and in Semantic Web formats such as Notation3 and RDF. G-Links as well as other relevant documentation are available at http://link.g-language.org/ PMID:26673001

  13. DOIs Should Not Link to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2011, the National Academy of Science's Board of Research Data and Information (BRDI) had a meeting on the topic of "Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards". As part of that meeting were various breakout groups to discuss issues that still remained regarding technical, scientific, and socio-cultural issues, the roles and actors that needed to be involved, and how to get additional feedback from the community. The technical breakout group decided that the majority of the technical problems with citing data revolved around establishing the identity of what it was that we were attempting to cite. As such, our recommendations were to push some of the work back onto the data publishers to tell us how scientists should cite their data (to avoid different disciplines applying different rules), establish 'data landing pages' to describe, document and link to the data, and to provide those pages with persistent identifiers such as a DOI. We present here some of the reasons that were discussed about why not to link directly to data, including: * recalibration, reaccessioning and other data impermanence, * setting context and providing for links to documentation, and * allowing selection of different packaging formats

  14. Role of Transglutaminase 2 in Liver Injury via Cross-linking and Silencing of Transcription Factor Sp1

    PubMed Central

    TATSUKAWA, HIDEKI; FUKAYA, YAYOI; FRAMPTON, GORDON; MARTINEZ–FUENTES, ANTONIO; SUZUKI, KENJI; KUO, TING–FANG; NAGATSUMA, KEISUKE; SHIMOKADO, KENTARO; OKUNO, MASATAKA; WU, JIAN; IISMAA, SIIRI; MATSUURA, TOMOKAZU; TSUKAMOTO, HIDEKAZU; ZERN, MARK A.; GRAHAM, ROBERT M.; KOJIMA, SOICHI

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Despite high morbidity and mortality of alcoholic liver disease worldwide, the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced liver cell death are not fully understood. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a cross-linking enzyme implicated in apoptosis. TG2 levels and activity are increased in association with various types of liver injury. However, how TG2 induces hepatic apoptosis is not known. Methods Human hepatic cells or primary hepatocytes from rats or TG2+/+ and TG2−/− mice were treated with ethanol. Mice were administered anti-Fas antibody or alcohol. Liver sections were prepared from patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis. Changes in TG2 levels, Sp1 cross-linking and its activities, expression of hepatocyte growth factor receptor, c-Met, and hepatic apoptosis were measured. Results Ethanol induced apoptosis in hepatic cells, enhanced activity and nuclear accumulation of TG2 as well as accumulation of cross-linked and inactivated Sp1, and reduced expression of the Sp1-responsive gene, c-Met. These effects were rescued by TG2 knockdown, restoration of functional Sp1, or addition of hepatocyte growth factor, whereas apoptosis was reproduced by Sp1 knockdown or TG2 overexpression. Compared with TG2+/+ mice, TG2−/− mice showed markedly reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and Sp1 cross-linking following ethanol or anti-Fas treatment. Treatment of TG2+/+ mice with the TG2 inhibitors putrescine or cystamine blocked anti-Fas–induced hepatic apoptosis and Sp1 silencing. Moreover, enhanced expression of cross-linked Sp1 and TG2 was evident in hepatocyte nuclei of patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis. Conclusions TG2 induces hepatocyte apoptosis via Sp1 cross-linking and inactivation, with resultant inhibition of the expression of c-Met required for hepatic cell viability. PMID:19208340

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  16. Linking Yesterday and Tomorrow: Preschoolers' Ability to Report Temporally Displaced Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddendorf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Various lines of research have recently reported links between the ability to recall past and imagine future episodes. Here I report evidence that such links exist in development. Eighty-two children were asked to report what they did yesterday and what they are going to do tomorrow. Children who could answer one were also more likely to answer…

  17. The CCSDS Next Generation Space Data Link Protocol (NGSLP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg J.

    2014-01-01

    next leap in performance for space link communications. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) provide the capability to incorporate high performance forward error correcting codes implemented within software transponders providing improved performance in data transfer, ranging, link security, and time correlation. Given these synergistic technological breakthroughs, the time has come to take advantage of them in applying them to both on going (e.g., command, telemetry) and emerging (e.g., space link security, optical communication) space link applications. However one of the constraining factors within the Data Link Layer in realizing these performance gains is the lack of a generic transfer frame format and common supporting services amongst the existing CCSDS link layer protocols. Currently each of the four CCSDS link layer protocols (TM, TC, AOS, and Proximity-1) have unique formats and services which prohibits their reuse across the totality of all space link applications of CCSDS member space agencies. For example, Mars missions. These missions implement their proximity data link layer using the Proximity-1 frame format and the services it supports but is still required to support the direct from Earth (TC) protocols and the Direct To Earth (AOS/TM) protocols. The prime purpose of this paper, is to describe a new general purpose CCSDS Data Link layer protocol, the NGSLP that will provide the required services along with a common transfer frame format for all the CCSDS space links (ground to/from space and space to space links) targeted for emerging missions after a CCSDS agency-wide coordinated date. This paper will also describe related options that can be included for the Coding and Synchronization sub-layer of the Data Link layer to extend the capacities of the link and additionally provide an independence of the transfer frame sub-layer from the coding sublayer. This feature will provide missions the option of running either the currently performed

  18. Radio Links for the NASA ABTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeutter, Dean C.

    1996-01-01

    The report discusses: (1) Determination Out-Link Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Bandwidth. (2) Development FSK Out-link Transmitter. (3) Development Wideband Out-link FSK Receiver. (4) Development OOK In-Link Transmitter. (5) Development OOK In-Link Receiver. and (6) Marry Out-Link & In-Link Components. Out-link FSK Bandwidth preliminary in-link transmitter were accomplished in Summer 1995 visit. The calculation of FSK bandwidth is repeated in these notes. Spectrum analyzer measurements of the actual FSK spectrum agree well with the calculations.

  19. Linking RNA biology to lncRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Loyal A.; Rinn, John L.

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory potential of RNA has never ceased to amaze: from RNA catalysis, to RNA-mediated splicing, to RNA-based silencing of an entire chromosome during dosage compensation. More recently, thousands of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts have been identified, the majority with unknown function. Thus, it is tempting to think that these lncRNAs represent a cadre of new factors that function through ribonucleic mechanisms. Some evidence points to several lncRNAs with tantalizing physiological contributions and thought-provoking molecular modalities. However, dissecting the RNA biology of lncRNAs has been difficult, and distinguishing the independent contributions of functional RNAs from underlying DNA elements, or the local act of transcription, is challenging. Here, we aim to survey the existing literature and highlight future approaches that will be needed to link the RNA-based biology and mechanisms of lncRNAs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26430155

  20. EarthCube GeoLink: Semantics and Linked Data for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Ji, P.; Jones, M. B.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Narock, T.; O'Brien, M.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    The NSF EarthCube initiative is building next-generation cyberinfrastructure to aid geoscientists in collecting, accessing, analyzing, sharing, and visualizing their data and knowledge. The EarthCube GeoLink Building Block project focuses on a specific set of software protocols and vocabularies, often characterized as the Semantic Web and "Linked Data", to publish data online in a way that is easily discoverable, accessible, and interoperable. GeoLink brings together specialists from the computer science, geoscience, and library science domains, and includes data from a network of NSF-funded repositories that support scientific studies in marine geology, marine ecosystems, biogeochemistry, and paleoclimatology. We are working collaboratively with closely-related Building Block projects including EarthCollab and CINERGI, and solicit feedback from RCN projects including Cyberinfrastructure for Paleogeosciences (C4P) and iSamples. GeoLink has developed a modular ontology that describes essential geoscience research concepts; published data from seven collections (to date) on the Web as geospatially-enabled Linked Data using this ontology; matched and mapped data between collections using shared identifiers for investigators, repositories, datasets, funding awards, platforms, research cruises, physical specimens, and gazetteer features; and aggregated the results in a shared knowledgebase that can be queried via a standard SPARQL endpoint. Client applications have been built around the knowledgebase, including a Web/map-based data browser using the Leaflet JavaScript library and a simple query service using the OpenSearch format. Future development will include extending and refining the GeoLink ontology, adding content from additional repositories, developing semi-automated algorithms to enhance metadata, and further work on client applications.