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Sample records for additional evidence suggesting

  1. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  2. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality. PMID:26299061

  3. Current evidence suggests independent regulation of nuclear calcium.

    PubMed

    Badminton, M N; Kendall, J M; Rembold, C M; Campbell, A K

    1998-01-01

    We review and present current evidence supporting independent regulation of nuclear Ca2+ ([Ca2+]n). The nucleus and nuclear envelope contain proteins to both regulate and respond to changes in [Ca2+]n. However, this does not prove that [Ca2+]n is independently regulated from cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c). Studies using fluorescent dyes suggested that changes in [Ca2+]n differed in magnitude from changes in [Ca2+]c. These studies have been criticised as the nuclear environment alters the fluorescent characteristics of these dyes. We have evaluated this question with aequorin targeted to the nucleus and cytoplasm and shown that the characteristics of the indicators are not altered in their respective environments. We have demonstrated that different stimuli induce changes in [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]c that vary both temporally and in magnitude. The nucleus appeared to be shielded from increases in [Ca2+]c, either through a mechanism involving the nuclear envelope or by cytosolic buffering of localised increases in Ca2+. In addition, agonist stimulation resulted in an increase in [Ca2+]n, consistent with release from the perinuclear Ca2+ store. There was a stimulus dependence of the relation between [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]c suggesting differential regulation of [Ca2+]n. These results have important implications for the role of Ca2+ as a specific regulator of nuclear events through Ca2+ binding proteins. In addition, they highlight the advantages of using targeted aequorin in intact cells to monitor changes in organelle [Ca2+]. PMID:9601602

  4. Evidence suggesting possible SCA1 gene involvement in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, S.R.; Wange, S.; Sun, C.

    1994-09-01

    Several findings suggest a possible role for the SCA1 gene on chromosome 6p in some cases of schizophrenia. First, linkage analyses in Irish pedigrees provided LOD scores up to 3.0 for one model tested using microsatellites closely linked to SCA1. Reanalysis of these data using affected sibpair methods yielded a significant result (p = 0.01) for one marker. An attempt to replicate this linkage finding was made using 44 NIMH families (206 individuals, 80 affected) and 12 Utah families (120 individuals, 49 affected). LOD scores were negative in these new families, even allowing for heterogeneity, as were results using affected sibpair methods. However, one Utah family provided a LOD score of 1.3. We also screened the SCA1 trinucleotide repeat to search for expansions characteristic of this disorder in these families and in 38 additional unrelated schizophrenics. We found 1 schizophrenic with 41 repeats, which is substantially larger than the maximum size of 36 repeats observed in previous studies of several hundred controls. We are now assessing whether the distribution of SCA1 repeats differs significantly in schizophrenia versus controls. Recent reports suggest possible anticipation in schizophrenia (also characteristic of SCA1) and a few cases of psychiatric symptoms suggesting schizophrenia have been observed in the highly related disorder DRPLA (SCA2), which is also based on trinucleotide repeat expansion. These findings suggest that further investigations of this gene and chromosome region may be a priority.

  5. Evidence suggests water once flowed vigorously on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    "In some cases, when you do geology, a picture is worth 1000 words," Mars Science Laboratory project scientist John Grotzinger said at a 27 September news briefing to announce that imagery taken by a camera onboard NASA's Mars Curiosity rover shows evidence that water once flowed vigorously in a region on the surface of Mars. One of the pictured rock outcrops, about 10-15 centimeters thick and named Hottah after Canada's Hottah lake, "looked like somebody came along the surface of Mars with a jackhammer and lifted up a sidewalk that you might see in downtown LA in sort of a construction site," said Grotzinger, who is with the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "This is a rock that was formed in the presence of water, and we can characterize that water as being a vigorous flow on the surface of Mars," he said. "We were really excited about this because this is one of the reasons we were interested in coming to this landing site, because it presented from orbit quite a strong case that we would find evidence for water on the ground."

  6. Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal.

    PubMed

    Middlemist, R D; Knowles, E S; Matter, C F

    1976-05-01

    The hypothesis that personal space invasions produce arousal was investigated in a field experiment. A men's lavatory provided a setting where norms for privacy were salient, where personal space invasions could occur in the case of men urinating, where the opportunity for compensatory responses to invasion were minimal, and where proximity-induced arousal could be measured. Research on micturation indicates that social stressors inhibit relaxation of the external urethral sphincter, which would delay the onset of micturation, and that they increase intravesical pressure, which would shorten the duration of micturation once begun. Sixty lavatory users were randomly assigned to one of three levels of interpersonal distance and their micturation times were recorded. In a three-urinal lavatory, a confederate stood immediately adjacent to a subject, one urinal removed, or was absent. Paralleling the results of a correlational pilot study, close interpersonal distances increased the delay of onset and decreased the persistence of micturation. These findings provide objective evidence that personal space invasions produce physiological changes associated with arousal. PMID:1271224

  7. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanupriya; Metgud, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined. PMID:24455418

  8. Evidence suggesting individual ocular motor control of each eye (muscle).

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, L F

    1994-01-01

    Current models of the ocular motor system are usually presented in their most reduced form, are unilateral in architecture, and precise yoking is presumed. Although this simplifies the models, it does not accurately simulate the actual neuroanatomy and limits the models to simple, stereotyped responses. Studies of normal humans and monkeys have demonstrated striking disconjugacies in normal responses. Normal saccades may be disconjugate, or 1 eye may exhibit a dynamic overshoot. Asymmetric vergence can result in disconjugate saccades, unequal magnification spectacles cause differential saccadic gain adjustment, and saccades to unequal disparities also cause unequal saccades in the 2 eyes. In strabismus, deviated eyes typically do not mimic the movements of the fixating eye nor do their latent or congenital nystagmus waveforms duplicate those of the fixating eye. In spasmus nutans, each eye oscillates independently of the other. In achiasmatic dogs, uni-ocular saccades and uni-ocular nystagmus waveforms are seen; the same may be true in human achiasma. These data from both normals and those with abnormalities suggest that current models for ocular motor control are inadequate representations of the actual system. The inability of unilateral, yoked control (or even bilateral, yoked control) system models to duplicate the ocular motor responses of binocular mammals suggests that their ocular motor systems evolved from the bilateral, independent control systems seen in chameleons. One need only postulate a yoking overlay superimposed on two independent control systems to achieve conjugacy (bilateral, yoked, independent control) of the eyes. Abnormalities producing grossly disconjugate eye movements may then be simulated using the independent control of each eye released by a deficiency in the yoking overlay. Independent control of each eye coupled with the essential bilateral brain stem architecture implies that each individual muscle is driven by independent

  9. Is there evidence for additional neutrino species from cosmology?

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that recent cosmological and flavor-oscillation data favor the existence of additional neutrino species beyond the three predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. We apply Bayesian model selection to determine whether there is indeed any evidence from current cosmological datasets for the standard cosmological model to be extended to include additional neutrino flavors. The datasets employed include cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing power spectra, and measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale and the Hubble constant. We also consider other extensions to the standard neutrino model, such as massive neutrinos, and possible degeneracies with other cosmological parameters. The Bayesian evidence indicates that current cosmological data do not require any non-standard neutrino properties.

  10. Eating disorder diagnostic scale: additional evidence of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based diagnoses, convergent validity with risk factors for eating pathology, and internal consistency. Studies 2 and 3 found that the EDDS was sufficiently sensitive to detect the effects of eating disorder prevention programs. Regarding predictive validity, Studies 3 and 4 found that the EDDS predicted response to a prevention program and future onset of eating pathology and depression. Results provide additional evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale and suggest it may be useful in clinical and research applications. PMID:15023093

  11. 20 CFR 725.410 - Submission of additional evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Submission of additional evidence. (a) After the district director completes the development of medical... the claim was filed by, or on behalf of, a miner, the schedule shall contain a summary of the complete... employer other than the employer who last employed the claimant as a miner, the district director...

  12. Suicide, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and the Mass Media: Evidence toward a Theory of Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David P.

    1979-01-01

    Maintains that modern sociology has paid too little attention to the concepts of imitation and suggestion and presents new findings indicating that these concepts have a powerful impact on social behavior. Presents evidence that automobile fatalities increase several days after a publicized suicide and relates these and related findings to…

  13. Instructional Leadership, Teaching Quality and Student Achievement Suggestive Evidence from Three Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Janet C.; Akey, Theresa M.; Rappaport, Shelley; Willner, Cynthia J.

    2007-01-01

    The Instructional Leadership Study provides suggestive evidence that providing instruction-related professional development to school principals can improve teaching and learning in their schools. The study examines a theory of school change articulated by the Institute for Learning at the University of Pittsburgh. The IFL provides technical…

  14. Evidence suggesting a role for hydroxyl radical in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P D; Shah, S V

    1988-01-01

    The protective effect of hydroxyl radical scavengers and iron chelators has strongly implicated the hydroxyl radical in several models of tissue injury. Based on in vitro studies showing gentamicin-enhanced generation of reactive oxygen metabolites in renal cortical mitochondria, we examined the effect of hydroxyl radical scavengers and iron chelators in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. Rats treated with gentamicin (G) alone (100 mg/kg, s.c. x 8 d) developed advanced renal failure (BUN 215 +/- 30 mg/dl) compared to saline-treated controls (BUN 16 +/- 1 mg/dl, P less than 0.001). In contrast, rats treated with gentamicin and either dimethylthiourea (DMTU, an hydroxyl radical scavenger, 125 mg/kg, i.p. twice a day) or deferoxamine (DFO, an iron chelator, 20 mg/day by osmotic pump) had significantly lower BUN (G + DMTU 48.8 +/- 8 mg/dl, P less than 0.001, n = 8; G + DFO 30 +/- 7 mg/dl, P less than 0.001, n = 8). In separate experiments, treatment with two other hydroxyl radical scavengers (dimethyl sulfoxide or sodium benzoate) and a second iron chelator (2,3,dihydroxybenzoic acid) had a similar protective effect on renal function (as measured by both BUN and creatinine). In addition, histological evidence of damage was markedly reduced by the interventional agents. Finally, concurrent treatment with DMTU prevented the gentamicin induced increase in renal cortical malondialdehyde content (G: 4.4 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg; G + DMTU: 3.1 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg, P less than 0.0001, n = 8) suggesting that the protective effect of DMTU was related to free radical mechanisms rather than to some other effect. Taken together, these data strongly support a role for hydroxyl radical or a similar oxidant in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. Images PMID:3123518

  15. Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions-key messages.

    PubMed

    Gottrup, Finn; Apelqvist, Jan; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Cooper, Rose; Moore, Zena; Peters, Edgar J G; Probst, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    This article constitutes an extraction of key messages originally presented in the Document: Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions written by the European Wound Management Association (EWMA), and originally published by the Journal of Wound Care in 2013. All sections are shortened and some not included. For further details please refer to in the original document which can be downloaded via www.ewma.org . PMID:25296348

  16. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes".

    PubMed

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism. PMID:26020829

  17. Genomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Mullin, Victoria E; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Ollivier, Morgane; Perri, Angela; Linderholm, Anna; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Teasdale, Matthew D; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Tresset, Anne; Duffraisse, Marilyne; McCormick, Finbar; Bartosiewicz, László; Gál, Erika; Nyerges, Éva A; Sablin, Mikhail V; Bréhard, Stéphanie; Mashkour, Marjan; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Gillet, Benjamin; Hughes, Sandrine; Chassaing, Olivier; Hitte, Christophe; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Dobney, Keith; Hänni, Catherine; Bradley, Daniel G; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    The geographic and temporal origins of dogs remain controversial. We generated genetic sequences from 59 ancient dogs and a complete (28x) genome of a late Neolithic dog (dated to ~4800 calendar years before the present) from Ireland. Our analyses revealed a deep split separating modern East Asian and Western Eurasian dogs. Surprisingly, the date of this divergence (~14,000 to 6400 years ago) occurs commensurate with, or several millennia after, the first appearance of dogs in Europe and East Asia. Additional analyses of ancient and modern mitochondrial DNA revealed a sharp discontinuity in haplotype frequencies in Europe. Combined, these results suggest that dogs may have been domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia from distinct wolf populations. East Eurasian dogs were then possibly transported to Europe with people, where they partially replaced European Paleolithic dogs. PMID:27257259

  18. What Happened at Hawthorne?: New evidence suggests the Hawthorne effect resulted from operant reinforcement contingencies.

    PubMed

    Parsons, H M

    1974-03-01

    The Hawthorne effect in experimental research is the unwanted effect of the experimental operations themselves. Following the Hawthorne studies, various explanations have been proposed to account for rising rates of production. Although in the Relay Assembly Test Room experiment the experimental operations may have produced other extraneous variables, a reexamination based on new and neglected evidence has yielded a new interpretation. The new variable, made more plausible because research in other contexts has shown it to have similar effects, is a combination of information feedback and financial reward. It is an example of the control of behavior by its consequences. Although several approaches may be taken to explain the effects of response-consequence contingencies, I have favored operant conditioning because it seems to account for progressive increases in response rate-the Hawthorne phenomenon. Generalizing from the particular situation at Hawthorne, I would define the Hawthorne effect as the confounding that occurs if experimenters fail to realize how the consequences of subjects' performance affect what subjects do. But the Hawthorne effect need not be viewed solely as a problem in conducting experiments. The phenomenon that created it should be studied in its own right, as Sommer (67) suggested with a different phenomenon in mind. The study of response-consequence contingencies might well be extended to the examination of motivation in industrial workers. PMID:17756742

  19. Evolutionary Genomics Suggests That CheV Is an Additional Adaptor for Accommodating Specific Chemoreceptors within the Chemotaxis Signaling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a “phosphate sink” possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Overall, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex. PMID:26844549

  20. Evolutionary Genomics Suggests That CheV Is an Additional Adaptor for Accommodating Specific Chemoreceptors within the Chemotaxis Signaling Complex.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Davi R; Zhulin, Igor B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Overall, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex. PMID:26844549

  1. Mixed signals? Morphological and molecular evidence suggest a color polymorphism in some neotropical polythore damselflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Herrera, Melissa; Kuhn, William R; Lorenzo-Carballa, Maria Olalla; Harding, Kathleen M; Ankrom, Nikole; Sherratt, Thomas N; Hoffmann, Joachim; Van Gossum, Hans; Ware, Jessica L; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Beatty, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these "wingforms" do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and the

  2. Mixed Signals? Morphological and Molecular Evidence Suggest a Color Polymorphism in Some Neotropical Polythore Damselflies

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Kathleen M.; Ankrom, Nikole; Sherratt, Thomas N.; Hoffmann, Joachim; Van Gossum, Hans; Ware, Jessica L.; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America. These damselflies display highly complex wing colors and patterning, incorporating black, white, yellow, and orange in multiple wing bands. Wing colors, along with some components of the male genitalia, have been the primary characters used in species description; few other morphological traits vary within the group, and so there are few useful diagnostic characters. Previous research has indicated the possibility of a cryptic species existing in P. procera in Colombia, despite there being no significant differences in wing color and pattern between the populations of the two putative species. Here we analyze the complexity and diversity of wing color patterns of individuals from five described Polythore species in the Central Amazon Basin of Peru using a novel suite of morphological analyses to quantify wing color and pattern: geometric morphometrics, chromaticity analysis, and Gabor wavelet transformation. We then test whether these color patterns are good predictors of species by recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the 5 species using the barcode gene (COI). Our results suggest that, while highly distinct and discrete wing patterns exist in Polythore, these “wingforms” do not represent monophyletic clades in the recovered topology. The wingforms identified as P. victoria and P. ornata are both involved in a polymorphism with P. neopicta; also, cryptic speciation may have taking place among individuals with the P. victoria wingform. Only P. aurora and P. spateri represent monophyletic species with a single wingform in our molecular phylogeny. We discuss the implications of this polymorphism, and

  3. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback: Level of evidence in mental and brain disorders and suggestions for good clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; McGonigal, A; Lopez, R; Daudet, C; Kotwas, I; Bartolomei, F

    2015-12-01

    The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique. Firstly, this article investigates selected trials with the following criteria: study design with controlled, randomized, and open or blind protocol, primary endpoint related to the mental and brain disorders treated and assessed with standardized measurement tools, identifiable EEG neurophysiological targets, underpinned by pathophysiological relevance. Trials were found for: epilepsies, migraine, stroke, chronic insomnia, attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, addictive disorders, psychotic disorders. Secondly, this article investigates the principles of neurofeedback therapy in line with learning theory. Different underlying therapeutic models are presented didactically between two continua: a continuum between implicit and explicit learning and a continuum between the biomedical model (centred on "the disease") and integrative biopsychosocial model of health (centred on "the illness"). The main relevant learning model is to link neurofeedback therapy with the field of cognitive remediation techniques. The methodological specificity of neurofeedback is to be guided by biologically relevant neurophysiological parameters. Guidelines for good clinical practice of EEG NF concerning technical issues of electrophysiology and of learning are suggested. These require validation by

  4. Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra.

    PubMed

    Emerling, Christopher A; Springer, Mark S

    2015-02-01

    Rod monochromacy is a rare condition in vertebrates characterized by the absence of cone photoreceptor cells. The resulting phenotype is colourblindness and low acuity vision in dim-light and blindness in bright-light conditions. Early reports of xenarthrans (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) suggest that they are rod monochromats, but this has not been tested with genomic data. We searched the genomes of Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) and Mylodon darwinii (extinct ground sloth) for retinal photoreceptor genes and examined them for inactivating mutations. We performed PCR and Sanger sequencing on cone phototransduction genes of 10 additional xenarthrans to test for shared inactivating mutations and estimated the timing of inactivation for photoreceptor pseudogenes. We concluded that a stem xenarthran became an long-wavelength sensitive-cone monochromat following a missense mutation at a critical residue in SWS1, and a stem cingulate (armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres) and stem pilosan (sloths and anteaters) independently acquired rod monochromacy early in their evolutionary history following the inactivation of LWS and PDE6C, respectively. We hypothesize that rod monochromacy in armadillos and pilosans evolved as an adaptation to a subterranean habitat in the early history of Xenarthra. The presence of rod monochromacy has major implications for understanding xenarthran behavioural ecology and evolution. PMID:25540280

  5. Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra

    PubMed Central

    Emerling, Christopher A.; Springer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Rod monochromacy is a rare condition in vertebrates characterized by the absence of cone photoreceptor cells. The resulting phenotype is colourblindness and low acuity vision in dim-light and blindness in bright-light conditions. Early reports of xenarthrans (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) suggest that they are rod monochromats, but this has not been tested with genomic data. We searched the genomes of Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) and Mylodon darwinii (extinct ground sloth) for retinal photoreceptor genes and examined them for inactivating mutations. We performed PCR and Sanger sequencing on cone phototransduction genes of 10 additional xenarthrans to test for shared inactivating mutations and estimated the timing of inactivation for photoreceptor pseudogenes. We concluded that a stem xenarthran became an long-wavelength sensitive-cone monochromat following a missense mutation at a critical residue in SWS1, and a stem cingulate (armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres) and stem pilosan (sloths and anteaters) independently acquired rod monochromacy early in their evolutionary history following the inactivation of LWS and PDE6C, respectively. We hypothesize that rod monochromacy in armadillos and pilosans evolved as an adaptation to a subterranean habitat in the early history of Xenarthra. The presence of rod monochromacy has major implications for understanding xenarthran behavioural ecology and evolution. PMID:25540280

  6. Evidence to Suggest That Teeth Act as Human Ornament Displays Signalling Mate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Colin A.; Brewer, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Ornament displays seen in animals convey information about genetic quality, developmental history and current disease state to both prospective sexual partners and potential rivals. In this context, showing of teeth through smiles etc is a characteristic feature of human social interaction. Tooth development is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Adult teeth record environmental and traumatic events, as well as the effects of disease and ageing. Teeth are therefore a rich source of information about individuals and their histories. This study examined the effects of digital manipulations of tooth colour and spacing. Results showed that deviation away from normal spacing and/or the presence of yellowed colouration had negative effects on ratings of attractiveness and that these effects were markedly stronger in female models. Whitening had no effect beyond that produced by natural colouration. This indicates that these colour induced alterations in ratings of attractiveness are mediated by increased/decreased yellowing rather than whitening per se. Teeth become yellower and darker with age. Therefore it is suggested that whilst the teeth of both sexes act as human ornament displays, the female display is more complex because it additionally signals residual reproductive value. PMID:22860076

  7. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may not be as its name suggests: evidence from magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Gandhi, Rajiv; Greig, Marni; Shillo, Pallai; Fang, Fang; Wilkinson, Iain D

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) affects up to 50% of patients with diabetes and is a major cause of morbidity and increased mortality. Its clinical manifestations include distressing painful neuropathic symptoms and insensitivity to trauma that result in foot ulcerations and amputations. Several recent studies have implicated poor glycemic control, duration of diabetes, hyperlipidemia (particularly hypertryglyceridaemia), elevated albumin excretion rates, and obesity as risk factors for the development of DPN. However, similar data are not available for painful DPN. Moreover, although there is now strong evidence for the importance of peripheral nerve microvascular disease in the pathogenesis of DPN, peripheral structural biomarkers of painful DPN are lacking. However, there is now emerging evidence for the involvement of the central nervous system in both painful and painless DPN afforded by magnetic resonance imaging. This review will focus on this emerging evidence for central changes in DPN, hitherto considered a peripheral nerve disease only. PMID:26785159

  8. Genetic evidence suggests a widespread distribution of native North American populations of reed canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed canarygrass is an important agricultural crop thought to be native to Europe, Asia, and North America. However, it is one of the worst wetland invaders in North American wetlands. The native North American status has been supported by the circumstantial evidence of early botanical records and t...

  9. Event-related potential evidence suggesting voters remember political events that never happened.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Jason C; Federmeier, Kara D; Gonsalves, Brian D

    2014-03-01

    Voters tend to misattribute issue positions to political candidates that are consistent with their partisan affiliation, even though these candidates have never explicitly stated or endorsed such stances. The prevailing explanation in political science is that voters misattribute candidates' issue positions because they use their political knowledge to make educated but incorrect guesses. We suggest that voter errors can also stem from a different source: false memories. The current study examined event-related potential (ERP) responses to misattributed and accurately remembered candidate issue information. We report here that ERP responses to misattributed information can elicit memory signals similar to that of correctly remembered old information--a pattern consistent with a false memory rather than educated guessing interpretation of these misattributions. These results suggest that some types of voter misinformation about candidates may be harder to correct than previously thought. PMID:23202775

  10. Evidence suggests vocal production learning in a cross-fostered Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Neves, Silvana; Furlati, Stefano; Pessani, Daniela; Martin, Vidal; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-07-01

    Vocal learning is a rare skill in mammals, and we have limited information about the contexts in which they use it. Previous studies suggested that cetaceans in general are skilled at imitating sounds, but only few species have been studied to date. To expand this investigation to another species and to investigate the possible influence of the social environment on vocal learning, we studied the whistle repertoire of a female Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) that was stranded at an early age and was subsequently raised in a group of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We show that this cross-fostered animal produced vocal signals more akin to those of its Tursiops poolmates than those of Risso's dolphins in the wild. This is one of very few systematic cross-fostering studies in cetaceans and the first to suggest vocal production learning in the Risso's dolphin. Our findings also suggest that social experience is a major factor in the development of the vocal repertoire in this species. PMID:26874843

  11. Dietary options and behavior suggested by plant biomarker evidence in an early human habitat

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of plants and freshwater shapes the diets and social behavior of chimpanzees, our closest living relative. However, limited evidence about the spatial relationships shared between ancestral human (hominin) remains, edible resources, refuge, and freshwater leaves the influence of local resources on our species’ evolution open to debate. Exceptionally well-preserved organic geochemical fossils—biomarkers—preserved in a soil horizon resolve different plant communities at meter scales across a contiguous 25,000 m2 archaeological land surface at Olduvai Gorge from about 2 Ma. Biomarkers reveal hominins had access to aquatic plants and protective woods in a patchwork landscape, which included a spring-fed wetland near a woodland that both were surrounded by open grassland. Numerous cut-marked animal bones are located within the wooded area, and within meters of wetland vegetation delineated by biomarkers for ferns and sedges. Taken together, plant biomarkers, clustered bone debris, and hominin remains define a clear spatial pattern that places animal butchery amid the refuge of an isolated forest patch and near freshwater with diverse edible resources. PMID:26903646

  12. Dietary options and behavior suggested by plant biomarker evidence in an early human habitat.

    PubMed

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Freeman, Katherine H

    2016-03-15

    The availability of plants and freshwater shapes the diets and social behavior of chimpanzees, our closest living relative. However, limited evidence about the spatial relationships shared between ancestral human (hominin) remains, edible resources, refuge, and freshwater leaves the influence of local resources on our species' evolution open to debate. Exceptionally well-preserved organic geochemical fossils--biomarkers--preserved in a soil horizon resolve different plant communities at meter scales across a contiguous 25,000 m(2) archaeological land surface at Olduvai Gorge from about 2 Ma. Biomarkers reveal hominins had access to aquatic plants and protective woods in a patchwork landscape, which included a spring-fed wetland near a woodland that both were surrounded by open grassland. Numerous cut-marked animal bones are located within the wooded area, and within meters of wetland vegetation delineated by biomarkers for ferns and sedges. Taken together, plant biomarkers, clustered bone debris, and hominin remains define a clear spatial pattern that places animal butchery amid the refuge of an isolated forest patch and near freshwater with diverse edible resources. PMID:26903646

  13. Dietary options and behavior suggested by plant biomarker evidence in an early human habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2016-03-01

    The availability of plants and freshwater shapes the diets and social behavior of chimpanzees, our closest living relative. However, limited evidence about the spatial relationships shared between ancestral human (hominin) remains, edible resources, refuge, and freshwater leaves the influence of local resources on our species' evolution open to debate. Exceptionally well-preserved organic geochemical fossils-biomarkers-preserved in a soil horizon resolve different plant communities at meter scales across a contiguous 25,000 m2 archaeological land surface at Olduvai Gorge from about 2 Ma. Biomarkers reveal hominins had access to aquatic plants and protective woods in a patchwork landscape, which included a spring-fed wetland near a woodland that both were surrounded by open grassland. Numerous cut-marked animal bones are located within the wooded area, and within meters of wetland vegetation delineated by biomarkers for ferns and sedges. Taken together, plant biomarkers, clustered bone debris, and hominin remains define a clear spatial pattern that places animal butchery amid the refuge of an isolated forest patch and near freshwater with diverse edible resources.

  14. Evidence suggesting that HCV p7 protects E2 glycoprotein from premature degradation during virus production.

    PubMed

    Atoom, Ali M; Jones, Daniel M; Russell, Rodney S

    2013-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome encodes a 63 amino acid (aa) protein, p7, which is located between the structural and non-structural proteins. p7 localizes to endoplasmic reticulum membranes and is composed of two transmembrane domains (TM1 and TM2) and a cytoplasmic loop. While its exact role is unknown, p7 is crucial for assembly and/or release of infectious virus production in cell culture, as well as infectivity in chimpanzees. The contribution of p7 to the HCV life cycle may result from at least two distinct roles. Firstly, several studies have shown that p7 acts as an ion channel, the functionality of which is critical for infection. Secondly, p7 interacts with NS2 in a manner that may regulate the targeting of other structural proteins during the assembly process. In this study, we observed that mutations in TM1 and the cytoplasmic loop of p7 decreased infectious virus production in a single-cycle virus production assay. Analysis of intra- and extracellular virus titers indicated that p7 functions at a stage prior to generation of infectious particles. These effects were not due to altered RNA replication since no effects on levels of NS3 or NS5A protein were observed, and were not a consequence of altered recruitment of core protein to lipid droplets. Similarly, these mutations seemingly did not prevent nucleocapsid oligomerization. Importantly, we found that an alanine triplet substitution including the two basic residues of the cytoplasmic loop, which is integral to p7 ion channel function, significantly reduced E2 glycoprotein levels. A time course experiment tracking E2 levels indicated that E2 was degraded over time, as opposed to being synthesized in reduced quantities. The results of this study provide strong evidence that one of the functions of p7 is to protect HCV glycoproteins from premature degradation during virion morphogenesis. PMID:23816605

  15. Peculiar symmetry of DNA sequences and evidence suggesting its evolutionary origin in a primeval genetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, R.; Rothen, F.

    2001-08-01

    Statistical analysis of the distribution of codons in DNA coding sequences of bacteria or archaea suggests that, at some stage of the prebiotic world, the most successful RNA replicating sequences afforded some tendency toward a weak form of palindromic symmetry, namely complementary symmetry. As a consequence, as soon as the machinery allowing translation into proteins was beginning to settle, we assume that primeval versions of the genetic code essentially consisted of pairs of sense-antisense codons. Present-day DNA sequences display footprints of this early symmetry, provided that statistics are made over coding sequences issued from groups of organisms and not only from the genome of an individual species. These fossil traces are proven to be significant from the statistical point of view. They shed some light onto the possible evolution of the genetic code and set some constraints on the way it had to follow.

  16. Meaningful use of health information technology: evidence suggests benefits and challenges lie ahead.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Michael F; Poon, Eric

    2011-12-01

    Less than 3 years into the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, measurable results are emerging. For example, in the first 11 months during which healthcare providers ("eligible professionals") and acute care hospitals ("eligible hospitals") had the opportunity to demonstrate stage 1 "Meaningful Use" of Healthcare Information Technology (HIT), more than 20,000 "eligible professionals" and 750 "eligible hospitals" have done so. In the current issue of The American Journal of Managed Care, we showcase examples of HITECH's potential impact, as well as illustrate the opportunities and challenges ahead. Two studies in this issue illustrate how HIT can improve the capacity of our healthcare system to manage chronic illnesses. The study by Vollmer et al describes how an interactive voice recognition system can improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids among individuals with asthma in a large health maintenance organization. Shelley's study shows that the combination of electronic medical records, clinical decision support, and performance feedback can improve the rate of blood pressure control in patients with hypertension who receive care in community health centers. Together, these studies provide hope that the nation's investment in HIT could one day yield clinical dividends. Three other studies in this issue suggest that success for HIT will require attention to both technological and sociological factors. The study by Millery et al attributes the success of an HIT-based intervention to a multi-faceted approach that involves a combination of decision support tools, systematic provider feedback, implementation support, and leadership. Results from Abramson's study suggest that the full error-reduction potential of e-prescribing may only be reached with the combination of on-line clinical decision support and support for clinicians. The study by

  17. Cytogenetic and molecular evidence suggest multiple origins and geographical parthenogenesis in Nothoscordum gracile (Alliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Crosa, Orfeo; Speranza, Pablo; Guerra, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Nothoscordum gracile is an apomitic tetraploid widely distributed throughout the Americas and naturalized in many temperate regions of other continents. It has been suggested to form a species complex with sexual and apomictic N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon. Tetraploids of these species also share a structurally heterozygous chromosome complement 2n = 19 (13M + 6A). In this work, the origin of N. gracile and its relationships with its related species was investigated based on cytological and molecular data. Methods Cytogenetic analyses were based on meiotic behaviour, CMA bands, localization of 5S and 45S rDNA sites, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Nuclear ITS and plastidial trnL-trnF sequences were also obtained for most individuals. Key Results Proximal CMA bands were observed in the long arms of all acrocentrics of 2x and 4x N. macrostemon but not in diploid and some tetraploid cytotypes of N. nudicaule. Samples of N. gracile showed a variable number of CMA bands in the long arms of acrocentrics. Analysis of ITS sequences, dot-blot, GISH, and 5S and 45S rDNA sites, revealed no differentiation among the three species. The trnL-trnF cpDNA fragment showed variation with a trend to geographical structuring irrespective of morphospecies and fully congruent with karyotype variation. Conclusions The 2n = 19 karyotype was probably formed by a centric fusion event occurring in N. nudicaule and later transmitted to tetraploid cytotypes of N. macrostemon. Diploids of N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon appeared as consistent recently diverged species, whereas tetraploid apomicts seem to constitute an assemblage of polyploid hybrids originating from multiple independent hybridization events between them, part of which are morphologically recognizable as N. gracile. PMID:22362660

  18. Male involvement in family planning decision making in sub-Saharan Africa- what the evidence suggests.

    PubMed

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem

    2014-01-01

    , decisions regarding method choice were equally made by women or jointly, with male-dominated decisions falling last. There are many challenges to increase male involvement in family planning services. So far very few interventions addressing these challenges have been evaluated scientifically. Health education campaigns to improve beliefs and attitudes of men are absolutely needed. Additionally, improving accessibility, affordability, availability, accommodation and acceptability of family planning service venues will make them more attractive for male partners. PMID:25922638

  19. 20 CFR 416.805 - When additional evidence may be required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When additional evidence may be required. 416.805 Section 416.805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determination of Age § 416.805 When additional evidence may...

  20. Phylogenetic Analyses and Characterization of RNase X25 from Drosophila melanogaster Suggest a Conserved Housekeeping Role and Additional Functions for RNase T2 Enzymes in Protostomes

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Linda; Bailey, Ryan; Ding, Jian; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases belonging to the RNase T2 family are enzymes associated with the secretory pathway that are almost absolutely conserved in all eukaryotes. Studies in plants and vertebrates suggest they have an important housekeeping function in rRNA recycling. However, little is known about this family of enzymes in protostomes. We characterized RNase X25, the only RNase T2 enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that RNase X25 is the major contributor of ribonuclease activity in flies as detected by in gel assays, and has an acidic pH preference. Gene expression analyses showed that the RNase X25 transcript is present in all adult tissues and developmental stages. RNase X25 expression is elevated in response to nutritional stresses; consistent with the hypothesis that this enzyme has a housekeeping role in recycling RNA. A correlation between induction of RNase X25 expression and autophagy was observed. Moreover, induction of gene expression was triggered by oxidative stress suggesting that RNase X25 may have additional roles in stress responses. Phylogenetic analyses of this family in protostomes showed that RNase T2 genes have undergone duplication events followed by divergence in several phyla, including the loss of catalytic residues, and suggest that RNase T2 proteins have acquired novel functions. Among those, it is likely that a role in host immunosuppression evolved independently in several groups, including parasitic Platyhelminthes and parasitoid wasps. The presence of only one RNase T2 gene in the D. melanogaster genome, without any other evident secretory RNase activity detected, makes this organism an ideal system to study the cellular functions of RNase T2 proteins associated with RNA recycling and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. On the other hand, the discovery of gene duplications in several protostome genomes also presents interesting new avenues to study additional biological functions of this ancient family of proteins. PMID:25133712

  1. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-01-01

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda. PMID:20849647

  2. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. An Additional Baurusuchid from the Cretaceous of Brazil with Evidence of Interspecific Predation among Crocodyliformes

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Pedro L.; Montefeltro, Felipe C.; Norell, Mark A.; Langer, Max C.

    2014-01-01

    A new Baurusuchidae (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia), Aplestosuchus sordidus, is described based on a nearly complete skeleton collected in deposits of the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous) of Brazil. The nesting of the new taxon within Baurusuchidae can be ensured based on several exclusive skull features of this clade, such as the quadrate depression, medial approximation of the prefrontals, rostral extension of palatines (not reaching the level of the rostral margin of suborbital fenestrae), cylindrical dorsal portion of palatine bar, ridge on the ectopterygoid-jugal articulation, and supraoccipital with restricted thin transversal exposure in the caudalmost part of the skull roof. A newly proposed phylogeny of Baurusuchidae encompasses A. sordidus and recently described forms, suggesting its sixter-taxon relationship to Baurusuchus albertoi, within Baurusuchinae. Additionally, the remains of a sphagesaurid crocodyliform were preserved in the abdominal cavity of the new baurusuchid. Direct fossil evidence of behavioral interaction among fossil crocodyliforms is rare and mostly restricted to bite marks resulting from predation, as well as possible conspecific male-to-male aggression. This is the first time that a direct and unmistaken evidence of predation between different taxa of this group is recorded as fossils. This discovery confirms that baurusuchids were top predators of their time, with sphagesaurids occupying a lower trophic position, possibly with a more generalist diet. PMID:24809508

  5. Aleutian lead isotopic data: additional evidence for the evolution of lithospheric plumbing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.D.; Marsh, B.D.

    1987-07-01

    Lead isotopic ratios and concentrations have been measured in lavas from the Aleutian volcanic centers of Adak (12) and Atka (12). Lead contents in lavas from Atka increase four-fold over the compositional range of the volcanic suite. In contrast, Adak lavas have concentration levels of 0.6-13 ppm and display no simple correlation with SiO/sub 2/. The lead isotopic data alone can be explained by three different processes. Model 1 assigns lead isotopic differences to original magma source heterogeneity. According to Model 2, the isotopic ratios of a primary, non-radiogenic component from the mantle are elevated by the addition of an isotopically enriched slab-derived component. In contrast, Model 3 assumes a primary radiogenic magma produced by melting of the slab is contaminated by a non-radiogenic lithospheric component during conduit formation. Because these models all adequately explain the lead isotopic data, supplementary geologic, petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data must be used to select the most likely model. Careful consideration of the evidence suggests Model 3 best explains their extensive lead isotopic data as well as other characteristics of Aleutian lavas. The authors study suggests detailed isotopic studies of individual volcanic centers can be extremely useful in understanding the complex processes of magma generation, extraction, ascent and evolution.

  6. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

  7. 43 CFR 3741.3 - Additional evidence required with application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional evidence required with application for patent. 3741.3 Section 3741.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 585; MULTIPLE MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...

  8. 43 CFR 3741.3 - Additional evidence required with application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional evidence required with application for patent. 3741.3 Section 3741.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 585; MULTIPLE MINERAL DEVELOPMENT...

  9. 20 CFR 10.120 - May a claimant submit additional evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a claimant submit additional evidence? 10.120 Section 10.120 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  10. 20 CFR 10.120 - May a claimant submit additional evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true May a claimant submit additional evidence? 10.120 Section 10.120 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION...

  11. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  12. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  13. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  14. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  15. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  16. 30 CFR 1210.206 - Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to ONRR? 1210.206 Section 1210.206 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue FORMS AND REPORTS Production and...

  17. 38 CFR 20.709 - Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 709. Procurement of additional evidence following a hearing. 20.709 Section 20.709 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Hearings on Appeal § 20.709 Rule 709. Procurement...

  18. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome - additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Koenighofer, M; Hung, C Y; McCauley, J L; Dallman, J; Back, E J; Mihalek, I; Gripp, K W; Sol-Church, K; Rusconi, P; Zhang, Z; Shi, G-X; Andres, D A; Bodamer, O A

    2016-03-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in 1 of 16 proteins in the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins; however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. PMID:25959749

  19. Kinks in subducted slabs: Petrological evidence points to additional hindrance to the exhumation of UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Klemd, R.; Scherer, E. E.; Rondenay, S.; Gao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sudden changes in the dip of subducted oceanic plates have been resolved by seismic imaging [1, 2]. Such kinking often coincides with the seismic disappearance of the low-velocity subducted oceanic crust, i.e., at a depth where eclogitization (dehydration) of the upper oceanic crust is nearly complete and the oceanic crust becomes almost seismically indistinguishable from mantle peridotite. We present petrological evidence for this phenomenon derived from oceanic blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks from the Chinese Tianshan. The peak-metamorphic conditions of the samples range between 330 and 580°C at 1.5 to 2.3 GPa. Such a wide range of peak conditions for intercalated high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks has also been reported from other Tianshan localities. These observations suggest that the rocks were derived from different depths within the subduction zone and later juxtaposed during exhumation within the subduction channel. Multi-point Lu-Hf isochrons from four high-pressure rocks yield consistent garnet-growth ages of around ~315 Ma, confirming that the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Tianshan high-pressure rocks resulted from a single subduction event in the Late Carboniferous. These ages, in conjunction with the ~311 Ma cluster of 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr white mica ages from the same localities imply rapid exhumation. Previously reported peak P-T estimates from UHP metasediments and eclogites all lie on a lower geothermal gradient—and thus on a colder P-T path at the slab-wedge interface—than that defined by the HP eclogites and meta-volcaniclastic rocks studied here. This suggests that the slab-subduction angle steepened sharply at approximately 90 km depth, just between the depths at which the HP and UHP rocks equilibrated. The increase in subduction angle may result from a greater slab pull resulting from eclogitization densification. An additional factor may be an ephemeral weakening of the slab as it undergoes eclogitization reactions [3, 4]. We

  20. Lead-dependent deposits in diverse synaptic vesicles: suggestive evidence for the presence of anionic binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sulzer, D.; Piscopo, I.; Ungar, F.; Holtzman, E.

    1987-09-01

    We have observed electron dense deposits dependent on incubation of aldehyde-fixed tissues with lead ions within synaptic vesicles of several types of neurons that differ in the neurotransmitters utilized and in the secretory granules of the adrenal medulla. Evidently, vesicle components that can interact with lead ions are widespread. A plausible explanation for the occurrence of the deposits is the presence of anionic binding sites within the vesicles. This would agree well with other biochemical, cytochemical, and immunocytochemical evidence, such as that indicating the presence of sulfated macromolecules in certain synaptic vesicles. Anionic binding sites could play significant roles by participating in processes such as Ca/sup 2 +/ storage, stabilization of pH gradients, or the control of osmotic phenomena.

  1. Periosteal pedicle graft for the treatment of gingival recession defects current status and future prospects: What the evidence suggests?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ajay; Asi, Kanwarjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gingival Recession defects are one of the most common defects for which patients seek periodontal treatment. Many treatment options are available for the management of gingival recession. Most of the treatments offered aim to treat the cause, cover the denuded root surface and produce a long term aesthetic result. The use of periosteal pedicle graft (PPG) is a recent innovation for the treatment of gingival recession defects and has gained much attention in a short span of time. Although studies have been done utilizing PPG successfully for the treatment of gingival recession defects (GRD) but it is still not clear, whether PPG technique should be included in the established list of techniques used to treat GRD? An effort has been made to arrive at a decision on the current utility of PPG in the treatment of GRD based on the scientific evidence available in literature. Materials and Methods: A review of current literature was done to critically evaluate the evidence related to the Periosteal pedicle graft technique. Results and Conclusion: Periosteal Pedicle Graft has come up as a viable treatment option for the treatment of GRD although it's still too early to predict the long-term results associated with PPG. PMID:27143840

  2. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  3. Indoor wet screening of exhumed skeletal remains: a suggested procedure for the preparation of fragile evidence for anthropological analysis.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Ann W

    2010-07-01

    The 2007 exhumation of three children's graves, located in rural upstate New York and dating to 1979 and 1980, was warranted as their mother had come under suspicion for the death of a child she had been babysitting in late 2006. The local March weather conditions had been wet, and heavy rains fell during the 2-day process of casket removal. The extremely wet soil and the poor preservation of two wooden caskets increased the likelihood of damage to evidence. After remains' transport to the forensic center, an indoor wet-screening station was established so that skeletal elements could be (i) separated from soil matrix and (ii) preserved carefully for analysis. Not only were the remains relatively small and fragile in comparison with those of an adult, but two of the three remains were known to be fire damaged, thus the use of special laboratory preparation techniques was crucial. PMID:20412368

  4. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (< 0.5 cm thick) that accommodate inelastic shear and compaction of inter-granular volume. Measurements of porosity and grain size from non-deformed samples are used to define a set of capped strength envelopes for the Wingate Sandstone. These strength envelopes reveal that compactional deformation bands require at least ca. 0.7 GPa (and potentially more than 2.3 GPa) of effective mean stress in order to nucleate within this sandstone. We find that the most plausible geologic process capable of generating these required magnitudes of mean stress is a meteoritic impact. Therefore the compactional deformation bands observed within the Wingate Sandstone are additional evidence of an impact event at Upheaval Dome and support a post-Wingate (post-Early Jurassic) age for this impact.

  5. Warming and drying of the eastern Mediterranean: Additional evidence from trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohami, David; Dayan, Uri; Morin, Efrat

    2011-11-01

    The climate of the eastern Mediterranean (EM), at the transition zone between the Mediterranean climate and the semi-arid/arid climate, has been studied for a 39-year period to determine whether climate changes have taken place. A thorough trend analysis using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with Sen's slope estimator has been applied to ground station measurements, atmospheric reanalysis data, synoptic classification data and global data sets for the years 1964-2003. In addition, changes in atmospheric regional patterns between the first and last twenty years were determined by visual comparisons of their composite mean. The main findings of the analysis are: 1) changes of atmospheric conditions during summer and the transitional seasons (mainly autumn) support a warmer climate over the EM and this change is already statistically evident in surface temperatures having exhibited positive trends of 0.2-1°C/decade; 2) changes of atmospheric conditions during winter and the transitional seasons support drier conditions due to reduction in cyclogenesis and specific humidity over the EM, but this change is not yet statistically evident in surface station rain data, presumably because of the high natural precipitation variance masking such a change. The overall conclusion of this study is that the EM region is under climate change leading to warmer and drier conditions.

  6. Thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals: evidence for dose-dependent additivity or synergism.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Kevin M; Craft, Elena S; Hedge, Joan M; Gennings, Chris; Simmons, Jane E; Carchman, Richard A; Carter, W Hans; DeVito, Michael J

    2005-11-01

    ) and the experimentally observed mixture response (the empirical model). A likelihood-ratio test revealed statistically significant departure from dose additivity. There was no deviation from additivity at the lowest doses of the mixture, but there was a greater-than-additive effect at the three highest mixtures doses. At high doses the additivity model underpredicted the empirical effects by 2- to 3-fold. These are the first results to suggest dose-dependent additivity and synergism in TDCs that may act via different mechanisms in a complex mixture. The results imply that cumulative risk approaches be considered when assessing the risk of exposure to chemical mixtures that contain TDCs. PMID:16263510

  7. Processing of multi-digit additions in high math-anxious individuals: psychophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA) and low-math anxious (LMA) individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA individuals were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase) and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase) were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources toward emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may have invested more attentional resources both when processing the addends (calculation phase) and when they had to report whether the proposed solution was correct or not (verification phase), as compared to their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC) for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. The smaller LPC shown by HMA individuals when verifying incorrect solutions suggests that these solutions may have been appeared more plausible to them than to their LMA counterparts. PMID:26347705

  8. Evidence Suggests That The ACA's Tobacco Surcharges Reduced Insurance Take-Up And Did Not Increase Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Abigail S; Schpero, William L; Busch, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To account for tobacco users' excess health care costs and encourage cessation, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed insurers to impose a surcharge on tobacco users' premiums for plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces. Low-income tax credits for Marketplace coverage were based on premiums for non-tobacco users, which means that these credits did not offset any surcharge costs. Thus, this policy greatly increased out-of-pocket premiums for many tobacco users. Using data for 2011-14 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the effect of tobacco surcharges on insurance status and smoking cessation in the first year of the exchanges' implementation, among adults most likely to purchase insurance from them. Relative to smokers who faced no surcharges, smokers facing medium or high surcharges had significantly reduced coverage (reductions of 4.3 percentage points and 11.6 percentage points, respectively), but no significant differences in smoking cessation. In contrast, those facing low surcharges showed significantly less smoking cessation. Taken together, these findings suggest that tobacco surcharges conflicted with a major goal of the ACA-increased financial protection-without increasing smoking cessation. States should consider these potential effects when deciding whether to limit surcharges to less than the federal maximum. PMID:27385231

  9. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential.

    PubMed

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S

    2016-07-01

    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. PMID:27085997

  10. Expression of the spexin gene in the rat adrenal gland and evidences suggesting that spexin inhibits adrenocortical cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Porzionato, Andrea; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-04-01

    Spexin (SPX, also called NPQ) is a recently identified, highly conserved peptide which is processed and secreted. We analysed the SPX gene and its protein product in the rat adrenal gland to ascertain whether SPX is involved in the regulation of corticosteroid secretion of and growth of adrenocortical cells. In adult rat adrenal glands the highest levels of SPX mRNA were present in the glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculate/reticularis (ZF/R) zones. High SPX gene expression levels were found in freshly isolated adult rat ZG and ZF/R cells. In cultured adrenocortical cells the levels of SPX mRNA were lower than in freshly isolated cells. SPX mRNA expression levels were found to be 2-3 times higher during days 90-540 of postnatal development than found during days 2-45. Prolonged ACTH administration lowered and dexamethasone increased adrenal SPX mRNA levels in vivo. Adrenal enucleation produced a significant linear increase in SPX mRNA levels, with the highest value occurring at day 8 after surgery, with control values taken on day 30 after enucleation. Immunohistochemistry revealed SPX-like immunoreactivity in the entire cortex of the adult male rat and in enucleation-induced regenerating cortex. A concentration of 10-6M SPX peptide stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG. In prolonged exposure of adrenocortical cell primary cultures to SPX (10-6M) resulted in a small increase in corticosterone secretion and a notable decrease in BrdU incorporation. The results suggest the direct involvement of SPX in the regulation of adrenocortical cell proliferation; however, the mechanism of action remains unknown. PMID:20045034

  11. Multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19,000 human protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Ezkurdia, Iakes; Juan, David; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Frankish, Adam; Diekhans, Mark; Harrow, Jennifer; Vazquez, Jesus; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L

    2014-11-15

    Determining the full complement of protein-coding genes is a key goal of genome annotation. The most powerful approach for confirming protein-coding potential is the detection of cellular protein expression through peptide mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. Here, we mapped peptides detected in seven large-scale proteomics studies to almost 60% of the protein-coding genes in the GENCODE annotation of the human genome. We found a strong relationship between detection in proteomics experiments and both gene family age and cross-species conservation. Most of the genes for which we detected peptides were highly conserved. We found peptides for >96% of genes that evolved before bilateria. At the opposite end of the scale, we identified almost no peptides for genes that have appeared since primates, for genes that did not have any protein-like features or for genes with poor cross-species conservation. These results motivated us to describe a set of 2001 potential non-coding genes based on features such as weak conservation, a lack of protein features, or ambiguous annotations from major databases, all of which correlated with low peptide detection across the seven experiments. We identified peptides for just 3% of these genes. We show that many of these genes behave more like non-coding genes than protein-coding genes and suggest that most are unlikely to code for proteins under normal circumstances. We believe that their inclusion in the human protein-coding gene catalogue should be revised as part of the ongoing human genome annotation effort. PMID:24939910

  12. No Serological Evidence that Harbour Porpoises Are Additional Hosts of Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Bunskoek, Paulien E.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  13. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Elk, Cornelis E; Bunskoek, Paulien E; van de Vijver, David A M C; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  14. Hyperventilation and photic stimulation are useful additions to a placebo-based suggestive seizure induction protocol in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    The early and definitive diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures is a common challenge in epileptology practice. Suggestive seizure induction is a valuable tool to aid the differentiation between epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, especially when long-term video-EEG monitoring is inconclusive or unavailable. In this retrospective analysis, we compared the diagnostic yield of a classical, placebo-based induction protocol with that of an extended protocol that includes hyperventilation and photic stimulation as means of suggestion while also implementing more open, standardized patient information. We investigated whether the diversification of suggestive seizure induction has an effect on diagnostic yield and whether it preempts the administration of placebo. Data from 52 patients with confirmed psychogenic nonepileptic seizures were analyzed. While suggestive seizure induction using only placebo-based suggestion provoked a typical event in 13 of 20 patients (65%), the extended protocol was positive in 27 of 34 cases (84%); this improvement was not significant (p=0.11). Noninvasive suggestion techniques accounted for 78% of inductions, avoiding placebo administration in a majority of patients. Still, placebo remains an important part of suggestive seizure induction, responsible for 22% (6 out of 27) of successful inductions using our extended protocol. Our study demonstrates that the diversification of suggestive seizure induction is feasible and beneficial for both patients and diagnosticians. PMID:25934586

  15. Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Few Middle Stone Age sites have yielded convincing evidence for a complex bone technology, a behavior often associated with the emergence of modern cultures. Here, we review the published evidence for Middle Stone Age bone tools from southern Africa, analyze an additional nine bone artifacts recently recovered from Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, describe an unpublished bone tool from probable Middle Stone Age levels at Peers Cave, examine a single bone awl found at Blombosch Sands (an open site near Blombos Cave), and reappraise marked bone artifacts and a bone point recovered from Klasies River. To determine the chronological and cultural attribution of these artifacts, document bone-manufacturing techniques associated with the southern African MSA, and discuss the symbolic significance of the markings present on some of these objects we use (1) available contextual information; (2) morphometric comparison of Later Stone Age, Modern San, and purported Middle Stone Age projectile points; (3) analysis of the carbon/nitrogen content of bone tools and faunal remains from Peers and Blombos caves; and (4) microscopic analysis of traces of manufacture and use. Previously undescribed bone artifacts from Blombos Cave include a massive point manufactured on weathered bone, two complete awls and two awl tips manufactured on small-sized mammal and bird bone, a probable projectile point with a tang manufactured by knapping and scraping, a shaft fragment modified by percussion, used as retoucher and bearing a set of incised lines on the middle of the periosteal surface, and two fragments with possible engravings. The point from Peers Cave can be assigned to the Middle Stone Age and bears tiny markings reminiscent of those recorded on projectile points from Blombos and used as marks of ownership on San arrow points. The awl from Blombosch Sands and the bone point from Klasies River can be attributed to the Later Stone Age. Two notched objects from Klasies are

  16. Evidence for Pulsed Hydrothermal Venting from Young Abyssal Hills on the EPR Flank Suggests Frequent Seismic Pumping of Ridge Flank Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymon, R. M.; MacDonald, K. C.; Benjamin, S. B.; Ehrhardt, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Although measured heat flow suggests that 40-50% of oceanic hydrothermal heat and fluid flux is from young (0.1-5 Ma) abyssal hill terrain on MOR flanks, hydrothermal vents in this setting rarely have been found. On the EPR flanks, seafloor evidence of venting from abyssal hills has been discovered recently at two sites: on ˜0.1 Ma seafloor at 10° 20'N, 103° 33.2'W ("Tevnia Site") and on ˜0.5 Ma seafloor at 9° 27'N, 104° 32.3'W ("Macrobes Site"). Manifestations of venting at these sites include: fault scarp hydrothermal mineralization and macrofauna; fault scarp flocculations containing hyperthermophilic microbes; and hilltop sediment mounds and craters possibly created by fluid "blow-outs." Hydrothermal deposits recovered at the ˜0.1 Ma "Tevnia Site" are fault breccias that record many episodes of brecciation followed by hydrothermal cementation (Benjamin et al., this session). Tubeworm casings, live crabs, and "dandelions" observed at this site indicate that the most recent episode of venting was active during, or shortly before, this site was visited with Alvin in 1994. To create the 200 m-high axis-facing fault scarp at Tevnia Site in 100,000 years, an average uplift rate of at least 2 cm/y is required. Since off-axis earthquakes located on abyssal hill fault scarps typically are addition, close proximity to Clipperton Transform may subject Tevnia Site to frequent M5-M6 seismic events with strong ground shaking and hydraulic pressure pulses capable of breaking open subseafloor pathways clogged with fragile minerals. We hypothesize that the multiple brecciation/cementation events recorded in the Tevnia Site samples, and biological evidence for recent venting at the

  17. Distribution of Virulence Factors and Molecular Fingerprinting of Aeromonas Species Isolates from Water and Clinical Samples: Suggestive Evidence of Water-to-Human Transmission ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Fadl, Amin A.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Berg, Richard L.; Horneman, Amy J.; Stemper, Mary E.; Joseph, Sam W.; Moyer, Nelson P.; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 227 isolates of Aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the United States and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. These isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the A. hydrophila group, the A. caviae-A. media group, and the A. veronii-A. sobria group, based on biochemical profiles, and they had various pulsotypes. When virulence factor activities were examined, Aeromonas isolates obtained from clinical sources had higher cytotoxic activities than isolates obtained from water sources for all three Aeromonas species groups. Likewise, the production of quorum-sensing signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactone, was greater in clinical isolates than in isolates from water for the A. caviae-A. media and A. hydrophila groups. Based on colony blot DNA hybridization, the heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin gene and the DNA adenosine methyltransferase gene were more prevalent in clinical isolates than in water isolates for all three Aeromonas groups. Using colony blot DNA hybridization and PFGE, we obtained three sets of water and clinical isolates that had the same virulence signature and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. In addition, all of these isolates belonged to the A. caviae-A. media group. The findings of the present study provide the first suggestive evidence of successful colonization and infection by particular strains of certain Aeromonas species after transmission from water to humans. PMID:20154106

  18. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  19. Cenozoic right-lateral slip on the Great Glen Fault, Scotland: Additional Evidence and Possible Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, E.; Cobbold, P. R.; Zanella, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great Glen Fault (GGF) trends NNE-SSW across all of Northern Scotland, separating two Neoproterozoic supergroups (Moine and Dalradian). The GGF developed as a left-lateral fault during the Caledonian Orogeny (Ordovician to Early Devonian). However, according to previous studies (involving seismic data from the Moray Firth and analyses of Tertiary dyke swarms in NW Scotland), the GGF reactivated right-laterally in the Tertiary. Here we present additional evidence for this later phase, from a study of Jurassic outcrops along the GGF and the nearby Helmsdale Fault. At Eathie and Shandwick, on the NE coast of Scotland, Jurassic strata of marine origin (mostly shale) crop out along the GGF, in contact with Neoproterozoic basement or Devonian Old Red Sandstone. Minor folds and faults in these outcrops indicate post-depositional right-lateral slip, under transpression. In the shale, we have also found bedding-parallel calcite veins ('beef' and 'cone-in-cone'). If these veins provide evidence for overpressure development and maturation of organic matter at significant depth (as they do in other basins), the host sediment must have accumulated deeper offshore in the Moray Firth. Therefore, the Jurassic strata at Eathie and Shandwick must have been subject to Cenozoic exhumation during right-lateral displacement along the GGF. At Helmsdale, according to previous studies, the Jurassic 'Boulder Beds' accumulated during a period of normal faulting on the Helmsdale Fault. There the sedimentary facies are more proximal than those at Eathie and Shandwick and abundant conglomerate contains Devonian clasts but no 'beef'. However we have found steep calcite veins, which cut the entire Jurassic sequence. Their sigmoidal shapes indicate left-lateral slip along the Helmsdale fault zone. Such a motion is compatible with right-lateral displacement on the GGF. Indeed, according to previous studies, folds between the Helmsdale Fault and the GGF may have developed as a result of opposing

  20. Mutation analysis of TMC1 identifies four new mutations and suggests an additional deafness gene at locus DFNA36-DFNB7/11

    PubMed Central

    Hilgert, Nele; Alasti, Fatemeh; Dieltjens, Nele; Pawlik, Barbara; Wollnik, Bernd; Uyguner, Oya; Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Danis, Evi; Yang, Tao; Pandelia, Efthimia; Petersen, Michael B.; Goossens, Dirk; Favero, Jurgen Del; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Smith, Richard JH; Van Camp, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most frequent sensorineural disorder, affecting 1 in 1000 newborns. In more than half of these babies, the hearing loss is inherited. Hereditary hearing loss is a very heterogeneous trait, with about 100 gene localizations and 44 gene identifications for nonsyndromic hearing loss. TMC1 has been identified as the disease-causing gene for autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss at the DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 loci, respectively. To date, two dominant and 18 recessive TMC1 mutations have been reported as the cause of hearing loss in 34 families. In this report, we describe linkage to DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 in one family with dominant and 10 families with recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. In addition, mutation analysis of TMC1 was performed in 51 familial Turkish patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss. TMC1 mutations were identified in seven of the families segregating recessive hearing loss. The pathogenic variants we found included two known mutations, c.100C>T and c.1165C>T, and four new mutations, c.2350C>T, c.776+1G>A, c.767_768del and c.1166G>A. The absence of TMC1 mutations in the remaining six linked families implies the presence of mutations outside the coding region of this gene, or alternatively, at least one additional deafness-causing gene in this region. The analysis of copy number variations in TMC1 as well as DNA sequencing of 15 additional candidate genes did not reveal any proven pathogenic changes, leaving both hypotheses open. PMID:18616530

  1. A new analysis of the WASP-3 system: no evidence for an additional companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, M.; Gregorio, J.; Boué, G.; Mortier, A.; Boisse, I.; Oshagh, M.; Maturi, M.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S.; Santos, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the problem concerning the presence of additional bodies gravitationally bound with the WASP-3 system. We present eight new transits of this planet gathered between 2009 May and 2011 September by using the 30-cm telescope at the Crow Observatory-Portalegre, and analyse all the photometric and radial velocity data published so far. We did not observe significant periodicities in the Fourier spectrum of the observed minus calculated (O - C) transit timing and radial velocity diagrams (the highest peak having false-alarm probabilities of 56 and 31 per cent, respectively) or long-term trends. Combining all the available information, we conclude that the radial velocity and transit timing techniques exclude, at 99 per cent confidence limit, any perturber more massive than M ≳ 100 Mearth with periods up to 10 times the period of the inner planet. We also investigate the possible presence of an exomoon in this system and determine that considering the scatter of the O - C transit timing residuals a coplanar exomoon would likely produce detectable transits. This hypothesis is however apparently ruled out by observations conducted by other researchers. In the case where the orbit of the moon is not coplanar, the accuracy of our transit timing and transit duration measurements prevents any significant statement. Interestingly, on the basis of our reanalysis of SOPHIE data we noted that WASP-3 passed from a less active (logR HK '=-4.95) to a more active (logR HK '=-4.8) state during the 3 yr monitoring period spanned by the observations. Despite the fact that no clear spot crossing has been reported for this system, this analysis suggests a more intensive monitoring of the activity level of this star in order to understand its impact on photometric and radial velocity measurements.

  2. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  3. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958

  4. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958

  5. 38 CFR 20.304 - Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 304. Filing additional evidence does not extend time limit for appeal. 20.304 Section 20.304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS' APPEALS: RULES OF PRACTICE Filing § 20.304 Rule 304. Filing...

  6. Evidence for dose-additive effects of a type II pyrethroid mixture. In vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Ares, I; Ramos, E; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides that led to common exposure in the population, few studies have been conducted to quantitatively assess dose-additive effects of pyrethroids using a funcional measure involved in the common toxic mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and efficacy of 6 Type II pyretroids (α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin and esfenvalerate) to evoke induction of both nitric oxide and lipid peroxides levels measured as malondialdehyde in three in vitro models (SH-SY5Y, HepG2 and Caco-2 human cells) as well as to test the hypothesis of dose additivity for mixtures of these same 6 pyrethroids. Concentration-responses for 6 pyrethroids were determined as well as the response to mixtures of all 6 pyrethroids. Additivity was tested assuming a dose-additive model. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was the most sensitive in vitro model. The rank order of potency for cell SH-SY5Y viability MTT assay was deltamethrin>cyphenothrin>λ-cyhalothrin>cyfluthrin>esfenvalerate>α-cypermethrin. When 6 pyrethroids were present in the mixture at an equitoxic mixing ratio, the action on nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) production was consistent with a dose-additive model. The results of the present study are consistent with previous reports of additivity of pyrethroids in vivo e in vitro. PMID:25688004

  7. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: additional evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, D; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Gulf War (GW) have spurred concern about possible health consequences and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the northwest United States who report persistent, unexplained "Gulf War" symptoms (cases) and those who do not report those symptoms (controls). An epidemiological survey focused on exposures and symptoms was mailed to a random sample of GW veterans from Oregon and southwestern Washington. Volunteers recruited from survey respondents agreed to undergo a thorough medical examination and psychological and neurobehavioral assessment. Persistent symptoms with no medical explanation associated with Persian Gulf service (e.g., fatigue, muscle pain, memory deficits) beginning during or after the war qualified respondents as cases. The 239 cases with unexplained symptoms and the 112 controls without symptoms were administered a computerized assessment battery of 12 psychosocial and 6 neurobehavioral tests. Replicating and extending previous interim findings, a subgroup of veterans emerged from the initial analysis in the form of extreme outliers which produced a visually and quantitatively obvious bimodal distribution. This led, as it had previously, to analyses of the outliers as a separate group (labeled "slow ODTP"), which confirmed the initial findings of neurobehavioral differences between the outliers and the other cases and controls and provided more convincing evidence that the majority of cases who report neurobehavioral symptoms have no objective evidence of neurobehavioral deficits. However, the larger group of symptomatic veterans do have highly significant and compelling evidence of psychological distress based on scores from 11 separate psychological tests. Whereas the cases differed from the controls by poorer neurobehavioral test performance, extraction of the slow ODTP participants (almost all cases

  8. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  9. Additivity of semantic and phonological effects: Evidence from speech production in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuebing; Zhang, Qingfang; Damian, Markus F

    2016-11-01

    A number of previous studies using picture-word interference (PWI) tasks conducted with speakers of Western languages have demonstrated non-additive effects of semantic and form overlap between pictures and words, which may indicate underlying non-discrete processing stages in lexical retrieval. The present study used Mandarin speakers and presented Chinese characters as distractors. In two experiments, we crossed semantic relatedness with "pure" phonological (i.e., orthographically unrelated) relatedness and found statistically additive effects. In a third experiment, semantic relatedness was crossed with orthographic overlap (phonological overlap was avoided), and once again we found an additive pattern. The results are discussed with regard to possible cross-linguistic differences between Western and non-Western languages in terms of phonological encoding, as well as concerning the locus of relatedness effects in PWI tasks. PMID:26730809

  10. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  11. First-Generation Undergraduate Students and the Impacts of the First Year of College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Johnson, Megan P.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, our findings suggest that first-generation students are at a significant disadvantage across cognitive and psychosocial outcomes compared to students whose parents have at least some postsecondary education. Furthermore, we tested for the conditional effects of good…

  12. Additional Evidence on the Relationship between Class Size and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, J. J.; Walker, Douglas M.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the economic education literature suggests that the principles of economics class size does not significantly affect student performance. However, study methods have varied in terms of the aggregation level (student or class), the measure of performance (TUCE or course letter grade), and the class size measure (e.g., students who completed…

  13. Additional evidence of far transfer of scientific reasoning skills acquired in a CLASP reformed physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell H.; Lynch, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    The introductory physics course taken by biological science majors at UC Davis, Physics 7, was radically reformed 16 years ago in order to explicitly emphasize the development of scientific reasoning skills in all elements of the course. We have previously seen evidence of increased performance on the biological and physical science portions of the MCAT exam, in a rigorous systemic physiology course, and higher graduating GPAs for students who took Physics 7 rather than a traditionally taught introductory physics course. We report here on the increased performance by a group of biological-science majors in a general chemistry course who took the first quarter of Physics 7 prior to beginning the chemistry course sequence compared to a similar group who began taking physics after completing the first two quarters of general chemistry.

  14. Additional evidence of EUV blank defects first seen by wafer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, Rik; Van den Heuvel, Dieter; Bret, Tristan; Hofmann, Thorsten; Magana, John; Aharonson, Israel; Meshulach, Doron; Hendrickx, Eric; Ronse, Kurt

    2011-11-01

    First experimental evidence is given that a second generation blank inspection tool has missed a number of printing reticle defects caused by an imperfection of its EUV mirror, i.e., so-called multi-layer defects (ML-defects). This work continued to use a combination of blank inspection (BI), patterned mask inspection (PMI) and wafer inspection (WI) to find as many as possible printing defects on EUV reticles. The application of more advanced wafer inspection, combined with a separate repeater analysis for each of the multiple focus conditions used for exposure on the ASML Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) at IMEC, has allowed to increase the detection capability for printing ML-defects. It exploits the previous finding that ML-defects may have a through-focus printing behavior. They cause a different grade of CD impact on the pattern in their neighborhood, depending on the focus condition. Subsequent reticle review is done on the corresponding locations with both SEM (Secondary Electron Microscope) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope). This review methodology has allowed achieving clear evidence of printing ML defects missed by this BI tool, despite of a too high nuisance rate, reported before. This establishes a next step in the investigation how essential actinic blank inspection (ABI) is. Presently it is the only known technique whose detection capability is considered independent from the presence of a (residual) distortion of the multi-layer at the top surface. This is considered an important asset for blank inspection, because the printability of a ML-defect in EUV lithography is determined by the distortion throughout the multilayer, not that at the top surface.

  15. Evidence for additive and interaction effects of host genotype and infection in malaria

    PubMed Central

    Idaghdour, Youssef; Quinlan, Jacklyn; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Berghout, Joanne; Gbeha, Elias; Bruat, Vanessa; de Malliard, Thibault; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Gomez, Selma; Gros, Philippe; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Sanni, Ambaliou; Awadalla, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The host mechanisms responsible for protection against malaria remain poorly understood, with only a few protective genetic effects mapped in humans. Here, we characterize a host-specific genome-wide signature in whole-blood transcriptomes of Plasmodium falciparum-infected West African children and report a demonstration of genotype-by-infection interactions in vivo. Several associations involve transcripts sensitive to infection and implicate complement system, antigen processing and presentation, and T-cell activation (i.e., SLC39A8, C3AR1, FCGR3B, RAD21, RETN, LRRC25, SLC3A2, and TAPBP), including one association that validated a genome-wide association candidate gene (SCO1), implicating binding variation within a noncoding regulatory element. Gene expression profiles in mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi revealed and validated similar responses and highlighted specific pathways and genes that are likely important responders in both hosts. These results suggest that host variation and its interplay with infection affect children’s ability to cope with infection and suggest a polygenic model mounted at the transcriptional level for susceptibility. PMID:22949651

  16. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  17. Recurrence of achondrogenesis type 2 in sibs: Additional evidence for germline mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Jessica M; Putnam, Angelica R; Sangle, Nikhil; Lowichik, Amy; Rose, Nancy C; Opitz, John M

    2010-07-01

    Achondrogenesis Type II (ACG2) is a lethal skeletal disorder caused by a dominant mutation in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). Familial cases have been reported, suggesting both germline and somatic mosaicism. We report on two pregnancies from the same couple with gross, radiologic, and microscopic findings of ACG2. Molecular analysis of the second infant demonstrated heterozygosity for a c.2303G > A transition (p.Gly768Asp) in exon 33 of the COL2A1 gene. Although this mutation could not be proven by molecular studies in the first infant, identical findings in two affected pregnancies support germline mosaicism as the cause of ACG2 in this family. PMID:20583175

  18. Evidence of additional excitation energy transfer pathways in the phycobiliprotein antenna system of Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Nganou, A C; David, L; Adir, N; Pouhe, D; Deen, M J; Mkandawire, M

    2015-02-01

    To improve the energy conversion efficiency of solar organic cells, the clue may lie in the development of devices inspired by an efficient light harvesting mechanism of some aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms that are adapted to low light intensity. Consequently, we investigated the pathways of excitation energy transfer (EET) from successive light harvesting pigments to the low energy level inside the phycobiliprotein antenna system of Acaryochloris marina, a cyanobacterium, using a time resolved absorption difference spectroscopy with a resolution time of 200 fs. The objective was to understand the actual biochemical process and pathways that determine the EET mechanism. Anisotropy of the EET pathway was calculated from the absorption change trace in order to determine the contribution of excitonic coupling. The results reveal a new electron energy relaxation pathway of 14 ps inside the phycocyanin component, which runs from phycocyanin to the terminal emitter. The bleaching of the 660 nm band suggests a broader absorption of the terminal emitter between 660 nm and 675 nm. Further, there are trimer depolarization kinetics of 450 fs and 500 fs in high and low ionic strength, respectively, which arise from the relaxation of the β84 and α84 in adjacent monomers of phycocyanin. Under conditions of low ionic strength buffer solution, the evolution of the kinetic amplitude during the depolarization of the trimer is suggestive of trimer conservation within the phycocyanin hexamer. The anisotropy values were 0.38 and 0.40 in high and in low ionic strength, respectively, indicating that there is no excitonic delocalization in the high energy level of phycocyanin hexamers. PMID:25470281

  19. Additional evidence that rosacea pathogenesis may involve demodex: new information from the topical efficacy of ivermectin and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Abokwidir, Manal; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Additional evidence that Demodex folliculorum may contribute to the pathogenesis of papulopustular rosacea are new studies of two topical antiparasitic agents. Ivermectin and praziquantel have recently been shown to be effective in decreasing the severity of papulopustular rosacea. These two agents significantly differ in molecular structure, but yield similar antiparasitic mechanisms of action. Higher numbers of Demodex mites are found in the skin of patients with rosacea than in people with normal skin. If Demodex play a role in pathogenesis, then hypersensitivity to the mites, their flora, or their products could explain the observed efficacy of antidemodectic therapy. PMID:26437294

  20. Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan

    2013-12-01

    Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PMID:24295381

  1. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  2. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases. PMID:24384774

  3. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Evidence of Shared Genome-Wide Additive Genetic Effects on Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Generalized Vulnerability to Drug Dependence in a Population of Substance Users.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Rohan H C; Nugent, Nicole R; Brick, Leslie A; Bidwell, Cinnamon L; McGeary, John E; Keller, Matthew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with an increased risk for drug dependence and poorer response to substance abuse treatment (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002; Jaycox, Ebener, Damesek, & Becker, 2004). Despite this evidence, the reasons for the observed associations of trauma and the general tendency to be dependent upon drugs of abuse remain unclear. Data (N = 2,596) from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment were used to analyze (a) the degree to which commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; minor allele frequency > 1%) in the human genome explains exposure to interpersonal traumatic experiences, and (b) the extent to which additive genetic effects on trauma are shared with additive genetic effects on drug dependence. Our results suggested moderate additive genetic influences on interpersonal trauma, h(2) SNP-Interpersonal = .47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.10, .85], that are partially shared with additive genetic effects on generalized vulnerability to drug dependence, h(2) SNP-DD = .36, 95% CI [.11, .61]; rG-SNP = .49, 95% CI [.02, .96]. Although the design/technique does not exclude the possibility that substance abuse causally increases risk for traumatic experiences (or vice versa), these findings raise the possibility that commonly occurring SNPs influence both the general tendency towards drug dependence and interpersonal trauma. PMID:27214850

  5. Dorsal Stream Deficits Suggest Hidden Dyslexia among Deaf Poor Readers: Correlated Evidence from Reduced Perceptual Speed and Elevated Coherent Motion Detection Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samar, V.J.; Parasnis, I.

    2005-01-01

    Prelingual deafness and developmental dyslexia have confounding developmental effects on reading acquisition. Therefore, standard reading assessment methods for diagnosing dyslexia in hearing people are ineffective for use with deaf people. Recently, Samar, Parasnis, and Berent (2002) reported visual evoked potential evidence that deaf poor…

  6. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure. PMID:25812798

  7. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity. PMID:26148720

  8. Neuromedin U receptor 1 expression in the rat endocrine pancreas and evidence suggesting neuromedin U suppressive effect on insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Przemyslaw; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Szkudelski, Tomasz; Nowak, Krzysztof W

    2006-11-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a regulatory peptide found in significant concentrations in both the brain and gut of the rat and is named according to its ability to powerfully contract the uterus. Two types of NmU receptors were recently identified and subsequent studies evidenced NmU involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Such a role of neuromedin U suggests that a polypeptide may also be involved in the regulation of adipoinsular axis function. Therefore in the present study we examined the expression of NmU receptors in pancreatic islets using RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. We also investigated the role of NmU in regulation of insulin secretion in vitro using isolated pancreatic islets. We have confirmed that NmUR1 but not NmUR2 is specifically expressed in isolated rat pancreatic islets. In all tested doses (1, 10, 100 nmol/l) NmU dose- dependently decreased insulin output by isolated pancreatic islets. These inhibitory effects of NmU on insulin secretion may suggest the involvement of NmU in regulating the pancreatic branch of adipoinsular axis function. Thus, NmU can be included in that group of anorectic peptides, which are also involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:17016626

  9. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences. PMID:20623674

  10. Arrest Histories of High-Risk Gay and Bisexual Men in Miami: Unexpected Additional Evidence For Syndemic Theory†

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men continue to suffer the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Since the beginning of the epidemic, substance abuse has been shown to be one of the strongest predictors of sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion among this population. Recent research has focused on additional aspects of health risk disparities among gay and bisexual men, including depression and other mental health problems, childhood sexual abuse, and adult victimization, suggesting that these men are impacted by a syndemic of health risks. The involvement of gay and bisexual men with the criminal justice system is largely absent from the literature. This article describes the nature, extent and predictors of the arrest histories of a sample of gay and bisexual substance users at very high risk for HIV infection and/or transmission. These histories are surprisingly extensive, and are strongly associated with poverty, severe mental distress, substance abuse and dependence, and victimization. The involvement of gay and bisexual men in the criminal justice system deserves a stronger research focus because of the unique challenges facing such men and also because arrests are yet another marker for a host of health risks among them. PMID:19283955

  11. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  12. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  13. Substrate properties of C1 inhibitor Ma (alanine 434----glutamic acid). Genetic and structural evidence suggesting that the P12-region contains critical determinants of serine protease inhibitor/substrate status.

    PubMed

    Skriver, K; Wikoff, W R; Patston, P A; Tausk, F; Schapira, M; Kaplan, A P; Bock, S C

    1991-05-15

    The serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1 inhibitor inactivates enzymes involved in the regulation of vascular permeability. A patient from the Ma family with the genetic disorder hereditary angioedema inherited a dysfunctional C1 inhibitor allele. Relative to normal plasma, the patients's plasma contained an additional C1 inhibitor immunoreactive band, which comigrated with normal C1 inhibitor cleaved by plasma kallikrein, C1s, or factor XIIa. C1 inhibitor Ma did not react with a monoclonal antibody to a neoepitope that is present in complexed and cleaved normal C1 inhibitor, suggesting conformational differences between cleaved normal C1- inhibitor and cleaved C1 inhibitor Ma. Molecular cloning and sequencing of exon 8 of the C1 inhibitor Ma allele revealed a single C to A mutation, changing alanine 434 to glutamic acid. Ala 434 of C1 inhibitor aligns with the P12 residue of the prototypical serpin alpha 1-antitrypsin. The P12 amino acid of all inhibitory serpins is alanine, and it is present in a highly conserved region on the amino-terminal side of the serpin-reactive center loop. Whereas normal C1 inhibitor expressed by transfected COS-1 cells formed complexes with and was cleaved by kallikrein, fXIIa, and C1s, COS-1-expressed Ala434---Glu C1 inhibitor was cleaved by these enzymes but did not form complexes with them. These results, together with evidence from other studies, suggest that serpin protease inhibitor activity is the result of protein conformational change that occurs when the P12 region of a serpin moves from a surface location, on the reactive site loop of the native molecule, to an internal location within sheet A of the complexed inhibitor. PMID:2026621

  14. Suggestive Evidence for the Involvement of the Second Calcium and Surface Loop in Interfacial Binding: Monoclinci and Trigonal Crystal Structures of a Quadruple Mutant of Phospholipase A2

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar,K.; Yogavel, M.; Kanaujia, S.; Sharma, A.; Velmurugan, D.; Poi, M.; Dauter, Z.; Tsai, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of the monoclinic and trigonal forms of the quadruple mutant K53,56,120,121M of recombinant bovine pancreatic phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) have been solved and refined at 1.9 and 1.1 Angstroms resolution, respectively. Interestingly, the monoclinic form reveals the presence of the second calcium ion. Furthermore, the surface-loop residues are ordered and the conformation of residues 62-66 is similar to that observed in other structures containing the second calcium ion. On the other hand, in the trigonal form the surface loop is disordered and the second calcium is absent. Docking studies suggest that the second calcium and residues Lys62 and Asp66 from the surface loop could be involved in the interaction with the polar head group of the membrane phospholipid. It is hypothesized that the two structures of the quadruple mutant, monoclinic and trigonal, represent the conformations of PLA2 at the lipid interface and in solution, respectively. A docked structure with a phospholipid molecule and with a transition-state analogue bound, one at the active site coordinating to the catalytic calcium and the other at the second calcium site, but both at the i-face, is presented.

  15. Evidence suggesting that ghrelin O-acyl transferase inhibitor acts at the hypothalamus to inhibit hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Hochol, Anna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2012-06-01

    Production of n-octanoyl-modified ghrelin (GHREL), an active form of the peptide requires prohormone processing protease and GHREL O-acyltransferase (GOAT), as well as n-octanoic acid. Recently a selective GOAT antagonist (GO-CoA-Tat) was invented and this tool was used to study the possible role of endogenous GHREL in regulating HPA axis function in the rat. Administration of GOAT inhibitor (GOATi) resulted in a notable decrease in plasma ACTH, aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations at min 60 of experiment. Octanoic acid (OA) administration had no effect on levels of studied hormones. Plasma levels of unacylated and acylated GHREL remained unchanged for 60min after either GOATi or OA administration. Under experimental conditions applied, no significant changes were observed in the levels of GOAT mRNA in hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal and stomach fundus. After GOATi injection hypothalamic CRH mRNA levels were elevated at 30 min and pituitary POMC mRNA levels at 60 min. Both GOATi and OA lowered basal, but not K(+)-stimulated CRH release by hypothalamic explants and had no effect on basal or CRH-stimulated ACTH release by pituitary slices. Neither GOATi nor OA affected corticosterone secretion by freshly isolated or cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Thus, results of our study suggest that in the rat endogenous GHREL exerts tonic stimulating effect on hypothalamic CRH release. This effect could be demonstrated by administering rats with selected inhibitor of ghrelin O-acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for GHREL acylation, a process which is absolutely required for both GHSR-1a binding and its central endocrine activities. PMID:22543218

  16. Evidence Suggesting That Francisella tularensis O-Antigen Capsule Contains a Lipid A-Like Molecule That Is Structurally Distinct from the More Abundant Free Lipid A

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jason H.; Kaufman, Justin W.; Apicella, Michael A.; Weiss, Jerrold P.

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, produces a high molecular weight capsule that is immunologically distinct from Francisella lipopolysaccharide but contains the same O-antigen tetrasaccharide. To pursue the possibility that the capsule of Francisella live vaccine strain (LVS) has a structurally unique lipid anchor, we have metabolically labeled Francisella with [14C]acetate to facilitate highly sensitive compositional analysis of capsule-associated lipids. Capsule was purified by two independent methods and yielded similar results. Autoradiographic and immunologic analysis confirmed that this purified material was largely devoid of low molecular weight LPS and of the copious amounts of free lipid A that the Francisellae accumulate. Chemical hydrolysis yielded [14C]-labeled free fatty acids characteristic of Francisella lipid A but with a different molar ratio of 3-OH C18:0 to 3-OH C16:0 and different composition of non-hydroxylated fatty acids (mainly C14:0 rather than C16:0) than that of free Francisella lipid A. Mild acid hydrolysis to induce selective cleavage of KDO-lipid A linkage yielded a [14C]-labeled product that partitioned during Bligh/Dyer extraction and migrated during thin-layer chromatography like lipid A. These findings suggest that the O-antigen capsule of Francisella contains a covalently linked and structurally distinct lipid A species. The presence of a discrete lipid A-like molecule associated with capsule raises the possibility that Francisella selectively exploits lipid A structural heterogeneity to regulate synthesis, transport, and stable bacterial surface association of the O-antigen capsular layer. PMID:27326857

  17. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  18. Addition of a Decision Point in Evidence-Based Practice Process Steps to Distinguish EBP, Research and Quality Improvement Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mick, JoAnn

    2015-06-01

    This column shares the best evidence-based strategies and innovative ideas on how to facilitate the learning of EBP principles and processes by clinicians as well as nursing and interprofessional students. Guidelines for submission are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1741--6787. PMID:25773966

  19. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  20. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  1. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  2. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2015-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  3. Stimulus modality and working memory performance in Greek children with reading disabilities: additional evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Evripidou, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of stimulus presentation modality on working memory performance in children with reading disabilities (RD) and in typically developing children (TDC), all native speakers of Greek. It was hypothesized that the visual presentation of common objects would result in improved learning and recall performance as compared to the auditory presentation of stimuli. Twenty children, ages 10-12, diagnosed with RD were matched to 20 TDC age peers. The experimental tasks implemented a multitrial verbal learning paradigm incorporating three modalities: auditory, visual, and auditory plus visual. Significant group differences were noted on language, verbal and nonverbal memory, and measures of executive abilities. A mixed-model MANOVA indicated that children with RD had a slower learning curve and recalled fewer words than TDC across experimental modalities. Both groups of participants benefited from the visual presentation of objects; however, children with RD showed the greatest gains during this condition. In conclusion, working memory for common verbal items is impaired in children with RD; however, performance can be facilitated, and learning efficiency maximized, when information is presented visually. The results provide further evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis and the theory that pictorial presentation of verbal stimuli is adequate for dual coding. PMID:21942734

  4. Phylogeny of the Heelwalkers (Insecta: Mantophasmatodea) based on mtDNA sequences, with evidence for additional taxa in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Jakob; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D; Buder, Gerda

    2008-05-01

    We examined the phylogeny of Mantophasmatodea from southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia) using approx. 1300 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the genes encoding COI and 16S. The taxon sample comprised multiple specimens from eight described species (Namaquaphasma ookiepense, Austrophasma rawsonvillense, A. caledonense, A. gansbaaiense, Lobatophasma redelinghuysense, Hemilobophasma montaguense, Karoophasma botterkloofense, K. biedouwense) and four undescribed species of Austrophasmatidae; three specimens of Sclerophasma paresisense (Mantophasmatidae); and two specimens of Praedatophasma maraisi and one of Tyrannophasma gladiator (not yet convincingly assigned to any family). For outgroup comparison a broad selection from hemimetabolous insect orders was included. Equally weighted parsimony analyses of the combined COI+16S data sets with gaps in 16S scored as a fifth character state supported Austrophasmatidae and all species and genera of Mantophasmatodea as being monophyletic. Most species were highly supported with 98-100% bootstrap/7-39 Bremer support (BS), but K. biedouwense had moderate support (87/4) and A. caledonense low support (70/1). Mantophasmatodea, Austrophasmatidae, and a clade Tyrannophasma gladiator+Praedatophasma maraisi were all strongly supported (99-100/12-25), while relationships among the two latter clades and Mantophasmatidae remain ambiguous. Concerning the relationships among genera of Austrophasmatidae, support values are moderately high for some nodes, but not significant for others. We additionally calculated the partitioned BS values of COI and 16S for all nodes in the strict consensus of the combined tree. COI and 16S are highly congruent at the species level as well as at the base of Mantophasmatodea, but congruence is poor for most intergeneric relationships. In forthcoming studies, deeper relationships in the order should be additionally explored by nuclear genes, such as 18S and 28S, for a reduced sample of specimens

  5. Oblique fault systems crossing the Seattle Basin: Geophysical evidence for additional shallow fault systems in the central Puget Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Chris G.; Keranen, Katie M.

    2012-03-01

    Upper plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. We map fault networks in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using existing marine multichannel seismic reflection data sets with widely distributed profiles to extend the results of previous work. We identify a NE-SW zone of recent high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone and is distinct from previously mapped fault systems. Faults in this zone cut or deform sediments at the seafloor, and the zone trends across the central Puget Lowland at an oblique angle to major regional structures. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. Aeromagnetic lineations extend the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation of shallow sediment in the Puget Sound with deformation of shallow sediment in the Hood Canal. These oblique fault structures may partially control the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland and should be considered in seismic hazard assessments.

  6. Breast cancer screening in the era of density notification legislation: summary of 2014 Massachusetts experience and suggestion of an evidence-based management algorithm by multi-disciplinary expert panel.

    PubMed

    Freer, Phoebe E; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Haas, Jennifer S; Tung, Nadine M; Hughes, Kevin S; Armstrong, Katrina; Semine, A Alan; Troyan, Susan L; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2015-09-01

    Stemming from breast density notification legislation in Massachusetts effective 2015, we sought to develop a collaborative evidence-based approach to density notification that could be used by practitioners across the state. Our goal was to develop an evidence-based consensus management algorithm to help patients and health care providers follow best practices to implement a coordinated, evidence-based, cost-effective, sustainable practice and to standardize care in recommendations for supplemental screening. We formed the Massachusetts Breast Risk Education and Assessment Task Force (MA-BREAST) a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary panel of expert radiologists, surgeons, primary care physicians, and oncologists to develop a collaborative approach to density notification legislation. Using evidence-based data from the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Cochrane review, National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, American Cancer Society recommendations, and American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria, the group collaboratively developed an evidence-based best-practices algorithm. The expert consensus algorithm uses breast density as one element in the risk stratification to determine the need for supplemental screening. Women with dense breasts and otherwise low risk (<15% lifetime risk), do not routinely require supplemental screening per the expert consensus. Women of high risk (>20% lifetime) should consider supplemental screening MRI in addition to routine mammography regardless of breast density. We report the development of the multi-disciplinary collaborative approach to density notification. We propose a risk stratification algorithm to assess personal level of risk to determine the need for supplemental screening for an individual woman. PMID:26290416

  7. Additional Evidence of the Trypanocidal Action of (−)-Elatol on Amastigote Forms through the Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2014-01-01

    Chagas’ disease, a vector-transmitted infectious disease, is caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Drugs that are currently available for the treatment of this disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents a priority. We recently described the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol, extracted from the macroalga Laurencia dendroidea. However, nothing has been described about the mechanism of action of this compound on amastigotes that are involved in the chronic phase of Chagas’ disease. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of (−)-elatol on the formation of superoxide anions (O2•−), DNA fragmentation, and autophagy in amastigotes of T. cruzi to elucidate the possible mechanism of the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol. Treatment of the amastigotes with (−)-elatol increased the formation of O2•− at all concentrations of (−)-elatol assayed compared with untreated parasites. Increased fluorescence was observed in parasites treated with (−)-elatol, indicating DNA fragmentation and the formation of autophagic compartments. The results suggest that the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol might involve the induction of the autophagic and apoptotic death pathways triggered by an imbalance of the parasite’s redox metabolism. PMID:25257785

  8. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis. PMID:25928681

  9. 15N electron nuclear double resonance of the primary donor cation radical P+.865 in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: additional evidence for the dimer model.

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, W; Isaacson, R A; Abresch, E C; Feher, G

    1984-01-01

    Four 15N hyperfine coupling constants, including signs, have been measured by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron nuclear nuclear triple resonance (TRIPLE) for the bacteriochlorophyll a radical cation, BChla+., in vitro and for the light-induced primary donor radical cation, P+.865, in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26. A comparison of the data shows that the hyperfine coupling constants have the same sign in both radicals and are, on the average, smaller by a factor of 2 in P+.865. These results provide additional evidence that P+.865 is a bacteriochlorophyll dimer and are in contradiction with the monomer structure of P+.865 recently proposed by O'Malley and Babcock. The reduction factors of the individual 15N couplings, together with the evidence from proton ENDOR data and molecular orbital calculations, indicate a dimer structure in which only two rings (either I and I or III and III) of the bacteriochlorophyll macrocycles overlap. PMID:6096857

  10. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  11. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  12. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate. PMID:25728471

  13. Suggestion and psychoanalytic technique.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T; Inderbitzin, L B

    2000-01-01

    The role of the analyst's suggestive influence on the course and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment is explored, and traditional and newer perspectives on analytic technique are contrasted. The intersubjective critique of the neutral, objective analyst in relation to suggestion is examined. The inevitable presence and need for suggestive factors in analysis, and the relationship of suggestion to transference susceptibility, are emphasized. The manner in which the analysis of suggestive factors is subsumed in transference analysis as part of traditional technique is highlighted. PMID:11059395

  14. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H{sub 2} FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thrower, J. D.; Jorgensen, B.; Friis, E. E.; Baouche, S.; Luntz, A. C.; Andersen, M.; Hammer, B.; Hornekaer, L.; Mennella, V.

    2012-06-10

    Mass spectrometry measurements show the formation of highly superhydrogenated derivatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule coronene through H atom addition reactions. The observed product mass distribution provides evidence also for abstraction reactions resulting in H{sub 2} formation, in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H{sub 2} loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H{sub 2} formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that highly superhydrogenated PAHs could well be formed and could act as efficient catalysts for H{sub 2} formation in the interstellar medium in low UV flux regions.

  15. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:3555209

  16. Additional Evidence for Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus Sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java)

    PubMed Central

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  17. Additional evidence for morpho-dimensional tooth crown variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java).

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  18. Additional enhancer copies, with intact cdx binding sites, anteriorize Hoxa-7/lacZ expression in mouse embryos: evidence in keeping with an instructional cdx gradient.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Stephen J; Cockley, Adam; Drage, Deborah

    2004-09-01

    Expression of a Hoxa-7/lacZ reporter construct in transgenic mouse embryos is shifted anteriorly when the upstream enhancer is multimerized. The shift occurs in spinal ganglia, neurectoderm and in both paraxial and lateral plate mesoderms. Much of the multimer effect is inhibited by destruction of a single caudal (cdx) binding motif in the additional copies of the enhancer. These observations are in agreement with earlier enhancer multimerization analyses made for Hoxb-8 (Charite et al., 1998). Our findings therefore provide further evidence that the anterior limit of a Hox gene's expression domain is normally dependent upon and is determined by, the dosage of transcription factor(s) which bind to its enhancer element(s) and that these factors may be, or must include, the cdx proteins. We consider these findings in terms of both instructional (morphogen-like) gradient and timing models for the establishment of Hox gene expression domains. Enhancer multimerization results in an earlier onset of Hoxa-7/lacZ activity in the embryo. In neurectoderm at 8.7 days and in mesoderm at 10.5 days, the anterior boundaries of expression are located posterior to those seen at some earlier stages of development. We discuss how these findings are in keeping with a model where Hox expression boundaries become set along instructional cdx gradients, formed by cdx decay in cells moving away from the primitive streak region. PMID:15470633

  19. Additional Evidence that Juvenile Oyster Disease Is Caused by a Member of the Roseobacter Group and Colonization of Nonaffected Animals by Stappia stellulata-Like Strains†

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Katherine J.; Barber, Bruce J.; Singer, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Juvenile oyster disease (JOD) causes significant annual mortalities of hatchery-produced Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, cultured in the Northeast. We have reported that a novel species of the α-proteobacteria Roseobacter group (designated CVSP) was numerically dominant in JOD-affected animals sampled during the 1997 epizootic on the Damariscotta River, Maine. In this study we report the isolation of CVSP bacteria from JOD-affected oysters during three separate epizootics in 1998. These bacteria were not detected in nonaffected oysters at the enzootic site, nor in animals raised at a JOD-free site. Animals raised at the JOD enzootic site that were unaffected by JOD were stably and persistently colonized by Stappia stellulata-like strains. These isolates (designated M1) inhibited the growth of CVSP bacteria in a disk-diffusion assay and thus may have prevented colonization of these animals by CVSP bacteria in situ. Laboratory-maintained C. virginica injected with CVSP bacteria experienced statistically significant elevated mortalities compared to controls, and CVSP bacteria were recovered from these animals during the mortality events. Together, these results provide additional evidence that CVSP bacteria are the etiological agent of JOD. Further, there are no other descriptions of specific marine α-proteobacteria that have been successfully cultivated from a defined animal host. Thus, this system presents an opportunity to investigate both bacterial and host factors involved in the establishment of such associations and the role of the invertebrate host in the ecology of these marine α-proteobacteria. PMID:10966410

  20. Sub-meter desiccation crack patterns imaged by Curiosity at Gale Crater on Mars shed additional light on former lakes evident from examined outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Mangold, N.; Oehler, D. Z.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bish, D. L.; Heydari, E.; Rubin, D. M.; Rowland, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Small-scale desiccation crack patterns (mudcrack-like arrays of uniform ~0.1 to 1 m polygonal domains separated by linear or curving cracks in exposed bedding) imaged by Curiosity in Gale Crater, Mars complement a wealth of diverse data obtained from exposures of sedimentary rocks that point to deposition "in fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments" including an "intracrater lake system likely [to have] existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years …"(e.g. Grotzinger et al., 2015, Science, submitted). We interpret these mudcrack-like patterns, found on many of the bedrock exposures imaged by Curiosity, as desiccation cracks that developed either of two ways: 1) at the soft sediment-air interface like common mudcracks, or 2) at or below the sediment-water interface by synaeresis or diastasis (involving differential compaction). In the context of recent studies of terrestrial mudcracks, and cracks formed experimentally in various wet powders as they loose moisture, these desiccation features reflect diverse aspects of the formative environment. If they formed as mudcracks, some of the lakes were shallow enough to permit the recurrent drying and wetting that can lead to the geometric regularity characteristic of several of sets of mudcracks. Moreover, the water likely contained little suspended sediment otherwise the mudcracks would be buried too rapidly for the crack pattern to persist and to mature into regular polygonal patterns. The preservation of these desiccation crack patterns does not require, but does not exclude, deep burial and exhumation. Although invisible from satellite because of their size, a multitude of Mastcam and Navcam images reveals these informative features in considerable detail. These images complement much evidence, mostly from HiRISE data from several regions, suggesting that potential desiccation polygons on larger scales may be more common on the surface of Mars than generally recognized.

  1. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  2. Known and suggested quaternary faulting in the midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.; Crone, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The midcontinent United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains contains 40 known faults or other potentially tectonic features for which published geologic information shows or suggests Quaternary tectonic faulting. We report results of a systematic evaluation of published and other publicly available geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. These results benefit seismic-hazard assessments by (1) providing some constraints on the recurrence intervals and magnitudes of large, prehistoric earthquakes, and (2) identifying features that warrant additional study. For some features, suggested Quaternary tectonic faulting has been disproved, whereas, for others, the suggested faulting remains questionable. Of the 40 features, nine have clear geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting associated with prehistoric earthquakes, and another six features have evidence of nontectonic origins. An additional 12 faults, uplifts, or historical seismic zones lack reported paleoseismological evidence of large. Quaternary earthquakes. The remaining 13 features require further paleoseismological study to determine if they have had Quaternary earthquakes that were larger than any known from local historical records; seven of these 13 features are in or near urbanized areas where their study could affect urban hazard estimates. These seven are: (1) the belt of normal faults that rings the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. (2) the Northeast Ohio seismic zone, (3) the Valmont and (4) Goodpasture faults of Colorado. (5) the Champlain lowlands normal faults of New York State and Vermont, and (6) the Lexington and (7) Kentucky River fault systems of eastern Kentucky. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-01-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  4. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  5. Source monitoring reduces the suggestibility of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Giles, Jessica W; Gopnik, Alison; Heyman, Gail D

    2002-05-01

    The relation between source monitoring and suggestibility was examined among preschool children. Thirty-two 3- to 5-year-olds were simultaneously presented with a brief story in two different modalities, as a silent video vignette and a spoken narrative. Each modality presented unique information about the story, but the information in the two versions was mutually compatible. The children were then asked a series of questions, including questions about the source (modality) of story details, and leading questions about story details (to assess suggestibility). Performance on the source-monitoring questions was highly correlated with the ability to resist suggestion. In addition, children who were asked source-monitoring questions prior to leading questioning were less susceptible to suggestion than were those who were asked the leading questions first. This study provides evidence that source monitoring can play a causal role in reducing the suggestibility of preschool children. PMID:12009053

  6. Evidence-Based Design for Project-Based Learning: A Case Study for a 50,000 SF Addition Dedicated to the New Tech Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Richard D.; Conte, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    The Seaford School District, Seaford, Delaware, determined that a component of their "reinvention" of Seaford High School would be the creation of a New Tech Academy, affiliated with the New Tech Network and housed in an addition to that building. The New Tech Network, headquartered in Napa, California, is a rapidly growing association of New Tech…

  7. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer's disease, and shows evidence for additional susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Denise; Abraham, Richard; Hollingworth, Paul; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Hamshere, Marian; Singh Pahwa, Jaspreet; Moskvina, Valentina; Dowzell, Kimberley; Williams, Amy; Jones, Nicola; Thomas, Charlene; Stretton, Alexandra; Morgan, Angharad; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John; Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C.; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Morgan, Kevin; Brown, Kristelle; Passmore, Peter; Craig, David; McGuinness, Bernadette; Todd, Stephen; Holmes, Clive; Mann, David; Smith, A. David; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Hardy, John; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick; Rossor, Martin; Collinge, John; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Schürmann, Britta; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Heuser, Isabella; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Dichgans, Martin; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Hüll, Michael; Rujescu, Dan; Goate, Alison; Kauwe, John S.K.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Nowotny, Petra; Morris, John C.; Mayo, Kevin; Sleegers, Kristel; Bettens, Karolien; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Livingston, Gill; Bass, Nicholas J.; Gurling, Hugh; McQuillin, Andrew; Gwilliam, Rhian; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Tsolaki, Magda; Singleton, Andrew; Guerreiro, Rita; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H-Erich; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Younkin, Steven G.; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael; Owen, Michael J.; Williams, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study of Alzheimer's disease involving over 16,000 individuals. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the APOE locus (most significant SNP: rs2075650, p= 1.8×10−157) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two novel loci: rs11136000 in the CLU or APOJ gene (p= 1.4×10−9) and rs3851179, a SNP 5′ to the PICALM gene (p= 1.9×10−8). Both novel associations were supported in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with AD in the combined dataset (rs11136000: p= 8.5×10−10, odds ratio= 0.86; rs3851179: p= 1.3×10−9, odds ratio= 0.86). We also observed more variants associated at p< 1×10−5 than expected by chance (p=7.5×10−6), including polymorphisms at the BIN1, DAB1 and CR1 loci. PMID:19734902

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Association of Common Variants in the Human Eyes Shut Ortholog, EYS, with Statin-Induced Myopathy: Evidence for Additional Functions of EYS

    PubMed Central

    Isackson, Paul J.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Ma, Changxing; Harley, John B.; Peltier, Wendy; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Sripathi, Naganand; Wortmann, Robert L.; Simmons, Zachary; Wilson, Jon D.; Smith, Stephen A.; Barboi, Alexandru; Fine, Edward; Baer, Alan; Baker, Steven; Kaufman, Kenneth; Cobb, Beth; Kilpatrick, Jeffrey R.; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Of nearly 38 million people in the U.S. receiving statin therapy, 0.1–0.5% experience severe or life-threatening myopathic side effects. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in patients with severe statin myopathy versus a statin-tolerant group to identify genetic susceptibility loci. Results Replication studies in independent groups of severe statin myopathy (n=190) and statintolerant controls (n=130) resulted in the identification of three SNPs, rs9342288, rs1337512 and rs3857532, in the eyes shut homolog (EYS) on chromosome 6 suggestive of an association with risk for severe statin myopathy (p=0.0003–0.0008). Analysis of EYS cDNA demonstrated that EYS gene products are complex and expressed with relative abundance in the spinal cord as well as in the retina. Discussion Structural similarities of these EYS gene products to members of the Notch signaling pathway and to agrin suggest a possible functional role in the maintenance and regeneration of the structural integrity of skeletal muscle. PMID:21826682

  11. Cytogenetics of nine species of mediterranean blennies and additional evidence for an unusual multiple sex-chromosome system in Parablennius tentacularis (Perciformes, Blenniidae).

    PubMed

    Caputo, V; Machella, N; Nisi-Cerioni, P; Olmo, E

    2001-01-01

    The chromosomal complements of nine species of Blenniidae (Aidablennius sphylnx, Blennius ocellaris, Lypophris adriaticus, L. pavo, L. trigloides, Parcablennius gattorugine, P. ponticus, P. sanguinolentus, P. tentacularis) from the Adriatic Sea were analysed with several banding methods and in-situ hybridization. In all species, the diploid set consists of 48 mostly acrocentric chromosomes and has a similar location (terminal centromeric) of NORs, except for L. pavo (interstitial pericentric) and P. ponticus (terminal on the long arm). There are major differences in karyotype with regard to the amount and distribution of heterochromatin. Parablennius tentacularis shows a distinctive sex-chromosome system involving 2n = 48 males with a large totally heterochromatic Y chromosome, and males with 2n = 47. This difference is likely to be the consequence of a translocation of an autosome on the original Y. This finding constitutes an additional instance of the great variability in origins of multiple sex chromosome systems in vertebrates. PMID:11272790

  12. Oblique Fault Systems Crossing the Seattle Basin: Seismic and Aeromagnetic Evidence for Additional Shallow Fault Systems in the Central Puget Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Mace, C.

    2011-12-01

    Upper-plate seismicity in the Puget Lowland is more broadly distributed than mapped fault systems and presents a conundrum for understanding the active tectonics of the region. Although many previous studies have mapped faulting in the Puget Lowland from subsurface geophysical data, many of these efforts have focused specifically on mapping the structure of the Seattle Fault Zone and the South Whidbey Island Fault. The thick glacial sediments and extensive water bodies may conceal additional active faults away from these major structures. To extend the results of the previous work, we mapped fault networks and patterns of sediment deposition in Quaternary sediments broadly throughout the central Puget Lowland using a combination of existing multi-channel seismic reflection datasets with widely distributed profiles and aeromagnetic data. We identify a NE-SW zone of high-angle faulting and shallow sediment deformation crossing the Seattle Uplift and the Seattle Basin that segments the Seattle Fault Zone (SFZ), offsetting aeromagnetic anomalies along the SFZ by 1.2 km in a dextral sense. Aeromagnetic lineations trace the NE-SW trend of deformation across the Seattle Uplift and connect deformation within the Puget Sound and the Hood Canal. Two additional zones of faulting trend NW-SE and cut through the Seattle Basin and the Kingston Arch, respectively. We also interpreted five regional seismic horizons, representing erosional unconformities, throughout our dataset, and created sediment thickness maps for each time interval. The thickness maps reveal changing patterns of sediment deposition through time, possibly controlled by changes in the regional pattern of deformation. Holocene sediment deposition shows strong control by the oblique fault systems. These oblique fault structures may be partially responsible for the wide distribution of seismicity within the central Puget Lowland.

  13. Deaf Colonials: Evidence Suggests that Some Were Literate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Cathryn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the literacy of early Americans with deafness. Two colonials are profiled: Jonathan Lambert, who was taught reading and writing in a rural area of England noted for its number of deaf inhabitants and who founded a signing community on Martha's Vineyard; and John Edge, who attended a neighborhood school prior to the advent of formal deaf…

  14. Empirical Evidence Suggest A Need For A Different Gravitational Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents some recent finding in alternative gravitational hypotheses. Using gamma-ray burst Nemiroff [2012] showed that quantum foam could not exists. Solomon [2011] showed that gravitational acceleration is not associated gravitating mass, and equivalent to not knowing the photon source properties to know its frequency. Solomon [2011] showed that gravitational acceleration g is determined by τ the change in time dilation over a specific height multiplied by c^2 or g=τc^2. Force is expressed as a Non Inertia (Ni) Field and not by the exchange of virtual particles as is required by quantum & string theories. This paper examines 11 inconsistencies in physical theories that manifest from empirical data, to provide insights on how physical theories need to change to eliminate these inconsistencies. Exotic matter, expanding strings, a moving wave function and even a fixed spacetime continuum generate inconsistencies in physics. Further, our physical theories do not explain how particle probabilities are implemented in Nature. This paper concludes by proposing alternative axioms for spacetime and structuring particles that would be consistent with the Special Theory of Relativity.

  15. Evidence for success in health promotion: suggestions for improvement.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, G; Veen, C; Tones, K

    1996-09-01

    This paper argues that health promotion needs to develop an approach to evaluation and effectiveness that values qualitative methodologies. It posits the idea that qualitative research could learn from the experience of quantitative researchers and promote more useful ways of measuring effectiveness by the use of intermediate and indirect indicators. It refers to a European-wide project designed to gather information on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. This project discovered that there was a need for an instrument that allowed qualitative intervention methodologies to be assessed in the same way as quantitative methods. PMID:10163567

  16. Antimicrobials and Non-healing Wounds Evidence, controversies and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Gottrup, F; Apelqvist, J; Bjansholt, T; Cooper, R; Moore, Z; Peters, E J G; Probst, S

    2013-05-01

    Non-healing wounds are a significant problem for health-care systems worldwide. In the industrialised world, almost 1-1.5% of the population will have a problem wound at any one time. Furthermore, wound management is expensive; in Europe, the average cost per episode is 6650 euros for leg ulcers and 10 000 euros for foot ulcers, and wound management accounts for 2-4% of health-care budgets. These figures are expected to rise along with an increased elderly and diabetic population.1-4. PMID:23921580

  17. pdc1(0) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae give evidence for an additional structural PDC gene: cloning of PDC5, a gene homologous to PDC1.

    PubMed Central

    Seeboth, P G; Bohnsack, K; Hollenberg, C P

    1990-01-01

    The PDC1 gene coding for a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) was deleted from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. The resulting pdc1(0) mutants were able to grow on glucose and still contained 60 to 70% of the wild-type PDC activity. Two DNA fragments with sequences homologous to that of the PDC1 gene were cloned from the yeast genome. One of the cloned genes (PDC5) was expressed at high rates predominantly in pdc1(0) strains and probably encodes the remaining PDC activity in these strains. Expression from the PDC1 promoter in PDC1 wild-type and pdc1(0) strains was examined by the use of two reporter genes. Deletion of PDC1 led to increased expression of the two reporter genes regardless of whether the fusions were integrated into the genome or present on autonomously replicating plasmids. The results suggested that this effect was due to feedback regulation of the PDC1 promoter-driven expression in S. cerevisiae pdc1(0) strains. The yeast PDC1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, leading to an active PDC. This result shows that the PDC1-encoded subunit alone can form an active tetramer without yeast-specific processing steps. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:2404950

  18. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  19. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  20. No Generalization of Practice for Nonzero Simple Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Beech, Leah C.

    2014-01-01

    Several types of converging evidence have suggested recently that skilled adults solve very simple addition problems (e.g., 2 + 1, 4 + 2) using a fast, unconscious counting algorithm. These results stand in opposition to the long-held assumption in the cognitive arithmetic literature that such simple addition problems normally are solved by fact…

  1. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  2. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  3. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  4. Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

    2012-07-01

    False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events. PMID:22537029

  5. Suggestions for better election security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Warner, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of Common Security Mistakes: (1) Electronic voting machines that fundamentally lack security thought and features, including an ability to detect tampering or intrusion, or to be reliably locked or sealed; (2) Failure to disassemble, inspect, and thoroughly inspect (not just test) a sufficient number of voting machines before and after elections in order to detect hardware or software tampering; (3) Assuming that tamper - indicating seals will either be blatantly ripped/smashed open, or else there is no tampering. In reality, even amateurs can spoof most seals leaving (at most) subtle evidence; (4) Inadequate seal use protocols and training of seal installers and inspectors. Failure to show examples of blatantly and subtly attacked seals to seal inspectors; (5) Over confidence in use of a voter verified paper record (VVPR), a VVPR is an excellent security countermeasure, but it is not a silver bullet, especially for an election organization with poor overall security; (6) Little or no insider thr at mitigation; and (7) A poor security culture, including denial and no a priori procedures for dealing with security questions or concerns.

  6. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  7. Social suggestibility to central and peripheral misinformation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Andrea L; Daneman, Meredyth

    2006-05-01

    This study used a laboratory-based paradigm to investigate social influences on participants' susceptibility to misleading suggestions. Participants viewed a video clip of an action sequence with one or more peers, and then were required to discuss the event with the co-witness or with the group of co-witnesses. During the discussion a confederate, posing as a peer, presented misinformation about central and peripheral features of the co-witnessed event. Results indicated that participants were more susceptible to misleading suggestions during one-on-one discussions than during group discussions. In addition, participants were susceptible to misleading suggestions about central features of the witnessed event, although to a lesser extent than they were susceptible to misleading suggestions about peripheral features. PMID:16766450

  8. Revision of Suggested State Regulations.

    PubMed

    Winston, John P

    2016-02-01

    It is the mission of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) to promote radiological health in all aspects and phases of implementation and to create a seamless and coherent regulatory structure across the United States. CRCPD currently has 25 committees charged with the development of Suggested State Regulations (SSRs) for everything from transportation and waste disposal to tanning and medical therapy. The SR-F Committee is responsible for the suggested regulations of the equipment and processes used in medical diagnostic and interventional x-ray procedures. Several states are required by law to adopt the SSR verbatim, making it vital that they are kept current. The current revision of SR-F brought together representatives from the state radiation control programs, the Food and Drug Administration, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American College of Radiology, and industry. Through the course of two meetings and multiple conference calls, the Committee finalized an updated draft. The CRCPD process for the development of SSR is well established and includes internal and external peer review, review by the state Director Members, approval by the Board of Directors, and concurrence from relevant federal agencies. Once final, an SSR allows a state radiation control program to proceed through the state's own regulatory process with a vetted set of regulations, making this difficult process more efficient and effective. PMID:26717174

  9. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

  10. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  11. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  12. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events. PMID:23362807

  13. Assertions and Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need to provide evidence when making claims, particularly when reporting research results. Suggests evidence should be precise; be wary of generalizations; question authority; and link the manuscript together in a coherent manner. (LRW)

  14. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  15. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  16. Are There Additional Benefits from Being in Small Classes for More than One Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from Project STAR has suggested a considerable advantage of being in small classes in early grades. However, the extra benefits of additional years in small classes have not been discussed in detail. The present study examined the additional effects of being in small classes for more than 1 year. We find that once previous grade…

  17. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    PubMed

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation. PMID:24454906

  18. Seasonal Survival Probabilities Suggest Low Migration Mortality in Migrating Bats

    PubMed Central

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation. PMID:24454906

  19. Cross Fostering Experiments Suggest That Mice Songs Are Innate

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nakagawa, Ryoko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background Vocal learning is a central functional constituent of human speech, and recent studies showing that adult male mice emit ultrasonic sound sequences characterized as “songs” have suggested that the ultrasonic courtship sounds of mice provide a mammalian model of vocal learning. Objectives We tested whether mouse songs are learned, by examining the relative role of rearing environment in a cross-fostering experiment. Methods and Findings We found that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males emit a clearly different pattern of songs with different frequency and syllable compositions; C57BL/6 males showed a higher peak frequency of syllables, shorter intervals between syllables, and more upward frequency modulations with jumps, whereas BALB/c males produced more “chevron” and “harmonics” syllables. To establish the degree of environmental influences in mouse song development, sons of these two strains were cross-fostered to another strain of parents. Songs were recorded when these cross-fostered pups were fully developed and their songs were compared with those of male mice reared by the genetic parents. The cross-fostered animals sang songs with acoustic characteristics - including syllable interval, peak frequency, and modulation patterns - similar to those of their genetic parents. In addition their song elements retained sequential characteristics similar to those of their genetic parents' songs. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that mouse “song” is learned; we found no evidence for vocal learning of any sort under the conditions of this experiment. Our observation that the strain-specific character of the song profile persisted even after changing the developmental auditory environment suggests that the structure of these courtship sound sequences is under strong genetic control. Thus, the usefulness of mouse “song” as a model of mammalian vocal learning is limited, but mouse song has the potential to be an indispensable model

  20. Too Much Red Meat Might Harm Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the study's authors. The study adds new data to a conflicting body of evidence on the relationship between protein intake, particularly red meat, and kidney disease, experts noted. "It adds useful and additional information to our knowledge base, but I'm not sure if it necessarily ...

  1. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on...

  2. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say inflammation or cigarette ... a significant risk to kidney health for black Americans, new research suggests. The study included more than ...

  3. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    PubMed

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions. PMID:18662974

  4. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  5. Individual personality characteristics related to suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Cheryl W; Steele, Connie

    2002-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between suggestibility of memory, personality characteristics identified by the Millon Index of Personality Traits, and tolerance for ambiguity measured by MacDonald's Ambiguity Tolerance-20. 85 female and 16 male college students were assigned to either an experimental group receiving the suggestive information or a control group. Suggestibility was assessed using Lindberg's suggestibility measure consisting of a short video, followed by a questionnaire used to assess memory, and a second administration one week later. Logistical regression analyses were used to construct a model of the personality characteristics predictive of suggestibility and indicated that susceptibility to suggestive information may differ across personalities for variables such as sensing, innovating, agreeing, and low tolerance of ambiguity. PMID:12530759

  6. A 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle: Additional Evidence for the Common Occurrence of Balancing Selection in Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Karim, Latifa; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Panitz, Frank; Aamand, Gert Pedersen; Schulman, Nina; Georges, Michel; Vilkki, Johanna; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Druet, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due to the negative energy balance of high-producing cows at the peak of lactation. We herein describe the fine-mapping of a major fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle, and identify a 660-kb deletion encompassing four genes as the causative variant. We show that the deletion is a recessive embryonically lethal mutation. This probably results from the loss of RNASEH2B, which is known to cause embryonic death in mice. Despite its dramatic effect on fertility, 13%, 23% and 32% of the animals carry the deletion in Danish, Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle, respectively. To explain this, we searched for favorable effects on other traits and found that the deletion has strong positive effects on milk yield. This study demonstrates that embryonic lethal mutations account for a non-negligible fraction of the decline in fertility of domestic cattle, and that associated positive effects on milk yield may account for part of the negative genetic correlation. Our study adds to the evidence that structural variants contribute to animal phenotypic variation, and that balancing selection might be more common in livestock species than previously appreciated. PMID:24391517

  7. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  8. Suggested Learnings: Consumer and Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Dorothy Jean; Swanson, Bettye B.

    The guide presents suggested learning concepts, experiences, and references for home economics educators in the planning and organization of secondary level consumer and homemaking programs. The suggestions are based on questionnaires and interviews with teachers and administrators involved in this program. The guide's main focus is on the process…

  9. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  10. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  11. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  12. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  13. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  14. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  15. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  16. Suggested Minimum Cataloging Standards for Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sharon

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems with cataloging library materials in the small and medium sized public library and suggests interpretations of the Anglo-American cataloging rules, with recommendations for their adaptation to smaller libraries. (CWM)

  17. No Statins Before Heart Surgery, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... harm, a new study suggests. In that setting, Crestor (rosuvastatin) did not prevent either the abnormal heart rhythm ... who were having elective heart surgery to take Crestor or a placebo before surgery. The researchers found ...

  18. Electronic Reference Services: Some Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Bernie

    1998-01-01

    Suggests guidelines to help libraries formalize their electronic reference services. Covers the following issues: administration/management (library division/department, library administration, campus administration, academic departments); services; primary clientele; personnel; infrastructure/facilities; finances; and evaluation. (AEF)

  19. Ubiquitinated, p62 immunopositive cerebellar cortical neuronal inclusions are evident across the spectrum of TDP-43 proteinopathies but are only rarely additionally immunopositive for phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew; Maekawa, Satomi; Bodi, Istvan; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa

    2011-06-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTLD-MND/ALS) and MND/ALS are thought to represent a clinicopathological spectrum of TDP-43 proteinopathies. The cerebellum has been little studied in these conditions, probably because of the lack of cerebellar signs in most cases. We examined p62 immunohistochemistry on cerebellar sections from 43 TDP-43 proteinopathies (including cases of FTLD-TDP, FTLD-MND/ALS and MND/ALS) together with 72 cases of other neurodegenerative diseases, seven controls and three other disease conditions. In 11 of the TDP-43 proteinopathies (26%) there were numerous p62-positive cerebellar inclusions, predominantly within the granular layer, but also the molecular and Purkinje cell layer. Furthermore, only one of the remaining 82 cases (a familial tauopathy) showed similar p62 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin was positive in the granular layer inclusions. The immunohistochemistry for phosphorylation-independent TDP-43, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein, fusion sarcoma protein (FUS), and neurofilament was negative. In only one case (a case of FTLD-TDP) were the inclusions positive for phosphorylation-dependent TDP43 (p-TDP-43). Those TDP-43 proteinopathy cases that showed the cerebellar inclusions also tended to display other common features, such as a notable excess of p62 pathology when compared to TDP-43 pathology, especially within the pyramidal neurones of the hippocampus but also in some cases within the neocortex. The results suggest that p62-positive inclusions within the cerebellum are seen in a proportion of cases across the range of the TDP-43 proteinopathy spectrum and they appear to be relatively specific for this group of diseases. The question as to whether these cerebellar-positive cases represent a distinct subgroup remains to be answered. Furthermore, the relationship of the p62

  20. Values Education and Some Suggestions to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirhan Iscan, Canay

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process, approaches and teacher roles in values education and offers recommendations for teachers. It uses print materials and Internet sources on values education. These sources were analyzed and synthesized to reveal certain cases and/or opinions. In addition to contemporary sources, older reference materials were also…

  1. Food additives and environmental chemicals as sources of childhood behavior disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Feingold hypothesis postulates that many children who exhibit disturbed behavior improve on a diet devoid of certain food additives. Its validity has been examined on the basis of controlled trails. The total evidence, although not wholly consistent, nevertheless suggests that the hypothesis is, in principle, correct. Such a conclusion poses difficult problems and new issues for etiology, treatment, toxicology, and regulation.

  2. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  3. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. PMID:22112639

  4. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  5. Suggestions for Career Exploration and Job Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals seeking jobs in New York State, consists of suggestions for career exploration and job seeking. The booklet begins with a brief discussion of places to begin a job search: New York State Job Service and community service centers; schools and community organizations providing free advice; libraries;…

  6. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  7. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  8. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  9. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  10. Suggested Universals in the Ontogenesis of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobin, Dan I.

    This paper represents a preliminary attempt to determine universals of grammatical development in children. On the basis of language acquisition data, a limited number of findings are presented in the form of suggested developmental universals. These universals are grouped according to the psychological variables which may determine them, in the…

  11. Minimum Competency Program, Citizenship: Suggestions for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This monograph explains the need for graduating high school seniors to demonstrate minimum competence in citizenship and suggests performance-related assessment tasks to help school authorities determine whether these competency requirements have been met. Minimum citizenship competencies are interpreted to include essential skills and concepts…

  12. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  13. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  14. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  15. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  16. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  17. Elemental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    He set out to prove that ocean sediments contain elevated levels of the rare element iridium because of the natural weathering of the continents. Instead, what Ariel Anbar found was new evidence that a meteorite may have had a role in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous era.By studying the geochemical properties of iridium, Anbar, a professor of earth and environmental sciences and chemistry at the University of Rochester, found that the residence time—a measure of the rate at which an element settles out of water into sediments—of iridium in ocean water is 2000 to 20,000 years. That finding suggests that a large deposit of iridium could have lingered in the world's oceans long enough to explain the thickness of the iridium-rich sediment layers at the K-T boundary.

  18. The etiology of prostate cancer: what does the epidemiology suggest

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.K.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    The two most important demographic characteristics of prostate cancer in Los Angeles are the high rates among blacks, which are two times those among whites and four times those among Asians, and the rapid increase in rates with age after age 40. Despite the high rates among blacks, a birth cohort analysis indicates that mortality rates among black men born after 1900 have decreased. In this report, epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting each of three etiologic hypotheses--industrial exposure to cadmium, sexual transmission by an infectious agent, and endocrine factors--are reviewed. Evidence from descriptive data in Los Angeles suggests that only a small portion of cases might be attributable to industrial exposures. In a cohort study of Catholic priests, we found no deficit of prostate cancer mortality, strong evidence against sexual transmission of the disease. Experimental evidence and a limited amount of human data support an endocrine hypothesis. Preliminary results of a case-control study of prostate cancer are presented, but these results are unable to distinguish among these hypotheses further. This study finds a substantial protective effect of vasectomy, an event that is accompanied by reduced prostatic function and size, but this result is thus far statistically insignificant.

  19. Insufficient Evidence: The Problems of Evidence-Based Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Challenges the wisdom of basing nursing practice on the findings of statistical research and offers objections to the philosophy of evidence-based nursing. Proposes rethinking what counts as evidence, suggesting a model based on reflection after the event. (SK)

  20. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time. PMID:17966053

  1. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  2. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  3. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  5. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  6. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  7. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  8. Progress testing: critical analysis and suggested practices.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Mark; Case, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Educators have long lamented the tendency of students to engage in rote memorization in preparation for tests rather than engaging in deep learning where they attempt to gain meaning from their studies. Rote memorization driven by objective exams has been termed a steering effect. Progress testing (PT), in which a comprehensive examination sampling all of medicine is administered repeatedly throughout the entire curriculum, was developed with the stated aim of breaking the steering effect of examinations and of promoting deep learning. PT is an approach historically linked to problem-based learning (PBL) although there is a growing recognition of its applicability more broadly. The purpose of this article is to summarize the salient features of PT drawn from the literature, provide a critical review of these features based upon the same literature and psychometric considerations drawn from the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and provide considerations of what should be part of best practices in applying PT from an evidence-based and a psychometric perspective. PMID:25662873

  9. Limits of quantitation - Yet another suggestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Jill; Wysoczanski, Artur; Voigtman, Edward

    2014-06-01

    The work presented herein suggests that the limit of quantitation concept may be rendered substantially less ambiguous and ultimately more useful as a figure of merit by basing it upon the significant figure and relative measurement error ideas due to Coleman, Auses and Gram, coupled with the correct instantiation of Currie's detection limit methodology. Simple theoretical results are presented for a linear, univariate chemical measurement system with homoscedastic Gaussian noise, and these are tested against both Monte Carlo computer simulations and laser-excited molecular fluorescence experimental results. Good agreement among experiment, theory and simulation is obtained and an easy extension to linearly heteroscedastic Gaussian noise is also outlined.

  10. Suggesting strategies improves creative visual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Antonietti, A; Martini, E

    2000-04-01

    An experiment assessed whether a figural or an interpretative strategy can enhance creative visual synthesis. 45 undergraduates were presented a set of simple figures and asked to imagine combining them to obtain a whole pattern corresponding to a creative product. In the figurative condition participants were instructed to combine figures in unusual ways; in the interpretative condition they were induced to look for unusual meanings embedded in the combinations; in the control condition no strategy was suggested. Results showed that certain strategies induced a more flexible visual synthesis. PMID:10833724

  11. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    PubMed Central

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P. R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a ‘preservation motif’, and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival. PMID:21687667

  12. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  13. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  14. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  15. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  16. Interspeaker Variation in Habitual Speaking Rate: Additional Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Ying-Chiao; Weismer, Gary; Iqbal, Kamran

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that talkers previously classified by Y.-C. Tsao and G. Weismer (1997) as habitually fast versus habitually slow would show differences in the way they manipulated articulation rate across the rate continuum. Method: Thirty talkers previously classified by Tsao and Weismer (1997)…

  17. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  18. Additional evidence of nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Taleyarkhan, R P; Cho, J S; West, C D; Lahey, R T; Nigmatulin, R I; Block, R C

    2004-03-01

    Time spectra of neutron and sonoluminescence emissions were measured in cavitation experiments with chilled deuterated acetone. Statistically significant neutron and gamma ray emissions were measured with a calibrated liquid-scintillation detector, and sonoluminescence emissions were measured with a photomultiplier tube. The neutron and sonoluminescence emissions were found to be time correlated over the time of significant bubble cluster dynamics. The neutron emission energy was less than 2.5 MeV and the neutron emission rate was up to approximately 4 x 10(5) n/s. Measurements of tritium production were also performed and these data implied a neutron emission rate due to D-D fusion which agreed with what was measured. In contrast, control experiments using normal acetone did not result in statistically significant tritium activity, or neutron or gamma ray emissions. PMID:15089363

  19. Teaching Evidence-Based Practice to Undergraduate Nursing Students: Overcoming Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based practice is highly valued in health care literature at this time. But research suggests that U.S. RNs face many obstacles when implementing evidence-based practice including a lack of value for research in practice (Pravikoff et al, 2005). Additional obstacles may exist for traditional U.S. BSN nursing students who may not value the…

  20. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  1. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  2. Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

    2006-11-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered. PMID:17087580

  3. Ergodicity convergence test suggests telomere motion obeys fractional dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kepten, E; Bronshtein, I; Garini, Y

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous diffusion, observed in many biological processes, is a generalized description of a wide variety of processes, all obeying the same law of mean-square displacement. Identifying the basic mechanisms of these observations is important for deducing the nature of the biophysical systems measured. We implement a previously suggested method for distinguishing between fractional Langevin dynamics, fractional Brownian motion, and continuous time random walk based on the ergodic nature of the data. We apply the method together with the recently suggested P-variation test and the displacement correlation to the lately measured dynamics of telomeres in the nucleus of mammalian cells and find strong evidence that the telomeres motion obeys fractional dynamics. The ergodic dynamics are observed experimentally to fit fractional Brownian or Langevin dynamics. PMID:21599212

  4. Ergodicity convergence test suggests telomere motion obeys fractional dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepten, E.; Bronshtein, I.; Garini, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous diffusion, observed in many biological processes, is a generalized description of a wide variety of processes, all obeying the same law of mean-square displacement. Identifying the basic mechanisms of these observations is important for deducing the nature of the biophysical systems measured. We implement a previously suggested method for distinguishing between fractional Langevin dynamics, fractional Brownian motion, and continuous time random walk based on the ergodic nature of the data. We apply the method together with the recently suggested P-variation test and the displacement correlation to the lately measured dynamics of telomeres in the nucleus of mammalian cells and find strong evidence that the telomeres motion obeys fractional dynamics. The ergodic dynamics are observed experimentally to fit fractional Brownian or Langevin dynamics.

  5. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  6. Stone Morphology Suggestive of Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Traxer, Olivier; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Randall's plaques are found in a number of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stones developed on a Randall's plaque typically present a small depressed zone ("umbilication") corresponding to the tip of the papilla and containing material detached from the plaque. By examining the morphology and infrared composition of 45,774 calculi referred to our laboratory over the past three decades, we identified 8,916 umbilicated calculi (19.5%). We have selected three periods of time corresponding to the first years of each decade. Over these periods, we analyzed 26,182 consecutive calculi. Among them, we identified 5,401 umbilicated calculi, of which 91.5% had an identifiable plaque. We analyzed the relative prevalence of umbilicated stones over time and the respective composition of Randall's plaque and stones. The proportion of umbilicated stones rose significantly from 10% in period 1 (1978-1984) to 21% in period 2 (1990-1993) and 22.2% in period 3 (2000-2006), with a parallel rise in the prevalence of stones with identifiable Randall's plaque. The main component of plaques was carbapatite in 90.8% of cases, whereas other components such as amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate, sodium hydrogen urate or uric acid were found in other cases. The morphology of plaques made of carbapatite was diverse, as was their carbonate content, thus suggesting variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Stones were made of whewellite as the main component in 51.4% of cases, or admixed with weddellite in 26.8%, predominant weddellite in 12.5% and other components (mainly uric acid) in 7.5% of cases. Our findings confirm that Randall's plaques are made of carbapatite in the great majority of cases, but with the stones more frequently composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (which is associated with hyperoxaluria) than of calcium oxalate dihydrate (associated with hypercalciuria). In conclusion, in our country, stones developed on a carbapatite Randall's plaque are as frequently made of

  7. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    PubMed

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. PMID:22556034

  8. Genomewide scans of red cell indices suggest linkage on chromosome 6q23

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, A; Evans, D M; Zhu, G; Duffy, D L; Frazer, I H; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G

    2007-01-01

    Background The red cell indices quantify the size, number and oxygen‐carrying ability of erythrocytes. Although the genetic basis of many monogenic forms of anaemia is well understood, comparatively little is known about the genes responsible for variation in the red cell indices among healthy participants. Objective To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for normal variation in the red cell indices of 391 pairs of dizygotic twins who were measured longitudinally at 12, 14 and 16 years of age. Results Evidence suggesting linkage of red cell indices to haemoglobin concentration (LOD  = 3.03) and haematocrit (LOD  = 2.95) on chromosome 6q23, a region previously identified as possibly harbouring a QTL for haematocrit, was found. Evidence for linkage to several other regions of the genome, including chromosome 4q32 for red cell count and 7q for mean cell volume, was also found. In contrast, there was little evidence of linkage to the chromosomal regions containing the genes for erythropoietin (7q21) and its receptor (19p13.2), nor to the regions containing the genes for the haemoglobin α (16p13.3) and β chains (11p15.5). Conclusion Findings provide additional evidence for a QTL affecting haemoglobin and haematocrit on chromosome 6q23. In contrast, polymorphisms in the genes coding for erythropoietin, its receptor and the haemoglobin α and β chains do not appear to contribute substantially to variation in the red cell indices between healthy persons. PMID:16950815

  9. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27225987

  10. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27225987

  11. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  14. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10127910

  15. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  18. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-03-01

    State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one's own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others' actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female's current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males' sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate's behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males' own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates. PMID:23382187

  19. New evidence suggests pyroclastic flows are responsible for the remarkable preservation of the Jehol biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Baoyu; Harlow, George E.; Wohletz, Kenneth; Zhou, Zhonghe; Meng, Jin

    2014-02-01

    The lower Cretaceous Yixian and Jiufotang formations contain numerous exceptionally well-preserved invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils that comprise the Jehol Biota. Freshwater and terrestrial fossils of the biota usually occur together within some horizons and have been interpreted as deposits of mass mortality events. The nature of the events and the mechanisms behind the exceptional preservation of the fossils, however, are poorly understood. Here, after examining and analysing sediments and residual fossils from several key horizons, we postulate that the causal events were mainly phreatomagmatic eruptions. Pyroclastic density currents were probably responsible for the major causalities and for transporting the bulk of the terrestrial vertebrates from different habitats, such as lizards, birds, non-avian dinosaurs and mammals, into lacustrine environments for burial. Terrestrial vertebrate carcasses transported by and sealed within the pyroclastic flows were clearly preserved as exceptional fossils through this process.

  20. Suggestive evidence for the induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice fed sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Zahid, Muhammad; Anwar, Muhammad M; Pennington, Karen L; Cohen, Samuel M; Wisecarver, James L; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2016-01-01

    A reported linkage between processed (nitrite-treated) meat products and the incidence of colon cancer could be due to sodium nitrite (NaNO2) itself or to N-nitroso compounds produced from the nitrite. Exposure to nitrite occurs due to residual nitrite in processed meat and to salivary nitrite arising by reduction of nitrate in vegetables and drinking water. Here we tested whether NaNO2 could induce colonic aberrant crypts (ABC) or ABC foci (ACF), which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We fed NaNO2 in drinking water for 20-25 wk to groups of 8-20 adult female mice. After sacrifice, ABC and ACF were counted in 2-cm distal colonic segments. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in ABC/ACF induction were seen between groups of 13-14 A/J mice fed 0, 0.5, or 1.0 g NaNO2/l drinking water. NaNO2 also did not affect fasting blood glucose levels. In Experiment 2, we fed 0, 1.0, 1.25, or 1.5 g NaNO2/l water to groups of 15 CF-1 mice. Five of the mice fed 1.5 g NaNO2/l showed ABC, whereas all other groups showed only 0-2 ABC/group, including 0 ABC for the group fed 1.25 g NaNO2/l. Overall statistical analysis indicated a dose-response p trends of 0.04. Pairwise comparison of ABC between groups fed 1.25 and 1.5 g NaNO2/l showed p 0.02 for both ABC and ACF, but a similar comparison between the untreated and 1.5 g/l groups showed no significant effects. In Experiment 3, hot dogs (18% of diet), which were fed to CF-1 mice previously treated with azoxymethane, inhibited ABC and ACF induction, but this effect was not significant (P = 0.10-0.12). In conclusion, these results support the view that NaNO2 may be a risk factor for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:26699517

  1. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    PubMed Central

    Ram Mohan, Nikhil; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Makkay, Andrea M.; Wheeler, Ryan; Ventosa, Antonio; Naor, Adit; Gogarten, J. Peter; Papke, R. Thane

    2014-01-01

    Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well-documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500 bp) identified many closely and more distantly related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) haplotypes indicates that accumulation of genomic variation is rapid: faster than the rate of third codon substitutions. PMID:24782838

  2. Evidence Suggesting the Existence of Asperger Syndrome in the Mid-1800s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Ashley Kern

    2008-01-01

    Originally published in "Putnam's Monthly Magazine" in 1853, nearly a century before autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was formally recognized, Herman Melville's "Bartleby" is the naive tale of a nonconforming, socially awkward character. However, when placed into contemporary context, retrospective analysis indicates that Bartleby may in fact have…

  3. Evidence that Suggests a Negative Association Between Cigarette Smoking and Learning Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Henry A.

    1976-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that tobacco smoking may have a deleterious effect on the learning process. Those Ss who smoked in excess of 12 cigarettes per day did significantly less well, as a group, than nonsmokers and light smokers on three of the four learning tests. (Editor)

  4. Genetic evidence suggests that Psoroptes isolates of different phenotypes, hosts and geographic origins are conspecific.

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Essig, A; Gothe, R; Rinder, H

    1998-11-01

    The second internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA gene was characterised in 15 Psoroptes isolates collected from the ears or bodies of rabbits, goats, sheep and cattle originating from four continents. Morphologically, the isolates were differentiated as Psoroptes cuniculi, Psoroptes ovis and Psoroptes cervinus. Genotypically, the isolates were highly homogeneous, except for the existence of different rDNA classes. In view of previous phenotypic data, a possible conspecificity of these species is proposed. PMID:9846608

  5. Genetic evidence against a morphologically suggestive conspecificity of Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus (Acari:Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Gothe, R; Rinder, H

    1995-12-01

    International Journal for Parasitology 25: 1413-1419. Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus exhibit overlapping phenotypes. The possibility of conspecificity was investigated on the nucleotide level by comparing DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS 2) of the rDNA gene. The inter-specific polymorphism was more than 20-times greater than the intra-specific polymorphism of 3 D. reticulatus strains of different geographic origins. Furthermore, the degree of polymorphisms between D. reticulatus and D. marginatus was found to be of the same order of magnitude as that between D. andersoni and D. variabilis, for which separate species status is accepted. These genomic findings do not support a possible conspecificity of D. reticulatus and D. marginatus. PMID:8719952

  6. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  7. Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

  8. Structural evidence suggests that antiactivator ExsD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a DNA binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhards, R.C.; Robinson, H.; Jing, X.; Vogelaar, N. J.; Schubot, F. D.

    2009-03-01

    The opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to support acute infections in predisposed individuals. In this bacterium, expression of all T3SS-related genes is dependent on the AraC-type transcriptional activator ExsA. Before host contact, the T3SS is inactive and ExsA is repressed by the antiactivator protein ExsD. The repression, thought to occur through direct interactions between the two proteins, is relieved upon opening of the type III secretion (T3S) channel when secretion chaperone ExsC sequesters ExsD. We have solved the crystal structure of ?20ExsD, a protease-resistant fragment of ExsD that lacks only the 20 amino terminal residues of the wild-type protein at 2.6 {angstrom}. Surprisingly the structure revealed similarities between ExsD and the DNA binding domain of transcriptional repressor KorB. A model of an ExsD-DNA complex constructed on the basis of this homology produced a realistic complex that is supported by the prevalence of conserved residues in the putative DNA binding site and the results of differential scanning fluorimetry studies. Our findings challenge the currently held model that ExsD solely acts through interactions with ExsA and raise new questions with respect to the underlying mechanism of ExsA regulation.

  9. Hot Air: How States Inflate Their Educational Progress under NCLB. Evidence Suggests Otherwise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) gives states wide discretion to define what students must learn, how that knowledge should be tested, what test scores constitute proficiency, set standards for high school graduation rates, teacher qualifications, school safety and many other aspects of school performance. As a result, states are largely free to define…

  10. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    PubMed

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. PMID:24105926

  11. Evidence for glaciation in Elysium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Duwayne M.; Brandstrom, Gary W.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that certain landforms in the Elysium region of Mars provide strong evidence for glaciation. Landscapes related to subglacial volcanism suggest that ice was a primary agent in the development of Elysium.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  15. 'It's still bending': verbal suggestion and alleged psychokinetic ability.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma

    2005-02-01

    Some alleged psychics appear to be able to deform metallic objects, such as keys and cutlery, by thought alone. This paper describes two studies that examined whether one aspect of these demonstrations could be created by verbal suggestion. In the first study, participants were shown a videotape in which a fake psychic placed a bent key on a table. Participants in one condition heard the fake psychic suggest that the key was continuing to bend, whilst those in the other condition did not. Participants in the suggestion condition were significantly more likely to report that the key continued to bend. These findings were replicated in the second study. In addition, participants who reported that the key continued to bend displayed a significantly higher level of confidence in their testimony than others, and were significantly less likely to recall that the fake psychic had suggested the continued bending of the key. Neither experiment revealed any differences between participants who expressed a prior belief in the paranormal compared with those who did not. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the psychology of suggestion and the assessment of eyewitness testimony for anomalous events. PMID:15826327

  16. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  17. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  18. A combined whelk watch suggests repeated TBT desorption pulses.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Albaina, N; Carro, B; Barreiro, R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental quality in coastal Europe has improved since the complete 2003 ban on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in antifouling paints. However, there is evidence that TBT is entering the water column, presumably from illegal practices. We determined the concentration of butyltins (BTs: TBT and derivatives) in populations of two gastropods, the rock snail Nucella lapillus (n=17) and the mud snail Nassarius reticulatus (n=18) at regular intervals from pre-ban times until 2009 and 2011, respectively, in NW Spain. Although a substantial decline in TBT occurred shortly after the ban, no significant changes were observed in either species over the last 3-year period of study. In addition, the proportion of TBT relative to the sum of BTs (a marker of recent pollution) in the most recent rock snail samples unexpectedly increased; this proportion therefore showed a generally decreasing but oscillatory trend over time. The results are consistent with the theoretical expectation of BT desorption from sediments; however, this natural phenomenon is now interpreted as a recurrent episode rather than a unique, transient event. Evidence of this subtle input improves our understanding of TBT persistence in the environment in Europe and worldwide. PMID:25260162

  19. Delusions of parasitosis; suggested dialogue between dermatologist and patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, Viraat; Koo, John Y M

    2015-10-01

    Delusions of parasitosis (DoP) is a psychocutaneous condition characterized by a fixed false belief that one is infested by skin parasites. Patients afflicted with DoP generally experience sensations of biting, stinging or crawling in the absence of any objective evidence of infestation. The most definitive treatment for DoP is antipsychotic agents. Though the diagnosis and treatment options are rather straightforward, the difficulty lies in the art of building a therapeutic rapport with the patient in order to encourage acceptance of antipsychotic treatment. This article is a practical guide that suggests verbatim how dermatologists might talk to a delusional patient in order to establish a strong therapeutic rapport. Strategies on how to optimize the initial encounter, build rapport and prescribe antipsychotic medications that are likely to be accepted by the patient are discussed. PMID:25490455

  20. Bilateral internal mammary arteries: evidence and technical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, J. James B.; Wilson, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) grafts are used for coronary revascularisation by only a minority of surgeons, despite a growing body of evidence suggesting improved survival when compared to use of only one internal mammary artery with additional saphenous vein grafts. Herein we review the evidence supporting revascularisation with BIMA and suggest reasons why the majority of surgeons use only one internal mammary artery. We discuss technical considerations, various graft combinations and the use of BIMA to facilitate anaortic off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). PMID:23977638

  1. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  2. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  3. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  4. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  7. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  8. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Storkey, J; Macdonald, A J; Poulton, P R; Scott, T; Köhler, I H; Schnyder, H; Goulding, K W T; Crawley, M J

    2015-12-17

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to 'bounce back' in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape. PMID:26633635

  9. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storkey, J.; MacDonald, A. J.; Poulton, P. R.; Scott, T.; Köhler, I. H.; Schnyder, H.; Goulding, K. W. T.; Crawley, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to ‘bounce back’ in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  10. The Video Suggestibility Scale for Children: how generalizable is children's performance to other measures of suggestibility?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Felicity; Powell, Martine B

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the generalizability of the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which was developed by Scullin and colleagues (Scullin & Ceci, 2001; Scullin & Hembrooke, 1998) as a tool for discriminating among children (aged three to five years) who have different levels of suggestibility. The VSSC consists of two subscales; Yield (a measure of children's willingness to acquiesce to misleading questions) and Shift (a measure of children's tendency to change their responses after feedback from the interviewer). Children's (N = 77) performance on each of the subscales was compared with their performance using several other measures of suggestibility. These measures included children's willingness to assent to a false event as well as the number of false interviewer suggestions and false new details that the children provided when responding to cued-recall questions about an independent true-biased and an independent false (non-experienced) event. An independent samples t-test revealed that those children who assented to the false event generated higher scores on the Yield measure. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Yield was a significant predictor of the number of false details reported about the false activity, but not the true-biased activity. There was no significant relationship between the Shift subscale and any of the dependent variables. The potential contribution of the VSSC for forensic researchers and practitioners is discussed. PMID:12465135

  11. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  12. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  13. Predictive value of induction of psychogenic seizures by suggestion.

    PubMed

    Lancman, M E; Asconapé, J J; Craven, W J; Howard, G; Penry, J K

    1994-03-01

    Induction by suggestion has previously been reported to be effective in the diagnosis of psychogenic seizures (PS). However, the sensitivity and specificity of this procedure has not previously been studied. Results of induction of PS by suggestion were analyzed in 93 patients with purely PS. The diagnosis of PS was based on the recording of a clinical event on video-electroencephalography, the absence of clinical or electroencephalography the absence of clinical or electroencephalographic evidence of epilepsy, and the subsequent followup and withdrawal of anticonvulsants supporting the diagnosis of PS. A control-group was composed of 20 patients with epilepsy in which induction was tried. Both groups were comparable for age, sex, and educational level. Induction was performed following a standardized protocol. The test was carried out placing a colored patch on the neck. The test was considered positive when the induced clinical events were typical, according to a witness familiar with the patient's seizures. Induction was positive in 72 of 93 cases with PS and in none with epilepsy. Sensitivity of this test for the diagnosis of PS was 77.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 48.7%. PMID:8122889

  14. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  18. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  19. Metagenomic Analysis Suggests Modern Freshwater Microbialites Harbor a Distinct Core Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    White, Richard Allen; Chan, Amy M; Gavelis, Gregory S; Leander, Brian S; Brady, Allyson L; Slater, Gregory F; Lim, Darlene S S; Suttle, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Modern microbialites are complex microbial communities that interface with abiotic factors to form carbonate-rich organosedimentary structures whose ancestors provide the earliest evidence of life. Past studies primarily on marine microbialites have inventoried diverse taxa and metabolic pathways, but it is unclear which of these are members of the microbialite community and which are introduced from adjacent environments. Here we control for these factors by sampling the surrounding water and nearby sediment, in addition to the microbialites and use a metagenomics approach to interrogate the microbial community. Our findings suggest that the Pavilion Lake microbialite community profile, metabolic potential and pathway distributions are distinct from those in the neighboring sediments and water. Based on RefSeq classification, members of the Proteobacteria (e.g., alpha and delta classes) were the dominant taxa in the microbialites, and possessed novel functional guilds associated with the metabolism of heavy metals, antibiotic resistance, primary alcohol biosynthesis and urea metabolism; the latter may help drive biomineralization. Urea metabolism within Pavilion Lake microbialites is a feature not previously associated in other microbialites. The microbialite communities were also significantly enriched for cyanobacteria and acidobacteria, which likely play an important role in biomineralization. Additional findings suggest that Pavilion Lake microbialites are under viral selection as genes associated with viral infection (e.g CRISPR-Cas, phage shock and phage excision) are abundant within the microbialite metagenomes. The morphology of Pavilion Lake microbialites changes dramatically with depth; yet, metagenomic data did not vary significantly by morphology or depth, indicating that microbialite morphology is altered by other factors, perhaps transcriptional differences or abiotic conditions. This work provides a comprehensive metagenomic perspective of the

  20. Metagenomic Analysis Suggests Modern Freshwater Microbialites Harbor a Distinct Core Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard Allen; Chan, Amy M.; Gavelis, Gregory S.; Leander, Brian S.; Brady, Allyson L.; Slater, Gregory F.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern microbialites are complex microbial communities that interface with abiotic factors to form carbonate-rich organosedimentary structures whose ancestors provide the earliest evidence of life. Past studies primarily on marine microbialites have inventoried diverse taxa and metabolic pathways, but it is unclear which of these are members of the microbialite community and which are introduced from adjacent environments. Here we control for these factors by sampling the surrounding water and nearby sediment, in addition to the microbialites and use a metagenomics approach to interrogate the microbial community. Our findings suggest that the Pavilion Lake microbialite community profile, metabolic potential and pathway distributions are distinct from those in the neighboring sediments and water. Based on RefSeq classification, members of the Proteobacteria (e.g., alpha and delta classes) were the dominant taxa in the microbialites, and possessed novel functional guilds associated with the metabolism of heavy metals, antibiotic resistance, primary alcohol biosynthesis and urea metabolism; the latter may help drive biomineralization. Urea metabolism within Pavilion Lake microbialites is a feature not previously associated in other microbialites. The microbialite communities were also significantly enriched for cyanobacteria and acidobacteria, which likely play an important role in biomineralization. Additional findings suggest that Pavilion Lake microbialites are under viral selection as genes associated with viral infection (e.g CRISPR-Cas, phage shock and phage excision) are abundant within the microbialite metagenomes. The morphology of Pavilion Lake microbialites changes dramatically with depth; yet, metagenomic data did not vary significantly by morphology or depth, indicating that microbialite morphology is altered by other factors, perhaps transcriptional differences or abiotic conditions. This work provides a comprehensive metagenomic perspective of the

  1. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  2. A case of an alpha-fetoprotein-producing intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma suggests probable cancer stem cell origin.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kenji; Sasaki, Atsushi; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Mori, Masaki

    2007-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that some cancers may originate from cancer stem cells, which may derive from carcinogenesis of normal stem cells. A hepatic progenitor cell population, which gives rise to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, has been suggested in humans, though whether these cells can give rise to malignant tumors has not been confirmed. We report here a case of an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in an 81-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, suggesting malignant transformation of hepatic stem cells as a mechanism for hepatic neoplasia. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a low-density mass with surrounding enhancement measuring 5 cm x 5 cm in segments IV and VIII of the liver. The preoperative serum levels of tumor markers were 1.7 ng/ml of carcinoembryonic antigen, 22 mAU/ml of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II, 43.4 U/ml of carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and 1,560 ng/ml of AFP. Following central bisegmentectomy of the liver, serum AFP levels decreased dramatically. Histologically, the tumor cells showed indistinct glandular structures with abundant fibrous stroma. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the neoplastic cells reacted strongly to antibodies against AFP and cytokeratin (CK) 7. In addition, cancer cells showed partially positive reaction to anti-CK14, a liver stem cell marker, and to anticluster designation (CD) 133, a hematopoietic stem cell marker, and negative reaction to antihepatocyte paraffin (HepPar) 1. These data may indicate that the tumor was derived from a normal liver stem cell that underwent oncogenic transformation. PMID:17405896

  3. Effects of subliminally presented auditory suggestions of itching on scratching behavior.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C W

    1995-02-01

    This study investigated effects of masked verbal suggestions of itching, utilizing a design closely analogous to commercially available subliminal audiotapes. Students participated in 1 of 3 groups (n = 21): an experimental group listened to an audiotape with music masking suggestions of itching, Control Group 1 listened to an audiotape with music only, and Control Group 2 listened to suggestions of itching presented supraliminally. Dependent variables included both behavioral and self-report measures of itching. There was no evidence of influence from subliminal suggestion; however, results assessing the influence of supraliminally presented suggestions were mixed for self-report and behavioral measures. PMID:7624224

  4. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    PubMed

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education. PMID:3836324

  5. Suggestions for improving the study of health program implementation.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1984-04-01

    More will be learned about health programs and the implementation of health policy in this country if we pay more attention to issues of program implementation. Of particular use would be more studies which explicitly link program implementation with program outcomes and which recognize the need to combine quantitative and qualitative analysis of program implementation; the use of triangulated methods in focusing on the relationship between program implementation and program outcomes; the incorporation and study of planned variation in the methods of implementing programs; recognition that the process is essentially one of organizational change and innovation, and the incorporation of existing theory and evidence relevant to these issues; and recognition that the ongoing nature of the implementation process requires longitudinal study designs for implementation as well as for outcome assessment. Cronbach [9] has remarked that evaluation research "lights a candle in the darkness, but it never brings dazzling clarity." It may be that more attention to program implementation and better research on the process, such as that suggested in this note, will provide a little more light and will bring if not dazzling , at least modest, improvements in clarity. PMID:6724951

  6. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Gillian L.; Melin, Amanda D.; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels. PMID:25120441

  7. Suggestions for improving the study of health program implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, S M

    1984-01-01

    More will be learned about health programs and the implementation of health policy in this country if we pay more attention to issues of program implementation. Of particular use would be more studies which explicitly link program implementation with program outcomes and which recognize the need to combine quantitative and qualitative analysis of program implementation; the use of triangulated methods in focusing on the relationship between program implementation and program outcomes; the incorporation and study of planned variation in the methods of implementing programs; recognition that the process is essentially one of organizational change and innovation, and the incorporation of existing theory and evidence relevant to these issues; and recognition that the ongoing nature of the implementation process requires longitudinal study designs for implementation as well as for outcome assessment. Cronbach [9] has remarked that evaluation research "lights a candle in the darkness, but it never brings dazzling clarity." It may be that more attention to program implementation and better research on the process, such as that suggested in this note, will provide a little more light and will bring if not dazzling , at least modest, improvements in clarity. PMID:6724951

  8. Intragenomic distribution of RTE retroelements suggests intrachromosomal movement.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Eugenia E; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cabrero, Josefa; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Sánchez, Antonio; Perfectti, Francisco; López-León, María Dolores; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2015-06-01

    Much is known about the abundance of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotic genomes, but much is still unknown on their behaviour within cells. We employ here a combination of cytological, molecular and genomic approaches providing information on the intragenomic distribution and behaviour of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon-like elements (RTE). We microdissected every chromosome in a single first meiotic metaphase cell of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a fragment of the RTE reverse transcriptase gene with specific primers. PCR products were cloned and 139 clones were sequenced. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed significant intragenomic structure for these elements, with 4.6 % of molecular variance being found between chromosomes. A maximum likelihood tree built with the RTE sequences revealed the frequent presence of two or more elements showing very high similarity and being located on the same chromosome, thus suggesting intrachromosome movement. The 454 pyrosequencing of genomic DNA gave strong support to the microdissection results and provided evidence for the existence of 5' truncated elements. Our results thus indicate a tendency of RTE elements to reinsert into the same chromosome from where they were transcribed, which could be achieved if retrotranscription and insertion takes place immediately after transcription. PMID:25605325

  9. Space sickness predictors suggest fluid shift involvement and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Moseley, E. C.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Preflight data from 64 first time Shuttle crew members were examined retrospectively to predict space sickness severity (NONE, MILD, MODERATE, or SEVERE) by discriminant analysis. From 9 input variables relating to fluid, electrolyte, and cardiovascular status, 8 variables were chosen by discriminant analysis that correctly predicted space sickness severity with 59 pct. success by one method of cross validation on the original sample and 67 pct. by another method. The 8 variables in order of their importance for predicting space sickness severity are sitting systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid, calculated blood volume, serum phosphate, urine osmolality, environmental temperature at the launch site, red cell count, and serum chloride. These results suggest the presence of predisposing physiologic factors to space sickness that implicate a fluid shift etiology. Addition of a 10th input variable, hours spent in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF), improved the prediction of space sickness severity to 66 pct. success by the first method of cross validation on the original sample and to 71 pct. by the second method. The data suggest that WETF training may reduce space sickness severity.

  10. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  11. Study of the consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite pouch cells and evidence of positive-negative electrode interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Madec, L.; Rotermund, L. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES) in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite (NMC(111)/graphite) pouch cells during the first cycle and after hold periods at different cell potentials was measured using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS measurements of the electrolyte of NMC(111)/graphite pouch cells during the first charge showed that the amount of PES consumed, and the cell impedance, increased with increasing starting concentration up to a starting concentration of 5 wt% and then seemed to slow down at higher starting concentration. Additive consumption measurements after holding periods showed that PES is consumed in measurable amounts at the positive electrode, suggesting that PES oxidizes at potentials as low as 4.27 V vs. Li/Li+ on the NMC(111) surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of electrodes salvaged from NMC(111)/graphite cells after hold periods at various cell potentials strongly support the existence of a positive-negative electrode interaction.

  12. Reconstructing Nursing: Evidence, Artistry and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Maran, Di

    1999-01-01

    The prevailing world view is shifting from positivism to postmodernism. A postmodern perspective on evidence-based nursing suggests that evidence for nursing decisions should be derived from research, patient and nurse values, reflection, intuition, and tacit knowledge. (SK)

  13. Nuclei of aged myofibres undergo structural and functional changes suggesting impairment in RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Malatesta, M.; Perdoni, F.; Muller, S.; Zancanaro, C.; Pellicciari, C.

    2009-01-01

    Advancing adult age is associated with a progressive decrease in skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality known as sarcopenia. The mechanisms underlying age-related skeletal muscle wasting and weakness are manifold and still remain to be fully elucidated. Despite the increasing evidence that the progress of muscle diseases leading to muscle atrophy/dystrophy may be related to defective RNA processing, no data on the morpho-functional features of skeletal muscle nuclei in sarcopenia are available at present. In this view, we have investigated, by combining morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and electron microscopy, the fine structure of myonuclei as well as the distribution and amount of RNA processing factors in skeletal myofibres of biceps brachii and quadriceps femoris from adult and old rats. Results demonstrate that the myonuclei of aged type II fibres show an increased amount of condensed chromatin and lower amounts of phosphorylated polymerase II and DNA/RNA hybrid molecules, clearly indicating a decrease in pre-mRNA transcription rate compared to adult animals. In addition, myonuclei of aged fibres show decreased amounts of nucleoplasmic splicing factors and an accumulation of cleavage factors, polyadenilated RNA and perichromatin granules, suggesting a reduction in the processing and transport rate of pre-mRNA. During ageing, it seems therefore that in rat myonuclei the entire production chain of mRNA, from synthesis to cytoplasmic export, is less efficient. This failure likely contributes to the reduced responsiveness of muscle cells to anabolic stimuli in the elderly.

  14. Immunohistochemical Expression and Clinical Significance of Suggested Stem Cell Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jong Jin; Noh, Sang Jae; Bae, Jun Sang; Park, Ho Sung; Jang, Kyu Yun; Chung, Myoung Ja; Moon, Woo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence has shown that tumor initiation and growth are nourished by a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor mass. CSCs are posited to be responsible for tumor maintenance, growth, distant metastasis, and relapse after curative operation. We examined the expression of CSC markers in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and correlated the results with clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for the markers believed to be expressed in the CSCs, including epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), keratin 19 (K19), CD133, and CD56, was performed in 82 HCC specimens. Results: EpCAM expression was observed in 56% of the HCCs (46/82) and K19 in 6% (5/82). EpCAM expression in HCC significantly correlated with elevated α-fetoprotein level, microvessel invasion of tumor cells, and high histologic grade. In addition, EpCAM expression significantly correlated with K19 expression. The overall survival and relapsefree survival rates in patients with EpCAM-expressing HCC were relatively lower than those in patients with EpCAM-negative HCC. All but two of the 82 HCCs were negative for CD133 and CD56, respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that HCCs expressing EpCAM are associated with unfavorable prognostic factors and have a more aggressive clinical course than those not expressing EpCAM. Further, the expression of either CD133 or CD56 in paraffin-embedded HCC tissues appears to be rare. PMID:26581206

  15. Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: A literature review with suggestions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David L.; Mead, Kenneth R.; Lynch, Robert A.; Hirst, Deborah V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential risks associated with “toilet plume” aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission. Methods The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks. Results The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized. Conclusion Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities. PMID:23040490

  16. [Dealing with victims of domestic violence. Suggestions for daily practice].

    PubMed

    Graß, Hildegard Lilly; Gahr, Britta; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of victims of violence and their treatment in medical facilities is a subject which has been covered for several years in a number of ways. In medicine and in other disciplines, the focus of research, publication, and practical work has been on the quality of care provided. Guidelines for the treatment of victims of violence have been developed and needs have been assessed. These examples show there is an abundance of knowledge on the subject. Nevertheless, the transfer of this knowledge into the everyday practice of medicine at hospitals and doctors' offices is clearly still not functioning in an optimal way and faces a wide range of hurdles and stumbling blocks. Based on the experience gained in a pilot project involving the medical intervention in doctors' offices against violence perpetuated against women (Project MIGG, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Family, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ)), approaches for the optimal treatment of victims of violence in outpatient medical facilities are presented. The key steps to achieving the goal of optimal treatment are: (i) the entire practice team commits to establishing a victim-centered approach to care and (ii) the necessary processes and structures are implemented (i.e., adequate documentation in patient records, patient information is made available in the doctor's office, information on post-treatment services and sources of support in the region are provided, contact is maintained with such institutions, and programs of further education are offered). This paper provides a catalogue of keywords with an overview illustrating how to optimize practice management to deal with cases of domestic violence. In addition, various areas of work are described, such the special requirements involving the collection of evidence. PMID:26519330

  17. Phosphonocarboxylates Inhibit the Second Geranylgeranyl Addition by Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Rudi A.; Tavaré, Richard; Figueiredo, Ana C.; Błażewska, Katarzyna M.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Taylor, Adam; Rogers, Michael J.; Coxon, Fraser P.; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2009-01-01

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) catalyzes the post-translational geranylgeranyl (GG) modification of (usually) two C-terminal cysteines in Rab GTPases. Here we studied the mechanism of the Rab geranylgeranylation reaction by bisphosphonate analogs in which one phosphonate group is replaced by a carboxylate (phosphonocarboxylate, PC). The phosphonocarboxylates used were 3-PEHPC, which was previously reported, and 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid ((+)-3-IPEHPC), a >25-fold more potent related compound as measured by both IC50 and Ki.(+)-3-IPEHPC behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to GG pyrophosphate (GGPP) and an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to Rab substrates. We propose that phosphonocarboxylates prevent only the second GG transfer onto Rabs based on the following evidence. First, geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins ending with a single cysteine motif such as CAAX, is not affected by the inhibitors, either in vitro or in vivo. Second, the addition of an -AAX sequence onto Rab-CC proteins protects the substrate from inhibition by the inhibitors. Third, we demonstrate directly that in the presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC, Rab-CC and Rab-CXC proteins are modified by only a single GG addition. The presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC resulted in a preference for the Rab N-terminal cysteine to be modified first, suggesting an order of cysteine geranylgeranylation in RGGT catalysis. Our results further suggest that the inhibitor binds to a site distinct from the GGPP-binding site on RGGT. We suggest that phosphonocarboxylate inhibitors bind to a GG-cysteine binding site adjacent to the active site, which is necessary to align the mono-GG-Rab for the second GG addition. These inhibitors may represent a novel therapeutic approach in Rab-mediated diseases. PMID:19074143

  18. Precise Synaptic Efficacy Alignment Suggests Potentiation Dominated Learning.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christoph; Miner, Daniel C; Triesch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses. To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar after sleep compared to after sleep deprivation. In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with coordinated

  19. Precise Synaptic Efficacy Alignment Suggests Potentiation Dominated Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christoph; Miner, Daniel C.; Triesch, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses. To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar after sleep compared to after sleep deprivation. In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with coordinated

  20. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod

  1. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an Outbreak of Glanders in Bahrain Suggests Multiple Introduction Events

    PubMed Central

    Hornstra, Heidie; Projahn, Michaela; Terzioglu, Rahime; Wernery, Renate; Georgi, Enrico; Riehm, Julia M.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.; Joseph, Marina; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Hepp, Crystal M.; Witte, Angela; Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA) and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources. Conclusion/Significance High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections. PMID:25255232

  2. Differential Regulation of Antagonistic Pleiotropy in Synthetic and Natural Populations Suggests Its Role in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Bhanot, Gyan; Sinha, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    Antagonistic pleiotropy (AP), the ability of a gene to show opposing effects in different phenotypes, has been identified in various life history traits and complex disorders, indicating its fundamental role in balancing fitness over the course of evolution. It is intuitive that natural selection might maintain AP to allow organisms phenotypic flexibility in different environments. However, despite several attempts, little evidence exists for its role in adaptation. We performed a meta-analysis in yeast to identify the genetic basis of AP in bi-parental segregants, natural isolates, and a laboratory strain genome-wide deletion collection, by comparing growth in favorable and stress conditions. We found that whereas AP was abundant in the synthetic populations, it was absent in the natural isolates. This finding indicated resolution of trade-offs, i.e., mitigation of trade-offs over evolutionary history, probably through accumulation of compensatory mutations. In the deletion collection, organizational genes showed AP, suggesting ancient resolutions of trade-offs in the basic cellular pathways. We find abundant AP in the segregants, greater than estimated in the deletion collection or observed in previous studies, with IRA2, a negative regulator of the Ras/PKA signaling pathway, showing trade-offs across diverse environments. Additionally, IRA2 and several other Ras/PKA pathway genes showed balancing selection in isolates of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, indicating that multiple alleles maintain AP in this pathway in natural populations. We propose that during AP resolution, retaining the ability to vary signaling pathways such as Ras/PKA, may provide organisms with phenotypic flexibility. However, with increasing organismal complexity AP resolution may become difficult. A partial resolution of AP could manifest as complex human diseases, and the inability to resolve AP may play a role in speciation. Our findings suggest that testing a universal phenomenon like AP

  3. Single-Trial Analysis of V1 Responses Suggests Two Transmission States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. S.; Knuth, K. H.; Truccolo, W. A.; Mehta, A. D.; McGinnis, T.; OConnell, N.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory processing in the visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems is often studied by recording electrical activity in response to a stimulus of interest. Typically, multiple trial responses to the stimulus are averaged to isolate the stereotypic response from noise. However, averaging ignores dynamic variability in the neuronal response, which is potentially critical to understanding stimulus-processing schemes. Thus, we developed the multiple component, Event-Related Potential (mcERP) model. This model asserts that multiple components, defined as stereotypic waveforms, comprise the stimulus-evoked response and that these components may vary in amplitude and latency from trial to trial. Application of this model to data recorded simultaneously from all six laminae of V1 in an awake, behaving monkey performing a visual discrimination yielded three components. The first component localized to granular V1, the second was located in supragranular V1, and the final component displayed a multi-laminar distribution. These modeling results, which take into account single-trial response dynamics, illustrated that the initial activation of VI occurs in the granular layer followed by activation in the supragranular layers. This finding is expected because the average response in those layers demonstrates the same progression and because anatomical evidence suggests that the feedforward input in V1 enters the granular layer and progresses to supragranular layers. In addition to these findings, the granular component of the model displayed several interesting trial-to-trial characteristics including (1) a bimodal latency distribution, (2) a latency-related variation in response amplitude, (3) a latency correlation with the supragranular component, and (4) an amplitude and latency association with the multi-laminar component. Direct analyses of the single-trial data were consistent with these model predictions. These findings suggest that V1 has at least 2 transmission

  4. Evidence for Temperature-Dependent Electron Band Dispersion in Pentacene

    SciTech Connect

    Koch,N.; Vollmer, A.; Salzmann, I.; Nickel, B.; Weiss, H.; Rabe, J.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for temperature-dependent electron band dispersion in a pentacene thin film polymorph on graphite is provided by angle- and energy-dependent ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The bands derived from the highest occupied molecular orbital exhibit dispersion of {approx}190 meV at room temperature, and {approx}240 meV at 120 K. Intermolecular electronic coupling in pentacene thin films is thus confirmed to be dependent on temperature and possibly crystal structure, as suggested by additional infrared absorption measurements.

  5. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a number of polychaete morphological characters. Serpulid polychaetes are typically recognized by having fused anterior ends bearing a tentacular crown and an operculum. The latter is commonly viewed as a modified tentacle (= radiole) and is often used as an important diagnostic character in serpulid systematics. Results By reconstructing the developmental neuroanatomy of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis cf. spirorbis (Spirorbinae), we found striking differences in the overall neural architecture, the innervation pattern, and the ontogenetic establishment of the nervous supply of the operculum and the radioles in this species. Accordingly, the spirorbin operculum might not be homologous to the radioles or to the opercula of other serpulid taxa such as Serpula and Pomatoceros and is thus probably not a part of the tentacular crown. Conclusion We demonstrate that common morphological traits such as the prostomial appendages may have evolved independently in respective serpulid sublineages and therefore require reassessment before being used in phylogenetic analyses. Our findings corroborate recent molecular studies that argue for a revision of serpulid systematics. In addition, our data on Spirorbis neurogenesis provide a novel set of characters that highlight the developmental plasticity of the segmented annelid nervous system. PMID:19930667

  6. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer andmore » demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.« less

  7. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.

  8. Transposable element evolution in Heliconius suggests genome diversity within Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to impact genome structure, function and evolution in profound ways. In order to understand the contribution of transposable elements (TEs) to Heliconius melpomene, we queried the H. melpomene draft sequence to identify repetitive sequences. Results We determined that TEs comprise ~25% of the genome. The predominant class of TEs (~12% of the genome) was the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons, including a novel SINE family. However, this was only slightly higher than content derived from DNA transposons, which are diverse, with several families having mobilized in the recent past. Compared to the only other well-studied lepidopteran genome, Bombyx mori, H. melpomene exhibits a higher DNA transposon content and a distinct repertoire of retrotransposons. We also found that H. melpomene exhibits a high rate of TE turnover with few older elements accumulating in the genome. Conclusions Our analysis represents the first complete, de novo characterization of TE content in a butterfly genome and suggests that, while TEs are able to invade and multiply, TEs have an overall deleterious effect and/or that maintaining a small genome is advantageous. Our results also hint that analysis of additional lepidopteran genomes will reveal substantial TE diversity within the group. PMID:24088337

  9. Transcriptome Variability in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Suggests Distinct Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shijia; Divaris, Kimon; Parker, Joel; Padilla, Ricardo; Murrah, Valerie; Wright, John Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive developmental cystic neoplasm thought to arise from the odontogenic epithelium. A high recurrence rate of up to 30% has been found following conservative treatment. Aggressive tumor resection can lead to the need for extensive reconstructive surgery, resulting in significant morbidity and impacting quality of life. Most research has focused on candidate-genes with a handful of studies employing whole transcriptome approaches. There is also the question of which reference tissue is most biologically-relevant. This study characterizes the transcriptome of KCOT using whole genome microarray and compare it with gene expression of different odontogenic tissues (“dentome”). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the neoplastic epithelial tissue in 20 cases. KCOT gene expression was compared with the “dentome” and relevant pathways were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct molecular subtypes of KCOT. Several inflammatory pathways were activated in both subtypes. The AKT pathway was activated in one subtype while MAP kinase pathway was activated in the other. Additionally, PTCH1 expression was downregulated in both clusters suggesting involvement in KCOT tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the transcriptome of KCOT and highlights pathways that could be of diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:27066764

  10. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors. PMID:26511885

  11. Simulating heat addition via mass addition in constant area compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, W. H.; McClure, W. B.; Wood, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    A study conducted demonstrated the striking similarity between the influence of heat addition and mass addition on compressible flows. These results encourage the belief that relatively modest laboratory experiments employing mass addition can be devised that will reproduce the leading phenomena of heat addition, such as the axial variation of properties, choking, and wall-boundary-layer separation. These suggest that some aspects of the complex behavior of dual-mode ramjet/scramjet combustors could be experimentally evaluated or demonstrated by replacing combustion with less expensive, more easily controlled, and safer mass addition.

  12. Evidence-informed policymaking in practice: country-level examples of use of evidence for iCCM policy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Shearer, Jessica; Mariano, Alda R E; Juma, Pamela A; Dalglish, Sarah L; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness (iCCM) is a policy for providing treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years at the community level, which is generating increasing evidence and support at the global level. As countries move to adopt iCCM, it becomes important to understand how this growing evidence base is viewed and used by national stakeholders. This article explores whether, how and why evidence influenced policy formulation for iCCM in Niger, Kenya and Mozambique, and uses Carol Weiss' models of research utilization to further explain the use of evidence in these contexts. A documentary review and in-depth stakeholder interviews were conducted as part of retrospective case studies in each study country. Findings indicate that all three countries used national monitoring data to identify the issue of children dying in the community prior to reaching health facilities, whereas international research evidence was used to identify policy options. Nevertheless, policymakers greatly valued local evidence and pilot projects proved critical in advancing iCCM. World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) functioned as knowledge brokers, bringing research evidence and experiences from other countries to the attention of local policymakers as well as sponsoring site visits and meetings. In terms of country-specific findings, Niger demonstrated both Interactive and Political models of research utilization by using iCCM to capitalize on the existing health infrastructure. Both Mozambique and Kenya exhibit Problem-Solving research utilization with different outcomes. Furthermore, the persistent quest for additional evidence suggests a Tactical use of research in Kenya. Results presented here indicate that while evidence from research studies and other contexts can be critical to policy development, local evidence is often needed to answer key policymaker questions. In the end, evidence may not

  13. Evidence-informed policymaking in practice: country-level examples of use of evidence for iCCM policy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Shearer, Jessica; Mariano, Alda RE; Juma, Pamela A; Dalglish, Sarah L; Bennett, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness (iCCM) is a policy for providing treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years at the community level, which is generating increasing evidence and support at the global level. As countries move to adopt iCCM, it becomes important to understand how this growing evidence base is viewed and used by national stakeholders. This article explores whether, how and why evidence influenced policy formulation for iCCM in Niger, Kenya and Mozambique, and uses Carol Weiss’ models of research utilization to further explain the use of evidence in these contexts. A documentary review and in-depth stakeholder interviews were conducted as part of retrospective case studies in each study country. Findings indicate that all three countries used national monitoring data to identify the issue of children dying in the community prior to reaching health facilities, whereas international research evidence was used to identify policy options. Nevertheless, policymakers greatly valued local evidence and pilot projects proved critical in advancing iCCM. World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) functioned as knowledge brokers, bringing research evidence and experiences from other countries to the attention of local policymakers as well as sponsoring site visits and meetings. In terms of country-specific findings, Niger demonstrated both Interactive and Political models of research utilization by using iCCM to capitalize on the existing health infrastructure. Both Mozambique and Kenya exhibit Problem-Solving research utilization with different outcomes. Furthermore, the persistent quest for additional evidence suggests a Tactical use of research in Kenya. Results presented here indicate that while evidence from research studies and other contexts can be critical to policy development, local evidence is often needed to answer key policymaker questions. In the end, evidence may not

  14. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  15. Frontometaphyseal dysplasia: evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed

    Kassner, E G; Haller, J O; Reddy, V H; Mitarotundo, A; Katz, I

    1976-12-01

    Frontometaphyseal dysplasia is a syndrome that encompasses cranial hyperostosis, abnormal tubulation of cylindrical bones, and other skeletal and extraskeletal abnormalities. The most striking features are overgrowth of the supraorbital ridges which results in a Mephistophelian facial appearance and a radiographic configuration of the skull that has been likened to a soldier's helmet. Most patients have severe hearing loss, defective dentition, poorly developed musculature, and joint contractures. Dominant inheritance has been suggested in previous reports, but an appropriate pedigree has been documented in only one family. This paper describes three additional patients in two unrelated families: (1) an 8-year-old boy whose mother has mild metaphyseal dysplasia and several minor skeletal abnormalities that have occurred in patients with the syndrome; and (2) two maternal half-brothers. These cases provide additional evidence that frontometaphyseal dysplasia is an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance. PMID:998829

  16. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  17. Addition of Fractions--The Unrecognized Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is why students have the tendency to apply an "add the numerators and add the denominators" approach to adding fractions. Suggested is providing examples exemplifying this intuitive approach from ratio, concentration, and distance problems to demonstrate under what conditions it is applicable in contrast to the addition algorithm. (MDH)

  18. Why Additional Presentations Help Identify a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Nosofsky (1983) reported that additional stimulus presentations within a trial increase discriminability in absolute identification, suggesting that each presentation creates an independent stimulus representation, but it remains unclear whether exposure duration or the formation of independent representations improves discrimination in such…

  19. Fishy evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adding to the ongoing debate over the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous period, a paleontologist from Purdue University recently uncovered a bed of 65-million-year old fish bones that bears the fingerprints of a meteorite impact. Gathering the fossils from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, William Zinsmeister discovered what he has termed a "horizon of death," a 12-square-kilometer bone bed resting just above a layer of iridium. The element is rare on Earth but common to most meteorites.The Purdue professor of geosciences believes the site provides strong evidence that the impact of an extraterrestrial object played at least some part in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous.

  20. Evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  1. Simulations suggest pharmacological methods for rescuing long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2014-11-01

    Congenital cognitive dysfunctions are frequently due to deficits in molecular pathways that underlie the induction or maintenance of synaptic plasticity. For example, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is due to a mutation in cbp, encoding the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP). CBP is a transcriptional co-activator for CREB, and induction of CREB-dependent transcription plays a key role in long-term memory (LTM). In animal models of RTS, mutations of cbp impair LTM and late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). As a step toward exploring plausible intervention strategies to rescue the deficits in LTP, we extended our previous model of LTP induction to describe histone acetylation and simulated LTP impairment due to cbp mutation. Plausible drug effects were simulated by model parameter changes, and many increased LTP. However no parameter variation consistent with a effect of a known drug class fully restored LTP. Thus we examined paired parameter variations consistent with effects of known drugs. A pair that simulated the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (slowing cAMP degradation) concurrent with a deacetylase inhibitor (prolonging histone acetylation) restored normal LTP. Importantly these paired parameter changes did not alter basal synaptic weight. A pair that simulated the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and an acetyltransferase activator was similarly effective. For both pairs strong additive synergism was present. The effect of the combination was greater than the summed effect of the separate parameter changes. These results suggest that promoting histone acetylation while simultaneously slowing the degradation of cAMP may constitute a promising strategy for restoring deficits in LTP that may be associated with learning deficits in RTS. More generally these results illustrate how the strategy of combining modeling and empirical studies may provide insights into the design of effective therapies for improving long-term synaptic

  2. Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159814.html Study Suggests Type 2 Diabetes-Cancer Link It hints at -- but doesn' ... decade before -- and three months following -- a type 2 diabetes diagnosis, new research suggests. Although it's not ...

  3. 19 CFR 171.43 - Evidence required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence required. 171.43 Section 171.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Restoration of Proceeds of Sale § 171.43 Evidence required. In addition to such other evidence as...

  4. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  5. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  6. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7 Suggestions and complaints. Suggestions and complaints regarding the information security program of...

  7. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  8. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  9. Food additives and contaminants. An update.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Conner, M W

    1986-10-15

    Food additives continue to be a source of benefits to the consuming public but there are also perceived risks. Concern for the latter in the last decade has produced a society afflicted with cancer phobia. The intentional additives including sugars, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose make up 90% of the direct additives. These, along with a limited number of familiar items make up a large proportion of the remainder of the additives. Such common ingredients as nitrates and nitrites, solanine, cyanogenetic compounds, arsenic, etc., are unavoidably consumed in the diet and with little if any evidence for public health consequences. Major concern on the part of the public in recent years has been focused on man-made chemicals which are intentionally added to foods to enhance flavors and acceptability, nutrient value, shelf life and increased availability. These include food colors, nonnutritive and low-nutrient sweeteners, (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame); antioxidants; and nitrites. Contaminants, sometimes incorrectly included in lists of food additives, present the greatest potential threat to public health. Such contaminants as mycotoxins, nitrosamines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, among others, provide a continuing challenge to our regulatory agencies and to public health authorities. Evidence to date indicate that these responsible for food safety are doing an admirable job, and as a society, our food supply has never been better, or safer, and, as a population, we have never been healthier. Aside from contaminants, major concerns relate to an excess of good food and to obesity. These comments should not be taken to infer that we should relax our concern and surveillance; instead more concern and surveillance should be exerted toward those uncontrolled substances such as natural plant products and alleged natural nutrients, roots, herbs, etc., which are given much credit for positive health effects, without meeting the high standards of our

  10. Does Electrification Spur the Fertility Transition? Evidence From Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Michael; Sparrow, Robert; Tasciotti, Luca

    2015-10-01

    We analyze various pathways through which access to electricity affects fertility in Indonesia, using a district difference-in-difference approach. The electrification rate increased by 65 % over the study period, and our results suggest that the subsequent effects on fertility account for about 18 % to 24 % of the overall decline in fertility. A key channel is increased exposure to television. Using in addition several waves of Demographic and Health Surveys, we find suggestive evidence that increased exposure to TV affects, in particular, fertility preferences and increases the effective use of contraception. Reduced child mortality seems to be another important pathway. PMID:26307015

  11. Beyond journal clubs. Moving toward an integrated evidence-based medicine curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Rose; Keitz, Sheri A; Wilson, Mark C; Guyatt, Gordon

    2006-05-01

    Incorporating evidence-based medicine (EBM) into clinical practice is an important competency that residency training must address. Residency program directors, and the clinical educators who work with them, should develop curricula to enhance residents' capacity for independent evidence-based practice. In this article, the authors argue that residency programs must move beyond journal club formats to promote the practice of EBM by trainees. The authors highlight the limitations of journal club, and suggest additional curricular approaches for an integrated EBM curriculum. Helping residents become effective evidence users will require a sustained effort on the part of residents, faculty, and their educational institutions. PMID:16704406

  12. Measurement of individual differences in children's suggestibility across situations.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Matthew H; Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J

    2002-12-01

    The authors attempted to use scores on the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC, M. H. Scullin & S. J. Ceci, 2001) to predict 50 preschool children's performance during a field study in which they were interviewed suggestively 4 times about both a true event and a suggested event. Among the 25 children over age 4 years 6 months, tendencies on the VSSC to respond affirmatively to suggestive questions ("yield"), change answers in response to negative feedback ("shift"), and the sum of these ("total suggestibility") were all related to lack of accuracy about the true event in the field study and to both accuracy and lack of accuracy about the suggested event. Results support a 2-factor model of suggestibility. PMID:12570098

  13. Titan's interior ocean: a thermo-chemical assessment suggests N2 gas driven cryovolcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, W. M.; Bastea, S.; Khare, B. N.; McKay, C. P.

    2010-04-01

    We use a chemical equilibrium approach to model the composition of a subsurface ocean on Titan. The chemical equilibrium model includes an exponential exp-6 equation of state for fluids and a Murnaghan form for solids, the parameters for which are fitted to experimental shock Hugoniot data, isotropic compression and sound speed data from pressures of a few hundred kPa to that of a few hundred GPa. We also allow for solid phases of CO, CO2, NH3, N2 and CH4. In addition, the models allows for a variety of mixtures. We follow the equilibrium condensation of these elements from high to low temperature. For the pressures associated with Titan's interior (~1 GPa) we find that a pure ammonia-water ocean maybe stable. However we find that carbon present in the ocean destabilizes the ammonia to form N2. For an ocean with a C/N ratio equal to solar composition virtually all the nitrogen is in the form of N2. We suggest that the exsolution of N2 could power gas-driven cryovolcanism on Titan and possibly Triton. This would be consistent with the evidence for an ocean and for cryovolcanism, and with the absence of ammonia. Our results also provide an alternative explanation for the source of atmospheric N2. We also study the effects of tholins being introduced into the surface layers of Titan. Organic material (tholin) under pressure in the interior of Titan forms graphite, CH4 and N2 or if graphite is kinetically suppressed it forms benzene and N2. This could be an explanation for the benzene detected in the surface materials at the Huygens Probe landing site. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Genomic Survey, Gene Expression Analysis and Structural Modeling Suggest Diverse Roles of DNA Methyltransferases in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes. PMID:24586452

  15. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  16. Three gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes in one organism suggest novel roles for an ancient peptide.

    PubMed Central

    White, S A; Kasten, T L; Bond, C T; Adelman, J P; Fernald, R D

    1995-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is known and named for its essential role in vertebrate reproduction. Release of this decapeptide from neurons in the hypothalamus controls pituitary gonadotropin levels which, in turn, regulate gonadal state. The importance of GnRH is underscored by its widespread expression and conservation across vertebrate taxa: five amino acids are invariant in all nine known forms, whereas two others show only conservative changes. In most eutherian mammals, only one form, expressed in the hypothalamus, is thought to exist, although in a recent report, antibody staining in developing primates suggests an additional form. In contrast, multiple GnRH forms and expression loci have been reported in many non-mammalian vertebrates. However, evidence based on immunological discrimination does not always agree with analysis of gene expression, since GnRH forms encoded by different genes may not be reliably distinguished by antibodies. Here we report the expression of three distinct GnRH genes in a teleost fish brain, including the sequence encoding a novel GnRH preprohormone. Using in situ hybridization, we show that this form is found only in neurons that project to the pituitary and exhibit changes in soma size depending on social and reproductive state. The other two GnRH genes are expressed in other, distinct cell populations. All three genes share the motif of encoding a polypeptide consisting of GnRH and a GnRH-associated peptide. Whereas the GnRH moiety is highly conserved, the GnRH-associated peptides are not, reflecting differential selective pressure on different parts of the gene. GnRH forms expressed in nonhypothalamic regions may serve to coordinate reproductive activities of the animal. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7667296

  17. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  18. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  19. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  20. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  1. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  2. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    PubMed

    Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A; Slama, Hichem; Caspar, Emilie A; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  3. Validity of a Test of Children's Suggestibility for Predicting Responses to Two Interview Situations Differing in Their Degree of Suggestiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnila, Katarina; Mahlberg, Nina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relative contributions of internal and external sources of variation in children's suggestibility in interrogative situations. Found that internal sources of individual differences in suggestibility measured on a suggestibility test did influence children's answers during an interview, but that external sources or interview styles had…

  4. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  5. Stable isotopes in fossil hominin tooth enamel suggest a fundamental dietary shift in the Pliocene.

    PubMed

    Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Sponheimer, Matt; Passey, Benjamin H; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Cerling, Thure E

    2010-10-27

    Accumulating isotopic evidence from fossil hominin tooth enamel has provided unexpected insights into early hominin dietary ecology. Among the South African australopiths, these data demonstrate significant contributions to the diet of carbon originally fixed by C(4) photosynthesis, consisting of C(4) tropical/savannah grasses and certain sedges, and/or animals eating C(4) foods. Moreover, high-resolution analysis of tooth enamel reveals strong intra-tooth variability in many cases, suggesting seasonal-scale dietary shifts. This pattern is quite unlike that seen in any great apes, even 'savannah' chimpanzees. The overall proportions of C(4) input persisted for well over a million years, even while environments shifted from relatively closed (ca 3 Ma) to open conditions after ca 1.8 Ma. Data from East Africa suggest a more extreme scenario, where results for Paranthropus boisei indicate a diet dominated (approx. 80%) by C(4) plants, in spite of indications from their powerful 'nutcracker' morphology for diets of hard objects. We argue that such evidence for engagement with C(4) food resources may mark a fundamental transition in the evolution of hominin lineages, and that the pattern had antecedents prior to the emergence of Australopithecus africanus. Since new isotopic evidence from Aramis suggests that it was not present in Ardipithecus ramidus at 4.4 Ma, we suggest that the origins lie in the period between 3 and 4 Myr ago. PMID:20855312

  6. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  7. Warrantable evidence in nursing science.

    PubMed

    Forbes, D A; King, K M; Kushner, K E; Letourneau, N L; Myrick, A F; Profetto-McGrath, J

    1999-02-01

    Consensus among nurse scholars has not been reached regarding suitable qualities for accepting or rejecting the evidence arising from various world views. The authors' purpose in writing the paper is to describe the qualities or warrants for evaluating scientific findings (the 'evidence') of different research perspectives. The warrantable evidence pertinent to post-positivist, interpretivist, critical social theorist, and feminist perspectives are described and common warrants are suggested. Three warrants common to these scientific perspectives are proposed: (a) scrutiny and critique of methodological rigor and findings by the scientific community; (b) corroboration and intersubjectivity; and (c) scope of the evidence. The identification of common warrantable evidence will assist nurses in developing some core values regarding the constituents of good science or good scholarship even in the face of pluralism in nursing science approaches. PMID:10197937

  8. Autonomic responses to suggestions for cold and warmth in hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, A; Mariauzouls, C; Wyler, F; Bircher, A J; Wyler-Harper, J

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold. However, there was no association between the changes in autonomic variables induced by suggestions and hypnotizability scores measured by the 'Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults'. Fingertip skin temperature was mostly affected when the images used for the cold and warmth suggestions during hypnosis included experiences of physical temperature and psychological stress or relaxation, indicating that the psychological content of the imagery amplified the autonomic response. PMID:10213875

  9. The consequences of suggesting false childhood food events.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Scoboria, Alan; Arnold, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We combined data across eight published experiments (N=1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related event in the past and current preference for that food. Suggestion indirectly affected intention to eat the food via change in autobiographical belief. The development of belief with and without memory produced similar changes in food preferences and behavior intention, indicating that belief in the event drives changes in suggestion-related attitudes. Finally, positive suggestions (e.g., "you loved asparagus the first time you tried it") yielded stronger effects than negative suggestions (e.g., "you got sick eating egg salad"). These findings show that false autobiographical suggestions lead to the development of autobiographical beliefs, which in turn, have consequences for one's attitudes and behaviors. PMID:25613303

  10. What Brain Research Suggests for Teaching Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2009-01-01

    How the brain learns to read has been the subject of much neuroscience educational research. Evidence is mounting for identifiable networks of connected neurons that are particularly active during reading processes such as response to visual and auditory stimuli, relating new information to prior knowledge, long-term memory storage, comprehension,…

  11. Community College Student Retention: Some Procedural and Programmatic Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; VonSeggern, D. Joseph

    Researchers have begun to analyze community college retention data in terms of students' stated objectives upon entry. By categorizing students based upon their most important reason for attending college, meaningful follow-up and assessment of students' goal attainment can be conducted. Program evaluation studies have produced evidence that…

  12. A Suggested Approach to the Elementary School Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Joseph I.

    The author describes a comprehensive science program for the elementary school. The program should include six components: (1) The story of the great generalizing constructs of science, such as the atom, the universe, the layers of the earth, and evolution--even though the students do not have the observational evidence to support the constructs;…

  13. Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S. PMID:21135024

  14. Placebo-Suggestion Modulates Conflict Resolution in the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  16. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  17. Children's and adults' reactions to magical and ordinary suggestion: are suggestibility and magical thinking psychologically close relatives?

    PubMed

    Subbotsky, Eugene

    2007-11-01

    In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-year-old children and adults were asked to imagine various types of objects. The experimenter then attempted to change the image of those objects in participants' minds by either suggesting that the objects may change against the participants' will, or by asking participants to change the objects as a favor to the experimenter. Two types of suggestive causation were employed: Magical-suggestion (a magic spell was cast with the aim of changing the imagined objects) and ordinary-suggestion (participants were told that the objects in their minds could alter against their will). Ordinary-suggestion was as effective as magical-suggestion in changing the participants' imagined objects. For adults, a direct request for compliance produced a stronger effect than did magical suggestion. This effect was not found in children. In Experiment 2, the two types of suggestion were tested on an alternative type of imagined objects. Adult participants were asked to imagine their futures. It was then proposed that (a) a magic spell could be cast on their futures with the aim of changing them either for the worse or for the better (magical-suggestion), or (b) changing a numerical pattern on a computer screen could change their futures (ordinary-suggestion). All participants denied that changing a numerical pattern on a computer screen could affect their lives, yet in their actions they demonstrated an element of belief in this possibility. As in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 ordinary suggestion was as effective as magical suggestion. The hypothesis of an historic contiguity between magical causality and ordinary suggestion is discussed. PMID:17931466

  18. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Strom, Sara S.; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Sun, Yan V.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W. Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Britton, Angela F.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V.; Becker, Diane M.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Evans, Michele K.; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M.; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce

  19. Suggested strategies to attract reviewers for soil & tillage research submissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent letter to the editor in Soil and Tillage Research (STILL) entitled "Opportunity and Obligation" prompted a request for follow-up suggestions on how to solve a critical problem associated with securing reviewers for journal submissions. Ten broad suggestions for helping solve the problem of ...

  20. Suggestions To Help Engage Young Adolescents with Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Grades Reading Network, Evansville, IN.

    Accompanying a collection of 85 books for teenagers donated to local service organizations in Indiana, or donated in the name of such an organization to local libraries, this pamphlet offers suggestions to help the organizations engage adolescents with books and lists the paperback books given to the organizations. Suggestions in the pamphlet…

  1. Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Kay U.

    The suggestive-accelerative approach to foreign language instruction is described. This method, first used in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov, emphasizes bringing the imagination to bear on the learning task, in a relaxed classroom environment. After establishing a calm atmosphere through direct and indirect suggestion, the teacher proceeds to…

  2. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  3. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  4. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  5. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  6. World War II Commemoration Committee: Fact Sheet and Suggested Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This packet suggests activities and events that school districts, schools, classes, and educational organizations can conduct to commemorate World War II. Suggestions are made to include local veterans, including those in veteran's and nursing homes and hospitals, and youth at every possible opportunity. Recognition can take the form of military…

  7. The Effects of Stereotypes and Suggestions on Preschoolers' Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichtman, Michelle D.; Ceci, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the effects of preevent stereotypes and postevent suggestions on the memory of 176 preschoolers whose classrooms were visited by a stranger. Results from open-ended interviews after 10 weeks indicated that control participants provided accurate reports of the visit, while those exposed to stereotypes, suggestions, and stereotypes plus…

  8. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  9. 32 CFR 1801.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1801.4 Section 1801.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1801.4 Suggestions and complaints....

  10. 32 CFR 1801.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1801.4 Section 1801.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1801.4 Suggestions and complaints....

  11. 32 CFR 1801.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1801.4 Section 1801.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1801.4 Suggestions and complaints....

  12. 32 CFR 1801.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1801.4 Section 1801.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1801.4 Suggestions and complaints....

  13. 32 CFR 1801.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1801.4 Section 1801.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1801.4 Suggestions and complaints....

  14. 16 CFR 1500.212 - Definition of guaranty; suggested forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1500.212 Definition of guaranty; suggested forms. (a) A guaranty or undertaking referred to in section... delivered, or caused to be shipped or delivered, by the person who gives the guaranty of undertaking. (b) The following are suggested forms of guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 5(b)(2) of the...

  15. Posthypnotic suggestion and the modulation of Stroop interference under cycloplegia.

    PubMed

    Raz, Amir; Landzberg, Kim S; Schweizer, Heather R; Zephrani, Zohar R; Shapiro, Theodore; Fan, Jin; Posner, Michael I

    2003-09-01

    Recent data indicate that under a specific posthypnotic suggestion to circumvent reading, highly suggestible subjects successfully eliminated the Stroop interference effect. The present study examined whether an optical explanation (e.g., visual blurring or looking away) could account for this finding. Using cyclopentolate hydrochloride eye drops to pharmacologically prevent visual accommodation in all subjects, behavioral Stroop data were collected from six highly hypnotizables and six less suggestibles using an optical setup that guaranteed either sharply focused or blurred vision. The highly suggestibles performed the Stroop task when naturally vigilant, under posthypnotic suggestion not to read, and while visually blurred; the less suggestibles ran naturally vigilant, while looking away, and while visually blurred. Although visual accommodation was precluded for all subjects, posthypnotic suggestion effectively eliminated Stroop interference and was comparable to looking away in controls. These data strengthen the view that Stroop interference is neither robust nor inevitable and support the hypothesis that posthypnotic suggestion may exert a top-down influence on neural processing. PMID:12941281

  16. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2015-01-01

    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  17. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  18. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  19. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  20. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  1. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  2. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  3. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ACCESS... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... consideration. The Agency will respond to all substantive communications and take such actions as...

  4. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  5. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ACCESS... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... consideration. The Agency will respond to all substantive communications and take such actions as...

  6. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  7. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  8. 32 CFR Enclosure - Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service by Mail Enclosure National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF READY RESERVE OBLIGATION Definitions. Pt. 100, Encl. Enclosure—Suggested Format, Affidavit of Service...

  9. A Suggested Management System for Secondary Migrant Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Jesus, Jr.

    A suggested management system for secondary migrant counselors is the second part of a guide to help migrant counselors meet the special needs of migrant students. It includes a list of counselors' competencies and suggested calendars of academic, vocational, and social activities. Competencies include organizing pre-registration and registration…

  10. A Temporal Discriminability Account of Children's Eyewitness Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Children's suggestibility is typically measured using a three-stage "event-misinformation-test" procedure. We examined whether suggestibility is influenced by the time delays imposed between these stages, and in particular whether the temporal discriminability of sources (event and misinformation) predicts performance. In a novel approach, the…

  11. Moral Education in the Schools. Some Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Clive

    This document contains practical suggestions for moral education which, although tentative, are based to a considerable extent on classroom experimentation. There are three main sections. The first suggests a series of mini-courses to be incorporated in the school curriculum. It deals with personal and social values in general, human relations,…

  12. Students' abilities to critique scientific evidence when reading and writing scientific arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Amanda M.

    Scientific arguments are used to persuade others for explanations that make sense of the natural world. Over time, through the accumulation of evidence, one explanation for a scientific phenomenon tends to take precedence. In science education, arguments make students' thinking and reasoning visible while also supporting the development of their conceptual, procedural, and epistemic knowledge. As such, argumentation has become a goal within recent policy documents, including the Next Generation Science Standards, which, in turn, presents a need for comprehensive, effective, and scalable assessments. This dissertation used assessments that measure students' abilities to critique scientific evidence, which is measured in terms of the form of justification and the support of empirical evidence, when reading and writing scientific arguments. Cognitive interviews were then conducted with a subset of the students to explore the criteria they used to critique scientific evidence. Specifically, the research investigated what characteristics of scientific evidence the students preferred, how they critiqued both forms of justification and empirical evidence, and whether the four constructs represented four separate abilities. Findings suggest that students' prioritized the type of empirical evidence to the form of justification, and most often selected relevant-supporting justifications. When writing scientific arguments, most students constructed a justified claim, but struggled to justify their claims with empirical evidence. In comparison, when reading scientific arguments, students had trouble locating a justification when it was not empirical data. Additionally, it was more difficult for students to critique than identify or locate empirical evidence, and it was more difficult for students to identify than locate empirical evidence. Findings from the cognitive interviews suggest that students with more specific criteria tended to have more knowledge of the construct

  13. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  14. Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Mohammed, Selina A; Williams, David R

    2007-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the existing empirical research of the multiple ways by which discrimination can affect health. Institutional mechanisms of discrimination such as restricting marginalized groups to live in undesirable residential areas can have deleterious health consequences by limiting socio-economic status (SES) and creating health-damaging conditions in residential environments. Discrimination can also adversely affect health through restricting access to desirable services such as medical care and creating elevated exposure to traditional stressors such as unemployment and financial strain. Central to racism is an ideology of inferiority that can adversely affect non-dominant groups because some members of marginalized populations will accept as true the dominant society's ideology of their group's inferiority. Limited empirical research indicates that internalized racism is inversely related to health. In addition, the existence of these negative stereotypes can lead dominant group members to consciously and unconsciously discriminate against the stigmatized. An overview of the growing body of research examining the ways in which psychosocial stress generated by subjective experiences of discrimination can affect health is also provided. We review the evidence from the United States and other societies that suggest that the subjective experience of discrimination can adversely affect health and health enhancing behaviours. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between discrimination and health requires improved assessment of the phenomenon of discrimination and increased attention to identifying the psychosocial and biological pathways that may link exposure to discrimination to health status. PMID:18032807

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  16. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  17. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  18. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  19. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Experiment 1) and false memories that were accompanied by the phenomenal experience of remembering them (Experiment 2) than did surface-level processing. Moreover, conceptual elaboration consistently led to higher rates of false memory than did perceptual elaboration. The false memory effects that resulted from conceptual elaboration were highly dependent on the organization of the postevent interview questions, such that conceptual elaboration only increased false memory beyond surface level processing when participants evaluated both true and suggested information in relation to the same theme or dimension. PMID:21103451

  20. Sexual Harrassment: Suggested Policy and Procedures for Handling Complaints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1983

    1983-01-01

    AAUP guidelines on establishing institutional policy and procedures for handling sexual harassment complaints are outlined. Sexual harassment is defined and procedures for both bringing and resolving a complaint are suggested. (MSE)

  1. Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... in these patients is likely due to more sun exposure To use the sharing features on this page, ... in some cases. In particular, they suggested that sun exposure may play a big role. The study was ...

  2. Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159630.html Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests ... encouraged as a form of meaningful social participation. Religion and spirituality may be an underappreciated resource that ...

  3. Pharmacists Can Manage Some Chronic Conditions Effectively, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine how well pharmacists might perform if they led the management of a person's chronic disease, Wilt ... people. The findings suggest that patients receiving pharmacist-led care were more likely to achieve target goals ...

  4. Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160744.html Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without ... appear to be effective, according to a new review. Millions of Americans seek pain relief through such ...

  5. Exercise May Keep Your Brain 10 Years Younger, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... study suggests. The study found that seniors who got moderate to intense exercise retained more of their ... the next five years, versus older adults who got light exercise or none at all. On average, ...

  6. Basaltic Cone Suggests Constructional Origin of Some Guyots.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M N; Gilbert, C M

    1964-01-17

    A basaltic cinder cone was built beneath the waters of Mono Lake in Pleistocene time. This cone is now exposed. Its internal structure, external form, and petrography suggest that it was constructed with a flat top. PMID:17753148

  7. 1. VIEW OF BASE END STATION PARLEY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BASE END STATION PARLEY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH. VIEW IS OF THE FRONT. - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"6, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. VIEW OF BASE END STATION LEARY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION LEARY SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"3, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. VIEW OF BASE END STATION SAXTON SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION SAXTON SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"2, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159365.html Impotence Drugs Won't Raise Melanoma Risk, Study Suggests Researchers say skin cancer in ... aren't likely to boost the risk of melanoma skin cancer, a new study reports. Why the ...

  11. Zika Infection May Give Future Immunity, Monkey Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks later. "This is good news for vaccine design. It suggests the sort of immunity that occurs ... transmitted via the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. But, transmission of the virus through sex is ...

  12. VIEW OF BASE END STATION OSGOOD SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BASE END STATION OSGOOD SHOWING THE SUGGESTED APPEARANCE DURING USE, FACING NORTH, VIEW IS OF THE FRONT - White's Point Reservation, Base End Stations, B"5, Bounded by Voyager Circle & Mariner Drive, San Pedro, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158854.html Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests ... 16, 2016 MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise may significantly reduce your risk for many types ...

  14. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  15. Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159630.html Religion a Buffer Against Suicide for Women, Study Suggests ... encouraged as a form of meaningful social participation. Religion and spirituality may be an underappreciated resource that ...

  16. Study Suggests Causes for Lupus' Impact on Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Study Suggests Causes for Lupus' Impact on Immune System Certain cells seem to malfunction and create inflammation ... that help explain what's going wrong in the immune systems of people with lupus -- insight they hope will ...

  17. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from the World War II period. Useful suggestions were awarded a $ 50 bond and usually a photo in the shipyard newspaper, the beacon. This photo shows an improved bilge block template layout table left to right: Stuart S. Sanders, Rosalie Moschella, Eddie Ormond, Lt. CDR. J.M. Ballinger, and A.A. Goldman. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  19. Nitrogen Addition Enhances Drought Sensitivity of Young Deciduous Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Dziedek, Christoph; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how trees respond to global change drivers is central to predict changes in forest structure and functions. Although there is evidence on the mode of nitrogen (N) and drought (D) effects on tree growth, our understanding of the interplay of these factors is still limited. Simultaneously, as mixtures are expected to be less sensitive to global change as compared to monocultures, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of N addition and D on the productivity of three tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Pseudotsuga menziesii) in relation to functional diverse species mixtures using data from a 4-year field experiment in Northwest Germany. Here we show that species mixing can mitigate the negative effects of combined N fertilization and D events, but the community response is mainly driven by the combination of certain traits rather than the tree species richness of a community. For beech, we found that negative effects of D on growth rates were amplified by N fertilization (i.e., combined treatment effects were non-additive), while for oak and fir, the simultaneous effects of N and D were additive. Beech and oak were identified as most sensitive to combined N+D effects with a strong size-dependency observed for beech, suggesting that the negative impact of N+D becomes stronger with time as beech grows larger. As a consequence, the net biodiversity effect declined at the community level, which can be mainly assigned to a distinct loss of complementarity in beech-oak mixtures. This pattern, however, was not evident in the other species-mixtures, indicating that neighborhood composition (i.e., trait combination), but not tree species richness mediated the relationship between tree diversity and treatment effects on tree growth. Our findings point to the importance of the qualitative role (‘trait portfolio’) that biodiversity play in determining resistance of diverse tree communities to environmental changes. As such, they provide

  20. Nitrogen Addition Enhances Drought Sensitivity of Young Deciduous Tree Species.

    PubMed

    Dziedek, Christoph; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how trees respond to global change drivers is central to predict changes in forest structure and functions. Although there is evidence on the mode of nitrogen (N) and drought (D) effects on tree growth, our understanding of the interplay of these factors is still limited. Simultaneously, as mixtures are expected to be less sensitive to global change as compared to monocultures, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of N addition and D on the productivity of three tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Pseudotsuga menziesii) in relation to functional diverse species mixtures using data from a 4-year field experiment in Northwest Germany. Here we show that species mixing can mitigate the negative effects of combined N fertilization and D events, but the community response is mainly driven by the combination of certain traits rather than the tree species richness of a community. For beech, we found that negative effects of D on growth rates were amplified by N fertilization (i.e., combined treatment effects were non-additive), while for oak and fir, the simultaneous effects of N and D were additive. Beech and oak were identified as most sensitive to combined N+D effects with a strong size-dependency observed for beech, suggesting that the negative impact of N+D becomes stronger with time as beech grows larger. As a consequence, the net biodiversity effect declined at the community level, which can be mainly assigned to a distinct loss of complementarity in beech-oak mixtures. This pattern, however, was not evident in the other species-mixtures, indicating that neighborhood composition (i.e., trait combination), but not tree species richness mediated the relationship between tree diversity and treatment effects on tree growth. Our findings point to the importance of the qualitative role ('trait portfolio') that biodiversity play in determining resistance of diverse tree communities to environmental changes. As such, they provide further

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  2. Water on Mars: Petrographic Evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    FE-SEM and TEM studies of martian meteorites are focused on identifying and characterizing possible martian weathering products using SEM petrography. New data include unambiguous evidence that Ca-sulfate in the Nakhla meteorite is of martian origin. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Molecular analyses suggest monospecificity of the genus Sarcoptes (Acari: Sarcoptidae).

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Essig, A; Gothe, R; Rinder, H

    1999-05-01

    To clarify the taxonomic status of mites of the genus Sarcoptes, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the rRNA gene, as well as phenotypic characters, were investigated in 23 isolates from nine host species in four continents. Phenotypic differences among isolates were observed, but the range of variation within each isolate precluded the differentiation of individual mites. Genotypically, there was no delimitation between distinct genotypic groups and no correlation with host species or geographic origin was evident. These results support the conspecificity of the mites investigated and confirm the view that the genus Sarcoptes consists of a single, heterogenous species. PMID:10404272

  4. Cerebellar liponeurocytoma in two siblings suggests a possible familial predisposition.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Fellig, Yakov; Margolin, Emil

    2016-10-01

    There is limited data on the genetic origin and natural history of cerebellar liponeurocytoma. To the best of our knowledge there has been only one report of a familial presentation of this rare entity. We report a 72-year-old female with a posterior fossa tumor presenting with progressive cerebellar signs and symptoms. The patient underwent total tumor resection via an uncomplicated sub-occipital craniotomy. Histopathologic examination was diagnostic for cerebellar liponeurocytoma. Her sister was previously treated for a similar tumor. Our report provides further evidence for the possible existence of a hereditary abnormality predisposing afflicted families to cerebellar liponeurocytoma development. PMID:27349466

  5. An ancient forest suggests a new view of Antarctica's past

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Solid evidence that 200 million years ago Antarctica was warm enough to support a rapidly growing deciduous forest has been uncovered in the central Transantarctic Mountains. Like existing forest in high latitude regions, this forest was adapted to 24 hours of light during the growing season and 24 hours of darkness during the winter. However, unlike these boreal forest, the Mount Achernar forest was most likely deciduous, a theory supported by the presence of Glossopteris leaves and other data. This discovery emphasizes the importance of including biological input into climate models to accurately describe the range of past climates.

  6. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  7. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  8. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  9. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  11. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. PMID:25594911

  12. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  13. Contradictory Evidence on Wave Forcing of Tropical Upwelling in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation - A Suggested Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Tiehan; Geller, Marvin A.; Lin, Wuyin

    2011-01-01

    ERA-40 data are analyzed to demonstrate that wave forcing at lower latitudes plays a crucial role in driving the tropical upwelling portion of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. It is shown that subtropical wave forcing is correlated with tropical upwelling on both intraseasonal and interannual time scales when transient waves are taken into account, and that tropical wave forcing exerts its influence on tropical upwelling via its body force on the zonal mean flow.

  14. Direct evidence of egestion and salivation of Xylella fastidiosa suggests sharpshooters can be “flying syringes”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly 70 years of research, the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by its sharpshooter vectors is still unproven. X. fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it does not circulate in the vector’s hemolymph, yet it is propagative because it adheres to an...

  15. Speech Errors and the Phonological Similarity Effect in Short-Term Memory: Evidence Suggesting a Common Locus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Mike P. A.; Madge, Alison; Cumming, Nick; Norris, Dennis G.

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we tested the hypothesis that those errors in immediate serial recall (ISR) that are attributable to phonological confusability share a locus with segmental errors in normal speech production. In the first two experiments, speech errors were elicited in the repeated paced reading of six-letter lists. The errors mirrored the…

  16. Structural Evidence Suggests that the Antiactivator ExsD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a DNA binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhards, R.; Jing, X; Vogelaar, N; Robinson, H; Schubot, F

    2009-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to support acute infections in predisposed individuals. In this bacterium, expression of all T3SS-related genes is dependent on the AraC-type transcriptional activator ExsA. Before host contact, the T3SS is inactive and ExsA is repressed by the antiactivator protein ExsD. The repression, thought to occur through direct interactions between the two proteins, is relieved upon opening of the type III secretion (T3S) channel when secretion chaperone ExsC sequesters ExsD. We have solved the crystal structure of {Delta}20ExsD, a protease-resistant fragment of ExsD that lacks only the 20 amino terminal residues of the wild-type protein at 2.6 {angstrom}. Surprisingly the structure revealed similarities between ExsD and the DNA binding domain of transcriptional repressor KorB. A model of an ExsD-DNA complex constructed on the basis of this homology produced a realistic complex that is supported by the prevalence of conserved residues in the putative DNA binding site and the results of differential scanning fluorimetry studies. Our findings challenge the currently held model that ExsD solely acts through interactions with ExsA and raise new questions with respect to the underlying mechanism of ExsA regulation.

  17. Evidence Suggesting We Should Admit Students Who Score Extremely Low on GRE Subtests or the GMAT to Graduate School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Ted

    2002-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether GRE subscores (or GMAT) could predict graduation rates in related areas (math-oriented majors for GRE quantitative, etc.) in a sample of over 9,000 graduate students at a major public research university. Because few low quantitative scores were present in math-oriented majors, an attempt was made to…

  18. Serological evidence in sheep suggesting phlebovirus circulation in a Rift Valley fever enzootic area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J P; Le Guenno, B; Some, M J; Akakpo, J A

    1992-01-01

    Within the Phlebovirus serogroup, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is endemo-enzootic in the African sahelian zone. Recently an RVF epizootic in West Africa prompted a serosurvey in the major sheep and cattle raising areas. Because of the close antigenic relationship between the phleboviruses it appeared of interest to evaluate the prevalence of the other phleboviruses also. In 1987, 482 sheep serum samples were collected in 2 different ecological zones of Burkina Faso and tested for the presence of phlebovirus antibodies. A sensitive but non-specific immunofluorescent antibody test and a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used, with the following African phlebovirus antigens: Rift Valley fever (RVF), Arumowot, Gabek Forest, Gordil, Saint Floris and Odrenisrou. A total of 15.8% of the sera sampled had anti-RVF antibody in the ELISA. RVF virus appeared to be more active in drier areas such as the sahelian region, known to be an enzootic area for the disease. Antibodies to other phleboviruses were found in 11.8% of the samples, independent of RVF virus activity. It is assumed that sheep can be infected by different phleboviruses. PMID:1287944

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of Psychological Strategies on Physiologic Markers: Evidence-Based Suggestions for Holistic Care of the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Michelle A.; Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Hansen, Rodney; Olpin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Current holistic rehabilitation blends both physical and psychological techniques. However, validation of the usefulness of psychological strategies is limited in the literature. Objective: To quantify the effects of psychological strategies on both physiologic (salivary cortisol) and subjective assessments of stress. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 97 college-aged students (age = 20.65 ± 4.38 years), most with little to no experience with psychological strategies. Intervention(s): A 15-minute script via an iPod led the participant through visual imagery (cognitive relaxation) or deep breathing exercises (somatic relaxation) cues. The control group listened to 15 minutes of ambient nature sounds. Main Outcome Measure(s): Two samples (pretest, posttest) of salivary cortisol were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay kit; the average was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics and correlations were conducted to examine group differences in time of day, salivary cortisol, sex, Stress-O-Meter values, and Perceived Stress Scale scores. Results: Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the treatment group than the control group (F2,97 = 15.62, P < .001). Females had higher scores on both the pretest Stress-O-Meter (5.15 ± 1.796) and the Perceived Stress Scale (18.31 ± 5.833) than males (4.25 ± 1.741 and 15.272 ± 5.390, respectively). Conclusions: Both cognitive and somatic relaxation strategies reduced cortisol levels. Participants who received verbal guidance achieved a larger cortisol reduction. However, the change in cortisol level was uncorrelated with the change in report of acute stress; females reported higher levels of stress. Clinical implications include attention to sex when assessing stress and providing coping skills during the rehabilitation process. PMID:24490842

  20. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward. PMID:26390473

  1. The effects of prior knowledge on children's memory and suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Elischberger, Holger B

    2005-11-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the content of the story influenced the accuracy of children's recall immediately after the story presentation. Following the suggestive interview, children reported interviewer-provided social and academic misinformation to a greater extent when the misinformation was consistent with their prior knowledge. In contrast, children were more likely to refute misinformation that contradicted their academic knowledge. These findings are discussed in terms of the mechanisms underlying the knowledge-memory and knowledge-suggestibility linkages. PMID:16040045

  2. Reducing Emergency Department Crowding: Evidence Based Strategies.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Zabani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding has become a major barrier to receiving timely care. King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Saudi Arabia worked on identifying evidence based strategies for reducing the ED crowding by improving the intake. In addition to a review of literature, qualitative survey methods were used to identify strategies, which were classified into 10 suggested procedures categorized into three types of changes. Physical improvements include using physician cubicles, creating a team triage area and an internal waiting area for less acute patients instead of occupying beds. Technology improvements; include using informatics to update the electronic emergency record with information, using palmar scanning to instantly identify patients and using radio communication devices. Process improvements; include a scribe program to decrease clerical documentation tasks, switching between low flow and high flow processes, placing a physician in triage and using patient segmentation methods. PMID:27350468

  3. Cladistic biogeographic analysis suggests an early Caribbean diversification in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Tania; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Cao, Nathanaël; Ebach, Malte C; Morrone, Juan J

    2007-07-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange has been the predominant paradigm for explaining biotic diversification in the Nearctic/Neotropical overlap or Mexican Transition Zone, which is commonly explained by the collision of the North and South American continental plates, which began in the Oligocene and fused both landmasses. In the most far-reaching cladistic biogeographical analysis of the area to date, evidence has been found supporting the existence of a remnant Caribbean region extending from eastern Mexico to southeastern USA, a hypothesis that challenges current views of the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone. We show herein that an older terrane, which has drifted to the present day positions of Yucatan and Cuba, may be biogeographically linked to an early 'Gondwanan' biota of the Paleocene (ca. 60 Ma). The evidence indicates an east-west biotic divide in Mexico, existing before the collision and formation of Central America. The south-north division of the country, previously recognized by several authors as associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone, is of a younger age. PMID:17340118

  4. Use of Simulation to Study Nurses' Acceptance and Nonacceptance of Clinical Decision Support Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vanessa E C; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-10-01

    Our long-term goal was to ensure nurse clinical decision support works as intended before full deployment in clinical practice. As part of a broader effort, this pilot project explored factors influencing acceptance/nonacceptance of eight clinical decision support suggestions displayed in an electronic health record-based nursing plan of care software prototype. A diverse sample of 21 nurses participated in this high-fidelity clinical simulation experience and completed a questionnaire to assess reasons for accepting/not accepting the clinical decision support suggestions. Of 168 total suggestions displayed during the experiment (eight for each of the 21 nurses), 123 (73.2%) were accepted, and 45 (26.8%) were not accepted. The mode number of acceptances by nurses was seven of eight, with only two of 21 nurses accepting all. The main reason for clinical decision support acceptance was the nurse's belief that the suggestions were good for the patient (100%), with other features providing secondary reinforcement. Reasons for nonacceptance were less clear, with fewer than half of the subjects indicating low confidence in the evidence. This study provides preliminary evidence that high-quality simulation and targeted questionnaires about specific clinical decision support selections offer a cost-effective means for testing before full deployment in clinical practice. PMID:26361268

  5. The use of music as a hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S F

    1993-10-01

    We have known of the interaction between music and mood for many years. In this paper, I present a series of case vignettes to illustrate a method using music to affect mood. In hypnosis, I suggested that subjects imagine hearing a piece of music appropriate to a desired emotion, rather like a sound track for a movie. I suggested that the patients vividly recall this music and the accompanying feelings outside of trance when it would be desirable to help them to change their behavior by influencing their emotional state. In this way, music can be used to shape emotion. PMID:8259767

  6. Suggestions for presenting the results of data analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Link, W.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Burnham, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    We give suggestions for the presentation of research results from frequentist, information-theoretic, and Bayesian analysis paradigms, followed by several general suggestions. The information-theoretic and Bayesian methods offer alternative approaches to data analysis and inference compared to traditionally used methods. Guidance is lacking on the presentation of results under these alternative procedures and on nontesting aspects of classical frequentists methods of statistical analysis. Null hypothesis testing has come under intense criticism. We recommend less reporting of the results of statistical tests of null hypotheses in cases where the null is surely false anyway, or where the null hypothesis is of little interest to science or management.

  7. Suggestions for presenting the results of data analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Link, W.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Burnham, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    We give suggestions for the presentation of research results from frequentist, information-theoretic, and Bayesian analysis paradigms, followed by several general suggestions. The information-theoretic and Bayesian methods offer alternative approaches to data analysis and inference compared to traditionally used methods. Guidance is lacking on the presentation of results under these alternative procedures and on nontesting aspects of classical frequentist methods of statistical analysis. Null hypothesis testing has come under intense criticism. We recommend less reporting of the results of statistical tests of null hypotheses in cases where the null is surely false anyway, or where the null hypothesis is of little interest to science or management.

  8. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  9. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  10. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  11. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  12. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  13. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  14. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  15. Rapid effects of aldosterone in primary cultures of cardiomyocytes - do they suggest the existence of a membrane-bound receptor?

    PubMed

    Araujo, Carolina Morais; Hermidorff, Milla Marques; Amancio, Gabriela de Cassia Sousa; Lemos, Denise da Silveira; Silva, Marcelo Estáquio; de Assis, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro; Isoldi, Mauro César

    2016-10-01

    Aldosterone acts on its target tissue through a classical mechanism or through the rapid pathway through a putative membrane-bound receptor. Our goal here was to better understand the molecular and biochemical rapid mechanisms responsible for aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We have evaluated the hypertrophic process through the levels of ANP, which was confirmed by the analysis of the superficial area of cardiomyocytes. Aldosterone increased the levels of ANP and the cellular area of the cardiomyocytes; spironolactone reduced the aldosterone-increased ANP level and cellular area of cardiomyocytes. Aldosterone or spironolactone alone did not increase the level of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), but aldosterone plus spironolactone led to increased cAMP level; the treatment with aldosterone + spironolactone + BAPTA-AM reduced the levels of cAMP. These data suggest that aldosterone-induced cAMP increase is independent of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and dependent on Ca(2+). Next, we have evaluated the role of A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAP) in the aldosterone-induced hypertrophic response. We have found that St-Ht31 (AKAP inhibitor) reduced the increased level of ANP which was induced by aldosterone; in addition, we have found an increase on protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) activity when cells were treated with aldosterone alone, spironolactone alone and with a combination of both. Our data suggest that PKC could be responsible for ERK5 aldosterone-induced phosphorylation. Our study suggests that the aldosterone through its rapid effects promotes a hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes that is controlled by an AKAP, being dependent on ERK5 and PKC, but not on cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathways. Lastly, we provide evidence that the targeting of AKAPs could be relevant in patients with aldosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:27305962

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  17. Energy and Water: Conservation Suggestions for California's Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This publication contains conservation suggestions for schools in California to save water and energy. Contents include: (1) a list of sources of additional energy education assistance and materials; (2) a discussion of energy conservation in schools including HVAC system operations, lighting and building design; (3) a summary outline of actions…

  18. Suggested Materials and Themes for a Study of Population in Secondary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Diana Darnall

    The main objective of this thesis is to suggest materials for use in secondary social studies classrooms for improvement of instruction on population and world geography. The thesis provides background information on population, a listing of sources where additional information can be found, and major generalizations, discussion questions, and…

  19. In-Class Collaborative Learning: Practical Suggestions from the Teaching Trenches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Peter J.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost

    1999-01-01

    Supplements Steven A.Meyers's article (Teaching Psychology, 1997) on the use of collaborative-learning groups. Provides additional suggestions on starting in-class groups, maintaining their effectiveness, and anticipating common problems. Argues that with careful attention, in-class groups can effectively complement lectures. (DSK)

  20. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  1. Educational Assistants: Suggested Personnel Policy Guidelines for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Personnel policy guidelines to enhance the use of educational assistants are provided in this publication. Suggestions are offered for local program development based on statutory guidelines, Oregon Administrative Rules, and local board policy. Contents include a definition of "educational assistant," job qualifications, application and hiring…

  2. 29 CFR 778.333 - Suggestion system awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion system awards. 778.333 Section 778.333 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special...

  3. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  4. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  5. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  6. "Say Everything": Exploring Young People's Suggestions for Improving Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2005-01-01

    How do young people conceptualise "effective" sexuality education? This paper explores 16-year-old to 19-year-old New Zealanders' vision of effective sexuality education as it emerges in answers to a survey question about improving programmes at secondary school. Young people's responses suggest that their view of what makes sexuality education…

  7. Suggested Guide for Fire Service Standard Operating Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Merl; Hertzler, Simon L.

    Suggested guidelines for the development of fire service standard operating procedures are presented in this document. Section topics are as follow: chain of command; communications; emergency response; apparatus; fire service training; disaster response; aircraft fire safety; mutual aid; national reporting system (example reporting forms);…

  8. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  9. 29 CFR 778.333 - Suggestion system awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestion system awards. 778.333 Section 778.333 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special...

  10. Tuck in Your Shirt, You Squid: Suggestions in ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Janet; Carrell, Patricia L.

    1988-01-01

    An English discourse completion questionnaire consisting of 60 situations designed to elicit suggestions in English was administered to 28 native speakers of Chinese or Malay and to 12 native speakers of American English. Non-native speakers of English were more direct in their responses. Native and non-native speakers significantly differed in…

  11. A Suggested Computer Aided Drafting Curriculum (Dacum Based).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedras, Melvin J.; Hoggard, David

    Computer-aided drawing can bring new technology into the drafting classroom. One approach to computer-aided drafting (CAD) involves use of a personal computer and purchased software. Existing school computers could be shared to reduce costs. Following this narrative introduction, a suggested curriculum for the teaching of CAD is presented in…

  12. Effective Moderation of Computer Conferences: Notes and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brochet, Madge Grant, Ed.

    The role of the computer conference moderator and suggestions for effective conference moderation are presented in this paper, which covers the following points: (1) opening statement; (2) agenda and topics to be discussed; (3) invitations to participants; (4) conference duration; (5) hands-on training for participants; (6) selection of…

  13. 32 CFR 1800.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1800.4 Section 1800.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General §...

  14. 32 CFR 1802.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1802.4 Section 1802.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  15. 32 CFR 1800.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1800.4 Section 1800.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General §...

  16. 32 CFR 1800.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1800.4 Section 1800.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General §...

  17. 32 CFR 1802.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1802.4 Section 1802.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  18. 32 CFR 1800.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1800.4 Section 1800.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General §...

  19. 32 CFR 1802.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1802.4 Section 1802.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...

  20. 32 CFR 1802.4 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1802.4 Section 1802.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9...