Science.gov

Sample records for additional experiments performed

  1. Police arrest and self-defence skills: performance under anxiety of officers with and without additional experience in martial arts.

    PubMed

    Renden, Peter G; Landman, Annemarie; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were especially interested to find out whether training once a week would already lead to better performance under high anxiety. Officers with additional experience in kickboxing or karate/jiu-jitsu (training several times per week), or krav maga (training once a week) and officers with no additional experience performed several arrest and self-defence skills under low and high anxiety. Results showed that officers with additional experience (also those who trained once a week) performed better under high anxiety than officers with no additional experience. Still, the additional experience did not prevent these participants from performing worse under high anxiety compared to low anxiety. Implications for training are discussed. Practitioner summary: Dutch police officers train their arrest and self-defence skills only four to six hours per year. Our results indicate that doing an additional martial arts training once a week may lead to better performance under anxiety, although it cannot prevent that performance decreases under high anxiety compared to low anxiety.

  2. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  3. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Influence of boric acid additive size on green lubricant performance.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Michael R; Kabir, M A; Menezes, Pradeep L; Higgs, C Fred

    2010-10-28

    As the industrial community moves towards green manufacturing processes, there is an increased demand for multi-functional, environmentally friendly lubricants with enhanced tribological performance. In the present investigation, green (environmentally benign) lubricant combinations were prepared by homogeneously mixing nano- (20 nm), sub-micrometre- (600 nm average size) and micrometre-scale (4 μm average size) boric acid powder additives with canola oil in a vortex generator. As a basis for comparison, lubricants of base canola oil and canola oil mixed with MoS(2) powder (ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm) were also prepared. Friction and wear experiments were carried out on the prepared lubricants using a pin-on-disc apparatus under ambient conditions. Based on the experiments, the nanoscale (20 nm) particle boric acid additive lubricants significantly outperformed all of the other lubricants with respect to frictional and wear performance. In fact, the nanoscale boric acid powder-based lubricants exhibited a wear rate more than an order of magnitude lower than the MoS(2) and larger sized boric acid additive-based lubricants. It was also discovered that the oil mixed with a combination of sub-micrometre- and micrometre-scale boric acid powder additives exhibited better friction and wear performance than the canola oil mixed with sub-micrometre- or micrometre-scale boric acid additives alone.

  5. Simple circuit performs binary addition and subtraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.; Schaefer, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    Ripple adder reduces the number of logic circuits required to preform binary addition and subtraction. The adder uses dual input and delayed output flip-flops in one register. The contents of this register are summed with those of a standard register through conventional AND/gates.

  6. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOEpatents

    Bellows, Richard J.; Kantner, Edward

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  7. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  8. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  9. Predicting the performance of batteries having paste additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.B.; Cantrell, R.L.; Dayton, T.C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses how models previously developed at the University of Idaho can be used to design high performance batteries containing paste additives. One model characterizes the conductivity of the active material. With this model, the influence of different additives, both conductive and nonconductive, on the capacity of paste containing these additives can be evaluated. The results of this analysis is then used in a second model to characterize the performance of cells. The models are used in the paper to help design and evaluate a battery for a hybrid electric vehicle. This design example illustrates how the models can be used to investigate unique designs for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  10. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, S. Lutz, C. Mitton, et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented.

  11. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  12. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  13. Software reliability: Additional investigations into modeling with replicated experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.; Schotz, F. M.; Skirvan, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of programmer experience level, different program usage distributions, and programming languages are explored. All these factors affect performance, and some tentative relational hypotheses are presented. An analytic framework for replicated and non-replicated (traditional) software experiments is presented. A method of obtaining an upper bound on the error rate of the next error is proposed. The method was validated empirically by comparing forecasts with actual data. In all 14 cases the bound exceeded the observed parameter, albeit somewhat conservatively. Two other forecasting methods are proposed and compared to observed results. Although demonstrated relative to this framework that stages are neither independent nor exponentially distributed, empirical estimates show that the exponential assumption is nearly valid for all but the extreme tails of the distribution. Except for the dependence in the stage probabilities, Cox's model approximates to a degree what is being observed.

  14. Metal-air cell with performance enhancing additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel

    2015-11-10

    Systems and methods drawn to an electrochemical cell comprising a low temperature ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions and a performance enhancing additive added to the low temperature ionic liquid. The additive dissolves in the ionic liquid to form cations, which are coordinated with one or more negative ions forming ion complexes. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. The ion complexes improve oxygen reduction thermodynamics and/or kinetics relative to the ionic liquid without the additive.

  15. Tough, high performance, addition-type thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A tough, high performance polyimide is provided by reacting a triple bond conjugated with an aromatic ring in a bisethynyl compound with the active double bond in a compound containing a double bond activated toward the formation of a Diels-Adler type adduct, especially a bismaleimide, a biscitraconimide, or a benzoquinone, or mixtures thereof. Addition curing of this product produces a high linear polymeric structure and heat treating the highly linear polymeric structure produces a thermally stable aromatic addition-type thermoplastic polyimide, which finds utility in the preparation of molding compounds, adhesive compositions, and polymer matrix composites.

  16. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  17. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke.

  18. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Note the high degree of similarity in performance between the two machines. Figure 2. Sample diode and x-ray... thermoluminescent dosimeters: (top to bottom) Armando, Step Wedge, Thermos, and All Shots. Data for Cygnus 1 (red circles), and Cygnus 2 (blue

  19. Kendall Square multiprocessor: Early experiences and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1992-04-01

    Initial performance results and early experiences are reported for the Kendall Square Research multiprocessor. The basic architecture of the shared-memory multiprocessor is described, and computational and I/O performance is measured for both serial and parallel programs. Experiences in porting various applications are described.

  20. Electrolysis Performance Improvement and Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Franz H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electrolysis performance improvement and validation experiment are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis: an ever increasing need/role for space missions; static feed electrolysis (SFE) technology: a concept developed for space applications; experiment objectives: why test in microgravity environment; and experiment description: approach, hardware description, test sequence and schedule.

  1. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  2. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation.

  3. Low-Temperature Additive Performance in Jet A Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    flowability -improving additive developed in the JP-8+100 LT program was studied for use in Jet A fuels. The results indicate that the LT additive does...improve the flowability of near specification maximum freeze point (FP) Jet A fuels (near -40 °C) when employed at a concentration of 2,000 mg/L to a... flowability equivalent to near specification maximum FP JP-8 fuels (near -47 °C). Viscosity measurements demonstrated that the LT additive

  4. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  5. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  6. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  7. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  8. 14 CFR 43.15 - Additional performance rules for inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.15 Additional... inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or Instructions for...

  9. The improvement of rechargeable lithium battery electrolyte performance with additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominey, L. A.; Goldman, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    The deliberate introduction of additives like 2-methylfuran (2-MeF) is known to improve Li cycleability in cyclic ether electrolytes. The authors found that the proclivity of 2-MeF to polymerize in the bulk electrolyte or on a TiS2 cathode was inhibited by the addition of reduced oxygen species, such as O2- and OH-. Additionally, the polymerization of tetrahydrofuran and dioxolane and the destructive processes initiated by AsF6- decomposition to AsF5 and AsF3 were inhibited by the introduction of reduced oxygen species, particularly OH- at the 10-ppm to 100-ppm level.

  10. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulzar, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Mufti, R. A.; Zahid, Rehan

    2016-08-01

    The prospect of modern tribology has been expanded with the advent of nanomaterial-based lubrication systems, whose development was facilitated by the nanotechnology in recent years. In literature, a variety of nanoparticles have been used as lubricant additives with potentially interesting friction and wear properties. To date, although there has been a great deal of experimental research on nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives, many aspects of their tribological behavior are yet to be fully understood. With growing number of possibilities, the key question is: what types of nanoparticles act as a better lubricating oil additive and why? To answer this question, this paper reviews main types of nanoparticles that have been used as lubricants additives and outlines the mechanisms by which they are currently believed to function. Significant aspects of their tribological behavior such as dispersion stability and morphology are also highlighted.

  11. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  12. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

  13. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  14. EP Additive Performance in Biobased vs. Paraffinic Base Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of commercial extreme pressure (EP) additives containing sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine were investigated for their EP properties in soybean (SBO) and paraffinic (PRFN) base oils. The investigations were conducted using a 4-ball (4B) and twist-compression (TC) tribometers. The concentra...

  15. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  16. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  17. Does performing drop jumps with additional eccentric loading improve jump performance?

    PubMed

    Aboodarda, Saied J; Byrne, Jeannette M; Samson, Michael; Wilson, Barry D; Mokhtar, Abdul H; Behm, David G

    2014-08-01

    Previous investigators have speculated that applying additional external load throughout the eccentric phase of the jumping movement could amplify the stretch-shortening cycle mechanism and modulate jumping performance and jump exercise intensity. The aims of this study, therefore, were to determine the effect of increased eccentric phase loading, as delivered using an elastic device, on drop jumps (DJs) performed from different drop heights. Of specific interest were changes in (a) the kinetics; eccentric and concentric impulse, rate of force development (RFD), concentric velocity and (b) the electromyographic (EMG) activity of leg muscles. In a randomized repeated-measure study, 15 highly resistance trained male subjects performed DJs from 3 heights (20, 35, and 50 cm) under 3 different conditions: body weight only (free DJ) and with elastic bands providing downward force equivalent to 20% (+20% DJ) and 30% (+30% DJ) of body mass. All DJs were recorded using video and force plate data that were synchronized with EMG data. Results demonstrated that using additional tensile load during the airborne and eccentric phases of the DJ could enhance eccentric impulse (p = 0.042) and RFD (p < 0.001) and resulted in small to moderate effect size (ES) increases in quadriceps intergrated EMG across the eccentric phase (0.23 > ES > 0.51). The observed greater eccentric loading, however, did not immediately alter concentric kinetics and jump height nor did it alter muscle activation levels during this phase. The findings indicated that, in addition to the conventional technique of increasing drop height, using a tensile load during the airborne and eccentric phases of the DJ could further improve eccentric loading of DJs. As it has been suggested that eccentric impulse and RFD are indicators of DJ exercise intensity, these findings suggest that the loaded DJs, using additional elastic load, may be an effective technique for improving DJ exercise intensity without acute effects

  18. Boosting the Performance of Ionic-Liquid-Based Supercapacitors with Polar Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kun; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-05

    Recent years have witnessed growing interests in both the fundamentals and applications of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), also known as supercapacitors. A number of strategies have been explored to optimize the device performance in terms of both the energy and power densities. Because the properties of electric double layers (EDL) are sensitive to ion distributions in the close vicinity of the electrode surfaces, the supercapacitor performance is sensitive to both the electrode pore structure and the electrolyte composition. In this paper, we study the effects of polar additives on EDLC capacitance using the classical density functional theory within the framework of a coarse-grained model for the microscopic structure of the porous electrodes and room-temperature ionic liquids. The theoretical results indicate that a highly polar, low-molecular-weight additive is able to drastically increase the EDLC capacitance at low bulk concentration. Additionally, the additive is able to dampen the oscillatory dependence of the capacitance on the pore size, thereby boosting the performance of amorphous electrode materials. Finally, the theoretical predictions are directly testable with experiments and provide new insights into the additive effects on EDL properties.

  19. Boosting the Performance of Ionic-Liquid-Based Supercapacitors with Polar Additives

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Kun; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-05

    Recent years have witnessed growing interests in both the fundamentals and applications of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), also known as supercapacitors. A number of strategies have been explored to optimize the device performance in terms of both the energy and power densities. Because the properties of electric double layers (EDL) are sensitive to ion distributions in the close vicinity of the electrode surfaces, the supercapacitor performance is sensitive to both the electrode pore structure and the electrolyte composition. In this paper, we study the effects of polar additives on EDLC capacitance using the classical density functional theory within themore » framework of a coarse-grained model for the microscopic structure of the porous electrodes and room-temperature ionic liquids. The theoretical results indicate that a highly polar, low-molecular-weight additive is able to drastically increase the EDLC capacitance at low bulk concentration. Additionally, the additive is able to dampen the oscillatory dependence of the capacitance on the pore size, thereby boosting the performance of amorphous electrode materials. Finally, the theoretical predictions are directly testable with experiments and provide new insights into the additive effects on EDL properties.« less

  20. Data Link Performance Analysis for LVLASO Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    1998-01-01

    Low-visibility Landing and Surface Operations System (LVLASO) is currently being prototyped and tested at NASA Langley Research Center. Since the main objective of the system is to maintain the aircraft landings and take-offs even during low-visibility conditions, timely exchange of positional and other information between the aircraft and the ground control is critical. For safety and reliability reasons, there are several redundant sources on the ground (e.g., ASDE, AMASS) that collect and disseminate information about the environment to the aircrafts. The data link subsystem of LVLASO is responsible for supporting the timely transfer of information between the aircrafts and the ground controllers. In fact, if not properly designed, the data link subsystem could become a bottleneck in the proper functioning of LVLASO. Currently, the other components of the system are being designed assuming that the data link has adequate capacity and is capable of delivering the information in a timely manner. During August 1-28, 1997, several flight experiments were conducted to test the prototypes of subsystems developed under LVLASO project, The back-round and details of the tests are described in the next section. The test results have been collected in two CDs by FAA and Rockwell-Collins. Under the current grant, we have analyzed the data and evaluated the performance of the Mode S datalink. In this report, we summarize the results of our analysis. Much of the results are shown in terms of graphs or histograms. The test date (or experiment number) was often taken as the X-axis and the Y-axis denotes whatever metric of focus in that chart. In interpreting these charts, one need to take into account the vehicular traffic during a particular experiment. In general, the performance of the data link was found to be quite satisfactory in terms of delivering long and short Mode S squitters from the vehicles to the ground receiver, Similarly, its performance in delivering control

  1. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  2. 20 CFR 666.110 - May a Governor require additional indicators of performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Governor require additional indicators... of Performance § 666.110 May a Governor require additional indicators of performance? Yes, Governors may develop additional indicators of performance for adults, youth and dislocated worker...

  3. 20 CFR 666.110 - May a Governor require additional indicators of performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Governor require additional indicators... of Performance § 666.110 May a Governor require additional indicators of performance? Yes, Governors may develop additional indicators of performance for adults, youth and dislocated worker...

  4. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  5. Active dentate granule cells encode experience to promote the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Gregory W; Shen, Jia; Tian, Mu; Schroeder, Bryce; Wang, Jia; Man, Guoming; Wu, Song; Ge, Shaoyu

    2017-04-03

    The continuous addition of new dentate granule cells, exquisitely regulated by brain activity, renders the hippocampus plastic. However, how neural circuits encode experiences to impact the addition of adult-born neurons remains unknown. Here, we used endoscopic Ca(2+) imaging to track the real-time activity of individual dentate granule cells in freely-behaving mice. For the first time, we found that active dentate granule cells responded to a novel experience by preferentially increasing their Ca(2+) event frequency. This elevated activity, which we found to be associated with object exploration, returned to baseline by one hour in the same environment, but could be dishabituated via introduction to a novel environment. To seamlessly transition between environments, we next established a freely-controllable virtual reality system for unrestrained mice. We again observed increased firing of active neurons in a virtual enriched environment. Interestingly, multiple novel virtual experiences accumulatively increased the number of newborn neurons when compared to a single experience. Finally, optogenetic silencing of existing dentate granule cells during novel environmental exploration perturbed experience-induced neuronal addition. Together, our study shows that the adult brain conveys novel, enriched experiences to increase the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons by increasing the firing of active dentate granule cells.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAdult brains are constantly reshaping themselves from synapses to circuits as we encounter novel experiences from moment to moment. Importantly, this reshaping includes the addition of newborn hippocampal neurons. However, it remains largely unknown how our circuits encode experience-induced brain activity to govern the addition of new hippocampal neurons. By coupling in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of dentate granule neurons with a novel unrestrained virtual reality system for rodents, we discovered that a new experience rapidly

  6. Response of non-added solutes during nutrient addition experiments in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Koenig, L.; Coble, A. A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient addition experiments, such as Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), have become widely popular as a means to study nutrient uptake dynamics in stream ecosystems. However, the impact of these additions on ambient concentrations of non-added solutes is often overlooked. TASCC addition experiments are ideal for assessing interactions among solutes because it allows for the characterization of multiple solute concentrations across a broad range of added nutrient concentrations. TASCC additions also require the addition of a conservative tracer (NaCl) to track changes in conductivity during the experimental manipulation. Despite its use as a conservative tracer, chloride (Cl) and its associated sodium (Na) might change the concentrations of other ions and non-added nutrients through ion exchange or other processes. Similarly, additions of biologically active solutes might change the concentrations of other non-added solutes. These methodological issues in nutrient addition experiments have been poorly addressed in the literature. Here we examine the response of non-added solutes to pulse additions (i.e. TASCC) of NaCl plus nitrate (NO3-), ammonium, and phosphate across biomes including temperate and tropical forests, and arctic taiga. Preliminary results demonstrate that non-added solutes respond to changes in the concentration of these added nutrients. For example, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in suburban headwater streams of New Hampshire both increase and decrease in response to NO3- additions, apparently due to biotic processes. Similarly, cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium also increase during TASCC experiments, likely due to cation exchange processes associated with Na addition. The response of non-added solutes to short-term pulses of added nutrients and tracers needs to be carefully assessed to ensure that nutrient uptake metrics are accurate, and to detect biotic interactions that may

  7. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  8. 20 CFR 666.110 - May a Governor require additional indicators of performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Governor require additional indicators of performance? 666.110 Section 666.110 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION..., Governors may develop additional indicators of performance for adults, youth and dislocated...

  9. Halogen occultation experiment (HALOE) performance verification test procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III

    1986-01-01

    The Performance Verification Test Procedure is given for the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument, which is being developed in house at the Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). This procedure is used for comprehensive performance testing of the HALOE instrument which occurs before, during, and after flight environmental tests. The radiometric performance tests include noise, drift, linearity, instantaneous field-of-view, cal wheel gas cell characterization, and self thermal emissions. Pointer/tracker performance tests include sun sensor performance, gimbal performance, control system performance, and boresight alignment. In addition, the instrument is tested functionally in simulated orbit sequences and all command operating modes are exercised. The data analysis required for each test is specified and pass/fail criteria are given where applicable. This test will fully demonstrate the HALOE instrument's ability to achieve science mission requirements. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that measures vertical distribution of eight upper atmospheric constituents: O3, HCl, HF, NO, CH4, H2O, NO2, and CO2.

  10. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  11. Performance of seedlings of a shade-tolerant tropical tree species after moderate addition of N and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárate Tandalla, Daisy; Leuschner, Christoph; Homeier, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition to tropical forests is predicted to increase in future in many regions due to agricultural intensification. We conducted a seedling transplantation experiment in a tropical premontane forest in Ecuador with a locally abundant late-successional tree species (Pouteria torta, Sapotaceae) aimed at detecting species-specific responses to moderate N and P addition and to understand how increasing nutrient availability will affect regeneration. From locally collected seeds, 320 seedlings were produced and transplanted to the plots of the Ecuadorian Nutrient Manipulation Experiment (NUMEX) with three treatments (moderate N addition: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1, moderate P addition: 10 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and combined N and P addition) and a control (80 plants per treatment). After 12 months, mortality, relative growth rate, leaf nutrient content and leaf herbivory rate were measured. N and NP addition significantly increased the mortality rate (70 % vs. 54 % in the control). However, N and P addition also increased the diameter growth rate of the surviving seedlings. N and P addition did not alter foliar nutrient concentrations and leaf N:P ratio, but N addition decreased the leaf C:N ratio and increased SLA. P addition (but not N addition) resulted in higher leaf area loss to herbivore consumption and also shifted carbon allocation to root growth. This fertilization experiment with a common rainforest tree species conducted in old-growth forest shows that already moderate doses of added N and P are affecting seedling performance which most likely will have consequences for the competitive strength in the understory and the recruitment success of P. torta. Simultaneous increases in growth, herbivory and mortality rates make it difficult to assess the species' overall performance and predict how a future increase in nutrient deposition will alter the abundance of this species in the Andean tropical montane forests.

  12. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when

  13. Operational experience with VAWT blades. [structural performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, W. N.

    1979-01-01

    The structural performance of 17 meter diameter wind turbine rotors is discussed. Test results for typical steady and vibratory stress measurements are summarized along with predicted values of stress based on a quasi-static finite element model.

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Experience factors in performing periodic physical evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. A.

    1969-01-01

    The lack of scientific basis in the so-called periodic health examinations on military personnel inclusive of the Executive Health Program is outlined. This latter program can well represent a management tool of the company involved in addition to being a status symbol. A multiphasic screening technique is proposed in conjunction with an automated medical history questionnaire for preventive occupational medicine methodology. The need to collate early sickness consultation or clinic visit histories with screening techniques is emphasized.

  16. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  17. Effect of Additives on Green Sand Molding Properties using Design of Experiments and Taguchi's Quality Loss Function - An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhagyashree; Mokashi, Pavani; Anand, R. L.; Burli, S. B.; Khandal, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental study aims to underseek the effect of various additives on the green sand molding properties as a particular combination of additives could yield desired sand properties. The input parameters (factors) selected were water and powder (Fly ash, Coconut shell and Tamarind) in three levels. Experiments were planned using design of experiments (DOE). On the basis of plans, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of sand mould properties such as compression strength, shear strength, permeability number with various additives. From the experimental results it could be concluded that the factors have significant effect on the sand properties as P-value found to be less than 0.05 for all the cases studied. The optimization based on quality loss function was also performed. The study revealed that the quality loss associated with the tamarind powder was lesser compared to other additives selected for the study. The optimization based on quality loss function and the parametric analysis using ANOVA suggested that the tamarind powder of 8 gm per Kg of molding sand and moisture content of 7% yield better properties to obtain sound castings.

  18. Performing quantum computing experiments in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum computing technology has reached a second renaissance in the past five years. Increased interest from both the private and public sector combined with extraordinary theoretical and experimental progress has solidified this technology as a major advancement in the 21st century. As anticipated my many, some of the first realizations of quantum computing technology has occured over the cloud, with users logging onto dedicated hardware over the classical internet. Recently, IBM has released the Quantum Experience, which allows users to access a five-qubit quantum processor. In this paper we take advantage of this online availability of actual quantum hardware and present four quantum information experiments. We utilize the IBM chip to realize protocols in quantum error correction, quantum arithmetic, quantum graph theory, and fault-tolerant quantum computation by accessing the device remotely through the cloud. While the results are subject to significant noise, the correct results are returned from the chip. This demonstrates the power of experimental groups opening up their technology to a wider audience and will hopefully allow for the next stage of development in quantum information technology.

  19. Experiment on laser performance of Alexandrite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG Shoudu; ZHANG Kemin

    1984-07-01

    The electron vibration laser output in Alexandrite crystals has been obtained. The free oscillation threshold is 170 J, the laser output energy is 140 mJ, and the center wavelength is 7526 A. The emission is linearly polarized in the crystallographic b direction and the laser performance improves at elevated temperatures. Using a quartz double-refraction filter as a tuning element, tunable emission has been observed at room temperature.

  20. Role of inorganic additives on the ballistic performance of gun propellant formulations.

    PubMed

    Damse, R S; Sikder, A K

    2008-06-15

    This paper explores the possibility of increasing the ballistic performance of gun propellant with the addition of inorganic additives viz. aluminium and ammonium perchlorate. Compositions based on propellant NQ containing additional aluminium and ammonium perchlorate in different parts were studied theoretically and experimentally. Performance in respect of ballistic parameters, sensitivity, thermal characteristics, thermal stability and mechanical properties are evaluated and compared with that of the conventional triple base propellant NQ. Experimental data on comparative study indicate that the compositions containing aluminium and ammonium perchlorate are superior to propellant NQ in respect of energy.

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as additional treatment in deep sternal wound infections – a single center's experience

    PubMed Central

    Bryndza, Magdalena; Chrapusta, Anna; Kobielska, Ewa; Kapelak, Bogusław; Grudzień, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is one of the most serious complications after cardiac surgery procedures, observed in 5% of patients. Current standard medical therapy for DSWI includes antibiotics, surgical debridement, resuturing or negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Unfortunately, in some cases these methods are insufficient, and additional therapeutic options are needed. Aim To assess the effects and usefulness of additional hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in patients with DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of 10 patients after cardiac surgery who developed DSWI in the period 2010–2012 was performed. After 3 months of ineffective conventional therapy including targeted antibiotic, surgical sternal debridement and NPWT, patients were qualified for additional HBO2 therapy. A total of 20 sessions of HBO2 therapy were performed, each 92 minutes long. Results After 4 weeks of HBO2 treatment, 7 patients presented complete wound healing with fibrous scar formation. One patient was qualified for the another cycle of HBO2 therapy with 20 additional sessions, and complete wound healing was observed. In 2 cases, after 5 and 19 sessions, HBO2 was interrupted because of improper qualifications. Conclusions The HBO2 as an additional therapy in DSWI was successful in 80% of cases, and no complications were observed. However, due to the small number of published studies with a small number of patients, randomized, clinical trials are needed to assess the clinical results of HBO2 in DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. PMID:27785131

  2. Enhanced electrochemical performance of monoclinic WO3 thin film with redox additive aqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Pragati A; Lokhande, Vaibhav C; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Ji, Taeksoo; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2016-12-01

    To achieve the highest electrochemical performance for supercapacitor, it is very essential to find out a suitable pair of an active electrode material and an electrolyte. In the present work, a simple approach is employed to enhance the supercapacitor performance of WO3 thin film. The WO3 thin film is prepared by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition method and its electrochemical performance is tested in conventional (H2SO4) and redox additive [H2SO4+hydroquinone (HQ)] electrolytes. Two-fold increment in electrochemical performance for WO3 thin film is observed in redox additive aqueous electrolyte compared to conventional electrolyte. WO3 thin film showed maximum specific capacitance of 725Fg(-1), energy density of 25.18Whkg(-1) at current density of 7mAcm(-2) with better cycling stability in redox electrolyte. This strategy provides the versatile way for designing the high performance energy storage devices.

  3. Impacts of Asian Dust and Haze Particles Addition on Phytoplankton in Incubation Experiments in the Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Y.; Shi, J.; Yao, X.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition (AD) induced by dust events and air pollutants has been considered as an important source of bio-available nutrients such as N, P, Si and trace metals (e.g., Fe, Cu, Pb) to the oceans. The coastal seas of China are severely affected by AD from Asian dust events and haze episodes, especially in spring and winter. In this study, several on-board incubation experiments were performed in the Yellow Sea of China during 2011 - 2014, to explore the responses of micro-, nano- and pico-phytoplankton to various combinations of Asian dust, nutrients and haze particles by measuring the size-fractionated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. In the experiments of Asian dust addition, the concentration of Chl a and the conversion efficiency index of N into Chl a increased by up to ~40 % and ~30 %, respectively, compared to the control, showing enhancement effects on the growth of phytoplankton. The addition of haze particles exhibited more obvious promotions of pico-phytoplankton growth, but more severe inhibitions of micro-phytoplankton growth than other treatments. The incubation experiments conducted in the Yellow Sea also indicated P limitation variations in spring and summer. It was inferred that both Asian dust and haze particles additions had significant impacts on the growth and structure of phytoplankton by modulating the limiting factors.

  4. Goodness-of-fit methods for additive-risk models in tumorigenicity experiments.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis

    2003-09-01

    In tumorigenicity experiments, a complication is that the time to event is generally not observed, so that the time to tumor is subject to interval censoring. One of the goals in these studies is to properly model the effect of dose on risk. Thus, it is important to have goodness of fit procedures available for assessing the model fit. While several estimation procedures have been developed for current-status data, relatively little work has been done on model-checking techniques. In this article, we propose numerical and graphical methods for the analysis of current-status data using the additive-risk model, primarily focusing on the situation where the monitoring times are dependent. The finite-sample properties of the proposed methodology are examined through numerical studies. The methods are then illustrated with data from a tumorigenicity experiment.

  5. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  6. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; /SUNY, Albany /Alberta U. /Ankara U. /Annecy, LAPP /Argonne /Arizona U. /Texas U., Arlington /Athens U. /Natl. Tech. U., Athens /Baku, Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /Belgrade U. /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /Humboldt U., Berlin /Bern U., LHEP /Birmingham U. /Bogazici U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U.

    2011-11-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 [1]. A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in [2]. The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed [3]. An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response. A variety of event generators were employed. The simulation and reconstruction of these large event samples thus provided an important operational test of the new ATLAS software system. In addition, the processing was distributed world-wide over the ATLAS Grid facilities and hence provided an important test of the ATLAS computing system - this is the origin of

  7. Why scientists perform animal experiments, scientific or personal aim?

    PubMed Central

    Mayir, Burhan; Doğan, Uğur; Bilecik, Tuna; Yardımcı, Erdem Can; Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Mayir, Yeliz Akpınar; Oruç, Mehmet Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although all animal studies are conducted in line with a specific purpose, we think that not all animal studies are performed for a scientific purpose but for personal curiosity or to fulfill a requirement. The aim of the present study is to reveal the purposes of experimental studies conducted on animals. Matherial and Methods We searched for experimental studies performed on rats in general surgery clinics via PubMed, and obtained the e-mail addresses of the corresponding authors for each study. Afterwards, we sent a 7-item questionnaire to the authors and awaited their responses. Results Seventy-three (22.2%) of 329 authors responded to the questionnaire. Within these studies, 31 (42.5%) were conducted as part of a dissertation, while the remaining 19 (26.0%) were conducted to meet the academic promotion criteria. Only 23 (31.5%) were conducted for scientific purposes. The cost of 41% of those studies was higher than 2500 $. Conclusion As shown in this study, the main objective of carrying out animal studies in Turkey is usually to prepare a dissertation or to be entitled to academic promotion. Animal experiments must be planned and performed as scientific studies to support related clinical studies. Additionally, animal studies must have well-defined objectives and be carried out in line with scientific purposes that may lead to useful developments in medicine, rather than personal interests. PMID:28149122

  8. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix G: Experiment M552 exothermic brazing (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, O. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M552, Exothermic Brazing (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  9. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix P: Experiment T003 inflight aerosol analysis (DOT/MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purushotham, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A series of analyses is presented for experiment T003, inflight aerosol analysis, to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  10. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix F: Experiment M551 Metals melting (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M551 Metals Melting (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  11. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix H: Experiment M553 sphere forming (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, O. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M553 Sphere Forming (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  12. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix N: Experiment S183 ultraviolet panorama (MSFC), revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purushotham, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A series is presented of analyses for Experiment S183, Ultraviolet Panorama (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  13. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix R: Experiment T020 foot controlled maneuvering unit (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonetti, B. B.

    1972-01-01

    A series of analyses for experiment T020, foot controlled maneuvering unit (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight and post-flight conditions is reported. Experiment contingency plan procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  14. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix S: Experiment T027 contamination measurement sample array (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonetti, B. B.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment T027, Contamination Measurement Sample Array (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corrollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  15. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix E: Experiment M512 Materials processing facility (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, O. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M512, Materials Processing Facility (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  16. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix K: Experiment S009 nuclear emulsion (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A series of analyses are presented for Experiment S009, nuclear emulsion (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and postflight conditions. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are included in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  17. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  18. Testcross additive and dominance effects in best linear unbiased prediction of maize single-cross performance.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, R

    1996-11-01

    Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) has been found to be useful in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. The advantage of including both testcross additive and dominance effects (Intralocus Model) in BLUP, rather than only testcross additive effects (Additive Model), has not been clearly demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare the usefulness of Intralocus and Additive Models for BLUP of maize single-cross performance. Multilocation data from 1990 to 1995 were obtained from the hybrid testing program of Limagrain Genetics. Grain yield, moisture, stalk lodging, and root lodging of untested single crosses were predicted from (1) the performance of tested single crosses and (2) known genetic relationships among the parental inbreds. Correlations between predicted and observed performance were obtained with a delete-one cross-validation procedure. For the Intralocus Model, the correlations ranged from 0.50 to 0.66 for yield, 0.88 to 0.94 for moisture, 0.47 to 0.69 for stalk lodging, and 0.31 to 0.45 for root lodging. The BLUP procedure was consistently more effective with the Intralocus Model than with the Additive Model. When the Additive Model was used instead of the Intralocus Model, the reductions in the correlation were largest for root lodging (0.06-0.35), smallest for moisture (0.00-0.02), and intermediate for yield (0.02-0.06) and stalk lodging (0.02-0.08). The ratio of dominance variance (v D) to total genetic variance (v G) was highest for root lodging (0.47) and lowest for moisture (0.10). The Additive Model may be used if prior information indicates that VD for a given trait has little contribution to VG. Otherwise, the continued use of the Intralocus Model for BLUP of single-cross performance is recommended.

  19. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Armijo, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    A continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS2 electrochemical couple is reported. The results relate to the long shelf life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10(-7) w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. Conclusions relevant to long term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi2 additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  20. Group Performance Under Experienced and Inexperienced Leaders; A Validation Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Fred E.; Chemers, Martin M.

    This study investigated the effect of experience and training on the performance of Belgian naval officers in an experimental leadership situation. As in a previous study conducted with Belgian naval personnel, group performance under trained and experienced officers was not significantly better than performance under untrained recruits. Moreover,…

  1. Performance on Addition and Subtraction Problems: Results from Individual Interviews - Sandy Bay Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to relate children's cognitive processing capabilities and their grade level to their performance and to the strategies they used when working addition and subtraction problems. From two sets of data which assessed memory capacity and cognitive processing capacities, six groups of children with different cognitive…

  2. Strategies and Performance in Elementary Students' Three-Digit Mental Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csíkos, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this study is the relationship between students' performance in mental calculation and the strategies they use when solving three-digit mental addition problems. The sample comprises 78 4th grade students (40 boys and 38 girls). Their mean age was 10 years and 4 months. The main novelties of the current research include (1)…

  3. Alkyl Pyrocarbonate Electrolyte Additives for Performance Enhancement of Li Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are being developed for various aerospace applications under a NASA-DoD Interagency program. These applications require further improvements in several areas, specifically in the cycle life for LEO and GEO satellites and in the low temperature performance for the Mars Lander and Rover missions. Accordingly, we have been pursuing research studies to achieve improvement in the low temperature performance, long cycle life and active life of Li ion cells. The studies are mainly focused on electrolytes, to identify newer formulations of new electrolyte additives to enhance Li permeability (at low temperatures) and stability towards the electrode. The latter approach is particularly aimed at the formation suitable SEI (solid electrolyte interphase) on carbon electrodes. In this paper, we report the beneficial effect of using alkyl pyrocarbonates as electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of Li ion cells.

  4. Evaluating mixtures of 14 hygroscopic additives to improve antibody microarray performance.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Sébastien; Laforte, Veronique; Lo, Pik-Shan; Li, Huiyan; Juncker, David

    2015-11-01

    Microarrays allow the miniaturization and multiplexing of biological assays while only requiring minute amounts of samples. As a consequence of the small volumes used for spotting and the assays, evaporation often deteriorates the quality, reproducibility of spots, and the overall assay performance. Glycerol is commonly added to antibody microarray printing buffers to decrease evaporation; however, it often decreases the binding of antibodies to the surface, thereby negatively affecting assay sensitivity. Here, combinations of 14 hygroscopic chemicals were used as additives to printing buffers for contact-printed antibody microarrays on four different surface chemistries. The ability of the additives to suppress evaporation was quantified by measuring the residual buffer volume in open quill pins over time. The seven best additives were then printed either individually or as a 1:1 mixture of two additives, and the homogeneity, intensity, and reproducibility of both the spotted protein and of a fluorescently labeled analyte in an assay were quantified. Among the 28 combinations on the four slides, many were found to outperform glycerol, and the best additive mixtures were further evaluated by changing the ratio of the two additives. We observed that the optimal additive mixture was dependent on the slide chemistry, and that it was possible to increase the binding of antibodies to the surface threefold compared to 50 % glycerol, while decreasing whole-slide coefficient of variation to 5.9 %. For the two best slides, improvements were made for both the limit of detection (1.6× and 5.9×, respectively) and the quantification range (1.2× and 2.1×, respectively). The additive mixtures identified here thus help improve assay reproducibility and performance, and might be beneficial to all types of microarrays that suffer from evaporation of the printing buffers.

  5. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH(4)(+)-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  6. Influence of electrolyte co-additives on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The presence of specific chemical additives in the redox electrolyte results in an efficient increase of the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The most effective additives are 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP), N-methylbenzimidazole (NMBI) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GuNCS) that are adsorbed onto the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface, thus shifting the semiconductor's conduction band edge and preventing recombination with triiodides. In a comparative work, we investigated in detail the action of TBP and NMBI additives in ionic liquid-based redox electrolytes with varying iodine concentrations, in order to extract the optimum additive/I2 ratio for each system. Different optimum additive/I2 ratios were determined for TBP and NMBI, despite the fact that both generally work in a similar way. Further addition of GuNCS in the optimized electrolytic media causes significant synergistic effects, the action of GuNCS being strongly influenced by the nature of the corresponding co-additive. Under the best operation conditions, power conversion efficiencies as high as 8% were obtained. PMID:21711833

  7. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Chen Guang; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2014-09-01

    In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR), Common Structural Rules (CSR), and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH) are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS), and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM). To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane as a Macromolecular Additive for Enhanced Performance of Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Mei, Jianguo; Stalder, Romain; Shim, Jae Won; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Steffy, Fred; So, Franky; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the macromolecular additive, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), on the performance of solution processed molecular bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated, and the addition of PDMS is shown to improve device power conversion efficiency by ~70% and significantly reduce cell-to-cell variation, from a power conversion efficiency of 1.25 ± 0.37% with no PDMS to 2.16 ± 0.09% upon the addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS to the casting solution. The cells are based on a thiophene and isoindigo containing oligomer as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as the electron acceptor. PDMS is shown to have a strong influence on film morphology, with a significant decrease in film roughness and feature size observed. The morphology change leads to improved performance parameters, most notably an increase in the short circuit current density from 4.3 to 6.8 mA/cm2 upon addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS. The use of PDMS is of particular interest, as this additive appears frequently as a lubricant in plastic syringes commonly used in device fabrication; therefore, PDMS may unintentionally be incorporated into device active layers.

  9. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  10. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-08-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.

  11. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  12. Antisolvent precipitation of novel xylitol-additive crystals to engineer tablets with improved pharmaceutical performance.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this work was to develop stable xylitol particles with modified physical properties, improved compactibility and enhanced pharmaceutical performance without altering polymorphic form of xylitol. Xylitol was crystallized using antisolvent crystallization technique in the presence of various hydrophilic polymer additives, i.e., polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a range of concentrations. The crystallization process did not influence the stable polymorphic form or true density of xylitol. However, botryoidal-shaped crystallized xylitols demonstrated different particle morphologies and lower powder bulk and tap densities in comparison to subangular-shaped commercial xylitol. Xylitol crystallized without additive and xylitol crystallized in the presence of PVP or PVA demonstrated significant improvement in hardness of directly compressed tablets; however, such improvement was observed to lesser extent for xylitol crystallized in the presence of PEG. Crystallized xylitols produced enhanced dissolution profiles for indomethacin in comparison to original xylitol. The influence of additive concentration on tablet hardness was dependent on the type of additive, whereas an increased concentration of all additives provided an improvement in the dissolution behavior of indomethacin. Antisolvent crystallization using judiciously selected type and concentration of additive can be a potential approach to prepare xylitol powders with promising physicomechanical and pharmaceutical properties.

  13. Improving Remedial Planning Performance: The Rattlesnake Creek Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, C.R.; Spector, H.L.; Andrews, S.M.; Durham, L. A.; Johnson, R. L.; Racino, R. R.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Buffalo District, has responsibility for characterizing and remediating radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Most of these FUSRAP sites include radionuclide contamination in soils where excavation and offsite disposal is the selected remedial action. For many FUSRAP soil remediation projects completed to date, the excavated contaminated soil volumes have significantly exceeded the pre-excavation volume estimates that were developed for project planning purposes. The exceedances are often attributed to limited and sparse datasets that are used to calculate the initial volume estimates. These volume exceedances complicate project budgeting and planning. Building on these experiences, the USACE took a different approach in the remediation of Rattlesnake Creek, located adjacent to the Ashland 2 site, in Tonawanda, New York. This approach included a more extensive pre-design data collection effort to improve and reduce the uncertainty in the pre-excavation volume estimates, in addition to formalizing final status survey data collection strategies prior to excavation. The final status survey sampling was fully integrated with the pre-design data collection, allowing dual use of the pre-design data that was collected (i.e., using the data to close out areas where contamination was not found, and feeding the data into volume estimates when contamination was encountered). The use of real-time measurement techniques (e.g., X-ray fluorescence [XRF] and gamma walkover surveys) during pre-excavation data collection allowed the USACE to identify and respond to unexpected contamination by allocating additional data collection to characterizing new areas of concern. The final result was an estimated soil volume and excavation footprint with a firm technical foundation and a reduction in uncertainty. However, even with extensive pre-design data collection, additional

  14. Effect of additive on alfalfa silage fermentation characteristics and feedlot performance of steers.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L; Britton, R A; Krause, V E; Pankaskie, D E

    1985-07-01

    In each of two trials four large plastic bags were filled with approximately 72 mt of first cutting, early bloom alfalfa (35% dry matter). Fresh alfalfa in two bags was treated with .5 kg/metric ton of a commercial silage additive (Silo-Best). Two bags were left untreated. When compared with steers fed untreated alfalfa silage, weight gains, intakes, and feed efficiencies were not significantly (P greater than .05) altered for steers fed treated silage. However, laboratory analysis showed silage treatment increased in vitro dry matter digestibility (57.0 versus 60.6%) and decreased silage pH (4.98 versus 4.83). Concentrations of propionic and butyric acid were decreased by the additive. Data suggest that anaerobic fermentation was enhanced with the additive. Slight but significant improvements of silage in vitro dry matter digestibility, obtained by treating alfalfa silage with the inoculant-type preservative, did not result in improved performance in feeding trials.

  15. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg-1 phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level. PMID:25610580

  16. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen.

    PubMed

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg(-1) phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level.

  17. Experimental investigations of the hydrogen addition effects on diesel engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, A.; Nutu, C.

    2016-08-01

    In the global content regarding the impact on the environmental of the gases emissions resulted from the fossil fuels combustion, an interest aspect discussed on the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties from the 2015 Paris Climate Conference and the gradual diminution of the worldwide oil reserves contribute to the necessity of searching of alternative energy from durable and renewable resources. At the use of hydrogen as addition in air to diesel engine, the level of CO, HC and smoke from the exhaust gases will decrease due to the improvement of the combustion process. At low and medium partial loads and low hydrogen energetic ratios used the NOX emission level can decrease comparative to classic diesel engine. The hydrogen use as fuel for diesel engine leads to the improving of the energetic and emissions performance of the engine due to combustion improvement and reduction of carbon content. The paper presents, in a comparative way, results of the experimental researches carried on a truck compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel fuel and with hydrogen diesel fuel and hydrogen as addition in air at different engine operation regimes. The results obtained during experimental investigations show better energetic and pollution performance of the engine fuelled with hydrogen as addition in air comparative to classic engine. The influences of hydrogen addition on engine operation are shown.

  18. Improved performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cell through additional Tween 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Qing; Kong, Fanying; Ma, Fang; Ren, Yueming; Pan, Zhongcheng

    The ability of electron transfer from microbe cell to anode electrode plays a key role in microbial fuel cell (MFC). This study explores a new approach to improve the MFC performance and electron transfer rate through addition of Tween 80. Results demonstrate that, for an air-cathode MFC operating on 1 g L -1 glucose, when the addition of Tween 80 increases from 0 to 80 mg L -1, the maximum power density increases from 21.5 to 187 W m -3 (0.6-5.2 W m -2), the corresponding current density increases from 1.8 to 17 A m -2, and the resistance of MFC decreases from 27.0 to 5.7 Ω. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis suggests that the improvement of overall performance of the MFC can be attributed to the addition of Tween 80. The high power density achieved here may be due to the increase of permeability of cell membranes by addition of Tween 80, which reduces the electron transfer resistance through the cell membrane and increases the electron transfer rate and number, consequently enhances the current and power output. A promising way of utilizing surfactant to improve energy generation of MFC is demonstrated.

  19. Deconstructing Global Markets through Critical Performative Experiences in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Carmen Liliana; Weltsek, Gustave J.

    2013-01-01

    Critical Performative Pedagogies, the idea that "The nature of drama as a once removed creative experience turns non-critical implicit classroom identity formation into explicit identity performance as it asks participants to actively reflect upon how identity is created and engaged within fictional social interactions." (Weltsek and…

  20. Sources of Bias in Performance Evaluation: Two Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jack M.; Hilterman, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Reports two experiments designed to determine if (1) low-performing blacks would be evaluated lower than comparable whites while high-performing blacks would be rated higher than white counterparts, and (2) perceived social class, not race, would be the relevant variable in the operation of the stereotype confirmation - contrast process. Available…

  1. Performance of automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, A. Murat; Altınok, Özgür

    2015-12-01

    The impressive improvements in scanning technology and methods let nuclear emulsion to be used as a target in recent large experiments. We report the performance of an automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments. After successful calibration and alignment of the system, we have reached 99% tracking efficiency for the minimum ionizing tracks that penetrating through the emulsions films. The automatic scanning system is successfully used for the scanning of emulsion films in the OPERA experiment and plan to use for the next generation of nuclear emulsion experiments.

  2. Performance of automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Güler, A. Murat; Altınok, Özgür

    2015-12-31

    The impressive improvements in scanning technology and methods let nuclear emulsion to be used as a target in recent large experiments. We report the performance of an automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments. After successful calibration and alignment of the system, we have reached 99% tracking efficiency for the minimum ionizing tracks that penetrating through the emulsions films. The automatic scanning system is successfully used for the scanning of emulsion films in the OPERA experiment and plan to use for the next generation of nuclear emulsion experiments.

  3. Influence of supplemental heat addition on performance of pilot-scale bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin; Narbaitz, Roberto; Warith, Mostafa; Sartaj, Majid

    2014-02-01

    Implementation of supplemental heat addition as a means of improving bioreactor landfill performance was investigated. The experimental work was conducted with two pilot-scale bioreactor setups (control cell and heated cell) operated for 280 days. Supplemental heat was introduced by recirculating leachate heated up to 35 °C compared to the control which used similar quantities of leachate at room temperature (21 ± 1 °C). The temporal and spatial effects of recirculating heated leachate on the landfill internal temperature were determined, and performance was assessed in terms of leachate parameters and biogas production. Recirculation of heated leachate helped establish balanced anaerobic microbial consortia that led to earlier (70 days) and greater (1.4-fold) organic matter degradation rates, as well as threefold higher methane production compared to the non-heated control. Despite the significant enhancements in performance resulting from supplemental heat addition, heated leachate recirculation did not significantly impact waste temperatures, and the effects were mainly restricted to short periods after recirculation and mostly at the upper layers of the waste. These findings suggest that improvements in bioreactor landfill performance may be achieved without increasing the temperature of the whole in-place waste, but rather more economically by raising the temperature at the leachate/waste interface which is also exposed to the maximum moisture levels within the waste matrix.

  4. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  5. Synergistic Enhancement of Cellobiohydrolase Performance on Pretreated Corn Stover by Addition of Xylanase and Esterase Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. J.; Knoshaug E. P.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2007-11-01

    Significant increases in the depolymerization of corn stover cellulose by cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei were observed using small quantities of non-cellulolytic cell wall-degrading enzymes. Purified endoxylanase (XynA), ferulic acid esterase (FaeA), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe1) all enhanced Cel7A performance on corn stover subjected to hot water pretreatment. In all cases, the addition of these activities improved the effectiveness of the enzymatic hydrolysis in terms of the quantity of cellulose converted per milligram of total protein. Improvement in cellobiose release by the addition of the non-cellulolytic enzymes ranged from a 13-84% increase over Cel7A alone. The most effective combinations included the addition of both XynA and Axe1, which synergistically enhance xylan conversions resulting in additional synergistic improvements in glucan conversion. Additionally, we note a direct relationship between enzymatic xylan removal in the presence of XynA and the enhancement of cellulose hydrolysis by Cel7A.

  6. Effects of NaOH addition on performance of the direct hydrazine fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wen Xia; Li, Zhou Peng; Zhu, Jing Ke; Qin, Hai Ying

    In this work, we suggested a figuration of the direct hydrazine fuel cell (DHFC) using non-precious metals as the anode catalyst, ion exchange membranes as the electrolyte and alkaline hydrazine solutions as the fuel. NaOH addition in the anolyte effectively improved the open circuit voltage and the performance of the DHFC. A power density of 84 mW cm -2 has been achieved when operating the cell at room temperature. It was found that the cell performance was mainly influenced by anode polarization when using alkaline N 2H 4 solutions with low NaOH concentrations. However, when using alkaline N 2H 4 solutions with high NaOH concentrations as the fuel, the cell performance was mainly influenced by cathode polarization.

  7. Calcium nitrate addition to control the internal load of phosphorus from sediments of a tropical eutrophic reservoir: microcosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T M; Sueitt, A P E; Beraldo, D A S; Botta, C M R; Fadini, P S; Nascimento, M R L; Faria, B M; Mozeto, A A

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to perform laboratory experiments on calcium nitrate addition to sediments of a tropical eutrophic urban reservoir (Ibirité reservoir, SE Brazil) to immobilize the reactive soluble phosphorus (RSP) and to evaluate possible geochemical changes and toxic effects caused by this treatment. Reductions of 75 and 89% in the concentration of RSP were observed in the water column and interstitial water, respectively, after 145 days of nitrate addition. The nitrate application increased the rate of autotrophic denitrification, causing a consumption of 98% of the added nitrate and oxidation of 99% of the acid volatile sulfide. As a consequence, there were increases in the sulfate and iron (II) concentrations in the sediment interstitial water and water column, as well as changes in the copper speciation in the sediments. Toxicity tests initially indicated that the high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in the sediment interstitial water (up to 2300 mg L(-1) and 260 mg L(-1), respectively) were the major cause of mortality of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Chironomus xanthus. However, at the end of the experiment, the sediment toxicity was completely removed and a reduction in the 48 h-EC50 of the water was also observed. Based on these results we can say that calcium nitrate treatment proved to be a valuable tool in remediation of eutrophic aquatic ecosystems leading to conditions that can support a great diversity of organisms after a restoration period.

  8. Performance of TOF-RPC for the BGOegg experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, N.; Tran, N.; Niiyama, M.; Ohnishi, H.; Muramatsu, N.

    2016-11-01

    We constructed a new time-of-flight (TOF) detector consisting of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) to measure particle energy in the BGOegg experiment. The BGOegg-RPC has a unique feature which enables us to cover a large area with a small number of readout channels. For this purpose, we developed the RPC with a strip size of 2.5 cm × 100 cm. The BGOegg-RPC covers an area of 320 cm × 200 cm with only 256 channels of readout electronics. In case of large readout RPCs, an originated signal is distorted and dispersed during propagation. In addition, there happens a signal reflection at the end of the strip. Although we designed the BGOegg-RPC and front-end electronics with minimized signal reflection, a small reflection still remained, deteriorating the resulting time resolution. After establishing calibration and correction methods to improve the performance of the BGOegg-RPC, we obtained the time resolution of σ ~ 60 ps around the central region of strips.

  9. High Performance Storage System Scalability: Architecture, Implementation, and Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R W

    2005-01-05

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) provides scalable hierarchical storage management (HSM), archive, and file system services. Its design, implementation and current dominant use are focused on HSM and archive services. It is also a general-purpose, global, shared, parallel file system, potentially useful in other application domains. When HPSS design and implementation began over a decade ago, scientific computing power and storage capabilities at a site, such as a DOE national laboratory, was measured in a few 10s of gigaops, data archived in HSMs in a few 10s of terabytes at most, data throughput rates to an HSM in a few megabytes/s, and daily throughput with the HSM in a few gigabytes/day. At that time, the DOE national laboratories and IBM HPSS design team recognized that we were headed for a data storage explosion driven by computing power rising to teraops/petaops requiring data stored in HSMs to rise to petabytes and beyond, data transfer rates with the HSM to rise to gigabytes/s and higher, and daily throughput with a HSM in 10s of terabytes/day. This paper discusses HPSS architectural, implementation and deployment experiences that contributed to its success in meeting the above orders of magnitude scaling targets. We also discuss areas that need additional attention as we continue significant scaling into the future.

  10. Evaluation of performance of select fusion experiments and projected reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of NASA Lewis fusion experiments (SUMMA and Bumpy Torus) is compared with other experiments and that necessary for a power reactor. Key parameters cited are gain (fusion power/input power) and the time average fusion power, both of which may be more significant for real fusion reactors than the commonly used Lawson parameter. The NASA devices are over 10 orders of magnitude below the required powerplant values in both gain and time average power. The best experiments elsewhere are also as much as 4 to 5 orders of magnitude low. However, the NASA experiments compare favorably with other alternate approaches that have received less funding than the mainline experiments. The steady-state character and efficiency of plasma heating are strong advantages of the NASA approach. The problem, though, is to move ahead to experiments of sufficient size to advance in gain and average power parameters.

  11. Improvement of capacitive performances of symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitors by addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaddad, L.; Gamby, J.; Makhloufi, L.; Pailleret, A.; Pillier, F.; Takenouti, H.

    2016-03-01

    A nanostructured polypyrrole powder was synthesized in a previous work from the oxidation of pyrrole by a nanostructured MnO2 powder used simultaneously as an oxidizing agent and a sacrificial template in a redox heterogeneous mechanism. In this study, this original PPy powder was used as an active additive material with different ratio in carbon/carbon symmetrical supercapacitors whose performances were studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a Swagelok-type cell. From the EIS spectra, the complex capacitance was extracted using a model involving two Cole-Cole type complex capacitances linked in series. The specific capacitance values evaluated by EIS and cyclic voltammetry are in a good agreement between them. The results show that the addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder improves significantly the specific capacitance of the carbon electrode and consequently the performances of carbon/carbon supercapacitors. The original and versatile synthesis method used to produce this polypyrrole powder appears to be attractive for large scale production of promising additives for electrode materials of supercapacitors.

  12. Comparison of the tribology performance of nano-diesel soot and graphite particles as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zu-chuan; Cai, Zhen-bing; Peng, Jin-fang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-02-01

    The tribology behavior of exhaust diesel soot as a lubricant additive was investigated and then compared with that of a selection of commercial nano-graphite particles. Specifically, 0.01 wt% particles were dispersed in PAO4 oil with 1 wt% sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) as a dispersing agent, and wear tests based on the ball against plate mode were conducted at various temperatures. Different analytical techniques (e.g. transmission electron, scanning electron and infrared microscopy; energy dispersive x-ray and Raman spectroscopy; and charge measurement) were employed to characterize the chemistry and morphology of the additives and their tribology performance. The oil containing only 0.01 wt% diesel soot clearly improved wear resistance over 60 °C. In particular, at 100 °C the wear rate decreased by approximately 90% compared to the function of base oil. In the same test conditions, diesel soot exhibited better anti-wear performance than nano-graphite at high temperatures. The potential measure showed that the nano-graphite had positive charge and the diesel soot had negative charge. Electrochemical action may play an important role in the lubricant mechanisms of diesel soot and graphite as oil additives.

  13. An experiment in software reliability: Additional analyses using data from automated replications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Janet R.; Lauterbach, Linda A.

    1988-01-01

    A study undertaken to collect software error data of laboratory quality for use in the development of credible methods for predicting the reliability of software used in life-critical applications is summarized. The software error data reported were acquired through automated repetitive run testing of three independent implementations of a launch interceptor condition module of a radar tracking problem. The results are based on 100 test applications to accumulate a sufficient sample size for error rate estimation. The data collected is used to confirm the results of two Boeing studies reported in NASA-CR-165836 Software Reliability: Repetitive Run Experimentation and Modeling, and NASA-CR-172378 Software Reliability: Additional Investigations into Modeling With Replicated Experiments, respectively. That is, the results confirm the log-linear pattern of software error rates and reject the hypothesis of equal error rates per individual fault. This rejection casts doubt on the assumption that the program's failure rate is a constant multiple of the number of residual bugs; an assumption which underlies some of the current models of software reliability. data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults.

  14. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    PubMed

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers.

  15. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  16. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    SciTech Connect

    Robaeys, Pieter Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bourgeois, Emilie; D'Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos; Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank; Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C.

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  17. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Papastergiou, C.

    1992-12-31

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  18. Greek research reactor performance characteristics after addition of beryllium reflector and LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L. ); Papastergiou, C. )

    1992-01-01

    The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed.

  19. A Method to Evaluate Additional Waste Forms to Optimize Performance of the HLW Repository

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gombert; L. Lauerhass

    2006-02-01

    The DOE high-level waste (HLW) disposal system is based on decisions made in the 1970s. The de facto Yucca Mountain WAC for HLW, contained in the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), and the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) tentatively describes waste forms to be interred in the repository, and limits them to borosilicate glass (BSG). It is known that many developed waste forms are as durable as or better than environmental assessment or “EA”-glass. Among them are the salt-ceramic and metallic waste forms developed at ANL-W. Also, iron phosphate glasses developed at University of Missouri show promise in stabilizing the most refractory materials in Hanford HLW. However, for any of this science to contribute, the current Total System Performance Assessment model must be able to evaluate the additional waste form to determine potential impacts on repository performance. The results can then support the technical bases required in the repository license application. A methodology is proposed to use existing analysis models to evaluate potential additional waste forms for disposal without gathering costly material specific degradation data. The concept is to analyze the potential impacts of waste form chemical makeup on repository performance assuming instantaneous waste matrix dissolution. This assumption obviates the need for material specific degradation models and is based on the relatively modest fractional contribution DOE HLW makes to the repository radionuclide and hazardous metals inventory. The existing analysis models, with appropriate data modifications, are used to evaluate geochemical interactions and material transport through the repository. This methodology would support early screening of proposed waste forms through simplified evaluation of disposal performance, and would provide preliminary guidance for repository license amendment in the future.

  20. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  1. A Youth Performing Arts Experience: Psychological Experiences, Recollections, and the Desire to Do It Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trayes, Jan; Harre, Niki; Overall, Nickola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stage Challenge is a performing arts competition for New Zealand secondary schools. This longitudinal study used observations, repeated questionnaires, informal conversations, and a graffiti board to follow the 5-month experience of a student-led girls' team aged 10 to 17 years (n = 103). The focus was on the quality of their experience and what…

  2. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Tank, Jennifer; Sobota, Daniel; O'Brien, Jon; Webster, Jackson; Valett, H. Maurice; Dodds, Walter; Poole, Geoff; Peterson, Chris G.; Meyer, Judy; McDowell, William; Johnson, Sherri; Hamilton, Stephen; Gregory, Stanley; Grimm, Nancy; Dahm, Cliff; Cooper, Lee W; Ashkenas, Linda; Thomas, Suzanne; Sheibley, Rich; Potter, Jody; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Johnson, Laura; Helton, Ashley; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Burgin, Amy; Bernot, Melody; Beaulieu, Jake; Arango, Clay

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S{sub Wtot}). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Gross primary production shortened S{sub Wtot}, while increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} lengthened S{sub Wtot} resulting in no net effect of land use on NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal.

  3. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.O.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  4. Early experiences and performance of the Intel Paragon

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1994-08-01

    Experiences and performance figures are reported from early tests of the 512-node Intel Paragon XPS35 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Computation performance of the 50 MHz i860XP processor as well as communication performance of the 200 megabyte/second mesh are reported and compared with other multiprocessors. Single and multiple hop communication bandwidths and latencies are measured. Concurrent communication speeds and speed under network load are also measured. File I/O performance of the mesh-attached Parallel File System is measured. Early experiences with OSF/Mach and SUNMOS operating systems are reported, as well results from porting various distributed-memory applications. This report also summarizes the second phase of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Intel in evaluating a 66-node Intel Paragon XPS5.

  5. Early User Experience with BISON Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez

    2012-08-01

    Three Fuel Modeling Exercise II (FUMEX II) LWR fuel irradiation experiments were simulated and analyzed using the fuel performance code BISON to demonstrate code utility for modeling of the LWR fuel performance. Comparisons were made against the BISON results and the experimental data for the three assessment cases. The assessment cases reported within this report include IFA-597.3 Rod 8, Riso AN3 and Riso AN4.

  6. Big area additive manufacturing of high performance bonded NdFeB magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-10-31

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. As a result, the present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  7. Big area additive manufacturing of high performance bonded NdFeB magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; ...

    2016-10-31

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic propertiesmore » are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. As a result, the present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.« less

  8. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials. PMID:27796339

  9. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 microm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m(2) filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m(-3)d(-1). PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  10. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I C; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R R; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A; Paranthaman, M Parans

    2016-10-31

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm(3), and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m(3) (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  11. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  12. Assessment of production performance in 2 breeds of broilers fed prebiotics as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Hanning, I; Clement, A; Owens, C; Park, S H; Pendleton, S; Scott, E E; Almeida, G; Gonzalez Gil, F; Ricke, S C

    2012-12-01

    Pasture-flock-raised poultry are becoming an increasingly popular product, but only limited options are currently available for maintaining gut health. For these producers, prebiotics are an attractive option because they are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and can be mixed into the feed and thus do not require adjustments to production protocols. However, if prebiotic treatments reduce production performance, they would not be useful to producers. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure performance of pasture-raised broilers fed 1 of 3 prebiotic treatments. For these trials, 2 breeds of birds were used: Naked Neck slow-growing breeds and Cornish White Rock cross fast-growing breeds. The experimental design was replicated for each breed. A total of 340 birds were split into 4 groups, each group fed one feed additive: 1) galactoligosaccharides (2% wt/wt), 2) fructooligosaccharides (1% wt/wt), 3) plum fibers (1% wt/wt), or 4) no additives. During the 8-wk rearing period, 10 birds from each group were collected and euthanized to take small intestine samples. Histological preparations were made from the small intestine tissue, and 4 measurements of villi height and crypt depth from each cross section were taken. Throughout the study, mortality was monitored and BW measurements were taken at 2-wk intervals. For the Cornish White Rock cross, the group receiving the feed supplemented with fructooligosaccharides had higher (P < 0.05) 8-wk BW than those fed Plum; control and birds fed galactoligosaccharides were intermediate. For the Naked Neck breed, the group receiving the plum fibers had the highest final BW. It appears that all 3 feed supplements offered some protective effect for alterations in villi length and crypt depth due to feed withdrawal, but only for the Naked Neck breed. The data indicate the 3 prebiotics utilized in this study could be used without risk of decreasing production performance, but only for Naked Neck breeds.

  13. Work Experience, Criminal History, and Post-Prison Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Samuel L.

    Researchers have found that the labor market performance of exoffenders is dismal. The poor post-prison employment experiences of ex-offenders was investigated to determine whether their problems arose from being inexperienced low-skilled workers or from being ex-offenders. The sample was drawn from the Baltimore Life Insurance for Ex-Prisoners…

  14. Gym and Gender. The Educational Value of Performing Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Celeste

    Learning through motoric experience is a vital but often neglected component of a well balanced and comprehensive education. The performance of athletic activities enhances body awareness and contributes to the holistic learning process. However, unspoken mythic patterns assumed by Western society systematically inhibit full exploration of certain…

  15. School and Teacher Performance Incentives: The Latin American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Romaguera, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses performance evaluation and the introduction of incentives into education in Latin America from an analytical and methodological perspective. The aim is to describe ongoing strategies and learn from practical experiences in this field. The cases analyzed reveal that school-level evaluations and collective incentives adapt…

  16. Bullying Experiences and Compromised Academic Performance across Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…

  17. Evaluation of the performance of smoothing functions in generalized additive models for spatial variation in disease.

    PubMed

    Siangphoe, Umaporn; Wheeler, David C

    2015-01-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate smoothing functions have been applied to estimate spatial variation in risk for many types of cancers. Only a handful of studies have evaluated the performance of smoothing functions applied in GAMs with regard to different geographical areas of elevated risk and different risk levels. This study evaluates the ability of different smoothing functions to detect overall spatial variation of risk and elevated risk in diverse geographical areas at various risk levels using a simulation study. We created five scenarios with different true risk area shapes (circle, triangle, linear) in a square study region. We applied four different smoothing functions in the GAMs, including two types of thin plate regression splines (TPRS) and two versions of locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (loess). We tested the null hypothesis of constant risk and detected areas of elevated risk using analysis of deviance with permutation methods and assessed the performance of the smoothing methods based on the spatial detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, power, and false-positive rate. The results showed that all methods had a higher sensitivity and a consistently moderate-to-high accuracy rate when the true disease risk was higher. The models generally performed better in detecting elevated risk areas than detecting overall spatial variation. One of the loess methods had the highest precision in detecting overall spatial variation across scenarios and outperformed the other methods in detecting a linear elevated risk area. The TPRS methods outperformed loess in detecting elevated risk in two circular areas.

  18. Evaluation of the Performance of Smoothing Functions in Generalized Additive Models for Spatial Variation in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siangphoe, Umaporn; Wheeler, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) with bivariate smoothing functions have been applied to estimate spatial variation in risk for many types of cancers. Only a handful of studies have evaluated the performance of smoothing functions applied in GAMs with regard to different geographical areas of elevated risk and different risk levels. This study evaluates the ability of different smoothing functions to detect overall spatial variation of risk and elevated risk in diverse geographical areas at various risk levels using a simulation study. We created five scenarios with different true risk area shapes (circle, triangle, linear) in a square study region. We applied four different smoothing functions in the GAMs, including two types of thin plate regression splines (TPRS) and two versions of locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (loess). We tested the null hypothesis of constant risk and detected areas of elevated risk using analysis of deviance with permutation methods and assessed the performance of the smoothing methods based on the spatial detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, power, and false-positive rate. The results showed that all methods had a higher sensitivity and a consistently moderate-to-high accuracy rate when the true disease risk was higher. The models generally performed better in detecting elevated risk areas than detecting overall spatial variation. One of the loess methods had the highest precision in detecting overall spatial variation across scenarios and outperformed the other methods in detecting a linear elevated risk area. The TPRS methods outperformed loess in detecting elevated risk in two circular areas. PMID:25983545

  19. Mental workload and performance experiment (15-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1992-01-01

    Whether on Earth or in space, people tend to work more productively in settings designed for efficiency and comfort. Because comfortable and stress-free working environments enhance performance and contribute to congenial relationships among co-workers, the living and working arrangements for spacecraft to be used for missions lasting months or years assume particular importance. The Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE), in part, examines the appropriate design of workstations for performance of various tasks in microgravity, by providing a variable-configuration workstation that may be adjusted by the astronauts.

  20. Research Performance Progress Report: Diverging Supernova Explosion Experiments on NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Plewa, Tomasz

    2016-10-25

    The aim of this project was to design a series of blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments of this kind are relevant to mixing in core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe) and have the potential to address previously unanswered questions in high-energy density physics (HEDP) and astrophysics. The unmatched laser power of the NIF laser offers a unique chance to observe and study “new physics” like the mass extensions observed in HEDP RT experiments performed on the Omega laser [1], which might be linked to self-generated magnetic fields [2] and so far could not be reproduced by numerical simulations. Moreover, NIF is currently the only facility that offers the possibility to execute a diverging RT experiment, which would allow to observe processes such as inter-shell penetration via turbulent mixing and shock-proximity effects (distortion of the shock by RT spikes).

  1. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    Utilisation of scrap tire has been achieved through the production of crumb rubber modified binders and rubberised asphalt concrete. Terminal and field blended asphalt rubbers have been developed through the wet process to incorporate crumb rubber into the asphalt binder. Warm mix asphalt technologies have been developed to curb the problem associated with the processing and production of such crumb rubber modified binders. Also the lowered production and compaction temperatures associated with warm mix additives suggests the possibility of moisture retention in the mix, which can lead to moisture damage. Conventional moisture sensitivity tests have not effectively discriminated good and poor mixes, due to the difficulty of simulating field moisture damage mechanisms. This study was carried out to investigate performance properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete, using commercial warm mix asphalt technology. Commonly utilised asphalt mixtures in North America such as dense graded and stone mastic asphalt were used in this study. Uniaxial Cyclic Compression Testing (UCCT) was used to measure permanent deformation at high temperatures. Indirect Tensile Testing (IDT) was used to investigate low temperature performance. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Testing (MiST) was proposed to be an effective method for detecting the susceptibility of asphalt mixtures to moisture damage, as it incorporates major field stripping mechanisms. Sonnewarm(TM), Sasobit(TM) and Evotherm(TM) additives improved the resistance to permanent deformation of dense graded mixes at a loading rate of 0.5 percent by weight of the binder. Polymer modified mixtures showed superior resistance to permanent deformation compared to asphalt rubber in all mix types. Rediset(TM) WMX improves low temperature properties of dense graded mixes at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX showed good anti stripping properties at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. The

  2. Investigations of non-linear polymers as high performance lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2015-03-22

    Off-the-shelf available engine oils contain an assortment of additives that increase the performance of base oils and maximize the overall efficiency of the machine. With ever increasing requirements for fuel efficiency, the demand for novel materials that outperform older generations is also on the rise. One approach towards increasing overall efficiency is to reduce internal friction and wear in an engine. From an additive approach, this is typically achieved by altering the bulk oil’s viscosity at high temperatures via polymers. In general, the hydrodynamic volume of polymers increase (expand) at elevated temperatures and decrease (contract/deflate) with declining temperatures and this effect is enhanced be carefully designing specific structures and architectures. The natural thinning tendency of base oil with increasing temperatures is in part mitigated by the expansion of the macromolecules added, and the overall effect is decreasing the viscosity losses at high temperatures. Traditional polymer architectures vary from linear to dendritic, where linear polymers of the same chemical composition and molecular weight to its dendritic counterpart will undergo a more significant free volume change in solution with regards to temperature changes. This advantage has been exploited in the literature towards the production of viscosity modifiers. However, one major disadvantage of linear polymers is degradation due to mechanical shear forces and high temperatures causing a shorter additive lifetime. Dendrimers on the other hand are known to demonstrate superior robustness to shear degradation when compared to their respective linear counterparts. An additional advantage of the dendritic architecture is the ability to tailor the peripheral end-groups towards influencing polymer-solvent and/or polymer-surface interactions. Comb-burst hyperbranched polymers are a hybrid of the aforementioned architectures and provide several compromises between the traditional

  3. High performance of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imines in triethylborane-mediated tin-free radical addition.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ken-ichi; Konishi, Takehito; Nakano, Mayu; Fujii, Shintaro; Cadou, Romain; Yamamoto, Yasutomo; Tomioka, Kiyoshi

    2012-02-03

    Triethylborane-mediated tin-free radical alkylation of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imines, such as N-Boc-, N-Cbz-, and N-Teoc-imines, proceeded smoothly at a low temperature (-78 to -20 °C) to give the corresponding adducts in high yield. Although the formation of isocyanate was the major unfavorable reaction at room temperature, a one-pot conversion of N-Boc-imine to N-ethoxycarbonyl-adduct was possible through the corresponding isocyanate generated in situ. The higher performance of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imine than those of N-Ts- and N-PMP-imines is rationalized by a moderate electron-withdrawing character of an alkoxycarbonyl group that makes both addition of alkyl radical and trapping of the resulting aminyl radical by triethylborane efficiently fast.

  4. Additive Manufacturing and High-Performance Computing: a Disruptive Latent Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    This presentation will discuss the relationship between recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, High-Performance Computing (HPC) simulation and design capabilities, and related advances in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), and then examines their impacts upon national and international security. The presentation surveys how AM accelerates the fabrication process, while HPC combined with UQ provides a fast track for the engineering design cycle. The combination of AM and HPC/UQ almost eliminates the engineering design and prototype iterative cycle, thereby dramatically reducing cost of production and time-to-market. These methods thereby present significant benefits for US national interests, both civilian and military, in an age of austerity. Finally, considering cyber security issues and the advent of the ``cloud,'' these disruptive, currently latent technologies may well enable proliferation and so challenge both nuclear and non-nuclear aspects of international security.

  5. Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles as high-performance additives for lubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Tianyi; Song, Baoyu; Wen, Yu-Ho; Zhang, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles (BHSNs), which are silica nanoparticles covered with alkyl and amino organic chains, were prepared as high-performance additives for lubricants. Compared with hairy silica nanoparticles covered by a single type of organic chain, binary hairy silica nanoparticles exhibit the advantages of both types of organic chains, which exhibit excellent compatibility with lubricants and adsorbability to metal surfaces. Nanoparticles with different ratios of amino and alkyl ligands were investigated. In comparison to an untreated lubricant, BHSNs reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 40% and 60%, respectively. The wear mechanism of BHSNs was investigated, and the protective and filling effect of the nanoparticles improved because of collaboration of amino and alkyl ligands.

  6. Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles as high-performance additives for lubricant

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Tianyi; Song, Baoyu; Wen, Yu-ho; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles (BHSNs), which are silica nanoparticles covered with alkyl and amino organic chains, were prepared as high-performance additives for lubricants. Compared with hairy silica nanoparticles covered by a single type of organic chain, binary hairy silica nanoparticles exhibit the advantages of both types of organic chains, which exhibit excellent compatibility with lubricants and adsorbability to metal surfaces. Nanoparticles with different ratios of amino and alkyl ligands were investigated. In comparison to an untreated lubricant, BHSNs reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 40% and 60%, respectively. The wear mechanism of BHSNs was investigated, and the protective and filling effect of the nanoparticles improved because of collaboration of amino and alkyl ligands. PMID:26936117

  7. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

    2013-08-01

    We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day⁻¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg⁻¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect.

  8. The impact of layer thickness on the performance of additively manufactured lapping tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2015-10-01

    Lower cost additive manufacturing (AM) machines which have emerged in recent years are capable of producing tools, jigs, and fixtures that are useful in optical fabrication. In particular, AM tooling has been shown to be useful in lapping glass workpieces. Various AM machines are distinguished by the processes, materials, build times, and build resolution they provide. This research investigates the impact of varied build resolution (specifically layer resolution) on the lapping performance of tools built using the stereolithographic assembly (SLA) process in 50 μm and 100 μm layer thicknesses with a methacrylate photopolymer resin on a high resolution desktop printer. As with previous work, the lapping tools were shown to remove workpiece material during the lapping process, but the tools themselves also experienced significant wear on the order of 2-3 times the mass loss of the glass workpieces. The tool wear rates for the 100 μm and 50 μm layer tools were comparable, but the 50 μm layer tool was 74% more effective at removing material from the glass workpiece, which is attributed to some abrasive particles being trapped in the coarser surface of the 100 um layer tooling and not being available to interact with the glass workpiece. Considering the tool wear, these additively manufactured tools are most appropriate for prototype tooling where the low cost (<$45) and quick turnaround make them attractive when compared to a machined tool.

  9. Rates of False-Positive Classification Resulting From the Analysis of Additional Embedded Performance Validity Measures.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Stenclik, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented improvements in the classification accuracy of performance validity tests (PVTs) when they are combined to form aggregated models. Fewer studies have evaluated the impact of aggregating additional PVTs and changing the classification threshold within these models. A recent Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that to maintain a false-positive rate (FPR) of ≤.10, only 1, 4, 8, 10, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. The current study sought to evaluate these findings with embedded PVTs in a sample of real-life litigants and to highlight a potential danger in analytic flexibility with embedded PVTs. Results demonstrated that to maintain an FPR of ≤.10, only 3, 7, 10, 14, and 15 PVTs should be analyzed at classification thresholds of failing at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, and at least 5 PVTs, respectively. Analyzing more than these numbers of PVTs resulted in a dramatic increase in the FPR. In addition, in the most extreme case, flexibility in analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs increased the FPR by 67%. Given these findings, a more objective approach to analyzing and reporting embedded PVTs should be introduced.

  10. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; ...

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  11. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  12. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  13. Effect of an Additional, Parallel Capacitor on Pulsed Inductive Plasma Accelerator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sivak, Amy D.; Balla, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    A model of pulsed inductive plasma thrusters consisting of a set of coupled circuit equations and a one-dimensional momentum equation has been used to study the effects of adding a second, parallel capacitor into the system. The equations were nondimensionalized, permitting the recovery of several already-known scaling parameters and leading to the identification of a parameter that is unique to the particular topology studied. The current rise rate through the inductive acceleration coil was used as a proxy measurement of the effectiveness of inductive propellant ionization since higher rise rates produce stronger, potentially better ionizing electric fields at the coil face. Contour plots representing thruster performance (exhaust velocity and efficiency) and current rise rate in the coil were generated numerically as a function of the scaling parameters. The analysis reveals that when the value of the second capacitor is much less than the first capacitor, the performance of the two-capacitor system approaches that of the single-capacitor system. In addition, as the second capacitor is decreased in value the current rise rate can grow to be twice as great as the rise rate attained in the single capacitor case.

  14. Patient Experience: A Critical Indicator of Healthcare Performance.

    PubMed

    Guler, Pamela H

    2017-01-01

    Patient experience has become a critical differentiator for healthcare organizations, and it will only grow in importance as transparency and consumerism dominate the healthcare landscape. Creating and sustaining a consistently exceptional experience that promotes patient engagement and the best outcomes is far more than just "satisfying" patients, going well beyond amenities that may be provided.Perception of care experience is often shaped by methods we use to address the biopsychosocial needs of patients. Building relationships and communicating well with our patients and families are primary approaches. In a complex healthcare situation, patients may not fully understand or remember the highly clinical nature of treatment. However, they always remember how we made them feel, how we communicated with them as a team, and what interactions they experienced while in our care.Patients who are fully informed and feel connected to their caregivers are often less anxious than those who are disengaged. Informed and engaged patients are enabled to participate in their healthcare. Organizations that focus on developing an accountable culture-one that inspires caregivers to communicate in a way that connects to patients' mind, body, and spirit while leveraging standard, evidence-based patient experience practices-find that patients' perception of care, or "the patient experience," is vastly improved.Adventist Health System has embarked on a journey to patient experience excellence with a commitment to whole-person care and standard patient experience practice across the system. Recognized with several national awards, we continue to strengthen our approach toward bringing all of our campuses and patient settings to sustained high-level performance. We have found that a combination of strong, accountable leadership; a focus on employee culture; engagement of physicians; standardized patient experience practices and education; and meaningful use of patient feedback are top

  15. Age and School Experience as Factors in Rule Utilization: Use of a Simple Addition Rule. Final Report, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, L. R.

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of school experience on performance on visual perception tests involving line figures and forms. The subjects were 120 first grade students selected from two public schools in the same community. The experiment involved an Experimental Treatments X Age X Time of Testing factorial design. All subjects…

  16. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  17. Life stories and sickness experience: a performance perspective.

    PubMed

    Monks, J

    1995-12-01

    This paper concerns how a 'performance' perspective may aid our understanding of life story data in the investigation of sickness experience. The argument is illustrated through structural and thematic analysis of the life story of a young English woman with multiple sclerosis (MS). The life story genre allowed the author creatively to explore contrasting perspectives on the shaping of social relations by bodily disorder. This was in the context of her more general concerns about definition and change in social relationships and the physical body. Performance relates the form and content of the story to generative social experience as well as to multiple readings and reformulations. It thus gives insight into the constitutive processes through which bodily knowledge is produced and shared in relation to notions of person and self.

  18. Officer Performance Evaluation Systems. Lessons Learned from Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    halting inflation, renewing the importance of the OER in the selection program and improving feedback to officers, were not enough to overcome the...appraisal": In many organizations, supervisors report that they hold p>eriodic appraisal interviews and give honest feedback , while their subordin- ates...OJEaNo 521.80^ 521.806 ’r631 WOMuMnMO ?J;?5^^ PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEMS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM EXPERI- ENCE W ^RSONAL AUTXORlSl Larson

  19. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amad, A A; Männer, K; Wendler, K R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further.

  20. Exposure and Experience: Additional Criteria for Selecting Future Operational Theater Commanders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    Kaufmann. From Plato to Derrida . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. 8 Experience Comparison of Former...Forrest E., and Walter Kaufmann. From Plato to Derrida . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Bell, William Gardner. Center

  1. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  2. Impact of an additional chronic BDNF reduction on learning performance in an Alzheimer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Psotta, Laura; Rockahr, Carolin; Gruss, Michael; Kirches, Elmar; Braun, Katharina; Lessmann, Volkmar; Bock, Jörg; Endres, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. A number of studies demonstrated that AD patients exhibit reduced BDNF levels in the brain and the blood serum, and in addition, several animal-based studies indicated a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In order to further investigate the role of BDNF in the etiology of AD, we created a novel mouse model by crossing a well-established AD mouse model (APP/PS1) with a mouse exhibiting a chronic BDNF deficiency (BDNF+/−). This new triple transgenic mouse model enabled us to further analyze the role of BDNF in AD in vivo. We reasoned that in case BDNF has a protective effect against AD pathology, an AD-like phenotype in our new mouse model should occur earlier and/or in more severity than in the APP/PS1-mice. Indeed, the behavioral analysis revealed that the APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice show an earlier onset of learning impairments in a two-way active avoidance task in comparison to APP/PS1- and BDNF+/−-mice. However in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we could not observe an overall aggrevated impairment in spatial learning and also short-term memory in an object recognition task remained intact in all tested mouse lines. In addition to the behavioral experiments, we analyzed the amyloid plaque pathology in the APP/PS1 and APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice and observed a comparable plaque density in the two genotypes. Moreover, our results revealed a higher plaque density in prefrontal cortical compared to hippocampal brain regions. Our data reveal that higher cognitive tasks requiring the recruitment of cortical networks appear to be more severely affected in our new mouse model than learning tasks requiring mainly sub-cortical networks. Furthermore, our observations of an accelerated impairment in active avoidance learning in APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice further supports the hypothesis that BDNF deficiency

  3. Beamforming for directional sources: additional estimator and evaluation of performance under different acoustic scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Christian; Havelock, David I; Bouchard, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Beamforming is done with an array of sensors to achieve a directional or spatially-specific response by using a model of the arriving wavefront. Conventionally, a plane wave or point source model is used and this can cause decreased array gain or even total breakdown of beamforming when the source is directional. To avoid this, the authors proposed in recent work an alternative beamforming method which defines a set of "sub-beamformers," each designed to respond to a different spatial mode of the source. The outputs of the individual sub-beamformers are combined in a weighted sum to give an overall output of better quality than that of a monopole beamformer. This paper extends the previous work by introducing an additional estimator for the weighted sum and by presenting simulation results to demonstrate the relative performance of the proposed method and the different estimators for a directional source in the presence of diffuse noise, reverberation, and an interfering source. Gain optimization subject to a constraint on the white-noise gain with the proposed beamforming method is also introduced. Generally, when beamforming on directional sources, the proposed method outperforms beamforming with a point source model when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 0 dB or higher.

  4. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  5. Designing Location-Based Learning Experiences for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Additional Sensory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…

  6. Using Performance Tools to Support Experiments in HPC Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Naughton, III, Thomas J; Boehm, Swen; Engelmann, Christian; Vallee, Geoffroy R

    2014-01-01

    The high performance computing (HPC) community is working to address fault tolerance and resilience concerns for current and future large scale computing platforms. This is driving enhancements in the programming environ- ments, specifically research on enhancing message passing libraries to support fault tolerant computing capabilities. The community has also recognized that tools for resilience experimentation are greatly lacking. However, we argue that there are several parallels between performance tools and resilience tools . As such, we believe the rich set of HPC performance-focused tools can be extended (repurposed) to benefit the resilience community. In this paper, we describe the initial motivation to leverage standard HPC per- formance analysis techniques to aid in developing diagnostic tools to assist fault tolerance experiments for HPC applications. These diagnosis procedures help to provide context for the system when the errors (failures) occurred. We describe our initial work in leveraging an MPI performance trace tool to assist in provid- ing global context during fault injection experiments. Such tools will assist the HPC resilience community as they extend existing and new application codes to support fault tolerances.

  7. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    spacecraft bus smart structures by developing over 20 new technologies. As pathfinders, experience was gained in the implications of space system analyses, verification tests, and for ways to leverage this technology to meet new satellite performance requirements.

  8. Use of Additives to Improve Performance of Methyl Butyrate-Based Lithium-Ion Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. To this end, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl butyrate-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), which have been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. Improved performance has been demonstrated of Li-ion cells with methyl butyrate-based electrolytes, including 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %); 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 4% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + lithium oxalate; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% VC; and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 0.10M LiBOB. These electrolytes have been shown to improve performance in MCMB-LiNiCoO2 and graphite-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 experimental Li-ion cells. A number of LiPF6-based mixed carbonate electrolyte formulations have been developed that contain ester co-solvents, which have been optimized for operation at low temperature, while still providing reasonable performance at high temperature. For example, a number of ester co-solvents were investigated, including methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), and butyl butyrate (BB) in multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (20:60:20 v/v %) [where X = ester co-solvent]. ["Optimized Car bon ate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes", NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), p. 56.] Focusing upon improved rate

  9. Laser Additive Melting and Solidification of Inconel 718: Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, John; Ladani, Leila; Sadowski, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The field of powdered metal additive manufacturing is experiencing a surge in public interest finding uses in aerospace, defense, and biomedical industries. The relative youth of the technology coupled with public interest makes the field a vibrant research topic. The authors have expanded upon previously published finite element models used to analyze the processing of novel engineering materials through the use of laser- and electron beam-based additive manufacturing. In this work, the authors present a model for simulating fabrication of Inconel 718 using laser melting processes. Thermal transport phenomena and melt pool geometries are discussed and validation against experimental findings is presented. After comparing experimental and simulation results, the authors present two correction correlations to transform the modeling results into meaningful predictions of actual laser melting melt pool geometries in Inconel 718.

  10. Additive Manufacture (3D Printing) of Plasma Diagnostic Components and Assemblies for Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinley, Morgan; Chun, Katherine; Melnik, Paul; Sieck, Paul; Smith, Trevor; Stuber, James; Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; Card, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    We are investigating the potential impact of additive manufacturing (3D printing) on the cost and complexity of plasma diagnostics. We present a survey of the current state-of-the-art in additive manufacture of metals, as well as the design of diagnostic components that have been optimized for and take advantage of these processes. Included among these is a set of retarding field analyzer probe heads that have been printed in tungsten with internal heat sinks and cooling channels. Finite element analysis of these probe heads shows the potential for a 750K reduction in peak temperature, allowing the probe to take data twice as often without melting. Results of the evaluation of these probe heads for mechanical strength and outgassing, as well as their use on Alcator C-Mod will be presented. Supported by DOE SBIR Grant DE-SC0011858.

  11. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  12. Beyond Performance: A Motivational Experiences Model of Stereotype Threat

    PubMed Central

    Thoman, Dustin B.; Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Chase, Justin; Lee, Joo Young K.

    2013-01-01

    The contributing role of stereotype threat (ST) to learning and performance decrements for stigmatized students in highly evaluative situations has been vastly documented and is now widely known by educators and policy makers. However, recent research illustrates that underrepresented and stigmatized students’ academic and career motivations are influenced by ST more broadly, particularly through influences on achievement orientations, sense of belonging, and intrinsic motivation. Such a focus moves conceptualizations of ST effects in education beyond the influence on a student’s performance, skill level, and feelings of self-efficacy per se to experiencing greater belonging uncertainty and lower interest in stereotyped tasks and domains. These negative experiences are associated with important outcomes such as decreased persistence and domain identification, even among students who are high in achievement motivation. In this vein, we present and review support for the Motivational Experience Model of ST, a self-regulatory model framework for integrating research on ST, achievement goals, sense of belonging, and intrinsic motivation to make predictions for how stigmatized students’ motivational experiences are maintained or disrupted, particularly over long periods of time. PMID:23894223

  13. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150°C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  14. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice.

  15. Performance of the cometary experiment MUPUS on the body Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczewski, W.; Usowicz, B.; Schröer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Spohn, T.

    2003-04-01

    Thermal experiment MUPUS for the Rosetta mission was extensively experience in field and laboratory conditions to predict its performance under physical processes available on the Earth. The goal was not guessing a cometary material in the ground but available behavior of thermal sensor responses monitoring mass and energy transfer. The processes expected on a comet are different in composition and environmental from those met on the Earth but basically similar in physics. Nature of energy powering the processes is also essentially the same - solar radiation. Several simple laboratory experiments with freezing and thawing with water ice, with mixture of water and oil and water layers strongly diverged by salinity revealed capability of recognition layered structure of the medium under test. More over effects of slow convection and latent heat related to the layers are also observed well. Cometary environment without atmosphere makes process of sublimation dominant. Open air conditions on the Earth may also offer a change of state in matter but between different phases. Learning temperature gradient in snow layers under thawing show that effects stimulated by a cause of daily cycling may be detected thermally. Results from investigations in snow made on Spitzbergen are good proofs on capability of the method. Relevance of thermal effects to heat powered processes of mass transport in the matter of ground is meaningful for the cometary experiment of MUPUS and for Earth sciences much concerned on water, gas and solid matter transport in the terrestrial ground. Results leading to energy balance studied on the Earth surface may be interesting also for the experiment on the comet and are to be discussed.

  16. Assessment of quality of platelets preserved in plasma and platelet additive solution: A Malaysian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Munirah Binti; Hashim, Hasna Binti; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2016-01-01

    Background: A use of platelet additives solution (PAS) improves storage conditions so as to give increased shelf life to platelets and to maintain hemostatic function. Objective: The present study was aimed to compare in vitro quality of platelet rich plasma (PRP)-derived platelet concentrate (PC) during extended period of storage in plasma and in additive solution (Composol PS and Fresenius). Study Design: Randomized 19 PCs each were used in the study for plasma and PAS as the storage medium. The measurement parameters, including pH, total white blood cell (WBC) count, total platelet count, and platelet activation rate, were studied on day 1, day 5, and day 8 of the storage period. The sterility test was carried out on the eighth day of storage. Results: pH of PC suspended in PAS was significantly lower as compared to that in plasma (P < 0.001) for all the three days of sampling. The WBC count, both in plasma and in PAS, showed an acceptable values of being <0.2 Χ 109 /unit during the storage period. Platelet count in PAS was higher as compared to that in plasma, though it was not statistically significant. While both the groups showed increased platelet activation rate during the storage, the PCs suspended in PAS showed significantly higher platelet activation rate (p0.001). Results from sterility test showed no bacterial growth in the PCs in both the groups. Conclusion: Most parameters studied on platelet storage in suspending medium of native plasma and PAS remained well within the acceptable limits. However, the pH values and platelet activation rate significantly differed in PAS as compared with plasma. PMID:27011678

  17. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese ‘Kibo’ facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the ‘Rad Gene’ project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated p53 gene (mp53) and a parental wild-type p53 gene (wtp53) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation–induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing p53-dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing p53-dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type p53 genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. PMID:27130692

  18. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese 'Kibo' facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the 'Rad Gene' project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated P53 : gene (m P53 : ) and a parental wild-type P53 : gene (wt P53 : ) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation-induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type P53 : genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024.

  19. Summary and overview of the CYCLOPS P addition Lagrangian experiment in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krom, M. D.; Thingstad, T. F.; Brenner, S.; Carbo, P.; Drakopoulos, P.; Fileman, T. W.; Flaten, G. A. F.; Groom, S.; Herut, B.; Kitidis, V.; Kress, N.; Law, C. S.; Liddicoat, M. I.; Mantoura, R. F. C.; Pasternak, A.; Pitta, P.; Polychronaki, T.; Psarra, S.; Rassoulzadegan, F.; Skjoldal, E. F.; Spyres, G.; Tanaka, T.; Tselepides, A.; Wassmann, P.; Wexels Riser, C.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Zodiatis, G.; Zohary, T.

    2005-11-01

    CYCLOPS was a European Framework 5 program to further our understanding of phosphorus cycling in the Eastern Mediterranean. The core of CYCLOPS was a Lagrangian experiment in which buffered phosphoric acid was added to a <4×4 km patch of water together with SF 6 as the inert tracer. The patch was followed for nine days in total. Results obtained prior to the experiment showed that the system was typically ultra-oligotrophic and P-starved with DON:DOP, PON:POP and DIN:DIP all having ratios greatly in excess of 16:1 in surface waters. To our surprise, we found that although the added phosphate was rapidly taken up by the microbial biota, there was a small but significant decrease in chlorophyll a and no increase in primary production, together with an increase in heterotrophic bacterial activity, ciliate numbers and in the gut fullness and egg numbers in the zooplankton community. A microcosm experiment carried out using within-patch and out-of-patch water showed that the phytoplankton community were N and P co-limited while the bacteria and micrograzers were P-limited. Thus this system tends to N and P co-limitation of phytoplankton productivity in summer possibly caused by bioavailable DIN being converted into non-bioavailable forms of DON. On the basis of the data collected within the programme it was concluded that this behavior could be explained by three non-mutually exclusive processes described as (1) trophic by-pass in which the added phosphate gets directly to the grazing part of the predatory food chain from the heterotrophic bacteria bypassing the phytoplankton compartment phosphate, (2) trophic tunnelling in which phosphate is rapidly taken up by both phytoplankton and bacteria via rapid luxury consumption. This causes an immediate change in the phosphorus content but not the abundance of the prey organisms. The added P then "reappears" as responses at the predator level much more rapidly than expected, and (3) mixotrophic by-pass in which inorganic

  20. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  1. Improving the environmental and performance characteristics of vehicles by introducing the surfactant additive into gasoline.

    PubMed

    Magaril, Elena; Magaril, Romen

    2016-09-01

    The operation of modern vehicles requires the introduction of package of fuel additives to ensure the required level of operating characteristics, some of which cannot be achieved by current oil refining methods. The use of additives allows flexibility of impact on the properties of the fuel at minimal cost, increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicles. Among the wide assortment of additives available on the world market, many are surfactants. It has been shown that the introduction of some surfactants into gasoline concurrently reduces losses from gasoline evaporation, improves the mixture formation during injection of gasoline into the engine and improves detergent and anticorrosive properties. The surfactant gasoline additive that provides significant improvement in the quality of gasoline used and environmental and operating characteristics of vehicles has been developed and thoroughly investigated. The results of studies confirming the efficiency of the gasoline additive application are herein presented.

  2. Experiments evaluating compliance and force feedback effect on manipulator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugath, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The performance capability was assessed of operators performing simulated space tasks using manipulator systems which had compliance and force feedback varied. Two manipulators were used, the E-2 electromechanical man-equivalent (force, reach, etc.) master-slave system and a modified CAM 1400 hydraulic master-slave with 100 lbs force capability at reaches of 24 ft. The CAM 1400 was further modified to operate without its normal force feedback. Several experiments and simulations were performed. The first two involved the E-2 absorbing the energy of a moving mass and secondly, guiding a mass thru a maze. Thus, both work and self paced tasks were studied as servo compliance was varied. Three simulations were run with the E-2 mounted on the CAM 1400 to evaluate the concept of a dexterous manipulator as an end effector of a boom-manipulator. Finally, the CAM 1400 performed a maze test and also simulated the capture of a large mass as the servo compliance was varied and with force feedback included and removed.

  3. Long term experience and performance of COMPASS RICH-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, F.; Abbon, P.; Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Delagnes, E.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Gerassimov, S.; Gobbo, B.; Gregori, M.; Herrmann, F.; Ketzer, B.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Kunne, F.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Makke, N.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Neyret, D.; Novakova, K.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pereira, F. A.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Santos, C. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schopferer, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS RICH-1 is a large size gaseous Imaging Cherenkov Detector providing hadron identification in the range from 3 to 55 GeV/c, in the wide acceptance spectrometer of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. It uses a 3 m long C4F10 radiator, a 21 m2 large VUV mirror surface and two kinds of photon detectors: MAPMTs and MWPCs with CsI photocathodes, covering a total of 5.5 m2. It is in operation since 2002 and its performance increased thanks to progressive optimization and to a major upgrade of its photon detection system, implemented in 2006; a new upgrade is foreseen for 2016, with the use of MPGD-based photon detectors. The main characteristics of COMPASS RICH-1 components are described and the most critical aspects related to the C4F10 radiator gas system, to the mirrors and their alignment, as well as the performance of the photon detectors are presented and discussed. The response of the MWPCs and the observed evolution of the effective quantum efficiency of the CsI photocathodes is analyzed. The properties and performance of the MAPMTs with individual fused lens telescopes are presented together with the readout characteristics. The PID performance of COMPASS RICH-1 is discussed and the future upgrade program is mentioned.

  4. Counterintuitive roles of experience and weather on migratory performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, Adrian I.; Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Belthoff, James R; Katzner, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Migration allows animals to live in resource-rich but seasonally variable environments. Because of the costs of migration, there is selective pressure to capitalize on variation in weather to optimize migratory performance. To test the degree to which migratory performance (defined as speed of migration) of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) was determined by age- and season-specific responses to variation in weather, we analyzed 1,863 daily tracks (n = 83 migrant eagles) and 8,047 hourly tracks (n = 83) based on 15 min GPS telemetry data from Golden Eagles and 277 hourly tracks based on 30 s data (n = 37). Spring migrant eagles traveled 139.75 ± 82.19 km day−1 (mean ± SE; n = 57) and 25.59 ± 11.75 km hr−1 (n = 55). Autumn migrant eagles traveled 99.14 ± 59.98 km day−1 (n = 26) and 22.18 ± 9.18 km hr−1 (n = 28). Weather during migration varied by season and by age class. During spring, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by downward solar radiation and that older birds benefited less from flow assistance (tailwinds). During autumn, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by south–north winds and by flow assistance, again less strongly for older birds. In contrast, models for hourly performance based on data collected at 30 s intervals were not well described by a single model, likely reflecting eagles' rapid responses to the many weather conditions they experienced. Although daily speed of travel was similar for all age classes, younger birds traveled at faster hourly speeds than did adults. Our analyses uncovered strong, sometimes counterintuitive, relationships among weather, experience, and migratory flight, and they illustrate the significance of factors other than age in determining migratory performance.

  5. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits.

  6. Effects of biochar addition to soil on nitrogen fluxes in a winter wheat lysimeter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Neftel, Albrecht; Conen, Franz; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous residue from pyrolysis of biomass that potentially increases crop yields by reducing losses of nitrogen from soils and/or enhancing the uptake of applied fertiliser by the crops. Previous research is scarce about biochar's ability to increase wheat yields in temperate soils or how it changes nitrogen dynamics in the field. In a lysimeter system with two different soils (sandy/silt loam) nitrogen fluxes were traced by isotopic 15N enriched fertiliser to identify changes in nitrous oxide emissions, leaching and plant uptake after biochar addition. 20t/ha woodchip-waste biochar (pH=13) was applied to these soils in four lysimeters per soil type; the same number of lysimeters served as a control. The soils were cropped with winter wheat during the season 2012/2013. 170 kg-N/ha ammonium nitrate fertiliser with 10% 15N was applied in 3 events during the growing season and 15N concentrations where measured at different points in time in plant, soil, leachate and emitted nitrous oxide. After one year the lysimeter system showed no difference between biochar and control treatment in grain- and straw yield or nitrogen uptake. However biochar did reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the silt loam and losses of nitrate leaching in sandy loam. This study indicates potential reduction of nitrogen loss from cropland soil by biochar application but could not confirm increased yields in an intensive wheat production system.

  7. Performance Analysis for the New g-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys; Convery, Mary; Crmkovic, J.; Froemming, Nathan; Johnstone, Carol; Johnstone, John; Korostelev, Maxim; Morgan, James; Morse, William; Syphers, Michael; Tishchenko, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The new g-2 experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment to a precision of ±0.14 ppm ─ a fourfold improvement over the 0.54 ppm precision obtained in the g-2 BNL E821experiment. Achieving this goal requires the delivery of highly polarized 3.094 GeV/c muons with a narrow ±0.5% Δp/p acceptance to the g-2 storage ring. In this study, we describe a muon capture and transport scheme that should meet this requirement. First, we present the conceptual design of our proposed scheme wherein we describe its basic features. Then, we detail its performance numerically by simulating the pion production in the (g-2) production target, the muon collection by the downstream beamline optics as well as the beam polarization and spin-momentum correlation up to the storage ring. The sensitivity in performance of our proposed channel against key parameters such as magnet apertures and magnet positioning errors is analyzed

  8. The effect of alkaline additives on the performance of surfactant systems designed to recover light oils

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.; Evans, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Surfactant flooding is flexible because of the ability to optimize formulations for a wide range of reservoir conditions and crude oil types. The objective for this work was to determine if the addition of alkaline additives will allow the design of surfactant formulations that are effective for the recovery of crude oil, while, at the same time, maintaining the surfactant concentration at a much lower level than has previously been used for micellar flooding. Specifically, the focus of the work was on light, midcontinent crudes that typically have very low acid contents. These oils are typical of much of the midcontinent resource. The positive effect of alkaline additives on the phase behavior of the surfactant formulations and acidic crude oils is well known. The extension to nonacidic and slightly acidic oils is not obvious. Three crude oils, a variety of commercial surfactants, and several alkaline additives were tested. The oils had acid numbers that ranged from 0.13, which is quite low, to less than 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil. Alkaline additives were found to be very effective in recovering Delaware-Childers (OK) oil at elevated temperatures, but much less effective at reservoir temperatures. Alkaline additives were very effective with Teapot Dome (WY) oil. With Teapot Dome oil, surfactant/alkali systems produced ultralow IFT values and recovered 60% of the residual oil that remained after waterflooding. The effect of alkaline additives on recovering Hepler (KS) oil was minimal. The results of this work indicate that alkaline additives do have merit for use in surfactant flooding of low acid crude oils; however, no universal statement about applicability can be made. Each oil behaves differently, with this treatment, and the effect of alkaline additives must be determined (at reservoir conditions) for each oil. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Early Experiences Writing Performance Portable OpenMP 4 Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Wayne; Hernandez, Oscar R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the recently available directives in OpenMP 4 to parallelize a computational kernel using both the traditional shared memory approach and the newer accelerator targeting capabilities. In addition, we explore various transformations that attempt to increase application performance portability, and examine the expressiveness and performance implications of using these approaches. For example, we want to understand if the target map directives in OpenMP 4 improve data locality when mapped to a shared memory system, as opposed to the traditional first touch policy approach in traditional OpenMP. To that end, we use recent Cray and Intel compilers to measure the performance variations of a simple application kernel when executed on the OLCF s Titan supercomputer with NVIDIA GPUs and the Beacon system with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators attached. To better understand these trade-offs, we compare our results from traditional OpenMP shared memory implementations to the newer accelerator programming model when it is used to target both the CPU and an attached heterogeneous device. We believe the results and lessons learned as presented in this paper will be useful to the larger user community by providing guidelines that can assist programmers in the development of performance portable code.

  10. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: 2. Denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Sobota, Daniel; Dodds, Walter; Findlay, Stuart; Grimm, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; McDowell, William; O'Brien, Jon; Tank, Jennifer; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Gregory, Stanley; Johnson, Sherri; Meyer, Judy; Peterson, Bruce; Poole, Geoff; Valett, H. Maurice; Webster, Jackson; Arango, Clay; Beaulieu, Jake; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Thomas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S{sub Wden}) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N{sub 2} production rates far exceeded N{sub 2}O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling S{sub Wden} were specific discharge (discharge/width) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (U{sub den}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although U{sub den} increased with increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, the efficiency of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup -} load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration.

  11. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Hall, R.O.; Sobota, D.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; McDowell, W.H.; O'Brien, J. M.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, S.V.; Johnson, S.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.J.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomasn, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field 15N-NO- 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (SWden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N2 production rates far exceeded N2O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO-3 removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NHz 4 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling SWden were specific discharge (discharge / width) and NO-3 concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (Uden) and NO- 3 concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although Uden increased with increasing NO- 3 concentration, the efficiency of NO-3 removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO-3 load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO-3 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO-3 concentration. ?? 2009.

  12. MHD performance demonstration experiment, FY 1974 to FY 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, G. L.; Christensen, L. S.; Felderman, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    A national program for the development of commercial, open-cycle, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is described. The emphasis of that national program was, and is, on establishing the engineering feasibilty of using coal to fuel the MHD power system. In order to establish feasibility it was necessary to experimentally demonstrate that an MHD generator system simulating a commercial-sized device can convert 16 to 18% of the available thermal energy into electric power at an isentropic efficiency of 60 to 70%. A presidential decree encouraged any government agency which might possess an organic MHD capability to assist ERDA in formulating and executing the national program. Since the largest MHD facility in the United States was located at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), it was selected to be the national program element to demonstrate performance. As a result, the AEDC has been under contract since December 1973 (first to ERDA, later to its successor, the department of Energy, DOE) to modify existing equipment and to design, fabricate, and install new hardware to perform the MHD Performance Demonstration Experiment. The MHD facility is described and all results achieved to date are summarized.

  13. Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

    2013-08-01

    Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity.

  14. RPC detector characteristics and performance for INO-ICAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Gaur, A.; Hasbuddin, Md.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2016-03-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is an approved multi-institutional collaboration neutrino physics project, aimed at building an underground laboratory in the southern India. INO will utilize a large magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study the atmospheric neutrinos, and to explore the unresolved issues related to neutrinos. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), interleaved in between iron absorber layers, are going to be used as the active signal readouts for the ICAL experiment at INO. The research and development is carried out to find structural quality and electrical response for RPC electrode materials available within local domain. The assembled 2 mm gap RPCs are tested using cosmic muons for their detection performance. The study also incorporates preliminary results on detector timing and signal induced charge measurements.

  15. Flight Performance of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; Gsell, Valerie; Miller, Nathanael; Olds, Aaron; Bruce, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on a Black Brant XI suborbital sounding rocket and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) in the reentry heating environment and also illustrating the effect of an offset center of gravity on the HIAD's lift-to-drag ratio. IRVE-3 was a follow-on to 2009's IRVE-II mission, which demonstrated exo-atmospheric inflation, reentry survivability - without significant heating - and the aerodynamic stability of a HIAD down to subsonic flight conditions. NASA Langley Research Center is leading the development of HIAD technology for use on future interplanetary and Earth reentry missions.

  16. Effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on the immune performance of pigs.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masafumi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Okamura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Eisaku; Tamura, Katsuo; Shimizu, Yuuko; Suda, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2011-04-01

    In pig production, dietary additive antibiotics are usually used for growth stimulation and disease prevention, although there is public concern about the increased incidence of resistant antibiotics and food safety. It is possible that such antibiotics might be replaced by naturally derived products such as seaweed and licorice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on enhancing the immune function in swine. The animals of each group (eight animals per group) were sensitized at day 42 and 49, and the immunoglobulin production and the expression of cytokines were detected by the ELISA and real-time PCR. As the results, saliva IgA production of the seaweed-treated group increased around five times compared to that of control (day 56). Delayed hypersensitivity reaction and IgG production of the seaweed-treated group increased around 1.8-2.0 times. In addition, enhanced saliva IgA production was detected at day 50 (around two times) and day 51 (around five times) by the licorice treatment, and lower expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α messenger RNA at day 51 (around 1/25) was observed in the licorice treatment. We conclude that the replacement of antibiotics by naturally derived dietary additives might be feasible for immune system enhancement.

  17. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Kishore, Vidya; Chen, Xun; Ajinjeru, Christine; Duty, Chad; Hassen, Ahmed A

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  18. Effect of Ag Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Cu10Al in Artificial Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Salgado, R. J.; Sotelo-Mazon, O.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; Salinas-Solano, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we proposed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different alloys by electrochemical techniques, a binary alloy Cu10Al, and three ternary alloys Cu10Al-xAg (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.%) to be used like biomaterials in dental application. Biomaterials proposed were tested in artificial saliva at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, pure metals Cu, Al, Ag, and Ti as reference materials were evaluated. In general the short time tests indicated that the Ag addition increases the corrosion resistance and reduces the extent of localized attack of the binary alloy. Moreover, tests for 48 hours showed that the Ag addition increases the stability of the passive layer, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the binary alloy. SEM analysis showed that Cu10Al alloy was preferably corroded by grain boundaries, and the Ag addition modified the form of attack of the binary alloy. Cu-rich phases reacted with SCN− anions forming a film of CuSCN, and the Ag-rich phase is prone to react with SCN− anions forming AgSCN. Thus, binary and ternary alloys are susceptible to tarnish in the presence of thiocyanate ions. PMID:27660601

  19. Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

    2012-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality.

  20. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 6: Scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Evaluations include a very high resolution radiometer, a radio beacon experiment, environmental measurement experiments (EME), EME support hardware, EME anomalies and failures, EME results, and US/USSR magnetometer experiments.

  1. Effect of feeding olive-pulp ensiled with additives on feedlot performance and carcass attributes of fat-tailed lambs.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rowghani, Ebrahim; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Feed cost has a significant effect on the economic efficiency of feedlot lambs; therefore, the use of low-cost non-conventional feedstuffs, such as olive pulp (OP), has the potential to decrease the production costs. Because optimum inclusion of OP-treated silages has not been determined in feedlot lambs, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of inclusion of OP ensiled with additives in the diet on the feedlot performance and carcass attributes of feedlot lambs. Ram lambs of Mehraban and Ghezel breeds (n = 50 lambs per breed) were randomly allotted to 10 groups and fed with one of the nine diets containing OP silage or a control diet. Silage treatments were: (1) OP silage without additives (OPS), (2) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses and 0.4 % formic acid (OP-MF), and (3) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses, 0.4 % formic acid and 0.5 % urea (OP-MFU). The control diet contained 50 % alfalfa hay and 50 % barley grain. Three levels from each silage were chosen to replace the barley grain (10, 20, or 30 % dry matter basis). The lambs were slaughtered after 92 days, and the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass characteristics were determined. Feeding OPS to fat-tailed lambs, at an inclusion level of 30 %, decreased the carcass dressing percentage, mainly as a result of decreased brisket percentage, but the ADG and FCR values were not adversely affected. Ghezel lambs had higher ADG than Mehraban lambs, but the visceral fat weight percentage, flap weight percentage, and back fat depth were higher in Mehraban. The crude protein content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was higher in Ghezel, but the dry matter percentage was higher in Mehraban (P < 0.05). Other attributes were not significantly affected by breed (P > 0.05). Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS feeding; therefore, feeding OPS (up to 30 %) can be economical for feedlot lambs. Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts

  2. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  3. MHD performance demonstration experiment, October 1, 1080-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, G. L.; Christenson, L. S.; Felderman, E. J.; Lowry, R. L.; Bordenet, E. J.

    1981-12-01

    The Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) has been under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) since December 1973 to conduct a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) High Performance Demonstration Experiment (HPDE). The objective of this experimental research is to demonstrate the attainment of MHD performance on a sufficiently large scale to verify that projected commercial MHD objectives are possible. This report describes the testing of the system under power-producing conditions during the period from October 1, 1980 to September 30, 1981. Experimental results have been obtained with the channel configured in the Faraday mode. Test conditions were selected to produce low supersonic velocity along the entire channel length. Tests have been conducted at magnetic fields up to 4.1 Tesla (T) (70% of design). Up to 30.5 MW of power has been produced to date (60% of design) for an enthalpy extraction of approximately 11%. The high Hall voltage transient, observed during the previous series of tests has been reduced. The reduction is mostly probably due to the fuel and seed being introduced simultaneously. The replacement of the ATJ graphite caps on the electrode walls with pyrolytic graphite caps has resulted in significantly higher surface temperature. As a result, the voltage drop is some 60% of the cold wall voltage drop during the previous series of tests. However, the absolute value of the present voltage drop is still greater than the original design predictions. Test results indicate, however, that the overall enthalpy extraction objective can be achieved.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment: I. Performance Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Lineberry, J. T.; Chapman, J. N.; Schmidt, H. J.; Lineberry, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of conventional thermal propulsion systems is fundamentally constrained by the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels and the thermal limits of available materials. Electromagnetic thrust augmentation represents one intriguing possibility for improving the fuel composition of thermal propulsion systems, thereby increasing overall specific energy characteristics; however, realization of such a system requires an extremely high-energy-density electrical power source as well as an efficient plasma acceleration device. This Technical Publication describes the development of an experimental research facility for investigating the use of cross-field magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerators as a possible thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. In this experiment,a 1.5-MW(sub e) Aerotherm arc heater is used to drive a 2-MW(sub e) MHD accelerator. The heatsink MHD accelerator is configured as an externally diagonalized, segmented channel, which is inserted into a large-bore, 2-T electromagnet. The performance analysis and engineering design of the flow path are described as well as the parameter measurements and flow diagnostics planned for the initial series of test runs.

  5. The Influence of Novel Alloying Additions on the Performance of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    2009. 2 key criterion, so that potential strength increase from grain size reduction and/or solid solution strengthening would occur. Moreover, it...the following elements were selected: indium (In), bismuth (Bi), strontium (Sr), Zr, titanium (Ti), calcium (Ca), lithium (Li), yttrium (Y...addition, a relatively simple Mg alloy (AZ31B) was chosen as the baseline material. AZ31B is a solid -solution-strengthened alloy with minimal

  6. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals.

  7. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment is to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer concept as well as investigate the effect of microgravity on water electrolysis performance. The scope of the experiment includes variations in microstructural characteristics of electrodes and current densities in a static feed electrolysis cell configuration. The results of the flight experiment will be used to improve efficiency of the static feed electrolysis process and other electrochemical regenerative life support processes by reducing power and expanding the operational range. Specific technologies that will benefit include water electrolysis for propulsion, energy storage, life support, extravehicular activity, in-space manufacturing and in-space science in addition to other electrochemical regenerative life support technologies such as electrochemical carbon dioxide and oxygen separation, electrochemical oxygen compression and water vapor electrolysis. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment design incorporates two primary hardware assemblies: the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly and the Control/Monitor Instrumentation. The Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly contains three separate integrated electrolysis cells along with supporting pressure and temperature control components. The Control/Monitor Instrumentation controls the operation of the experiment via the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly components and provides for monitoring and control of critical parameters and storage of experimental data.

  8. Using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory Scores as Additional Predictors of Student Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugsaken, Kris T.; Robertson, Jacqueline A.; Jones, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory in predicting college students' academic performance, focusing on whether the scores enhance the accuracy of traditional predictors such as college entrance examinations and high school rank. Results indicate the scores produce a slight but not significant increase…

  9. Distraction produces over-additive increases in the degree to which alcohol impairs driving performance

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Research indicates that alcohol intoxication and increased demands on drivers’ attention from distractions (e.g. passengers and cell phones) contribute to poor driving performance and increased rates of traffic accidents and fatalities. Objectives The present study examined the separate and combined effects of alcohol and distraction on simulated driving performance at blood alcohol concentrations (BrACs) below the legal driving limit in the United States (i.e. 0.08%). Methods Fifty healthy adult drivers (36 men and 14 women) were tested in a driving simulator following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Drivers completed two drive tests; a distracted drive, which included a two-choice detection task, and an undistracted control drive. Multiple indicators of driving performance, such as drive speed, within-lane deviation, steering rate, and lane exceedances were measured. Results Alcohol and distraction each impaired measures of driving performance. Moreover, the magnitude of alcohol impairment was increased by at least two-fold when tested under the distracting versus the undistracted condition. Conclusions The findings highlight the need for a clearer understanding of how common distractions impact intoxicated drivers, especially at BrACs that are currently legal for driving in the United States. PMID:26349918

  10. Effect of additives on the performance and morphology of sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) composite nanofiltration membranes☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Shouhai; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Guozhen; Jian, Xigao

    2014-03-01

    Sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (SPPBES) composite nanofiltration membranes were fabricated by adding low molecular weight additives into SPPBES coating solutions during a dip coating process. Three selected additives: glycol, glycerol and hydroquinone were used in this work. The effect of additives on the membrane performance was studied and discussed in terms of rejection and permeation flux. Among all the composite membranes, the membrane prepared with glycol as an additive achieved the highest Na2SO4 rejection, and the membrane fabricated with glycerol as an additive exhibited the highest flux. The salts rejection of SPPBES composite membranes increased in the following order MgCl2 < NaCl ≤ MgSO4 < Na2SO4. The morphologies of the SPPBES composite membranes were characterized by SEM, it was found that the membrane prepared with hydroquinone showed a rough membrane surface. Composite membrane fabricated with glycol or glycerol as the additive showed very good chemical stability.

  11. Performance of peaky template matching under additive white Gaussian noise and uniform quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Peaky template matching (PTM) is a special case of a general algorithm known as multinomial pattern matching originally developed for automatic target recognition of synthetic aperture radar data. The algorithm is a model- based approach that first quantizes pixel values into Nq = 2 discrete values yielding generative Beta-Bernoulli models as class-conditional templates. Here, we consider the case of classification of target chips in AWGN and develop approximations to image-to-template classification performance as a function of the noise power. We focus specifically on the case of a uniform quantization" scheme, where a fixed number of the largest pixels are quantized high as opposed to using a fixed threshold. This quantization method reduces sensitivity to the scaling of pixel intensities and quantization in general reduces sensitivity to various nuisance parameters difficult to account for a priori. Our performance expressions are verified using forward-looking infrared imagery from the Army Research Laboratory Comanche dataset.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine with Preheated Bio Diesel with Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Vajja, Sai; Murali, R. B. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper mainly reviews about the usage of preheated bio diesel added with 0.5% Etchant as an alternative fuel and evaluates its performance for various blends with different loads. Bio diesel is added with Etchant for rapid combustion as for the bio diesel, the cetane number is high that results in shorter delay of ignition and the mixture is preheated to raise its temperature to improve the combustion process. Analysis of the parameters required to define the combustion characteristics such as IP, BP, ηbth, ηm, ISFC, BSFC, IMEP, MFC, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Heat Release and heat balance is necessary as these values are significant to assess the performance of engine and its emissions of preheated bio diesel.

  13. Effects of hydrazine addition on gas evolution and performance of the direct borohydride fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. Y.; Liu, Z. X.; Yin, W. X.; Zhu, J. K.; Li, Z. P.

    A fuel cell configuration using alkaline NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions as the fuel is suggested. Gas evolution behaviors and cell performances of alkaline NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions on different catalysts have been studied. It is found that gas evolution behaviors are influenced by the applied anodic catalysts and the concentration of NaBH 4 and N 2H 4. NaBH 4 is mainly electro-oxidized on Pd but N 2H 4 is mainly electro-oxidized on Ni and surface-treated Zr-Ni alloy when using NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions as the fuel and a composite of Pd, Ni and surface-treated Zr-Ni alloy as the anodic catalyst. The cyclic voltammetry results show that electrochemical oxidation potential of NaBH 4 is higher than that of N 2H 4. Adding hydrazine into alkaline sodium borohydride solutions can suppress gas evolution and improve the cell performance of the DBFC. The performances of fuel cells using NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions are comparable to that of fuel cell using N 2H 4 solution.

  14. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 5: Propagation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Propagation experiments at 1550 MHz to 1650 MHz are reviewed, including the Integrated L-Band Experiments system and results, and the Mobile L-Band Terminals for Satellite Communication system. Experiments at 4 GHz to 6 GHz are reported, including the Radio Frequency Interferometer Measurements system and results, and Earth station antenna evaluations. Experiments above 10 GHz are discussed, including Comsat and ATS-6 millimeter wave propagation/experiments, and communication ATS-6 version at 20 and 30 GHz.

  15. The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stathi, K; Tarantili, P A; Polyzois, G

    2010-05-01

    The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated. Moreover, the effect of a UV light absorber and a silica filler was also explored. Under the experimental parameters of this work, the exposure of silicone to UV radiation resulted in some changes of the IR absorbance, thermal decomposition after 400 degrees C, T(g) and tensile properties, whereas the storage modulus of samples was not affected. The obtained spectroscopic data, as well as the results of TGA and storage modulus, were interpreted by assuming that chain scission takes place during aging, whereas the improvement of tensile strength allows the hypothesis of a post-curing process, initiated by UV radiation. Therefore, the increase of T(g) could partly be due to the above reason and, furthermore, to the contribution of a rearrangement of chain fragments within the free volume of the elastomeric material. Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of silicone matrix is enhanced, with the addition of this type pigments because of the vinyl functional silanes groups present in their chemical structure. Finally, it should be noted that the incorporation of silica nanofiller did not seem to prevent the silicone elastomer from degradation upon UV irradiation, but showed a significant reinforcing effect.

  16. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of chemistry and detonation performance.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L; Bukowski, Eric J

    2017-01-20

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives. Here, the LASEM technique has been extended to explosive formulations with metal additives. A comparison of the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities for TNT, RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by the thermochemical code CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time (<10  μs) participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that while Al is mostly inert at early times in the detonation event (confirmed from large-scale detonation testing), B is active-and reducing the amount of hydrogen present during the early chemical reactions increases the resulting estimated detonation velocities.

  17. Performance Improvements to the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, W. C.; Petway, L. P.; Antill, C. W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is the first fully-engineered, modular, tunable, autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for the remote measurement of water vapor, aerosols and clouds across the troposphere. It was designed, built and environmentally tested at LARC. LASE was designed to fly aboard a NASA/Ames ER-2 aircraft (NASA's high altitude aircraft) and operate at altitudes from 58,000 to 70,000 feet. Since its first flight on May 11, 1994, it has flown 28 total missions on board the ER-2. LASE has been validated with results showing an accuracy better than the initial requirement for vertical profiles of water vapor in the troposphere. LASE can also deploy on several other aircraft including the NASA P-3 and will fly aboard the NASA DC-8 during the Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) in July-September 1998. The tunable laser system of LASE was designed to operate in a double-pulse mode at 5Hz, with energy outputs of up to 15OmJ per pulse in the 813 to 819nm wavelength region and with 99% of the output energy within a spectral interval of 1.06 pm. Sixteen wavelengths were selected to cover the various water vapor absorption cross sections needed for the DIAL measurement. The Ti:Sapphire laser was constructed using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser as the pump source and a single mode diode laser as a injection seeder for the Ti:Al2O3 laser. We have improved the LASE instrument in several important ways. Improvements to the seed source have demonstrated that DFB laser diodes can be used as reliable seed sources on airborne DIAL instruments. The DFB diode has enabled LASE to gather more data and significantly reduced the maintenance required to insure that the system performance requirements are met. The multiwavelength sequential seeding technique is the current method of data collection for LASE. It has the advantages of providing an entire atmospheric coverage of H2O(v) from the ground to the aircraft altitude along a single

  18. Overview of the High Performance Antiproton (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise; Fant, Wallace E.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of matter with antimatter represents the highest energy density of any known reaction, producing 10(exp 8) MJ/g, approximately 10 orders of magnitude more energy per unit mass than chemical based combustion. To take the first step towards using this energy for propulsion applications the NASA MSFC Propulsion Research Center (PRC) has initiated a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. Storage was identified as a key enabling technology since it builds the experience base necessary to understand the handling of antiprotons for virtually all utilization and high-density storage concepts. To address this need, a device referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is under development at the NASA MSFC PRC. The HiPAT is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage confinement electrode system (operation up to 20 KV), and an ultra high vacuum test section (operating in the 10(exp -12) torr range). The system was designed to be portable with an ultimate goal of maintaining 10(exp 12) charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being experimentally evaluated using normal matter ions which are cheap to produce and relatively easy to handle. These normal ions provide a good indication of overall trap behavior, with the exception of assessing annihilation losses. The ions are produced external to HiPAT using two hydrogen ion sources, with adjustable beam energy and current. Ion are transported in a beam line and controlled through the use of electrostatic optics. These optics serve to both focus and gate the incoming ions, providing microsecond-timed pulses that are dynamically captured by cycling the HiPAT electric containment field like a 'trap door'. The layout of this system more closely simulates the operations expected at an actual antiproton production facility where 'packets' of antiprotons with pulse widths measured in

  19. Improving the performance of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating pharmaceutical wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yasemin; Bacaksiz, A Murat; Golebatmaz, Ugur; Vergili, Ilda; Gönder, Z Beril; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance and membrane fouling of MBR were conducted to treat real pharmaceutical process wastewater. Over 145 days of operation, the MBR system was operated at OLRs ranging from 1 to 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) without sludge wasting. The addition of PAC provided an improvement in the flux, despite an increase in the OLR:PAC ratio. The results demonstrated that the hybrid PAC-MBR system maintained a reduced amount of membrane fouling and steadily increased the removal performance of etodolac. PAC addition reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substance and organic matter on the membrane surface and resulted an increase in COD removal even at higher OLRs with low PAC addition. Membrane fouling mechanisms were investigated using combined adsorption fouling models. Modified fouling index values and normalized mass transfer coefficient values indicated that predominant fouling mechanism was cake adsorption.

  20. Factors influencing the performance of English as an Additional Language nursing students: instructors' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; McKiel, Elaine; Hwang, Jihye

    2009-09-01

    The increasing number of immigrants in Canada has led to more nursing students for whom English is an additional language (EAL). Limited language skills, cultural differences, and a lack of support can pose special challenges for these students and the instructors who teach them. Using a qualitative research methodology, in-depth interviews with fourteen EAL nursing students and two focus group interviews with nine instructors were conducted. In this paper, the instructors' perspectives are presented. Data acquired from the instructors suggest that the challenges experienced by EAL students and instructors reside in a lack of awareness and support at the institutional and structural levels rather than solely on capacities of individual EAL students or instructors. From this study, identification of supportive activities for nurse educators and education sector decision makers emerged.

  1. Poly iron sulfate flocculant as an effective additive for improving the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Morio; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory microbial fuel cells were supplied with artificial wastewater and used to examine how supplementation with poly iron sulfate, an inorganic polymer flocculant widely used in wastewater-treatment plants, affects electricity generation and anode microbiomes. It is shown that poly iron sulfate substantially increases electric outputs from microbial fuel cells. Microbiological analyses show that iron and sulfate separately affect anode microbiomes, and the increase in power output is associated with the increases in bacteria affiliated with the families Geobacteraceae and/or Desulfuromonadaceae. We suggest that poly iron sulfate is an effective additive for increasing the electric output from microbial fuel cells. Other utilities of poly iron sulfate in microbial fuel cells are also discussed.

  2. Sodium borohydride as an additive to enhance the performance of direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lianqin; Bambagioni, Valentina; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Bianchini, Claudio; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Vizza, Francesco; Fang, Xiang; Shen, Pei Kang

    The effect of adding small quantities (0.1-1 wt.%) of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) to the anolyte solution of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) with membrane-electrode assemblies constituted by nanosized Pd/C anode, Fe-Co cathode and anion-exchange membrane (Tokuyama A006) was investigated by means of various techniques. These include cyclic voltammetry, in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry, a study of the performance of monoplanar fuel cells and an analysis of the ethanol oxidation products. A comparison with fuel cells fed with aqueous solutions of ethanol proved unambiguously the existence of a promoting effect of NaBH 4 on the ethanol oxidation. Indeed, the potentiodynamic curves of the ethanol-NaBH 4 mixtures showed higher power and current densities, accompanied by a remarkable increase in the fuel consumption at comparable working time of the cell. A 13C and 11B { 1H}NMR analysis of the cell exhausts and an in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemical study showed that ethanol is converted selectively to acetate while the oxidation product of NaBH 4 is sodium metaborate (NaBO 2). The enhancement of the overall cell performance has been explained in terms of the ability of NaBH 4 to reduce the PdO layer on the catalyst surface.

  3. Detector performance for the FIREBall-2 UV experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, April D.; Hamden, Erika T.; Ong, Hwei Ru; Hennessy, John; Goodsall, Timothy; Shapiro, Charles; Cheng, Samuel; Jones, Todd; Carver, Alexander; Hoenk, Michael; Schiminovich, David; Martin, Christopher; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2015-08-01

    We present an overview of the detector for the upcoming Faint Intergalactic Red-shifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) experiment, with a particular focus on the development of device-integrated optical coatings and detector quantum efficiency (QE). FIREBall-2 is designed to measure emission from the strong resonance lines of HI, OVI, and CIV, all red-shifted to 195-225 nm window; its detector is a delta-doped electron multiplying charge coupled device (EM-CCD). Delta-doped arrays, invented at JPL, achieve 100% internal QE from the UV through the visible. External losses due to reflection (~70% in some UV regions) can be mitigated with antireflection coatings (ARCs). Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), thin-film optical filters are incorporated with existing detector technologies. ALD offers nanometer-scale control over film thickness and interface quality, allowing for precision growth of multilayer films. Several AR coatings, including single and multi-layer designs, were tested for FIREBall-2. QE measurements match modeled transmittance behavior remarkably well, showing improved performance in the target wavelength range. Also under development are ALD coatings to enhance QE for a variety of spectral regions throughout the UV (90-320 nm) and visible (320-1000 nm) range both for space-based imaging and spectroscopy as well as for ground-based telescopes.

  4. Buffer additives, Mg-lime improve SO/sub 2/ scrubber performance

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1982-08-01

    Demonstrations indicate that adipic acid and other organic buffering agents can improve the performance of limestone scrubbers for utilities using high-sulfur coal. Organic buffers used during the nine-month demonstration boosted the efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) removal from 70% to 95%. Despite legal incentives, the results are consistent with other industrial-scale and pilot-plant tests. Dibasic acids (DBA) had similar results. The low cost of buffer enhancing makes it a low-risk investment for utilities that need to bring their scrubbers into compliance with environmental standards. Scrubbers using adipic acid reduce capital costs 10% below conventional designs and annual operating costs 11%. 1 figure, 6 tables. (DCK)

  5. Improved performance of U-Mo dispersion fuel by Si addition in Al matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y S; Hofman, G L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to collect in one publication and fit together work fragments presented in many conferences in the multi-year time span starting 2002 to the present dealing with the problem of large pore formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates first observed in 2002. Hence, this report summarizes the excerpts from papers and reports on how we interpreted the relevant results from out-of-pile and in-pile tests and how this problem was dealt with. This report also provides a refined view to explain in detail and in a quantitative manner the underlying mechanism of the role of silicon in improving the irradiation performance of U-Mo/Al.

  6. Improving Performance of Power Systems with Large-scale Variable Generation Additions

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Lu, Ning; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Du, Pengwei; Kannberg, Landis D.

    2012-07-22

    A power system with large-scale renewable resources, like wind and solar generation, creates significant challenges to system control performance and reliability characteristics because of intermittency and uncertainties associated with variable generation. It is important to quantify these uncertainties, and then incorporate this information into decision-making processes and power system operations. This paper presents three approaches to evaluate the flexibility needed from conventional generators and other resources in the presence of variable generation as well as provide this flexibility from a non-traditional resource – wide area energy storage system. These approaches provide operators with much-needed information on the likelihood and magnitude of ramping and capacity problems, and the ability to dispatch available resources in response to such problems.

  7. Performance measures from the explorer platform berthing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, Stephen

    1993-12-01

    The Explorer Platform is a Modular Mission Spacecraft: it has several subunits that are designed to be replaced on orbit. The Goddard Space Flight Center Robotics Lab undertook an experiment to evaluate various robotic approaches to replacing one of the units; a large (approximately 1 meter by 1 meter by 0.5 meter) power box. The hardware consists of a Robotics Research Corporation K-1607 (RRC) manipulator mounted on a large gantry robot, a Kraft handcontroller for teleoperation of RRC, a Lightweight Servicing Tool (LST) mounted on the RRC, and an Explorer Platform mockup (EP) with a removable box (MMS) that has fixtures that mate with the LST. Sensors include a wrist wrench sensor on the RRC and Capaciflectors mounted on the LST and the MMS. There are also several cameras, but no machine vision is used. The control system for the RRC is entirely written by Goddard; it consists of Ada code on three Multibus I 386/387 CPU boards doing the real-time robot control, and C on a 386 PC processing Capaciflector data. The gantry is not moved during this experiment. The task is the exchange of the MMS; it is removed and replaced. This involves four basic steps: mating the LST to the MMS, demating the MMS from the EP, mating the MMS to the EP, and demating the LST form the MMS. Each of the mating steps must be preceeded by an alignment to bring the mechanical fixtures within their capture range. Two basic approaches to alignment are explored: teleoperation with the operator viewing thru cameras, and Capaciflector based autonomy. To evaluate the two alignment approaches, several runs were run with each approach and the final pose was recorded. Comparing this to the ideal alignment pose gives accuracy and repeatability data. In addition the wrenches exerted during the mating tasks were recorded; this gives information on how the alignment step affects the mating step. There are also two approaches to mating; teleoperation, and impedance based autonomy. The wrench data taken

  8. Performance measures from the explorer platform berthing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The Explorer Platform is a Modular Mission Spacecraft: it has several subunits that are designed to be replaced on orbit. The Goddard Space Flight Center Robotics Lab undertook an experiment to evaluate various robotic approaches to replacing one of the units; a large (approximately 1 meter by 1 meter by 0.5 meter) power box. The hardware consists of a Robotics Research Corporation K-1607 (RRC) manipulator mounted on a large gantry robot, a Kraft handcontroller for teleoperation of RRC, a Lightweight Servicing Tool (LST) mounted on the RRC, and an Explorer Platform mockup (EP) with a removable box (MMS) that has fixtures that mate with the LST. Sensors include a wrist wrench sensor on the RRC and Capaciflectors mounted on the LST and the MMS. There are also several cameras, but no machine vision is used. The control system for the RRC is entirely written by Goddard; it consists of Ada code on three Multibus I 386/387 CPU boards doing the real-time robot control, and C on a 386 PC processing Capaciflector data. The gantry is not moved during this experiment. The task is the exchange of the MMS; it is removed and replaced. This involves four basic steps: mating the LST to the MMS, demating the MMS from the EP, mating the MMS to the EP, and demating the LST form the MMS. Each of the mating steps must be preceeded by an alignment to bring the mechanical fixtures within their capture range. Two basic approaches to alignment are explored: teleoperation with the operator viewing thru cameras, and Capaciflector based autonomy. To evaluate the two alignment approaches, several runs were run with each approach and the final pose was recorded. Comparing this to the ideal alignment pose gives accuracy and repeatability data. In addition the wrenches exerted during the mating tasks were recorded; this gives information on how the alignment step affects the mating step. There are also two approaches to mating; teleoperation, and impedance based autonomy. The wrench data taken

  9. Effect of a mineral additive on the electrical performances of the positive plate of lead acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudia, M.; Matrakova, M.; Zerroual, L.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the performance of the positive electrode of lead-acid battery. The use of the additive in the positive paste is to increase the capacity and cycle life of the positive active material. Mineral porous additives, dispersed uniformly in the PAM, may act as acid reservoirs and favor the ionic diffusion. The results show that the addition of mineral additive in the paste before oxidation influences the composition and the crystal size of the PAM after oxidation. We observe a remarkable improvement of the discharge capacity of the PAM for an amount of additive ranging between 1 and 5%. Nano-sized particles of PbO2 with amorphous character are obtained. XRD, TG and DSC, SEM, and galvanostatic discharge were used as techniques of investigation.

  10. Natural and synthetic antioxidant additives for improving the performance of new biolubricant formulations.

    PubMed

    Quinchia, Lida A; Delgado, Miguel A; Valencia, Concepción; Franco, José M; Gallegos, Crispulo

    2011-12-28

    Knowledge of the oxidative stability of vegetable oils for lubricant applications is a key point, because vegetable oil oxidation potential is the main disadvantage for its use as a lubricant. Oil degradation after an oxidation process can seriously affect its lubricating function and increase wear. In this work, two different methods for evaluating the oxidation stability of lubricating vegetable oils, the oxidation onset temperature, characterized through DSC measurements (ASTM E 2009-08), and the pressure drop in the oxygen pressure vessel (ASTM D 942-02), have been used. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR studies have also been carried out. High-oleic sunflower (HOSO) and castor (CO) oils were selected and blended with natural ((+)-α-tocopherol (TCP), propyl gallate (PG), l-ascorbic acid 6-palmitate (AP)) or synthetic antioxidants (4,4'-methylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (MBP)), with the aim of formulating biodegradable vegetable-based lubricants according to REACH regulation. (1) The results showed that the most effective biodegradable antioxidant is PG, comparable to MBP, whereas lower effectiveness was obtained for TCP and AP. In relation to the methods tested, DSC measurements achieve accurate data more quickly for evaluating the oxidation stability of these basestocks, showing a linear correlation with the traditional method based on the oxygen bomb test. The empirical equation obtained depends on the mechanism involved in the antioxidant activity.

  11. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  12. Performance and modeling of active metal-matrix composites manufactured by ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnlen, Ryan; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the development and characterization of active aluminum-matrix composites manufactured by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), an emerging rapid prototyping process based on ultrasonic metal welding. The primary benefit of UAM over other metal-matrix fabrication processes is the low process temperatures, as low as 25 °C. UAM thus provides unprecedented opportunities to develop adaptive structures with seamlessly embedded smart materials and electronic components without degrading the properties that make these materials and components attractive. The objective of this research is to develop UAM composites with aluminum matrices and embedded shape memory NiTi, magnetostrictive Galfenol (FeGa), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) phases. The paper is focused on the thermally induced strain response and stiffness behavior of NiTi-Al composites, the actuation properties of FeGa-Al composites, and the embedded sensing capabilities of PVDF-Al composites. We observe up to a 10% increase over room temperature stiffness for NiTi-Al composites and a magnetomechanical response in the FeGa-Al composite up to 52.4 μɛ. The response of the PVDF-Al composite to harmonic loads is observed over a frequency range of 10 to 1000 Hz.

  13. Investigation of gamma ray shielding efficiency and mechanical performances of concrete shields containing bismuth oxide as an environmentally friendly additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ya; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Mi; Yang, Rong; Jiang, Tianjiao; Lv, Junwen

    2016-10-01

    Concrete has a proven ability to attenuate gamma rays and neutrons without compromising structural property; therefore, it is widely used as the primary shielding material in many nuclear facilities. Recently, there is a tendency toward using various additives to enhance the shielding properties of these concrete mixtures. However, most of these additives being used either pose hygiene hazards or require special handling processes. It would be ideal if environmentally friendly additives were available for use. The bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) additive shows promise in various shielding applications due to its proven radiation attenuation ability and environmentally friendly nature. To the best of our knowledge, however, Bi2O3 has never been used in concrete mixtures. Therefore, for this research, we fabricated the Bi2O3-based concrete mixtures by adding Bi2O3 powder in the ordinary concrete mixture. Concrete mixtures with lead oxide (PbO) additives were used for comparison. Radiation shielding parameters like the linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of all these concrete mixtures showing the effects of the Bi2O3 additions are presented. The mechanical performances of concrete mixtures incorporated with Bi2O3 additive were also investigated. It suggested that the concrete mixture containing 25% Bi2O3 powder (B5 in this study) provided the best shielding capacity and mechanical performance among other mixes. It has a significant potential for application as a structural concrete where radiological protection capability is required.

  14. Improving the analytical performance of hydride generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Combined effect of additives and optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia; Lampugnani, Leonardo; Zamboni, Roberto

    2001-10-01

    The effects of tetrahydroborate and acid concentration and the presence of L-cysteine and thiourea were investigated in the determination of As, Bi and Sn using continuous flow hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG AFS). The aim was to find conditions allowing the control of those effects exerting negative influence on the analytical performance of the HG AFS apparatus. The effects taken into account were: (i) the radiation scattering generated by carryover of solution from the gas-liquid separator to the atomizer; (ii) the introduction of molecular species generated by tetrahydroborate decomposition into the atomizer; and (iii) interference effects arising from other elements in the sample matrix and from different acids. The effects (i) and (ii) could be controlled using mild reaction conditions in the HG stage. The effect of HG conditions on carryover was studied by radiation scattering experiments without hydride atomization. Compromised HG conditions were found by studying the effects of tetrahydroborate (0.1-20 g l -1) and acid (0.01-7 mol l -1) concentration, and the addition of L-cysteine (10 g l -1) and thiourea (0.1 mol l -1) on the HG AFS signals. The effect of optical filters was investigated with the aim of improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Optical filters with peak wavelengths of 190 and 220 nm provided an improvement of detection limits by factors of approximately 4 and 2 for As and Te, respectively. Under optimized conditions the detection limits were 6, 5, 3, 2, 2 and 9 ng l -1 for As, Sb, Bi, Sn, Se and Te, respectively. Good tolerance to various acid compositions and sample matrices was obtained by using L-cysteine or thiourea as masking agents. Determination of arsenic in sediment and copper certified reference materials, and of bismuth in steel, sediment, soil and ore certified reference material is reported.

  15. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 4: Television experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments sponsored by the US Department of Health Education and Welfare are discussed, including telecommunications, Alaskan health service, Appalachian education satellite project, and the University of the West Indies. The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment in India is reviewed. Independent television experiments are addressed, including AIDSAT and Project Look Up.

  16. Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) - Implementation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; Gai, Mario; Vecchiato, Alberto; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Ligori, Sebastiano; Loreggia, Davide

    The GAME mission concept is aimed at test of the General Relativity, through very precise measurement of the gravitational deflection of light by the Sun, by means of an optimised telescope operating in the visible and launched in orbit on a small class satellite. We recall the science motivations, discussed in detail in a separate contribution by Vecchiato et al., and describe the mission requirements derivation, the proposed mission profile, the preliminary payload design and the expected performance. The targeted precision on the "γ" parameter of the Parametrised Post-Newtonian formulation of General Relativity is in the range 10-6 to 10-7 or better, with an improvement of one or two orders of magnitude with respect to the best currently available experimental results. Such precision is suitable to detect possible deviations of γ from the unity value, associated to generalised Einstein models for gravitation, with potentially huge impacts on the cosmological distribution of dark matter and dark energy. The measurement principle is based on the differential astrometric signature on the stellar positions, i.e. on the spatial component of the gravitational effect, rather than the temporal component as in the most recent experiments based on radio link delay timing. Calibration is based on frequent measurement of angular separation of bright sources in stellar fields affected by negligible deflection. The instrument concept is based on a dual field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously two sky regions close to the Solar limb. A split flat mirror is used to fold the telescope line of sight on two different directions on the sky, separated by a base angle of about 4 degrees, which represents the gauge applied on the sky to measure the desired angular value of deflection. Stability or calibration of the base angle is the key to fulfilling the GAME science goals. An internal laser metrology option is considered for both on ground

  17. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  18. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  19. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  20. High-throughput stochastic tensile performance of additively manufactured stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Salzbrenner, Bradley C.; Rodelas, Jeffrey M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Jared, Bradley Howell; Swiler, Laura Painton; Shen, Yu -Lin; Boyce, Brad L.

    2016-10-29

    An adage within the Additive Manufacturing (AM) community is that “complexity is free”. Complicated geometric features that normally drive manufacturing cost and limit design options are not typically problematic in AM. While geometric complexity is usually viewed from the perspective of part design, this advantage of AM also opens up new options in rapid, efficient material property evaluation and qualification. In the current work, an array of 100 miniature tensile bars are produced and tested for a comparable cost and in comparable time to a few conventional tensile bars. With this technique, it is possible to evaluate the stochastic nature of mechanical behavior. The current study focuses on stochastic yield strength, ultimate strength, and ductility as measured by strain at failure (elongation). However, this method can be used to capture the statistical nature of many mechanical properties including the full stress-strain constitutive response, elastic modulus, work hardening, and fracture toughness. Moreover, the technique could extend to strain-rate and temperature dependent behavior. As a proof of concept, the technique is demonstrated on a precipitation hardened stainless steel alloy, commonly known as 17-4PH, produced by two commercial AM vendors using a laser powder bed fusion process, also commonly known as selective laser melting. Using two different commercial powder bed platforms, the vendors produced material that exhibited slightly lower strength and markedly lower ductility compared to wrought sheet. Moreover, the properties were much less repeatable in the AM materials as analyzed in the context of a Weibull distribution, and the properties did not consistently meet minimum allowable requirements for the alloy as established by AMS. The diminished, stochastic properties were examined in the context of major contributing factors such as surface roughness and internal lack-of-fusion porosity. Lastly, this high-throughput capability is expected

  1. High-throughput stochastic tensile performance of additively manufactured stainless steel

    DOE PAGES

    Salzbrenner, Bradley C.; Rodelas, Jeffrey M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; ...

    2016-10-29

    An adage within the Additive Manufacturing (AM) community is that “complexity is free”. Complicated geometric features that normally drive manufacturing cost and limit design options are not typically problematic in AM. While geometric complexity is usually viewed from the perspective of part design, this advantage of AM also opens up new options in rapid, efficient material property evaluation and qualification. In the current work, an array of 100 miniature tensile bars are produced and tested for a comparable cost and in comparable time to a few conventional tensile bars. With this technique, it is possible to evaluate the stochastic naturemore » of mechanical behavior. The current study focuses on stochastic yield strength, ultimate strength, and ductility as measured by strain at failure (elongation). However, this method can be used to capture the statistical nature of many mechanical properties including the full stress-strain constitutive response, elastic modulus, work hardening, and fracture toughness. Moreover, the technique could extend to strain-rate and temperature dependent behavior. As a proof of concept, the technique is demonstrated on a precipitation hardened stainless steel alloy, commonly known as 17-4PH, produced by two commercial AM vendors using a laser powder bed fusion process, also commonly known as selective laser melting. Using two different commercial powder bed platforms, the vendors produced material that exhibited slightly lower strength and markedly lower ductility compared to wrought sheet. Moreover, the properties were much less repeatable in the AM materials as analyzed in the context of a Weibull distribution, and the properties did not consistently meet minimum allowable requirements for the alloy as established by AMS. The diminished, stochastic properties were examined in the context of major contributing factors such as surface roughness and internal lack-of-fusion porosity. Lastly, this high-throughput capability is

  2. Enhancing the Oxidation Performance of Wrought Ni-Base Superalloy by Minor Additions of Active Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    We show that the oxidation performance of Cr2O3-forming superalloy based upon the Ni-Cr-W system is significantly improved by the presence of minor concentrations of La, Si and Mn, which outweigh the detrimental effect of high W concentration in the alloy. Although Cr2O3 is known to transform into volatile CrO3 at temperatures ≥950 °C, the respective protection is extended to temperatures reaching 1150 °C, which has also been correlated with the beneficial effects of La, Si and Mn. During high-temperature oxidation, an inner protective La- and Si-modified layer of α-Cr2O3 in contact with the superalloy substrate is developed and shielded by an outermost layer of MnCr2O4. The distribution of La and Si in the inner oxide layer has been characterized down to the scale of transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are elucidated.

  3. Improvement of low-humidity performance of PEMFC by addition of hydrophilic SiO 2 particles to catalyst layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Un Ho; Park, Ki Tae; Park, Eun Hee; Kim, Sung Hyun

    Hydrophilic SiO 2 particles are added to the catalyst layer of a fuel cell membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) to improve wettability and performance at low-humidity conditions. The SiO 2 added MEAs are prepared by spraying technique and the contact angle is measured by the sessile drop method. The effects of SiO 2 additions of 0, 20, 40 and 60 wt.% (based on Pt/C) are investigated for various relative humidity levels in the anode and the cathode. The increased wettability of the cathode catalyst layer exerts an adverse effect on cell performance by causing flooding; this result demonstrates the hydrophilicity of SiO 2. With 40 wt.% addition of SiO 2 to the anode catalyst layer, the current density at 0.6 V and 0% relative humidity of the anode is 93% of that at 100% relative humidity. By comparison, the performance of a cell using a MEA with no added SiO 2 is only 85% of that at 0% relative humidity. A MEA with SiO 2 addition in the anode gives a higher performance at 60% relative humidity of the cathode than one with an undoped MEA. Increased wettability of the anode catalyst layer caused by SiO 2 addition renders it easy to absorb water from back diffusion.

  4. Impact of an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience on Students' Performance in an Advanced Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas J.; Hedge, Dennis D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) on students' clinical skills during their initial advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design A 4-week First Steps course that focused on students developing pharmacy practice skills, clinical communications skills, and effective use of reference materials was introduced in 2006 at the end of the third-year curriculum, prior to students beginning their APPEs. Assessment During the third week of the first APPE, faculty members rated students' demonstration of 9 clinical skills on a 5-point Likert scale (1 being always and 5 being never). The evaluation was performed in 2005 prior to implementation of the course (control group) and again in 2006 after implementation of the course. Students who completed the First Steps course scored better on all 9 skills and had a better average clinical skills value (2.3) compared to the control group (2.6, p < 0.01). Conclusion Completion of an IPPE course that focused on critical pharmacy practice aspects, clinical communication skills, and use of reference materials resulted in increased frequency of desired clinical behaviors on a subsequent APPE. PMID:20221362

  5. Results of Russian/US high performance DEMG experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Buyko, A.M.; Bidylo, N.P.; Chernyshev, V.K.

    1995-08-01

    In November 1992, the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Arzamas-16, Russia and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM, USA embarked on a historic effort to conduct a joint explosive pulse-power experiment. With the concurrence of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Russia) and the Department of Energy (USA), the two laboratories entered into a Laboratory-to-Laboratory collaboration in the areas of very high energy pulse power and ultrahigh magnetic fields in order to explore problems of mutual scientific interest. The first experiment was an explosively powered, fast, high-current pulse-power experiment. The experiment employed a flux compressor, inductive store, and opening switch to demonstrate the feasibility of supplying many megajoules of electrical energy on microsecond time scales, to high energy density physics experiments. The experiment was successfully conducted in Arzamas-16 on September 22, 1993.

  6. The effect of additives and nanoparticles on falling film absorption performance of binary nanofluids (H2O/LiBr + nanoparticles).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Ki; Kim, Hyundae; Kim, Myung Hyun; Koo, Junemo; Kang, Yong Tae

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the combined heat and mass transfer enhancement using binary nanofluids as a working fluid in a H2O/LiBr absorber. The result of heat and mass transfer experiment with the additives (arabicgum, 2E1H) showed that the heat and mass transfer performance of binary nanofluid with 2E1H enhanced significantly. In the case of 0.01 wt% Al2O3 binary nanofluids with 2E1H, the vapor absorption rate increased up to 77% in comparison with that without the additives. The heat transfer rate of 0.01 wt% Al2O3 binary nanofluids with 2E1H increased up to 19%. Based on the experimental results, it is recommended that the Al2O3 binary nanofluid be good with 2E1H to improve the heat and mass transfer performance.

  7. Performance of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline ethylene glycol electrolyte with dicarboxylic acids additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DaPeng; Zhang, DaQuan; Lee, KangYong; Gao, LiXin

    2015-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acid compounds, i.e. succinic acid (SUA), adipic acid (ADA) and sebacic acid (SEA), are used as electrolyte additives in the alkaline ethylene glycol solution for AA5052 aluminium-air batteries. It shows that the addition of dicarboxylic acids lowers the hydrogen gas evolution rate of commercial AA5052 aluminium alloy anode. AA5052 aluminium alloy has wide potential window for electrochemical activity and better discharge performance in alkaline ethylene glycol solution containing dicarboxylic acid additives. ADA has the best inhibition effect for the self-corrosion of AA5052 anode among the three dicarboxylic acid additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals that dicarboxylic acids and aluminium ions can form coordination complexes. Quantum chemical calculations shows that ADA has a smaller energy gap (ΔE, the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied orbital and the highest occupied orbital), indicating that ADA has the strongest interaction with aluminium ions.

  8. Motor imagery of locomotion with an additional load: actual load experience does not affect differences between physical and mental durations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Blischke, Klaus; Krüger, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Motor imagery relies strongly on motor representations. Currently, it is widely accepted that both the imagery and execution of actions share the same neural representations (Jeannerod, Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001). Comparing mental with actual movement durations opens a window through which to examine motor representations and how they relate to cognitive motor processes. The present experiment examined mental durations reported by participants standing upright who imagined walking either with or without an additional load while actually carrying or not carrying that same load. Results showed a robust effect of longer durations when imagining the additional load during mental walking, whereas physical walking with an additional load did not extend movement durations accordingly. However, experiencing an actual load during imagery did not influence mental durations substantially. This dissociation of load-related effects can be interpreted as being due to an interaction of motor processes and their cognitive representation along with a reduction in neural activity in vestibular and somatosensory areas during imagery of locomotion. It is argued that this effect might be specific to locomotion and not generalize to a broader range of movements.

  9. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  10. Results of Russian/US high performance DEMG experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Buyko, A.M.; Bidylo, N.P.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Demidov, V.A.

    1996-12-01

    In November 1992, the AU Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Arzamas-16, Russia and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM, USA embarked on a historic effort to conduct a joint explosive pulse-power experiment. With the concurrence of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Russia) and the Department of Energy (USA), the two laboratories, entered into a Laboratory-to-Laboratory collaboration in the areas of very high energy pulse-power and ultrahigh magnetic fields in order to explore problems of mutual scientific interest. The first experiment to be planned was an explosively powered, fast, high-current pulse-power system demonstration. The experiment used a flux compressor, inductive store, and high-current opening switch to demonstrate the feasibility of supplying many megajoules of electrical energy, on microsecond time scales, to high energy density physics experiments. The experiment was conducted in Arzamas-16 on September 22, 1993.

  11. Understanding the Role of Additives in Improving the Performance of Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Solar cells based on the polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) represent one of the most promising technologies for next-generation solar energy conversion due to their low-cost and scalability. In the last fifteen years, research efforts have led to organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ~ 12%, but these values are still insufficient for the devices to become widely marketable. To further improve solar cell performance, a thorough understanding of the complex processing-structure-performance relationships in OPV devices is required. Recently, the use of processing additives have been proved to be one of the most effective methods to tune the nanomorphology of polymer:fullerene active layer, as the incorporation of a small percentage of solvent additives results in a nearly doubling of device efficiency. However, the physics behind these improved performances by processing additives still remains unclear. In this work, by taking advantage of resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have determined that the solvent additives induce the change in the formation mechanism of polymer:fullerene nanomorphologies in the process of film casting. Progress established in the course of these studies on structural and morphological characterizations will serve as the foundation for further improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells to realize their large-scale commercial use.

  12. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  13. Emotion, Engagement and Meaning in Strong Experiences of Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the emotions connected with music performance. Performing music provides the potential to attain wellbeing via the hedonic and eudaimonic routes, appealing to pleasure, engagement and meaning (Seligman, 2002). To date, most research exploring emotions amongst performers has focused on these components separately, exploring…

  14. The influence of anaesthetists' experience on workload, performance and visual attention during simulated critical incidents.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian M; Schneider, Erich; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Heuser, Fabian; Wagner, Klaus J; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Development of accurate Situation Awareness (SA) depends on experience and may be impaired during excessive workload. In order to gain adequate SA for decision making and performance, anaesthetists need to distribute visual attention effectively. Therefore, we hypothesized that in more experienced anaesthetists performance is better and increase of physiological workload is less during critical incidents. Additionally, we investigated the relation between physiological workload indicators and distribution of visual attention. In fifteen anaesthetists, the increase of pupil size and heart rate was assessed in course of a simulated critical incident. Simulator log files were used for performance assessment. An eye-tracking device (EyeSeeCam) provided data about the anaesthetists' distribution of visual attention. Performance was assessed as time until definitive treatment. T tests and multivariate generalized linear models (MANOVA) were used for retrospective statistical analysis. Mean pupil diameter increase was 8.1% (SD ± 4.3) in the less experienced and 15.8% (±10.4) in the more experienced subjects (p = 0.191). Mean heart rate increase was 10.2% (±6.7) and 10.5% (±8.3, p = 0.956), respectively. Performance did not depend on experience. Pupil diameter and heart rate increases were associated with a shift of visual attention from monitoring towards manual tasks (not significant). For the first time, the following four variables were assessed simultaneously: physiological workload indicators, performance, experience, and distribution of visual attention between "monitoring" and "manual" tasks. However, we were unable to detect significant interactions between these variables. This experimental model could prove valuable in the investigation of gaining and maintaining SA in the operation theatre.

  15. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Experiments to Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Peter T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the principles of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LCEC), an analytical technique that incorporates the advantages of both liquids chromatography and electrochemistry. Also suggests laboratory experiments using this technique. (MLH)

  16. Authoring experience: the significance and performance of storytelling in Socratic dialogue with rehabilitating cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect in philosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experience to illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participants is the traditional point of departure for the dialogical exchange. However, narrating is much more than a beginning point or the skeletal framework of events and it deserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impacts the conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article we show how the narrative aspect became a rich resource for the compassionate bond between participants and how their stories cultivated the abstract reflection in the group. In addition, the aim of the article is to reveal the different layers in the performance of storytelling, or of authoring experience. By picking, poking and dissecting an experience through a collaborative effort, most participants had their initial experience existentially refined and the chosen concept of which the experience served as an illustration transformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientation post cancer.

  17. Is performance in task-cuing experiments mediated by task set selection or associative compound retrieval?

    PubMed

    Forrest, Charlotte L D; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P L

    2014-07-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed, after a short or long interval, by a digit to which 1 of 2 responses was required. In a tasks condition, participants were (as usual) directed to interpret the cue as an instruction to perform either an odd/even or a high/low classification task. In a cue + stimulus → response (CSR) condition, to induce learning of mappings between cue-stimulus compound and response, participants were, in Experiment 1, given standard task instructions and additionally encouraged to learn the CSR mappings; in Experiment 2, informed of all the CSR mappings and asked to learn them, without standard task instructions; in Experiment 3, required to learn the mappings by trial and error. The effects of a task switch, response congruence, preparation, and transfer to a new set of stimuli differed substantially between the conditions in ways indicative of classification according to task rules in the tasks condition, and retrieval of responses specific to stimulus-cue combinations in the CSR conditions. Qualitative features of the latter could be captured by an associative learning network. Hence associatively based compound retrieval can serve as the basis for performance with a small stimulus set. But when organization by tasks is apparent, control via task set selection is the natural and efficient strategy.

  18. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  19. Microbial ecology and performance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological processes treating petrochemical wastewater with high strength of ammonia: effect of Na(2)CO(3) addition.

    PubMed

    Whang, L M; Yang, K H; Yang, Y F; Han, Y L; Chen, Y J; Cheng, S S

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated nitrification performance and microbial ecology of AOB in a full-scale biological process, powder activated carbon treatment (PACT), and a pilot-scale biological process, moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), treating wastewater collected from a petrochemical industry park. The petrochemical influent wastewater characteristics showed a relative low carbon to nitrogen ratio around 1 with average COD and ammonia concentrations of 310 mg/L and 325 mg-N/L, respectively. The average nitrification efficiency of the full-scale PACT process was around 11% during this study. For the pilot-scale MBBR, the average nitrification efficiency was 24% during the Run I operation mode, which provided a slightly better performance in nitrification than that of the PACT process. During the Run II operation, the pH control mode was switched from addition of NaOH to Na(2)CO(3), leading to a significant improvement in nitrification efficiency of 51%. In addition to a dramatic change in nitrification performance, the microbial ecology of AOB, monitored with the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular methodology, was found to be different between Runs I and II. The amoA-based TRFLP results indicated that Nitrosomonas europaea lineage was the dominant AOB population during Run I operation, while Nitrosospira-like AOB was dominant during Run II operation. To confirm the effects of Na(2)CO(3) addition on the nitrification performance and AOB microbial ecology observed in the MBBR process, batch experiments were conducted. The results suggest that addition of Na(2)CO(3) as a pH control strategy can improve nitrification performance and also influence AOB microbial ecology as well. Although the exact mechanisms are not clear at this time, the results showing the effects of adding different buffering chemicals such as NaOH or Na(2)CO(3) on AOB populations have never been demonstrated until this study.

  20. Investigation of cross-linked and additive containing polymer materials for membranes with improved performance in pervaporation and gas separation.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-10-22

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes.

  1. Investigation of Cross-Linked and Additive Containing Polymer Materials for Membranes with Improved Performance in Pervaporation and Gas Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes. PMID:24958427

  2. Enhanced Performance of Li|LiFePO4 Cells Using CsPF6 as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Liang; Chen, Xilin; Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiang, Hongfa; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-10-20

    The practical application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable Li batteries is hindered by both the growth of Li dendrites and the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Recently, we have discovered that CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive can significantly suppress Li dendrite growth and lead to highly compacted and well aligned Li nanorod structure during Li deposition on copper substrates. In this paper, the effect of CsPF6 additive on the performance of rechargeable Li metal batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode was further studied. Li|LFP coin cells with CsPF6 additive in electrolytes show well protected Li anode surface, decreased resistance, enhanced rate capability and extended cycling stability. In Li|LFP cells, the electrolyte with CsPF6 additive shows excellent long-term cycling stability (at least 500 cycles) at a charge current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 without internal short circuit. At high charge current densities, the effect of CsPF6 additive becomes less significant. Future work needs to be done to protect Li metal anode, especially at high charge current densities and for long cycle life.

  3. Enhanced performance of Li|LiFePO4 cells using CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang; Chen, Xilin; Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiang, Hongfa; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2015-10-01

    The practical application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable Li batteries is hindered by both the growth of Li dendrites and the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Recently, we have discovered that CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive can significantly suppress Li dendrite growth and lead to highly compacted and well aligned Li nanorod structures during Li deposition on copper substrates. In this paper, the effect of CsPF6 additive on the performance of rechargeable Li metal batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode is further studied. Li|LFP coin cells with CsPF6 additive in electrolytes show well protected Li anode surface, decreased resistance, enhanced rate capability and extended cycling stability. In Li|LFP cells, the electrolyte with CsPF6 additive shows excellent long-term cycling stability (at least 500 cycles) at a charge current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 without internal short circuit. At high charge current densities, the effect of CsPF6 additive becomes less significant. Future work needs to be done to protect Li metal anode, especially at high charge current densities and for long cycle life.

  4. Impact of oxygenated additives to diesel-biodiesel blends in the context of performance and emissions characteristics of a CI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi Y.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, Abdul A.

    2016-11-01

    Butanol is receiving huge interest in the area of alternative fuel in the compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, butanol is used as an oxygenated additive to diesel and biodiesel blend fuels to evaluate the performance and emission of CI engine. The commercially available pure diesel fuel (D100) and 80% commercially available diesel- biodiesel bled (5% biodiesel and 95% by volume) and 20% butanol (BU20) fuels were investigated to evaluate the effects of the fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine. The experiment was conducted at fixed load of 75% with the five engine speeds (from 1200-2400 rpm with an interval of 300 rpm). The engine performance parameters such as power, torque, fuel consumption and thermal efficiency and exhaust gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and exhaust gas temperature were analysed from the experimental data. The results shows that although butanol addition has caused a slight reduction in power and torque values (11.1% and 3.5%, respectively), the emission values of the engine were improved. With respect to the exhaust gas temperature, CO and NOx emissions, of BU20 is reported to have reduction by 17.7%, 20% and 3%, respectively than the B100. Therefore, butanol can be used as a fuel additive to diesel-biodiesel blends.

  5. Wondering the World: Experiences with Culture, Performance, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelin, Dan A., II

    2008-01-01

    A teaching artist reflects on his travels and work across the South Pacific and India. He concludes that American culture views art as a commodity appreciated mostly for its personal entertainment value, and therefore judges the outcome of artistic endeavors rather than appreciate the purpose of such endeavors. His teaching experiences have…

  6. Design and experiment performances of an inchworm type rotary actuator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Zhao, Hongwei; Shao, Mingkun; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Huang, Hu; Fan, Zunqiang

    2014-08-01

    A piezo-driven rotary actuator by means of inchworm principle is proposed in this paper. Six piezo-stacks and flexure hinges are used to realize large rotation ranges with high accuracy both in the forward and backward motions. Four right-angle flexure hinges and two right-circular flexure hinges are applied in the stator. The motion principle and theoretical analysis of the designed actuator are discussed. In order to investigate the working characteristics, a prototype actuator was manufactured and a series of experiment tests were carried out. The test results indicate that the maximum rotation velocity is 71,300 μrad/s; the maximum output torque is 19.6 N mm. The experiment results confirm that the designed actuator can obtain large rotation motion ranges with relatively high output torques and different rotation speeds on the condition of different driving voltages and frequencies.

  7. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  8. Enhanced CO2 adsorptive performance of PEI/SBA-15 adsorbent using phosphate ester based surfactants as additives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dandan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Haiqiang; Weng, Xiaole; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a series of polyetherimide/SBA-15: 2-D hexagonal P6mm, Santa Barbara USA (PEI/SBA-15) adsorbents modified by phosphoric ester based surfactants (including tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEP) and trimethyl phosphonoacetate (TMPA)) were prepared for CO2 adsorption. Experimental results indicated that the addition of TEP and BEP had positive effects on CO2 adsorption capacity over PEI/SBA-15. In particular, the CO2 adsorption amount could be improved by around 20% for 45PEI-5TEP/SBA-15 compared to the additive-free adsorbent. This could be attributed to the decrease of CO2 diffusion resistance in the PEI bulk network due to the interactions between TEP and loaded PEI molecules, which was further confirmed by adsorption kinetics results. In addition, it was also found that the cyclic performance of the TEP-modified adsorbent was better than the surfactant-free one. This could be due to two main reasons, based on the results of in situ DRIFT and TG-DSC tests. First and more importantly, adsorbed CO2 species could be desorbed more rapidly over TEP-modified adsorbent during the thermal desorption process. Furthermore, the enhanced thermal stability after TEP addition ensured lower degradation of amine groups during adsorption/desorption cycles.

  9. Improvements in quantum cascade laser performance through comprehensive modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Scott Sheridan

    Prior to the invention of the quantum cascade (QC) laser, many applications based on mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser absorption spectroscopy were not be explored. Development of the QC laser provided an inherently compact, semiconductor based, and tunable mid-IR source that could be used for laser absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, QC lasers can be designed to emit at a specific wavelength within a very wide wavelength range from between 3 and 30 mum and can be fabricated to operate single-mode to clearly scan mid-IR absorption "fingerprints" [1]. This allows lasers to be tailored to the exact wavelength of an absorption feature. Two examples of absorption spectroscopy experiments were carried out as part of this dissertation and described herein: C60 in space and dissolved gasses in living tissue. Although QC lasers allow for application development in the mid-IR, they are inefficient and heat dissipation is problematic. First generation QC lasers relied on either bulky cryogenic cooling systems for continuous wave operation or large, expensive pulse generators [2]. Later, advances in QC laser design, growth, and fabrication led to room-temperature continuous wave operation [3]. These advances promoted additional applications of QC lasers where cryogenic cooling was impossible or highly inconvenient. This dissertation presents comprehensive self-consistent models permitting the optimization of high operating temperature QC lasers. These models employ strategies counter to those used in designing low temperature devices and were used to design, fabricate, and demonstrate high-performance QC lasers. By self-consistently solving the temperature dependent threshold current density and heat equations, including temperature dependent thermal conductivities, phonon lifetimes, thermal "backfilling," thermionic emission, and energy level broadening, we calculated the effects of doping level, material choice, and waveguide layer thickness on the laser threshold performance

  10. Significant Change in Marine Plankton Structure and Carbon Production After the Addition of River Water in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Fouilland, E; Trottet, A; Alves-de-Souza, C; Bonnet, D; Bouvier, T; Bouvy, M; Boyer, S; Guillou, L; Hatey, E; Jing, H; Leboulanger, C; Le Floc'h, E; Liu, H; Mas, S; Mostajir, B; Nouguier, J; Pecqueur, D; Rochelle-Newall, E; Roques, C; Salles, C; Tournoud, M-G; Vasseur, C; Vidussi, F

    2017-03-16

    Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters. The addition of water led to initial increases (days 1-2) in bacterial production as well as increases in the abundances of bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes. After day 3, the increases were more significant for diatoms and dinoflagellates that were already present in the Thau Lagoon water (mainly Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima and Prorocentrum triestinum) and other larger organisms (tintinnids, rotifers). At the same time, the abundances of bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria, and picoeukaryote fell, some nutrients (NH4(+), SiO4(3-)) returned to pre-input levels, and the plankton structure moved from a trophic food web based on secondary production to the accumulation of primary producers in the mesocosms with added river water. Our results also show that, after freshwater inputs, there is rapid emergence of plankton species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. This suggests that flash flood events may lead to sanitary issues, other than pathogens, in exploited marine areas.

  11. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  12. Dynamic Experiments and Constitutive Model Performance for Polycarbonate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    together to dictate deformation response to subsequent failure. The physical processes and evolution are complicated and may be difficult to access...experimentally. Because of the complex processes present during a ballistic impact event, it is often difficult to identify the armor or material...identify key interactions (e.g., properties, wave propagation, interfaces, geometry, composition, processing ) that pilot valued protection performance

  13. The Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis Experience: Reconnecting With Technical Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Very early in the Space Launch Initiative program, a small team of engineers at MSFC proposed a process for performing system-level assessments of a launch vehicle. Aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a smart buyer, the Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis (VIPA) team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and previous integration attempts is that VIPA a process using experienced people from various disciplines, which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. The foundations of VIPA s process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to target early detailed analysis toward identifying significant systems issues. This process is driven by the T-model for technical integration. VIPA s approach to performing system-level technical integration is discussed in detail. The VIPA process significantly enhances the development and monitoring of realizable project requirements. VIPA s assessment validates the concept s stated performance, identifies significant issues either with the concept or the requirements, and then reintegrates these issues to determine impacts. This process is discussed along with a description of how it may be integrated into a program s insight and review process. The VIPA process has gained favor with both engineering and project organizations for being responsive and insightful

  14. Relationships between Minority Students Online Learning Experiences and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeboah, Alex Kumi; Smith, Patriann

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between minority students' use of technology, social media, the number of online courses, program of study, satisfaction, and academic performance. Participants in the study were a diverse student body regarding age, gender, and educational level, and functioned at both undergraduate and graduate levels.…

  15. Flow among Musicians: Measuring Peak Experiences of Student Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Sarah; Moran, Aidan; O'Connell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    "Flow" is a highly coveted yet elusive state of mind that is characterized by complete absorption in the task at hand as well as by enhanced skilled performance. Unfortunately, because most measures of this construct have been developed in physical activity and sport settings, little is known about the applicability of flow scales to the…

  16. Effect of supplementation of phytogenic feed additives (powdered vs. encapsulated) on performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Schieder, C; Zentek, J

    2016-03-01

    Inclusion of phytogenic feed additives (PFA) in feed may enhance performance of broilers. Levels of essential oils in powdered form (characterized by menthol and anethole) at 150 mg/kg (P-150) and matrix-encapsulated form (characterized by carvacrol, thymol, and limonene) at 100 mg/kg (ME-100) were supplemented in diet to investigate their effect on performance (trial 1) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients (trial 2) in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broilers (Cobb 500) were used in trial 1 and 120 broilers in trial 2. Broilers were distributed in 24 pens with 8 pens per treatment (trial 1) and 6 pens with 2 pens per treatment (trial 2), with 20 birds per pen. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experimental periods in both trials. In trial 1, body weight of birds at d 42 and overall body weight gain from d 1 to d 42, was higher in treatment ME-100 than birds in control treatment (P = 0.023 and P = 0.024, respectively). Feed efficiency during finisher phase was improved in treatment ME-100 relatively to control and P-150 treatments (P = 0.035). At d 21 in trial 2, the apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher in ME-100 treatment in comparison with control and P-150 treatments (P < 0.001). Apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of phosphorus was higher in ME-100 treatment than control treatment (P = 0.028). AID of cysteine was higher in both phytogenic additive supplemented treatments in comparison with control treatment (P = 0.001). In conclusion, inclusion of a powdered phytogenic additive characterized by menthol and anethole at 150 mg/kg had no effect but only a tendency towards improved performance and AIA of phosphorus, whereas essential oils addition in encapsulated form characterized by caravacol, thymol, and limonene at 100 mg/kg improved performance as well as apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers, possibly due to improved secretion of digestive enzymes.

  17. An Efficient Multi-Scale Simulation Architecture for the Prediction of Performance Metrics of Parts Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Deepankar; Patil, Nachiket; Zeng, Kai; Teng, Chong; Stucker, Brent

    2015-09-01

    In this study, an overview of the computational tools developed in the area of metal-based additively manufactured (AM) to simulate the performance metrics along with their experimental validations will be presented. The performance metrics of the AM fabricated parts such as the inter- and intra-layer strengths could be characterized in terms of the melt pool dimensions, solidification times, cooling rates, granular microstructure, and phase morphologies along with defect distributions which are a function of the energy source, scan pattern(s), and the material(s). The four major areas of AM simulation included in this study are thermo-mechanical constitutive relationships during fabrication and in- service, the use of Euler angles for gaging static and dynamic strengths, the use of algorithms involving intelligent use of matrix algebra and homogenization extracting the spatiotemporal nature of these processes, a fast GPU architecture, and specific challenges targeted toward attaining a faster than real-time simulation efficiency and accuracy.

  18. Classroom social experiences as predictors of academic performance.

    PubMed

    Flook, Lisa; Repetti, Rena L; Ullman, Jodie B

    2005-03-01

    A model linking children's peer acceptance in the classroom to academic performance via academic self-concept and internalizing symptoms was tested in a longitudinal study. A sample of 248 children was followed from 4th to 6th grade, with data collected from different informants in each year of the study to reduce respondent bias. A path analysis supported the model; a lack of peer acceptance in the classroom in 4th grade predicted lower academic self-concept and more internalizing symptoms the following year, which in turn, predicted lower academic performance in 6th grade. An alternative path with internalizing symptoms predicting declines in peer acceptance was tested and received some support as well. Implications of the findings for schools are discussed.

  19. The Effects of Various Conductive Additive and Polymeric Binder Contents on the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Kim, S.; Deng, Y.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.; Battaglia, V.S.

    2008-08-07

    Fundamental electrochemical methods, cell performance tests, and physical characterization tests such as electron microscopy were used to study the effects of levels of the inert materials (acetylene black (AB), a nano-conductive additive, and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a polymer binder) on the power performance of lithium-ion composite cathodes. The electronic conductivity of the AB/PVDF composites at different compositions was measured with a four-point probe direct current method. The electronic conductivity was found to increase rapidly and plateau at a AB:PVDF ratio 0.2:1 (by weight), with 0.8:1 being the highest conductivity composition. AB:PVDF compositions along the plateau of 0.2:1, 0.4:1, 0.6:1 and 0.8:1 were investigated. Electrodes of each of those compositions were fabricated with different fractions of AB/PVDF to active material. It was found that at the 0.8:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with increases in the AB/PVDF loading, whereas at the 0.2:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with decreases in the AB/PVDF loading. The impedance of electrodes made with 0.6:1 AB:PVDF was low and relatively invariant.

  20. [Attitudes, learning experience and performance in mathematics: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Barbero García, Maria I; Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Vila Abad, Enrique; Chacón Moscoso, Salvador

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we used the data of Mathematics achievements from the sample of 13- year-old Spanish boys and girl who took part in the Second National Assessment of Educational Progress, carried out by the Educational Testing Service. With the aim of identifying variables related to high achievement, our goals are: 1) to analyse whether there are significant differences in 13-year-old Spanish boys and girls in their attitudes towards mathematics, their study strategies, and their performance; 2) to analyse the influence of their attitudes and study strategies on their performance, and to examine whether these relations are the same in boys and girls; 3) to propose a theoretical model that explains the relationship among the variables defined by means of structural equation modelling. The results show that: a) there are significant differences between boys and girls in the variables studied; b) it is not possible to reject the proposed model that relates study strategies and attitudes towards performance in mathematics; and c) the model tends to be stable both among boys and girls.

  1. Elasticity improves handgrip performance and user experience during visuomotor control

    PubMed Central

    Rinne, Paul; Liardon, Jean-Luc; Uhomoibhi, Catherine; Bentley, Paul; Burdet, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Passive rehabilitation devices, providing motivation and feedback, potentially offer an automated and low-cost therapy method, and can be used as simple human–machine interfaces. Here, we ask whether there is any advantage for a hand-training device to be elastic, as opposed to rigid, in terms of performance and preference. To address this question, we have developed a highly sensitive and portable digital handgrip, promoting independent and repetitive rehabilitation of grasp function based around a novel elastic force and position sensing structure. A usability study was performed on 66 healthy subjects to assess the effect of elastic versus rigid handgrip control during various visuomotor tracking tasks. The results indicate that, for tasks relying either on feedforward or on feedback control, novice users perform significantly better with the elastic handgrip, compared with the rigid equivalent (11% relative improvement, 9–14% mean range; p < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a threefold increase in the number of subjects who preferred elastic compared with rigid handgrip interaction. Our results suggest that device compliance is an important design consideration for grip training devices. PMID:28386448

  2. Performance Assessment for e-Government Services: An Experience Report

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-14

    The transformation and integration of government services, enabled by the use of new technologies such as application servers and Web services, is fundamental to reduce the cost of government and improving service outcomes to citizens. Many core Government information systems comprise applications running on legacy mainframes, databases and transaction processing monitors. As Governments worldwide provide direct access over the Internet to these legacy applications from the general public, they may be exposed to workloads well above the origin design parameters of these back-end systems. This creates a significant risk of high profile failures for Government agencies whose newly integrated systems become overloaded. In this paper we describe how we conducted a performance assessment of a business-critical, Internet-facing Web services that integrated new and legacy systems from two Australian Government agencies. We leveraged prototype tools from our own research along with known techniques in performance modeling. We were able to clearly demonstrate that the existing hardware and software would be adequate to handle the predicted workload for the next financial year. We were also able to do ‘what-if’ analysis and predict how the system can perform with alternative strategies to scale the system. We conclude by summarizing the lessons learnt, including the importance of architecture visibility, benchmarking data quality, and measurement feasibility due to issues of outsourcing, privacy legislation and cross-agency involvement.

  3. Integrated population-development program performance: the Malaysian Felda experience.

    PubMed

    Fong, C O

    1985-01-01

    Program performance of the Malaysian Felda program, an integrated population development program, is examined in this report. It also evaluates the relationship of the performance of this program with its organizational, integrational, and community support factors. Starting in 1956, Felda had, by the end of 1981, developed 308 land schemes covering an area of 1.4 million acres planted predominantly with oil palm (59.4%) and rubber (31.6%). The land schemes have settled a total of 70,600 families or over 400,000 people. The integrated programs existing in the Felda schmes are the focus of analysis for this study. Out of the universe of 308 Felda schemes, 26 schemes were randomly selected for the study. In each scheme, 2 surveys were conducted: first, the staff surveys to gather information on the organizational factors and extent of integration in existence in the scheme and then household surveys to gather information on the extent of community support for the integrated program and the performance of the program. In the case of the performance variables, the information gathered from the household survey was supplemented by the records from the Felda scheme office. In the sample of 26 schemes, a total of 1641 settler households were selected for the household survey and 363 staff were selected for the staff survey. The surveys were conducted in the 1st quarter of 1982. The results indicate that the Felda mode of delivering population and community development services has been very effective. Over 55.2% of the eligible women were found to be practicing family planning (compared to about 35.5% for the national rural average), while over 78.9% of the eligible women utilized postnatal health care facilities. About 1 in 3 of the eligible children in Felda schemes attend kindergarten classes, while over 46.9% of the Felda households are involved in some form of extramural income generating activities. The more integrated the program in a particular community, the more

  4. Joint inflight biomedical experiments performed during the ASTP spaceflight. [bacteriological experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Rogers, T. D.; Brower, M. E.; Kropp, K.

    1976-01-01

    Two joint inflight biomedical experiments were conducted during the unique Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) spaceflight. One experiment evaluated rhythmicity of spore production of Streptomyces levoris. The other evaluated components of the infectious disease process by measuring alteration in: (1) the composition of the microbial population inhabiting USA and USSR crewmembers and spacecraft; (2) the ability of each crewmember's defense mechanism to resist infection; and (3) the ability of certain microorganisms to originate infections. These two experiments are described and the major results discussed.

  5. Microstructural Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper through the Addition of Antimony Dopants at Grain Boundaries: Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Rahul K.; Saxena, Ashok; Spearot, Douglas; Hartwig, Ted; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Kenik, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Experiments and simulations show that the microstructural stability of nanocrystalline Cu can be improved by adding impurity atoms, such as Sb, which migrate to the grain boundaries. Cu100-xSbx alloys are cast in three compositions (Cu-0.0, 0.2 and 0.5 at.%Sb) and subsequently processed into nanocrystalline form by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). The presence of Sb atoms at the grain boundaries increases the recrystallization temperature to 400 C compared to 200 C for pure nanocrystalline Cu, which was verified by measurements of microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, grain size using TEM, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using a wider range of Sb compositions (0.0 to 1.0 at.%Sb) to study the underlying mechanisms associated with stability. MD simulations show that Sb atoms reduce excess grain boundary energy and that 0.2 and 0.5 at.%Sb is enough to stabilize the nanocrystalline Cu microstructure.

  6. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications.

  7. Demographically adjusted normative standards for new indices of performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Grant, Igor; Miller, S Walden; Taylor, Michael J; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Carey, Catherine L; Woods, Steven Paul; Norman, Marc A; Rippeth, Julie D; Martin, Eileen M; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-09-01

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) is a complex cognitive test sensitive to neuropsychological disorders. Its traditional Total Correct score seemingly reflects multiple cognitive abilities, including attention, working memory, and processing speed. Snyder, Aniskiewicz, and Snyder (1993) modified scoring guidelines for the PASAT to give credit only for "dyads." This method emphasizes working memory operations and has been found superior to Total Correct scores at detecting cognitive impairments in several investigations. To date, normative standards are not available for the "dyad" scoring method, thus limiting its utility in clinical and research settings. The current investigation provides demographically adjusted normative data based on a sample of 500 healthy adults of varied age, education, sex, and race (African American and Caucasian) for various indices of performance on the PASAT, including "Total Dyads" obtained across the four PASAT trials. In addition, we describe and present normative data on four other indices designed to quantify various aspects of performance on the PASAT: invalid responding, effects of varied information processing speed demands, and tendency to omit responses and to make arithmetic errors.

  8. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  9. Gas related effects on multi-gap RPC performance in high luminosity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, P.; Wang, Y.; Guo, B.; Han, D.; Xie, B.; Li, Y.; Wang, F.

    2016-11-01

    The Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new type of gas detector developed in recent years. It has excellent time resolution (better than 100 ps) and high efficiency (higher than 95%). This detector has been used to construct large-area time-of-flight (TOF) system in many nuclear and particle physics experiments. However, as a type of gaseous detector, the aging of the gas mixture under long-time exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be neglected. With the increase of accelerator luminosity, impurities in the gas mixture can be potentially dangerous for long-term operation of the MRPC. This has been observed in some experiments, for example with the RHIC-STAR muon telescope detector. The CBM-TOF, used for hadron identification, is proposed to be assembled with MRPCs. These counters have to stand particle fluxes as high as 25 kHz/cm2, and thus the gas pollution is a critical aspect to be studied. In order to better understand the gas quality's impact on the MRPC performance, a two-dimensional simulation based on the SIMPLE algorithm is carried out to imitate the distribution of impurities in a MRPC gas box. The preliminary results show that gas pollution grows stronger with the increase of the gas-flowing volume. In addition, we conducted a series of experiments with a 50 × 50 cm2, 8-gap MRPC prototype. The results match the simulation quite well. Gas pollution indeed has a severe impact on the MRPC performance, and further study can be very useful to reduce gas aging effects in high-luminosity experiments.

  10. The newer aspect of dexmedetomidine use in dentistry: As an additive to local anesthesia, initial experience, and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Thepra, Manju; Bhagol, Amrish; Priya, Kannu; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the availability of a wide variety of pharmacological agents in the field of anesthesia, there has always been a continuous search for newer local anesthetic agents with improved efficacy, potency, and better handling properties. Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, is an emerging agent for provision of additive local anesthetic effect if used with conventional local anesthetics, which can be implicated in dentistry for performing many minor oral surgical procedures. The present paper reports a pilot study comparing clinical efficacy and potency of this newer emerging drug in combination with lignocaine. Materials and Methods: Ten patients undergoing orthodontic extraction for correction of malocclusion and other dentofacial deformities requiring orthodontic treatment were locally infiltrated with 2% lignocaine plus dexmedetomidine 1μ/ml and 2% lignocaine plus adrenaline in 1:200,000 dilution at two different appointments. The onset of action, duration of action, and pain threshold were assessed. Results: Onset of action was found to be faster with longer duration of action with the newer drug dexmedetomidine and lignocaine combination when compared with combination of lignocaine and adrenaline. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the combination of dexmedetomidine with lignocaine enhances the local anesthetic potency of lignocaine without significant systemic effects when locally injected into oral mucosa. PMID:28163484

  11. Effect of vitamin B12 pulse addition on the performance of cobalt deprived anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, Fernando G; Bartacek, Jan; Lens, Piet N L

    2010-07-01

    The effect of a pulse addition of vitamin B(12) as cobalt source to restore the performance of cobalt depleted methanol-fed bioreactors was investigated. One upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was supplied with a pulse of vitamin B(12), and its operation was compared to that of another cobalt depleted UASB reactor to which a pulse of CoCl(2) was given. The addition of cobalt in the form of CoCl(2) supplies enough cobalt to restore methanogenesis and maintain full methanol degradation coupled to methane production during more than 35 days after the CoCl(2) pulse. Similar to CoCl(2), pulse addition of vitamin B(12) supplies enough cobalt to maintain full methanol degradation during more than 35 days after the pulse. However, the specific methanogenic activities (SMAs) of the sludge in the vitamin B(12) supplied reactor were around 3 times higher than the SMA of the sludge from the CoCl(2) supplied reactor at the same sampling times. An appropriate dosing strategy (repeated pulse dosing) combined with the choice of vitamin B(12) as the cobalt species is suggested as a promising dosing strategy for methanol-fed anaerobic bioreactors limited by the micronutrient cobalt.

  12. The effect of tin and antimony addition on the performance of dual function cracking catalyst (DFCC) mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Occelli, M.L. ); Naraghi, S.M.; Krishnan, V.; Suib, S.L. )

    1992-05-01

    In 1976, the Phillips Petroleum Company successfully demonstrated that the addition of certain organo-antimony compounds to a metal-contaminated heavy gas oil reduced the deleterious effects that metals such as Ni and V have on gasoline yields, coke, and hydrogen selectivities. Nickel has little effect on the activity of a fluidized cracking catalyst (FCC) but generates large amounts of gases, placing severe demands on capabilities of gas compressors. Marketed by Phillips Petroleum Company. Phil-Ad CA antimony organics have been shown to reduce by 50% gas formation due to metal contaminants, especially nickel. However, Sb, when introduced into a fluidized cracking unit, could reduce and form SbH[sub 3], stibine, that like arsine (AsH[sub 3]) is a highly toxic compound. Procedures for the safe usage of Sb in refining operations have been outlined; when used properly, Sb-containing passivating agents did not generate any detectable stibine. Recently, it has been reported that at microactivity test conditions, the additions of diluents (such as aluminas and layered magnesium silicates) capable of selectively sorbing metal contaminants from gas oils can form dual function cracking catalysts (DFCC) that retain most of their useful cracking activity even in the presence of as much as 1.0-1.5% V. It is the purpose of this paper to report the stability of Sb- and Sn-loaded alumina particles and the effects that the addition of metal passivation compounds such as Sb and Sn have on the performance of DFCC mixtures.

  13. Experiences performing conceptual design optimization of transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Optimum Preliminary Design of Transports (OPDOT) is a computer program developed at NASA Langley Research Center for evaluating the impact of new technologies upon transport aircraft. For example, it provides the capability to look at configurations which have been resized to take advantage of active controls and provide and indication of economic sensitivity to its use. Although this tool returns a conceptual design configuration as its output, it does not have the accuracy, in absolute terms, to yield satisfactory point designs for immediate use by aircraft manufacturers. However, the relative accuracy of comparing OPDOT-generated configurations while varying technological assumptions has been demonstrated to be highly reliable. Hence, OPDOT is a useful tool for ascertaining the synergistic benefits of active controls, composite structures, improved engine efficiencies and other advanced technological developments. The approach used by OPDOT is a direct numerical optimization of an economic performance index. A set of independent design variables is iterated, given a set of design constants and data. The design variables include wing geometry, tail geometry, fuselage size, and engine size. This iteration continues until the optimum performance index is found which satisfies all the constraint functions. The analyst interacts with OPDOT by varying the input parameters to either the constraint functions or the design constants. Note that the optimization of aircraft geometry parameters is equivalent to finding the ideal aircraft size, but with more degrees of freedom than classical design procedures will allow.

  14. Development of an Experiment High Performance Nozzle Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As proposed in the above OAI/NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Co-Operative Agreement the objective of the work was to provide consultation and assistance to the NASA GRC GTX Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Program Team in planning and developing requirements, scale model concepts, and plans for an experimental nozzle research program. The GTX was one of the launch vehicle concepts being studied as a possible future replacement for the aging NASA Space Shuttle, and was one RBCC element in the ongoing NASA Access to Space R&D Program (Reference 1). The ultimate program objective was the development of an appropriate experimental research program to evaluate and validate proposed nozzle concepts, and thereby result in the optimization of a high performance nozzle for the GTX launch vehicle. Included in this task were the identification of appropriate existing test facilities, development of requirements for new non-existent test rigs and fixtures, develop scale nozzle model concepts, and propose corresponding test plans. Also included were the evaluation of originally proposed and alternate nozzle designs (in-house and contractor), evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study results, and make recommendations for geometric changes to result in improved nozzle thrust coefficient performance (Cfg).

  15. The influence of spatial ability and experience on performance during spaceship rendezvous and docking

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yijing; Tian, Yu; Huang, Weifen; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Manual rendezvous and docking (manual RVD) is a challenging space task for astronauts. Previous research showed a correlation between spatial ability and manual RVD skills among participants at early stages of training, but paid less attention to experts. Therefore, this study tried to explore the role of spatial ability in manual RVD skills in two groups of trainees, one relatively inexperienced and the other experienced operators. Additionally, mental rotation has been proven essential in RVD and was tested in this study among 27 male participants, 15 novices, and 12 experts. The participants performed manual RVD tasks in a high fidelity simulator. Results showed that experience moderated the relation between mental rotation ability and manual RVD performance. On one hand, novices with high mental rotation ability tended to perform that RVD task more successfully; on the other hand, experts with high mental rotation ability showed not only no performance advantage in the final stage of the RVD task, but had certain disadvantages in their earlier processes. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed. PMID:26236252

  16. Elucidating the effect of copper as a redox additive and dopant on the performance of a PANI based supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita; Yadav, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2015-01-14

    In this article, the effect of copper (Cu) as a redox additive and dopant on the performance of a polyaniline (PANI) based supercapacitor was thoroughly investigated. The electrochemical properties of PANI in H2SO4 and in H2SO4 + CuSO4 and Cu doped PANI in H2SO4 were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS). The CV result indicates that the capacity of PANI in H2SO4 was significantly improved with the introduction of Cu(2+) ions into the electrolyte, but it appeared unstable because of underpotential deposition of copper over the PANI surface and the relatively irreversible nature of the redox reaction. However, a stable and improved performance was obtained for Cu doped PANI due to the combined effect of an increase in conductivity and the surface modification of the PANI film. For Cu doped PANI, nearly ∼2.4 and ∼1.5 fold improved interfacial capacitance was achieved compared to that of PANI (H2SO4) and PANI (H2SO4 + CuSO4) respectively. The obtained Nyquist spectra for all the configurations were analysed using an equivalent circuit to understand the fundamentals of capacitive and resistive response of the supercapacitor. The IS measurements lead to direct determination of parameters like series resistance, rate capability of electrodes, ion diffusion phenomena and interfacial capacitance. The experimental results and their analysis will have significant impact on understanding the effect of dopants and redox additives on the performance of PANI based supercapacitors and also lay the basis for designing a supercapacitor with an appropriate electrode and electrolyte material for numerous industrial and consumer applications.

  17. Field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Edwards, N.T.; Huston, M.A.

    1994-10-06

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiments in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee USA to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil moisture is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall precipitation from one treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx} 2,000 subcanopy troughs (0.3 x 5 m) suspended above the forest floor of the dry plots ({approx} 33% of the ground area is covered) and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Percent soil water is being monitored with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both extremely dry and extremely wet conditions. Furthermore, comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil temperature measurements have documented the ability of the experimental design to produce these changes without changing the microclimate of the forest understory.

  18. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-12-01

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection (`lithiumization`). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li{sup +} line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li{sup +} emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from {approximately}0.3 to {approximately}7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  19. LHCD experiments in high performance plasmas in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekedahl, A.; Baranov, Y.; Dobbing, J. A.; Fischer, B.; Goniche, M.; Gormezano, C.; Romero, J. A.; Schild, P.; Söldner, F. X.; Challis, C. D.; Sips, A. C. C.; Tubbing, B.

    1997-04-01

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) has been used for current profile shaping in the shear optimisation experiments in 1996/97 in JET. PLH≲3MW has been applied in the initial current ramp-up in order to control the internal inductance. An internal transport barrier with improved central electron confinement has been produced in this phase with LHCD alone. This has resulted in a peaking of the electron temperature profile and Te0 above 10keV at ne0⩽1.5×1019 m-3. The profile of the LH driven current, as determined by hard X-ray mesurements, is peaked at approximately mid-radius in these conditions. Good coupling of the LH waves has been obtained by the use of a near gas feed. This method reduces the risk of plasma-launcher interaction, since the launcher can be positioned in the shadow of the poloidal limiters. A reflection coefficient of 5% has been maintained at a plasma-launcher distance of 8 cm and PLH=5 MW has been coupled to divertor plasmas in L-mode with this method.

  20. Atmospheric Climate Model Experiments Performed at Multiple Horizontal Resolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T; Bala, G; Gleckler, P; Lobell, D; Mirin, A; Maxwell, R; Rotman, D

    2007-12-21

    This report documents salient features of version 3.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.3) and of three climate simulations in which the resolution of its latitude-longitude grid was systematically increased. For all these simulations of global atmospheric climate during the period 1980-1999, observed monthly ocean surface temperatures and sea ice extents were prescribed according to standard Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) values. These CAM3.3 resolution experiments served as control runs for subsequent simulations of the climatic effects of agricultural irrigation, the focus of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The CAM3.3 model was able to replicate basic features of the historical climate, although biases in a number of atmospheric variables were evident. Increasing horizontal resolution also generally failed to ameliorate the large-scale errors in most of the climate variables that could be compared with observations. A notable exception was the simulation of precipitation, which incrementally improved with increasing resolution, especially in regions where orography plays a central role in determining the local hydroclimate.

  1. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time. PMID:25401272

  2. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Felipe Leite; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility.

  3. Improving public addiction treatment through performance contracting: the Delaware experiment.

    PubMed

    McLellan, A Thomas; Kemp, Jack; Brooks, Adam; Carise, Deni

    2008-09-01

    In fiscal 2002, Delaware replaced traditional cost-reimbursement contracts with performance-based contracts for all outpatient addiction treatment programs. Incentives included 90% capacity utilization and active patient participation in treatment. One of the programs failed to meet requirements. Strategies adopted by successful programs included extended hours of operation, facility enhancements, salary incentives for counselors, and two evidence-based therapies (MI and CBT). Average capacity utilization from 2001 to 2006 went from 54% to 95%; and the average proportion of patients' meeting participation requirements went from 53% to 70%--with no notable changes in the patient population. We conclude that properly designed, program-based contract incentives are feasible to apply, welcomed by programs and may help set the financial conditions necessary to implement other evidence-based clinical efforts; toward the overall goal of improving addiction treatment.

  4. Test Plan for Field Experiments to Support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bacon, Diana H.

    2001-09-01

    Much of the data collected to support the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) simulations have been obtained in the laboratory on a relatively small scale (less than 10 cm). In addition, the PA simulations themselves are currently the only means available to integrate the chemical and hydrologic processes involved in the transport of contaminants from the disposal facility into the environment. This report describes the test plan for field experiments to provide data on the hydraulic, transport, and geochemical characteristics of the near-field materials on a more representative (i.e., larger) scale than the laboratory data currently available. The experiments will also provide results that encompass a variety of transport processes likely to occur within the actual disposal facility. These experiments will thus provide the first integrated data on the ILAW facility performance and will provide a crucial dataset to evaluate the simulation-based estimates of overall facility performance used in the PA.

  5. Performance experiments and scaling studies with jet-type singlet-oxygen generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waiblinger, Frank; Schreiber, Christian J. M.; Schall, Wolfgang O.

    2005-03-01

    Experiments with a small scale jet-type singlet oxygen generator (SOG) for a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) were performed in order to find a suitable parameter for scaling to generators with higher chlorine flow rtes. The results of various parameter variations (e.g. overall gas-flow rate, type of diluent gas, length of reactive zone) are shown. Additionally, different types of BHP-injection systems were tested trying to find the best performance of the SOG. The first jet plate is made of Lucite with 49 holes of 0.8mm diameter. Two rows of holes in front of the generator exit are fitted with small injection needles to prevent liquid spill-over. A similar jet plate was designed but with all 49 holes fitted with needles. In another experiment, the diameter of the BHP-jets was varied maintaining a constant total cross-sectional area. A new "sprinkler-type" BHP-injection system is presented, too. On the basis of the previous results a 10kW jet generator was designed and adapted to the 10kW DLR generator test stand. The generator was optimized regarding liquid spill-over. Stable generator operation without liquid spill-over could be demonstrated. The utilization reached values over 90%.

  6. Performance of the instrumentation for measuring ωa in the Muon g-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaw, Kim Siang; Muon g-2 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab will begin data taking in 2017. The precision goal of 140 ppb requires collecting 21 times more data than the BNL E821 experiment, which resulted in the now well-known > 3 σ deviation between measurement and the Standard Model prediction. In addition the systematic uncertainties must be reduced by a factor of 3. To this end, an all-new detector and electronics instrumentation used to determine the anomalous precession frequency was designed. We report here on a recent test-beam run at SLAC that acquired realistic data from initial calorimeter calibration through fully reconstructed offline analysis. We will report on the performance of the following state-of-the-art systems: laser-based calibration network, PbF2 calorimeter with ultra-fast SiPM readout, custom 800 MSPS 12-bit digitizers, online DAQ with an active GPU processing farm, and finally art-based offline framework. The combination of a mono-energetic multi-GeV electron beam and a sophisticated fast laser firing sequence enabled data to be taken at a variety of rates under controlled conditions. These tests provided crucial information regarding the needed performance for the systematics and established the capability of the instrumentation to handle high data rate.

  7. The effect of exercise training with an additional inspiratory load on inspiratory muscle fatigue and time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Smith, Joshua R; Ferguson, Christine S; Brown, Kelly R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training (ET) on inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) and if an additional inspiratory load during ET (ET+IL) would further improve inspiratory muscle strength, IMF, and time-trial performance. 15 subjects were randomly divided to ET (n=8) and ET+IL groups (n=7). All subjects completed six weeks of exercise training three days/week at ∼70%V̇O2peak for 30min. The ET+IL group breathed through an inspiratory muscle trainer (15% PImax) during exercise. 5-mile, and 30-min time-trials were performed pre-training, weeks three and six. Inspiratory muscle strength increased (p<0.05) for both groups to a similar (p>0.05) extent. ET and ET+IL groups improved (p<0.05) 5-mile time-trial performance (∼10% and ∼18%) and the ET+IL group was significantly faster than ET at week 6. ET and ET+IL groups experienced less (p<0.05) IMF compared to pre-training following the 5-mile time-trial. In conclusion, these data suggest ET leads to less IMF, ET+IL improves inspiratory muscle strength and IMF, but not different than ET alone.

  8. High Performance Plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; J. Bialek; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; P. Bonoli; D. Darrow; P. Efthimion; J. Ferron; E. Fredrickson; L. Grisham; J. Hosea; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; S. Kaye; S. Kubota; H. Kugel; B. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; J. Manickam; T.K. Mau; R.J. Maqueda; E. Mazzucato; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B. Nelson; N. Nishino; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S. Paul; Y-K.M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Raman; P. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; C.H. Skinner; D. Stutman; D. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; J.R. Wilson; W. Zhu; S. Zweben; A. Bers; M. Carter; B. Deng; C. Domier; E. Doyle; M. Finkenthal; K. Hill; T. Jarboe; S. Jardin; H. Ji; L. Lao; K.C. Lee; N. Luhmann; R. Majeski; H. Park; T. Peebles; R.I. Pinsker; G. Porter; A. Ram; M. Rensink; T. Rognlien; D. Stotler; B. Stratton; G. Taylor; W. Wampler; G.A. Wurden; X.Q. Xu; L. Zeng; and the NSTX Team

    2001-07-10

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced toroidal plasmas at low aspect ratio (A = R/a = 0.86 m/0.68 m approximately equal to 1.3, where R is the major radius and a is the minor radius of the torus) with plasma currents of 1.4 MA. The rapid development of the machine has led to very exciting physics results during the first full year of physics operation. Pulse lengths in excess of 0.5 sec have been obtained with inductive current drive. Up to 4 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating power has been applied with 6 MW planned. Using only 2 MW of HHFW heating power clear evidence of electron heating is seen with HHFW, as observed by the multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. A noninductive current drive concept known as Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has driven 260 kA of toroidal current. Neutral-beam heating power of 5 MW has been injected. Plasmas with beta toroidal (= 2 mu(subscript ''0'')

    /B(superscript ''2'') = a measure of magnetic confinement efficiency ) of 22% have been achieved, as calculated using the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code. Beta-limiting phenomena have been observed, and the maximum beta toroidal scales with I(subscript ''p'')/aB(subscript ''t''). High frequency (>MHz) magnetic fluctuations have been observed. High-confinement mode plasmas are observed with confinement times of >100 msec. Beam-heated plasmas show energy confinement times in excess of those predicted by empirical scaling expressions. Ion temperatures in excess of 2.0 keV have been measured, and power balance suggests that the power loss from the ions to the electrons may exceed the calculated classical input power to the ions.

  9. Reliability and performance experience with flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    Statistical models developed to define the most likely sources of photovoltaic (PV) array failures and the optimum method of allowing for the defects in order to achieve a 20 yr lifetime with acceptable performance degradation are summarized. Significant parameters were the cost of energy, annual power output, initial cost, replacement cost, rate of module replacement, the discount rate, and the plant lifetime. Acceptable degradation allocations were calculated to be 0.0001 cell failures/yr, 0.005 module failures/yr, 0.05 power loss/yr, a 0.01 rate of power loss/yr, and a 25 yr module wear-out length. Circuit redundancy techniques were determined to offset cell failures using fault tolerant designs such as series/parallel and bypass diode arrangements. Screening processes have been devised to eliminate cells that will crack in operation, and multiple electrical contacts at each cell compensate for the cells which escape the screening test and then crack when installed. The 20 yr array lifetime is expected to be achieved in the near-term.

  10. Urban traffic-network performance: flow theory and simulation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Performance models for urban street networks were developed to describe the response of a traffic network to given travel-demand levels. The three basic traffic flow variables, speed, flow, and concentration, are defined at the network level, and three model systems are proposed. Each system consists of a series of interrelated, consistent functions between the three basic traffic-flow variables as well as the fraction of stopped vehicles in the network. These models are subsequently compared with the results of microscopic simulation of a small test network. The sensitivity of one of the model systems to a variety of network features was also explored. Three categories of features were considered, with the specific features tested listed in parentheses: network topology (block length and street width), traffic control (traffic signal coordination), and traffic characteristics (level of inter-vehicular interaction). Finally, a fundamental issue concerning the estimation of two network-level parameters (from a nonlinear relation in the two-fluid theory) was examined. The principal concern was that of comparability of these parameters when estimated with information from a single vehicle (or small group of vehicles), as done in conjunction with previous field studies, and when estimated with network-level information (i.e., all the vehicles), as is possible with simulation.

  11. Performance analysis of bullet trajectory estimation: Approach, simulation, and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L.C.; Karr, T.J.

    1994-11-08

    This paper describes an approach to estimate a bullet`s trajectory from a time sequence of angles-only observations from a high-speed camera, and analyzes its performance. The technique is based on fitting a ballistic model of a bullet in flight along with unknown source location parameters to a time series of angular observations. The theory is developed to precisely reconstruct, from firing range geometry, the actual bullet trajectory as it appeared on the focal plane array and in real space. A metric for measuring the effective trajectory track error is also presented. Detailed Monte-Carlo simulations assuming different bullet ranges, shot-angles, camera frame rates, and angular noise show that angular track error can be as small as 100 {mu}rad for a 2 mrad/pixel sensor. It is also shown that if actual values of bullet ballistic parameters were available, the bullet s source location variables, and the angles of flight information could also be determined.

  12. High-performance holographic technologies for fluid-dynamics experiments

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Sergei S.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-01-01

    Modern technologies offer new opportunities for experimentalists in a variety of research areas of fluid dynamics. Improvements are now possible in the state-of-the-art in precision, dynamic range, reproducibility, motion-control accuracy, data-acquisition rate and information capacity. These improvements are required for understanding complex turbulent flows under realistic conditions, and for allowing unambiguous comparisons to be made with new theoretical approaches and large-scale numerical simulations. One of the new technologies is high-performance digital holography. State-of-the-art motion control, electronics and optical imaging allow for the realization of turbulent flows with very high Reynolds number (more than 107) on a relatively small laboratory scale, and quantification of their properties with high space–time resolutions and bandwidth. In-line digital holographic technology can provide complete three-dimensional mapping of the flow velocity and density fields at high data rates (over 1000 frames per second) over a relatively large spatial area with high spatial (1–10 μm) and temporal (better than a few nanoseconds) resolution, and can give accurate quantitative description of the fluid flows, including those of multi-phase and unsteady conditions. This technology can be applied in a variety of problems to study fundamental properties of flow–particle interactions, rotating flows, non-canonical boundary layers and Rayleigh–Taylor mixing. Some of these examples are discussed briefly. PMID:20211881

  13. Preliminary Results from Nuclear Decay Experiments Performed During the Solar Eclipse of August 1, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Javorsek, D. II; Kerford, J. L.; Stewart, C. A.; Hoft, A. W.; Horan, T. J.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, J. T.; Heim, J.; Kohler, M.; Longman, A.; Mattes, J. J.; Mohsinally, T.; Newport, J. R.; Jenkins, J. H.; Lee, R. H.; Morreale, B.; Morris, D. B.; O'Keefe, D.; Terry, B.

    2010-08-04

    Recent developments in efforts to determine the cause of anomalous experimental nuclear decay fluctuations suggest a possible solar influence. Here we report on the preliminary results from several nuclear decay experiments performed at Thule Air Base in Greenland during the Solar Eclipse that took place on 1 August 2008. Because of the high northern latitude and time of year, the Sun never set and thereby provided relatively stabilized conditions for nearly all environmental factors. An exhaustive list of relevant factors were monitored during the eclipse to help rule out possible systematic effects due to external influences. In addition to the normal temperature, pressure, humidity, and cloud cover associated with the outside ambient observations, we included similar measurements within the laboratory along with monitoring of the power supply output, local neutron count rates, and the Earth's local magnetic and electric fields.

  14. Recent performance experience with US light water reactor self-actuating safety and relief valves

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, C.G.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past several years, there have been a number of operating reactor events involving performance of primary and secondary safety and relief valves in U.S. Light Water Reactors. There are several different types of safety and relief valves installed for overpressure protection of various safety systems throughout a typical nuclear power plant. The following discussion is limited to those valves in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) and main steam systems of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and in the RCS of boiling water reactors (BWR), all of which are self-actuating having a setpoint controlled by a spring-loaded disk acting against system fluid pressure. The following discussion relates some of the significant recent experience involving operating reactor events or various testing data. Some of the more unusual and interesting operating events or test data involving some of these designs are included, in addition to some involving a number of similar events and those which have generic applicability.

  15. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  16. Cross-Modal Interactions in the Experience of Musical Performances: Physiological Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapados, Catherine; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate cross-modal interactions in the emotional experience of music listeners. Previous research showed that visual information present in a musical performance is rich in expressive content, and moderates the subjective emotional experience of a participant listening and/or observing musical stimuli [Vines,…

  17. CoCr F75 scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Influence of chemical etching on powder removal and mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Lietaert, Karel; Neirinck, Bram; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Wevers, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H2O2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Mineral Additive-free Perfluoropolymer Nanocomposite O-ring in Simulated Geothermal Environments of 300C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Pyatina, Tatiana

    2015-12-31

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of O-rings made with a mineral additive-free perfluoropolymer (FFKM) nanocomposite in mitigating irremovable silica- and silicate-scaling, inhibiting oxidative reactions, minimizing the changes in mechanical behaviors, and maintaining the integrity of O-rings after their exposure to the five different simulated geothermal environments at 300°C: 1) 0.01N sodium metasilicate (SMS)-laden non-aerated (NR2R R(g) Rsaturated) steam-cooling cycles; 2) 0.01N SMS-laden aerated steam-cooling cycles; 3) water-based drilling fluid; 4) COR2R-rich geo-brine fluid; and, 5) heat-cool water quenching cycles (thermal shock). All the thermochemical environments 1 to 4 were carried out under a pressure of 8.3 MPs.

  19. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  20. Effect of treatment with probiotics as water additives on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and immune response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuxia; Tian, Ziqiang; Wang, Yanbo; Li, Weifen

    2010-09-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 40 days to delineate the effect of treatment with probiotics as water additives on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and immune response. About 360 juveniles were randomly distributed into four treatment groups, each with three replicates. Different probiotics (T-1, Bacillus subtilis B10; T-2, Bacillus coagulans B16; T-3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris G06) were added to the water of tanks at final concentration of 1 x 10(7) cfu ml(-1) every 2 days, with no probiotic added to control tanks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish treated with B. coagulans B16 (T-2) and R. palustris G06 (T-3) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher final weight, daily weight gain, and specific growth rate compared with those treated with B. subtilis B10 (T-1) and those without probiotics (control). The highest (P < 0.05) content of total serum protein was found in T-2 compared with that in T-1, T-3, and the control. However, albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio were not affected by the probiotics treatments. Compared with the control, probiotic supplementation remarkably improved activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase (P < 0.05). T-2 fish exhibited higher average myeloperoxidase activity than the control, T-1, and T-3 groups. Regarding serum lysozyme content in tilapia, assays showed no difference (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Furthermore, probiotics treatments remarkably increased respiratory burst activity compared with control, with T-2 showing higher values than T-1 and T-3. This indicated that treatment with probiotics, B. coagulans B16 and R. palustris G06, as water additives could be used to enhance immune and health status, thereby improving growth performance of O. niloticus.

  1. Addition of HfO2 interface layer for improved synaptic performance of phase change memory (PCM) devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, M.; Bichler, O.; Hubert, Q.; Perniola, L.; Sousa, V.; Jahan, C.; Vuillaume, D.; Gamrat, C.; DeSalvo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we will focus on the use of phase change memory (PCM) to emulate synaptic behavior in emerging neuromorphic system-architectures. In particular, we will show that the performance and energy-efficiency of large scale neuromorphic systems can be improved by engineering individual PCM devices used as synapses. This is obtained by adding a thin HfO2 interface layer to standard GST PCM devices, allowing for the lowering of the Set/Reset currents and the increase of the number of intermediate resistance states (or synaptic weights) in the synaptic potentiation characteristics. The experimentally obtained potentiation characteristics of such PCM devices are used to simulate a 2-layer ultra-dense spiking neural network (SNN) and to perform a complex visual pattern extraction from a test case based on real world data (i.e. cars passing on a 6-lane freeway). The total power dissipated in the learning mode, for the pattern extraction experiment is estimated to be as low as 60 μW. Average detection rate of cars is found to be greater than 90%.

  2. Effect of a natural feed additive (Macleaya cordata), containing sanguinarine, on the performance and health status of weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Kantas, Dimitrios; Papatsiros, Vasileios G; Tassis, Panagiotis D; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Tzika, Eleni D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sangrovit(®) , a plant-derived feed additive, given throughout the nursery stage via feed at 15 ppm and 50 ppm, on the health status and performance of weaners against negative controls. In a 900-sow farrow-to-finish farm, a total of 864 piglets were divided into three groups: (i) negative controls (NC); (ii) Sang 15: same feed as NCs, plus 15 g Sangrovit(®) /t of feed; (iii) Sang 50: same feed as NCs plus 50 g Sangrovit(®) /t of feed. The results indicated that administration of 50 ppm(-) Sangrovit(®) had the most beneficial effects on growth performance in weaning pigs. Specifically there was increase of body weight and average daily gain, as well as reduction of feed conversion ratio. Blood analysis from the Sang groups and especially the Sang 50 group revealed low values of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A.

  3. Effects of Taiwan Roselle anthocyanin treatment and single-walled carbon nanotube addition on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. S.; Tsai, P. J.; Wu, P.; Shu, G. G.; Huang, Y. H.; Chen, Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) sensitized by a natural sensitizer of Taiwan Roselle anthocyanin (TRA) and fabrication process conditions of the DSSC. A set of systematic experiments has been carried out at various soaking temperatures, soaking periods, sensitizer concentrations, pH values, and additions of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). An absorption peak (520 nm) is found for TRA, and it is close to that of the N719 dye (518 nm). At a fixed concentration of TRA and a fixed soaking period, a lower pH of the extract or a lower soaking temperature is found favorable to the formation of pigment cations, which leads to an enhanced power conversion efficiency (η) of DSSC. For instance, by applying 17.53 mg/100ml TRA at 30 for 10 h, as the pH of the extract decreases to 2.00 from 2.33 (the original pH of TRA), the η of DSSC with TiO2+SWCNT electrode increases to 0.67% from 0.11% of a traditional DSSC with TiO2 electrode. This performance improvement can be explained by the combined effect of the pH of sensitizer and the additions of SWCNT, a first investigation in DSSC using the natural sensitizer with SWCNT.

  4. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Experiments Performance on Non-Load Bearing Sandwich Wall Panels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2011-0021 PRECAST /PRESTRESSED CONCRETE EXPERIMENTS PERFORMANCE ON NON-LOAD BEARING SANDWICH WALL PANELS Clay J. Naito...2008 -- 20-NOV-2010 Precast /Prestressed Concrete Experiments Performance on Non-Loadbearing Sandwich Wall Panels FA8903-08-D-8768-0002 99999F GOVT F0...conducted by AFRL and the Portland Cement Association (PCA) on the performance of insulated concrete wall panels. The purpose of the research is to

  5. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; P<0.001). In lactating sows, there were no differences between dietary treatments for any of the hormones measured. Pre-prandial acyl-ghrelin concentrations were positively correlated with cortisol concentrations during gestation (r=0.81; P=0.001) and lactation (r=0.61; P=0.015). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 6% crude glycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between

  6. Independent and additive contributions of postvictory testosterone and social experience to the development of the winner effect.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Oyegbile, Temitayo O; Marler, Catherine A

    2011-09-01

    The processes through which salient social experiences influence future behavior are not well understood. Winning fights, for example, can increase the odds of future victory, yet little is known about the internal mechanisms that underlie such winner effects. Here, we use the territorial California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) to investigate how the effects of postvictory testosterone (T) release and winning experience individually mediate positive changes in future winning ability and antagonistic behavior. Male mice were castrated and implanted with T capsules to maintain basal levels of this hormone. We found that males form a robust winner effect if they win three separate territorial disputes and experience a single T surge roughly 45 min after each encounter. Meanwhile, males exhibit only an intermediate winner effect if they either 1) acquire three previous wins but do not experience a change in postvictory T or 2) acquire no previous wins but experience three separate T pulses. The results indicate that the effect of postvictory T must be coupled with that of winning experience to trigger the maximum positive shift in winning ability, which highlights the importance of social context in the development of the winner effect. At the same time, however, postvictory T and winning experience are each capable of increasing future winning ability independently, and this finding suggests that these two factors drive plasticity in antagonistic behavior via distinct mechanistic channels. More broadly, our data offer insight into the possible ways in which various species might be able to adjust their behavioral repertoire in response to social interactions through mechanisms that are unlinked from the effects of gonadal steroid action.

  7. Microstructural Modification of Sn-0.7Cu Solder Alloys by Fe/Bi-Addition for Achieving High Mechanical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Said, Suhana Mohd; Mahdavifard, Mohammad Hossein; Sukiman, Nazatul Liana; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we studied the Fe/Bi-bearing tin-copper (Sn-0.7Cu) solders for their microstructural and mechanical properties. The microstructure was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with a backscattered electron (BSE) detector, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The microstructure study showed that Fe forms very few FeSn2 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and does not significantly alter the microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu, whereas Bi controls the size of inter-dendritic regions containing Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn IMCs of the alloy, as well as significantly refines its primary β-Sn dendrites. Moreover, Bi atoms dissolve in β-Sn matrix, which in turn strengthen the solder by the Bi solid solution strengthening mechanism. Such microstructural modification leads to significant improvements in various mechanical properties of the alloy, including shear strength, impact toughness, and hardness values. Shear tests were performed with a 0.25 mm/min shear speed. The results showed that shear strength improves from 16.57 MPa to 38.36 MPa with the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, raising by about 130%. The energy absorbed during impact tests was measured for samples with the help of a Charpy impact testing machine with a 5.4 m/s impact speed. The results revealed that the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu improves its impact absorbed energy by over 35%, increasing it from 7.5 J to 10.3 J. Vickers hardness tests were carried out for the test samples with a 245.2 mN applied load and 10 s dwell time. The results showed that the hardness number improves from 9.89 to 24.13 with Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, increasing by about 140%.

  8. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    PubMed

    Paço, Ana; Brígido, Clarisse; Alexandre, Ana; Mateos, Pedro F; Oliveira, Solange

    2016-01-01

    The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials). The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds) were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants, particularly under

  9. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Claudia; Godde, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n = 28) with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n = 29), who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory) nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus) were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average) has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached. PMID:27738528

  10. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n = 28) with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n = 29), who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory) nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus) were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average) has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached.

  11. Glycogen resynthesis and exercise performance with the addition of fenugreek extract (4-hydroxyisoleucine) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding.

    PubMed

    Slivka, D; Cuddy, J; Hailes, W; Harger, S; Ruby, B

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding fenugreek extract (FG) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding on glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance in normoglycemic male endurance athletes. A muscle biopsy sample was obtained from the vastus lateralis from subjects prior to exercise for 5 h at 50% of peak cycling power (52.1 +/- 3.3% of VO(2) peak). A second muscle biopsy sample was obtained immediately after exercise. Immediately after and 2 h after the second biopsy subjects ingested either an oral dose of dextrose (GLU) (1.8 g x kg BW(-1)) or GLU with FG containing 1.99 +/- 0.20 mg x kg(-1) 4-hydroxyisoleucine (GLU + FG) in a randomized, cross-over, double blind design. At 4 h post-exercise a third biopsy was taken and subjects received a standardised meal along with FG or a placebo capsule. At 15 h post-exercise subjects underwent their final muscle biopsy before completing a simulated 40 km cycling time trial. There was no difference in muscle glycogen at any time between GLU and GLU + FG. Additionally, 40 km time trial performance was similar for average power output (221 +/- 28 vs. 213 +/- 16 watts) and for time to completion (69.7 +/- 3.7 vs. 70.5 +/- 2.2 min) for the GLU and GLU + FG, respectively. Despite earlier data to the contrary, the present results do not support an effect of fenugreek supplementation on glycogen resynthesis, even though this may have been the result of differences in experimental protocol.

  12. Statistical analysis of microgravity experiment performance using the degrees of success scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upshaw, Bernadette; Liou, Ying-Hsin Andrew; Morilak, Daniel P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to identify factors that significantly influence microgravity experiment performance. Investigators developed the 'degrees of success' scale to provide a numerical representation of success. A degree of success was assigned to 293 microgravity experiments. Experiment information including the degree of success rankings and factors for analysis was compiled into a database. Through an analysis of variance, nine significant factors in microgravity experiment performance were identified. The frequencies of these factors are presented along with the average degree of success at each level. A preliminary discussion of the relationship between the significant factors and the degree of success is presented.

  13. Effect of additional chromium supplementation on health status, metabolic responses, and performance traits in periparturient Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Zade, Shiwajirao Satish; Upadhaya, Ramesh Chand; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of inorganic chromium (Cr) on body condition, metabolic responses, lactation performance, and reproductive parameters in periparturient Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multiparous advanced pregnant Murrah buffaloes were randomly assigned to four treatment diets. Feeding regimen was the same in all the groups, except that the animals in the four respective groups were additionally supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) from day 60 prepartum to 150 days postpartum. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were recorded every day, while body condition score (BCS) and whole blood samples were collected at days -60, -45, -30, -15, -7, -3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 relative to actual calving. As the days to calving advanced, DMI, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and Cr levels decreased (P < 0.05), and the levels were minimum on the day of calving. In contrast, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) increased (P < 0.05) and was found to be highest at parturition. No change in DMI as well as BCS was observed due to dietary treatments. Supplementation of Cr improved plasma concentration of glucose, leptin, and Cr levels. However, the concentration of insulin decreased (P < 0.05) with the increased level of supplemental Cr. Milk yield (kg/day) was improved significantly (P < 0.05) in groups supplemented with 1.0 or 1.5 mg Cr/DM; however, only a small change was recorded in the group fed 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM. Fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk were 28.78 and 42.32 % and 28.76 and 41.68 % higher in the 1.0 and 1.5 mg Cr/DM groups, respectively. Dietary Cr supplementation during the peripartum period had beneficial effects on the reproductive performance of buffaloes. These results could be interpreted as an improvement in the body condition, metabolic response, milk yield, efficiency of milk production and nutrient utilization, and

  14. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Tribological performance of Mg/Al/Ce layered double hydroxides nanoparticles and intercalated products as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Qin, Haojing; Zuo, Ranfang; Bai, Zhimin

    2015-10-01

    Mg/Al/Ce ternary layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via coprecipitation and intercalated by succinic acid and lauric acid through ion exchange method respectively. The LDHs products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). Tribological properties of LDHs as lubricant additives were evaluated by four-ball friction and air compressor test. The results indicated that Mg/Al/Ce LDHs were prepared successfully with Ce/Al molar ratio of 0.05 and crystallization temperature of 140 °C. The interlayer spacing of LDHs precursor was expanded by succinic acid and lauric acid to 8.838 and 17.519 Å respectively. All the three LDHs products can reduce friction and wear of engine lubricating oil in the tests. LDHs intercalated with lauric acid showed best tribological performance among them which was attributed to sliding each other between laminates, good dispersibility in oil medium and a protective tribofilm formed on the worn surface.

  16. An enhanced anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating bamboo industry wastewater by bamboo charcoal addition: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Gao, Xinyi; Wang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR. Regarding the issue of membrane fouling, BC lowered the soluble microbial product (SMP) content by approximately 62.73mg/L and decreased the membrane resistance, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. Analysis of the microbial communities demonstrated that BC increased the microbial diversity and promoted the activity of Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum, and Methanobacterium, which are dominant in methane production.

  17. Reflections on Doctoral Supervision: Drawing from the Experiences of Students with Additional Learning Needs in Two Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Bethan

    2015-01-01

    Supervision is an essential part of doctoral study, consisting of relationship and process aspects, underpinned by a range of values. To date there has been limited research specifically about disabled doctoral students' experiences of supervision. This paper draws on qualitative, narrative interviews about doctoral supervision with disabled…

  18. Examining the Influence of Additional Field-Based Experiences on Pre-Service Teachers and Their Perceived Ability to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse more closely the training experiences of pre-service teachers, the author conducted an exploratory quasi-experimental study at a university located in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. All students who were enrolled in the same reading methods course (but enrolled in different sections) were invited to participate in…

  19. The impact of personality traits and professional experience on police officers' shooting performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect.

  20. Size, but not experience, affects the ontogeny of constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F

    2016-03-01

    Constriction is a prey-immobilization technique used by many snakes and is hypothesized to have been important to the evolution and diversification of snakes. However, very few studies have examined the factors that affect constriction performance. We investigated constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius) by evaluating how peak constriction pressure is affected by snake size, sex, and experience. In one experiment, we tested the ontogenetic scaling of constriction performance and found that snake diameter was the only significant factor determining peak constriction pressure. The number of loops applied in a coil and its interaction with snake diameter did not significantly affect constriction performance. Constriction performance in ball pythons scaled differently than in other snakes that have been studied, and medium to large ball pythons are capable of exerting significantly higher pressures than those shown to cause circulatory arrest in prey. In a second experiment, we tested the effects of experience on constriction performance in hatchling ball pythons over 10 feeding events. By allowing snakes in one test group to gain constriction experience, and manually feeding snakes under sedation in another test group, we showed that experience did not affect constriction performance. During their final (10th) feedings, all pythons constricted similarly and with sufficiently high pressures to kill prey rapidly. At the end of the 10 feeding trials, snakes that were allowed to constrict were significantly smaller than their non-constricting counterparts.

  1. [Additional memory load causes changes in induced EEG beta-rhythm in experiments with a visual set formed to facial expression].

    PubMed

    Iakovenko, I A; Kozlov, M K; Cheremushkin, E A

    2012-01-01

    Subjects were divided into two equal groups 35 healthy subjects each. Formation of the visual set to facial emotion recognition was supplemented with two types of additional task: either visuospatial (to find a target stimulus among others) or verbal (to tell a word from a pseudoword). The results of the experiments were compared to those obtained in similar experiments without the memory load. Changes in the EEG beta rhythm during visual set forming and testing were studied. The EEG was analyzed by wavelet transformation. Changes in the mean level, maximum and latency of the maximum of wavelet coefficient were rated at different stages of the experiment. All these characteristics for the beta rhythm were higher in experiments with both types of additional memory load as compared to those without the memory load.

  2. East Asian International Student Experiences as Learners of English as an Additional Language: Implications for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.; Marshall, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In the school counselling literature, little focus is placed on international students who are learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL) and on school counselling support related to their language acquisition. Using the Critical Incident Technique, we analyzed transcripts of 21 international EAL students from China, Japan, and Korea who…

  3. The effects of the addition of a pediatric surgery fellow on the operative experience of the general surgery resident.

    PubMed

    Raines, Alexander; Garwe, Tabitha; Adeseye, Ademola; Ruiz-Elizalde, Alejandro; Churchill, Warren; Tuggle, David; Mantor, Cameron; Lees, Jason

    2015-06-01

    Adding fellows to surgical departments with residency programs can affect resident education. Our specific aim was to evaluate the effect of adding a pediatric surgery (PS) fellow on the number of index PS cases logged by the general surgery (GS) residents. At a single institution with both PS and GS programs, we examined the number of logged cases for the fellows and residents over 10 years [5 years before (Time 1) and 5 years after (Time 2) the addition of a PS fellow]. Additionally, the procedure related relative value units (RVUs) recorded by the faculty were evaluated. The fellows averaged 752 and 703 cases during Times 1 and 2, respectively, decreasing by 49 (P = 0.2303). The residents averaged 172 and 161 cases annually during Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, decreasing by 11 (P = 0.7340). The total number of procedure related RVUs was 4627 and 6000 during Times 1 and 2, respectively. The number of cases logged by the PS fellows and GS residents decreased after the addition of a PS fellow; however, the decrease was not significant. Programs can reasonably add an additional PS fellow, but care should be taken especially in programs that are otherwise static in size.

  4. Valued Learning Experiences of Early Career and Experienced High-Performance Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rynne, Steven B.; Billett, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: This paper attempts to move the discussion of high-performance coach development from an examination of coaches' volume of experiences towards a consideration of the contribution of the learning experiences that coaches have reported throughout their careers. Furthermore, a discussion of proximal and distal guidance in the…

  5. NASA/ESACV-990 spacelab simulation. Appendix B: Experiment development and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    Eight experiments flown on the CV-990 airborne laboratory during the NASA/ESA joint Spacelab simulation mission are described in terms of their physical arrangement in the aircraft, their scientific objectives, developmental considerations dictated by mission requirements, checkout, integration into the aircraft, and the inflight operation and performance of the experiments.

  6. The Impact of a Visual Imagery Intervention on Army ROTC Cadets' Marksmanship Performance and Flow Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Edward Lee

    2012-01-01

    This investigation used an experimental design to examine how a visual imagery intervention and two levels of challenge would affect the flow experiences and performance of cadets engaged in Army ROTC marksmanship training. I employed MANCOVA analyses, with gender and prior marksmanship training experience as covariates, to assess cadets' (n =…

  7. Effects of various dietary lipid additives on lamb performance, carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; He, M L; Guan, L L; McAllister, T A

    2015-06-01

    Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum; TA) was compared to canola (CO), flax (FO), and safflower oils (SO) for effects on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue in skirt muscle (SM), subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, and wool production and quality characteristics of Canadian Arcott lambs. Fifty-six lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments (n = 14 per treatment). Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet containing either TA, CO, FO, or SO (2% of dietary DM). Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily. Lambs were weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg BW. Carcass characteristics, rumen pH, and liver weights were determined at slaughter. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm2 shorn at d 0 and on the day before slaughter (d 105 or 140). Dye-bands were used to determine wool growth, micrometer and staple length. Adipose tissues and SM samples were taken at slaughter and analyzed for FA profiles. No effects were observed on intake, growth, or carcass characteristics. A greater (P = 0.02) staple strength of lambs fed CO was the only effect observed in wool. Flax oil increased total n-3 and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in tissue FA profiles (P < 0.001) in comparison to other diets. Tasco increased (P ≤ 0.001) SFA/PUFA in all tissues, whereas concentrations of CLA c-9, t-11 were greatest with SO in all tissues (P ≤ 0.02), compared to other diets. These results suggest Tasco supplementation did not improve the n-3/n-6 or SFA/PUFA ratios of lamb adipose tissues compared to other dietary lipid additives.

  8. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar.

  9. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  10. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  11. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs.

  12. Enhancement of the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells, LEDs, and Optical Amplifiers by Anti-Solvent Additive Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thi Tuyen; Suarez, Isaac; Antonicelli, Gabriella; Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of perovskite optoelectronic devices is increased by a novel method; its suitability for perovskite solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and optical amplifiers is demonstrated. The method is based on the introduction of organic additives during the anti-solvent step in the perovskite thin-film deposition process. Additives passivate grain boundaries reducing non-radiative recombination. The method can be easily extended to other additives.

  13. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    PubMed

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies.

  14. Preschoolers perform more informative experiments after observing theory-violating evidence.

    PubMed

    van Schijndel, Tessa J P; Visser, Ingmar; van Bers, Bianca M C W; Raijmakers, Maartje E J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of evidence conflicting with preschoolers' naive theory on the patterns of their free exploratory play. The domain of shadow size was used--a relatively complex, ecologically valid domain that allows for reliable assessment of children's knowledge. Results showed that all children who observed conflicting evidence performed an unconfounded informative experiment in the beginning of their play, compared with half of the children who observed confirming evidence. Mainly, these experiments were directed at investigating a dimension that was at the core of children's initial theory. Thus, preschoolers were flexible in the type of experiments they performed, but they were less flexible in the content of their investigations.

  15. Skylab program earth resources experiment package sensor performance evaluation, volume 1, (S190A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results of S190A sensor performance evaluation are summarized based on data presented by all contributors to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. Techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are discussed. Topics discussed include: performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions, S190A and EREP system anomalies that affected S190A performance, and the performance achieved, in terms of pertinent S190A parameters. Additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods and consolidation analyses to reduce independent mission data (SL2, SL3, and SL4) to determine overall performance realized during all three Skylab missions.

  16. Heat Pipe Performance-2 (HPP-2) experiment aboard mission STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' middeck, Astronaut Donald R. McMonagle, mission commander, works with the Heat Pipe Performance (HPP-2) experiment during STS-66 mission. HPP-2 was flown to investigate the thermal performance and fluid dynamics of heat pipes operating with asymmetric and multiple heating zones under microgravity condition.

  17. Factors Affecting Spatial Test Performance: Sex, Handedness, Birth Order, and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Roland B.

    Four factors have been reported in the literature as being related to spatial test performance. This study investigated the main and interaction effects of sex, handedness, birth order, and experience on three different types of spatial performance; surface development, object rotation, and coordination of viewpoints. A total of 217 undergraduate…

  18. Medical performance and the ‘inaccessible’ experience of illness: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Weitkamp, Emma; Mermikides, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We report a survey of audience members' responses (147 questionnaires collected at seven performances) and 10 in-depth interviews (five former patients and two family members, three medical practitioners) to bloodlines, a medical performance exploring the experience of haematopoietic stem-cell transplant as treatment for acute leukaemia. Performances took place in 2014 and 2015. The article argues that performances that are created through interdisciplinary collaboration can convey otherwise ‘inaccessible’ illness experiences in ways that audience members with personal experience recognise as familiar, and find emotionally affecting. In particular such performances are adept at interweaving ‘objectivist’ (objective, medical) and ‘subjectivist’ (subjective, emotional) perspectives of the illness experience, and indeed, at challenging such distinctions. We suggest that reflecting familiar yet hard-to-articulate experiences may be beneficial for the ongoing emotional recovery of people who have survived serious disease, particularly in relation to the isolation that they experience during and as a consequence of their treatment. PMID:27466255

  19. Additive effects of growth promoting technologies on performance of grazing steers and economics of the wheat pasture enterprise.

    PubMed

    Beck, P; Hess, T; Hubbell, D; Hufstedler, G D; Fieser, B; Caldwell, J

    2014-03-01

    This research was designed to evaluate the effect of monensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) supplementation via mineral or pressed protein block with or without a growth-promoting implant on performance of steers grazing wheat pasture in Arkansas over 2 yr. Preconditioned steers (n = 360, BW = 238 ± 5.1 kg) grazed 15 1.6-ha wheat pastures in the fall (n = 60 steers each fall, stocking rate of 2.5 steers/ha) or 30 0.8-ha wheat pastures in the spring (n = 120 steers each spring, stocking rate of 5 steers/ha). Steers in each pasture were given free-choice access to nonmedicated mineral (CNTRL; MoorMan's WeatherMaster Range Minerals A 646AAA; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc., Quincy, IL), or were supplemented with monensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) via mineral containing 1.78 g monensin/kg (RMIN; MoorMan's Grower Mineral RU-1620 590AR; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc.), or pressed protein block containing 0.33 g monensin/kg (RBLCK; MoorMan's Mintrate Blonde Block RU; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc.). Additionally, one-half of the steers in each pasture were implanted (IMPL) with 40 mg trenbolone acetate and 8 mg estradiol (Component TE-G with Tylan; Elanco Animal Health). There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.71) between supplement treatment and growth-promoting implants, and ADG for RMIN and RBLCK were increased (P < 0.01) over CNTRL by 0.07 to 0.09 kg/d, respectively. Implanting steers with Component TE-G increased (P < 0.01) ADG by 0.14 kg/d. The combination of these growth-promoting technologies are a cost-effective means of increasing beef production by 22% without increasing level of supplementation or pasture acreage. Utilizing ionophores and implants together for wheat pasture stocker cattle decreased cost of gain by 26%. Utilizing both IMPL and monensin increased net return by $30 to $54/steer for RMIN or $18 to $43/steer for RBLCK compared with UNIMPL CNTRL at Low and High values of BW gain, respectively.

  20. Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis, the VIPA Experience: Reconnecting with Technical Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Today's NASA is facing significant challenges and changes. The Exploration initiative indicates a large increase in projects with limited increase in budget. The Columbia report has criticized NASA for its lack of insight and technical integration impacting its ability to provide safety. The Aldridge report is advocating NASA find new ways of doing business. Very early in the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program a small team of engineers at MSFC were asked to propose a process for performing a system level assessment of a launch vehicle. The request was aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a "smart buyer." Out of this effort the VIPA team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and many integration attempts is that VIPA focuses on using experienced people from various disciplines and a process which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. Most previous attempts have focused on developing an all encompassing software tool. In addition, VIPA anchored its process formulation in the experience of its members and in early developmental Space Shuttle experience. The primary reference for this is NASA-TP-2001-210092, "Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned," and discussions with its authors. The foundations of VIPA's process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to drive detailed analysis earlier in the design process. Analyses and techniques typically done in later design phases, are brought forward using improved computing technology. The intent is to allow the identification of significant sensitivities, trades, and design issues much earlier in the program. This process is driven by the T-model for Technical Integration described in the aforementioned reference. VIPA's approach to performing system level technical integration is discussed in detail. Proposed definitions are offered to clarify this discussion and the general systems integration dialog. VIPA

  1. Time and motion, experiment M151. [human performance and space flight stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Mcbride, G. H.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut work performance during the preparation and execution of experiments in simulated Skylab tests was analyzed according to time and motion in order to evaluate the efficiency and consistency of performance (adaptation function) for several different types of activity over the course of the mission; to evaluate the procedures to be used by the same experiment in Skylab; to generate characteristic adaptation functions for later comparison with Skylab data; and to examine astronaut performance for any behavioral stress due to the environment. The overall results indicate that the anticipated adaptation function was obtained both for individual and for averaged data.

  2. Comparative study on the performance of pod type waterjet by experiment and computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Park, Warn-Gyu; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Jung, Un-Hwa

    2010-03-01

    A comparative study between a computation and an experiment has been conducted to predict the performance of a Pod type waterjet for an amphibious wheeled vehicle. The Pod type waterjet has been chosen on the basis of the required specific speed of more than 2500. As the Pod type waterjet is an extreme type of axial flow type waterjet, theoretical as well as experimental works about Pod type waterjets are very rare. The main purpose of the present study is to validate and compare to the experimental results of the Pod type waterjet with the developed CFD in-house code based on the RANS equations. The developed code has been validated by comparing with the experimental results of the well-known turbine problem. The validation also extended to the flush type waterjet where the pressures along the duct surface and also velocities at nozzle area have been compared with experimental results. The Pod type waterjet has been designed and the performance of the designed waterjet system including duct, impeller and stator was analyzed by the previously mentioned in-house CFD Code. The pressure distributions and limiting streamlines on the blade surfaces were computed to confirm the performance of the designed waterjets. In addition, the torque and momentum were computed to find the entire efficiency and these were compared with the model test results. Measurements were taken of the flow rate at the nozzle exit, static pressure at the various sections along the duct and also the nozzle, revolution of the impeller, torque, thrust and towing forces at various advance speeds for the prediction of performance as well as for comparison with the computations. Based on these measurements, the performance was analyzed according to the ITTC96 standard analysis method. The full-scale effective and the delivered power of the wheeled vehicle were estimated for the prediction of the service speed. This paper emphasizes the confirmation of the ITTC96 analysis method and the developed

  3. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  4. Performance of the Time Expansion Chamber / Transition Radiation Detector in PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luiz Silva, Cesar

    2004-10-01

    The Time Expansion Chamber / Transition Radiation Detector (TEC/TRD) in the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC measures ionization losses (dE/dX) and transition radiation from charged particles produced by beam collisions. It is designed to perform tracking and identification for charged particles on very high particle multiplicity environment. The TEC/TRD consists of 24 wire chambers readout on both sides filled with recycled Xe-based gas mixture. This wire chamber configuration, besides providing measurements of ionization losses for charged particles, can absorb X-Ray photons generated by transition radiation from incident particles with γ>1000 crossing fiber radiators placed at the entrance of the chambers. This allows TEC/TRD to distinguish electrons from the huge pion signal produced over a broad momentum range (1GeV/cadditional variable to determine points for the charged particle's track. In this presentation we will show results on e/π separation for momentum above 1 GeV/c and momentum resolution using TEC/TRD in Au-Au collisions at √s=200 GeV/c and √s=62.4 GeV/c.

  5. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject’s level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance. PMID:26863141

  6. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    PubMed

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  7. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, H. C.; Hannas, M. I.; Albino, L. F. T.; Rostagno, H. S.; Neme, R.; Faria, B. D.; Xavier, M. L.; Rennó, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase (BM) supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels (NL) were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers (NL1); reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy (NL2); 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion (FCR) for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance, energy

  8. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, H C; Hannas, M I; Albino, L F T; Rostagno, H S; Neme, R; Faria, B D; Xavier, M L; Rennó, L N

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase BM: supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels : NL : were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers : NL1 : ; reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy : NL2 : ; 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain : BWG : and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion : FCR : for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance

  9. Forestry Impacts on Mercury Mobility, Methylation, and Bioaccumulation - A Field Experiment with Enriched Stable Mercury Isotope Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Carl; Haynes, Kristine; Mazur, Maxwell; Fidler, Nathan; Eckley, Chris; Kolka, Randy; Eggert, Susan; Sebestyen, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Forest harvesting has clear impacts on terrestrial hydrology at least over the short term. Similar biogeochemical impacts, such as augmented mercury fluxes or downstream impacts on ecosystems are not as clear, and recent studies have not demonstrated consistent or predictable impacts across systems. To gain a better process understanding of mercury cycling in upland forest-lowland peatland ecosystems, we undertook a field-scale experiment at a study site in northern Minnesota (USA) where shallow subsurface hillslope runoff flows into an adjacent peatland ecosystem. Starting in 2009, three upland forest plots (< 1 hectare each) were delineated and hydrometric infrastructure such as runoff trenches, snow lysimeters, soil moisture probes, shallow piezometers, and throughfall gauges were installed in each plot. We added 14.2 to 16.7 μg/m2 of enriched mercury-200 and mercury-204 (as dilute mercuric nitrate) in the spring of 2011 and 2012, respectively, to distinguish between contemporary and legacy mercury and to provide some insight into the duration of contemporary mercury mobility in impacted terrestrial ecosystems. During the late winter of 2012, one of the study plots was clearcut and approximately 80% of slash was removed. We clearcut a second plot without slash removal, and left the third plot as a control. Throughout the study, we have monitored (including isotopes): mercury in runoff, soil-air gaseous Hg fluxes, methylation potentials in the adjacent peatland, and bioaccumulation into invertebrates inhabiting the adjacent peatland. Early results mostly indicate that slash removal actually lessens the impacts of clearcutting on mercury mobility (although forest harvesting in general does have a significant impact) and that forestry operations at this scale have little to no impact on methylation or bioaccumulation in downstream peatlands. Thus far, the greatest impact of slash removal in forest harvested systems is an increase in mercury evasion, likely as a

  10. Integration experiences and performance studies of A COTS parallel archive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hsing-bung; Scott, Cody; Grider, Bary; Torres, Aaron; Turley, Milton; Sanchez, Kathy; Bremer, John

    2010-01-01

    Current and future Archive Storage Systems have been asked to (a) scale to very high bandwidths, (b) scale in metadata performance, (c) support policy-based hierarchical storage management capability, (d) scale in supporting changing needs of very large data sets, (e) support standard interface, and (f) utilize commercial-off-the-shelf(COTS) hardware. Parallel file systems have been asked to do the same thing but at one or more orders of magnitude faster in performance. Archive systems continue to move closer to file systems in their design due to the need for speed and bandwidth, especially metadata searching speeds such as more caching and less robust semantics. Currently the number of extreme highly scalable parallel archive solutions is very small especially those that will move a single large striped parallel disk file onto many tapes in parallel. We believe that a hybrid storage approach of using COTS components and innovative software technology can bring new capabilities into a production environment for the HPC community much faster than the approach of creating and maintaining a complete end-to-end unique parallel archive software solution. In this paper, we relay our experience of integrating a global parallel file system and a standard backup/archive product with a very small amount of additional code to provide a scalable, parallel archive. Our solution has a high degree of overlap with current parallel archive products including (a) doing parallel movement to/from tape for a single large parallel file, (b) hierarchical storage management, (c) ILM features, (d) high volume (non-single parallel file) archives for backup/archive/content management, and (e) leveraging all free file movement tools in Linux such as copy, move, ls, tar, etc. We have successfully applied our working COTS Parallel Archive System to the current world's first petaflop/s computing system, LANL's Roadrunner, and demonstrated its capability to address requirements of future

  11. Integration experiments and performance studies of a COTS parallel archive system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hsing-bung; Scott, Cody; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Turley, Milton; Sanchez, Kathy; Bremer, John

    2010-06-16

    Current and future Archive Storage Systems have been asked to (a) scale to very high bandwidths, (b) scale in metadata performance, (c) support policy-based hierarchical storage management capability, (d) scale in supporting changing needs of very large data sets, (e) support standard interface, and (f) utilize commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. Parallel file systems have been asked to do the same thing but at one or more orders of magnitude faster in performance. Archive systems continue to move closer to file systems in their design due to the need for speed and bandwidth, especially metadata searching speeds such as more caching and less robust semantics. Currently the number of extreme highly scalable parallel archive solutions is very small especially those that will move a single large striped parallel disk file onto many tapes in parallel. We believe that a hybrid storage approach of using COTS components and innovative software technology can bring new capabilities into a production environment for the HPC community much faster than the approach of creating and maintaining a complete end-to-end unique parallel archive software solution. In this paper, we relay our experience of integrating a global parallel file system and a standard backup/archive product with a very small amount of additional code to provide a scalable, parallel archive. Our solution has a high degree of overlap with current parallel archive products including (a) doing parallel movement to/from tape for a single large parallel file, (b) hierarchical storage management, (c) ILM features, (d) high volume (non-single parallel file) archives for backup/archive/content management, and (e) leveraging all free file movement tools in Linux such as copy, move, Is, tar, etc. We have successfully applied our working COTS Parallel Archive System to the current world's first petafiop/s computing system, LANL's Roadrunner machine, and demonstrated its capability to address requirements of

  12. Performance analysis for time-frequency MUSIC algorithm in presence of both additive noise and array calibration errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, Mohamed; Belouchrani, Adel; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2012-12-01

    This article deals with the application of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) to the direction finding problem using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)algorithm. A comparative performance analysis is performed for the method under consideration with respect to that using data covariance matrix when the received array signals are subject to calibration errors in a non-stationary environment. An unified analytical expression of the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) error estimation is derived for both methods. Numerical results show the effect of the parameters intervening in the derived expression on the algorithm performance. It is particularly observed that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and high Signal to sensor Perturbation Ratio (SPR) the STFD method gives better performance, while for high SNR and for the same SPR both methods give similar performance.

  13. Assessment of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of feed additives to improve production has been identified as an important area for development in aquaculture. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival ...

  14. Effect of pore size on bone ingrowth into porous titanium implants fabricated by additive manufacturing: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Otsuki, Bungo; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique with the ability to produce metallic scaffolds with accurately controlled pore size, porosity, and interconnectivity for orthopedic applications. However, the optimal pore structure of porous titanium manufactured by SLM remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pore size with constant porosity on in vivo bone ingrowth in rabbits into porous titanium implants manufactured by SLM. Three porous titanium implants (with an intended porosity of 65% and pore sizes of 300, 600, and 900μm, designated the P300, P600, and P900 implants, respectively) were manufactured by SLM. A diamond lattice was adapted as the basic structure. Their porous structures were evaluated and verified using microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Their bone-implant fixation ability was evaluated by their implantation as porous-surfaced titanium plates into the cortical bone of the rabbit tibia. Bone ingrowth was evaluated by their implantation as cylindrical porous titanium implants into the cancellous bone of the rabbit femur for 2, 4, and 8weeks. The average pore sizes of the P300, P600, and P900 implants were 309, 632, and 956μm, respectively. The P600 implant demonstrated a significantly higher fixation ability at 2weeks than the other implants. After 4weeks, all models had sufficiently high fixation ability in a detaching test. Bone ingrowth into the P300 implant was lower than into the other implants at 4weeks. Because of its appropriate mechanical strength, high fixation ability, and rapid bone ingrowth, our results indicate that the pore structure of the P600 implant is a suitable porous structure for orthopedic implants manufactured by SLM.

  15. Mice Drawer System (MDS): procedures performed on-orbit during experiment phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciparelli, Paolo; Falcetti, Giancarlo; Tenconi, Chiara; Pignataro, Salvatore; Cotronei, Vittorio

    Mice Drawer System is a payload that can be integrated inside the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation to/from the ISS, and inside the Express Rack in the ISS during experi-ment execution. It is designed to perform experiment as much automatically as possible; only maintenance activities require procedures involving crew. The first MDS experiment has been performed with Shuttle STS-128, launched in August, 28 2009 at EDT time 23:58 (06:58 Italian time). During the permanence in the Shuttle, MDS was switched on in SURVIVAL mode, cooled by air from rear part of the middeck: this mode allows to supply water and night-and-day cycles to mice in automatic mode, but not food that was supplied ad libitum before launch by a dedicated food bar inserted inside the cage. In this phase, a visual check has been performed every day by crew to verify the well-being of the mice. During the permanence in ISS, MDS was switched on in EXPERIMENT mode, cooled by water from EXPRESS RACK. In this case, MDS experiment was completely automatic: water, food, night-and-day cycles were commanded every day by the payload. Only Maintenance activities to replace consumable items and to fill the potable water reservoir were foreseen and executed by the crew. Food Envelope replacement was foreseen every 19 days, the Waste Filter replacement has been performed every 30 days. Potable Water Reservoir refilling has been performed every 9 days. Nominal activities performed on ISS were also the transfer from Shuttle to ISS and reconfiguration from ascent to on-orbit operation after launch. The reconfiguration from on-orbit to descent and transfer from ISS to Shuttle has been performed before Shuttle undock and landing.

  16. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in September 2016 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris (SEIS PI Institution), Imperial College of London, Oxford University, MPS of Göttingen, ETH of Zürich, ISAE from Toulouse and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena. In addition to the seismometer, the Insight payload will also include a suite of instruments complementary to the seismometer, such as a precision temperature sensor, a micro-barometer, a magnetometer and a wind sensor, making it the first geophysical multi-parameter station on another planet. A heat flow sensor and geodetic measurements will provide additional science measurements, in order to constrain the internal structure of Mars. Several challenges have been overcome to design and realize the planetary seismometer, which will exhibit a noise of about 10-9 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in its seismic bandwidth bandwidth (0.01-1 Hz) for the very broadband component. These challenges include a very efficient insulation from the external temperature variations, and a finely crafted mechanical design to keep the extreme sensitivity of the seismometer, while allowing enough robustness for the harsh mechanical environment encountered during the launch and landing sequences. Also, specific attention has been paid to understanding the various environment contributions to the noise figure. A

  17. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix T: Experiment T027/S073 contamination measurement, photometer and Gegenschein/zodiacal light (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A series of analyses for Experiment T027/S073, contamination measurement, photometer and gegenschein/zodiacal light (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditons is presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  18. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D.

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  19. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  20. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Operational Experience, Performance Testing, and Systems Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.; Ramsden, T. G.; Kramer, W. E.; Novachek, F. J.

    2009-03-01

    The Wind2H2 system is fully functional and continues to gather performance data. In this report, specifications of the Wind2H2 equipment (electrolyzers, compressor, hydrogen storage tanks, and the hydrogen fueled generator) are summarized. System operational experience and lessons learned are discussed. Valuable operational experience is shared through running, testing, daily operations, and troubleshooting the Wind2H2 system and equipment errors are being logged to help evaluate the reliability of the system.

  1. Earth resources experiment package sensor performance evaluation. Volume 2: S191

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    An S191 performance summary based on ground testing and orbital operations in terms of pertinent parameters is provided. Additional tasks covering S191 short-wavelength radiometric calibration, data-acquisition camera, and viewfinder tracking system design criteria, radiometric comparison of S190A, S191, and S192, and wavelength calibration data are included as supplemental analyses. Descriptions of techniques employed in the performance analyses are also discussed. Final results of the evaluations in terms of significant performance degradation, sensor and system anomalies, and achieved performance are presented. Conclusions were based on S191 performance and interaction of S191 with the EREP system. Recommendations for additional analyses and improvements in design and operation are presented.

  2. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  3. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC ANIMAL FEED ADDITIVES BY MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phenylarsonic compounds have been used as poultry and swine feed additives for the purpose of growth promotion and disease prevention. Owing to the lack of suitable analytical methods, however, knowledge of their metabolism, environmental fate and impact remains incomplete. In or...

  4. Mental simulation and experience as determinants of performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Huddy, Vyv; Drake, Gareth; Wykes, Til

    2016-03-30

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate both impairment in mental time travel and reduced expectancies of performance on future tasks. We aimed to reconcile these findings within the Kahneman and Tversky (1982) simulation heuristic framework by testing a key prediction that impaired future simulation would be associated with reduced performance expectancies in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZSPEC). A total of 54 individuals (30 people with SZSPEC and 24 healthy controls) generated mental simulations of everyday scenarios; after each response they rated performance expectations, distress and the similarity of the scenario to experience. Independent raters coded the coherence of responses. We found that people with SZSPEC had, compared to healthy controls, lower performance expectations and greater anticipated distress when imaging everyday scenarios. Lower performance expectancies were associated with lower experience of similar scenarios, greater negative symptoms and social withdrawal in the SZSPEC group. The current study confirmed previous findings of both impaired mental simulation and abnormal performance expectations in people with SZSPEC, together with the association of the latter with negative symptoms. Experience with social or occupational activities plays a more important role in determining performance expectancies in people with SS than the ability to mentally simulate scenarios.

  5. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence From Air Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic control (ATC), would enable older controllers to perform at high levels of proficiency. The authors also investigated whether older controllers would show diminished age-related decrements on domain-relevant cognitive abilities. Both young and old controllers and noncontrollers performed a battery of cognitive and ATC tasks. Results indicate that although high levels of experience can reduce the magnitude of age-related decline on the component processes that underlie complex task performance, this sparing is limited in scope. More important, however, the authors observed experience-based sparing on simulated ATC tasks, with the sparing being most evident on the more complex air traffic control tasks. These results suggest that given substantial experience, older adults may be quite capable of performing at high levels of proficiency on fast-paced demanding real-world tasks. The implications of these findings for global skilled labor shortages are discussed. PMID:19309213

  6. Improving the long-term cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries at elevated temperature with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Ma, Lin; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    The effects of vinylene carbonate-based and prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based electrolyte additives on the cycling behavior of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite pouch type cells at elevated temperature have been systematically studied. Capacity fade during cycling, charge-transfer resistance before and after cycling as well as gas evolution during formation and also during cycling were examined and compared. For vinylene carbonate-based additive blends, only 3% vinylene carbonate, 2% vinylene carbonate + 1% 1,3,2-dioxathiolane-2,2-dioxide + 1% tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite or 2% vinylene carbonate + 1% methylene methyl disulfonate + 1% tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite showed less capacity fade than 2% vinylene carbonate alone. Cells with all of these vinylene carbonate-based electrolyte additive blends lost more than 20% of their initial capacity after ∼1000 cycles at 55 °C and all the vinylene carbonate-based cells swelled more than 10% of their initial volume during this test. Cells containing all prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based additive blends generally produced much less gas than the vinylene carbonate-based blends. Many cells containing prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based additive blends lost less than 20% of their initial capacity after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the impedance of these prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based electrolytes decreased after long-term cycling. These results suggest that prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone-based electrolytes are more useful than vinylene carbonate-based electrolytes at high temperatures in Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite cells.

  7. Clinical hypnosis with a Little League baseball population: performance enhancement and resolving traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam

    2011-01-01

    A model for the use of clinical hypnosis with a Little League population was proposed and outlined with dual emphasis: performance enhancement and resolving traumatic experiences. The Performance Enhancement Training Model was developed to enhance performance with this non-patient population. It employed clinical hypnosis to bring to fruition recommendations made by coaches to enhance players' batting proficiency. The second emphasis of the proposed model focused on the resolution of involuntary maladaptive habits secondary to a traumatic experience that impede or compromise optimum performance. Included in this category were detrimental defensive habits "at the plate" after a beaming by a pitch and detrimental defensive habits "on the field" after being hit by a batted ball.

  8. Complementing and adding to SEM performance with the addition of XRF, Raman, CL and PL spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, E.; Mamedov, S.; Teboul, E.; Whitley, A.; Meyer, D.; Casson, L.

    2010-06-01

    Electron microscopy, along with many other surface science and analytical techniques, offers an array of complementary sub-techniques that provide additional information to enhance the primary analysis or imaging mode. Most electron microscopes are built with several additional ports for the installation of complementary analysis modules. One type of analysis which is particular useful in geology and semiconductor analysis is cathodoluminescence (CL). A new technique has been developed to allow complementary optical measurements using the electron beam from the SEM, compatible with most standard commercial SEM systems. Among the optical measurements accessible using the Cathodoluminescence Universal Extension (CLUE) module are CL, Raman, PL and EDX spectroscopy and imaging. This paper shows the advantages of using these complementary techniques, and how they can be applied to analysis of geological and semiconductor materials.

  9. On-orbit performance of the 12 GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for CTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics from on-orbit tests of the transmitter experiment package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) are presented. The TEP consists of a power processing system (PPS), an output stage tube (OST) and a variable conductance heat pipe system (VCHPS), all of which are described. Test results presented include efficiencies, RF output power, frequency response, and performance with single and multiple (two) carriers, frequency-modulated by video signals.

  10. A High Performance Frequency Standard and Distribution System for Cassini Ka-Band Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    spacecraft in a series of occultation measurements performed over a 78 day period from March to June 2005. I. INTRODUCTION The Cassini - Huygens project...successful Huygens landing on the moon Titan, the Cassini Spacecraft has begun a 3 year mission of continued moon flybys and observations. During this time...A High Performance Frequency Standard and Distribution System for Cassini Ka-Band Experiment R. T. WANG, M. D. CALHOUN, A. KIRK, W. A. DIENER

  11. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins effects on dairy cow health, performance and the efficacy of Anti-Mycotoxin Additive.

    PubMed

    Jovaišienė, J; Bakutis, B; Baliukonienė, V; Gerulis, G

    2016-01-01

    One hundred two samples of feeds made in Lithuania, which included maize silage, grass-legume silage, hay and ensiled crimped maize were investigated during 2008-2012 for contamination with some mycotoxins. The highest concentrations of mycotoxins determined were those of deoxynivalenol (DON)--471.0 μg/kg and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)--21.2 μg/kg in ryegrass silage from bales, and zearalenone (ZEA)--625.0 μg/kg in maize silage from trenches. The present study has been carried out based on these data because animal feeds contaminated with mycotoxins can cause reduced productivity of dairy cows and health disorders in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term exposure of toxic effects of a diet naturally contaminated with low concentrations of mycotoxins on milk composition and biochemical, hematological, immunological parameters of dairy cows and to determine the anti-mycotoxin effect of Mycofix Plus 3.E. Twenty eight clinically healthy, medium productive Lithuanian Red cows were selected. ZEA was a major contaminant found in the corn silage at concentration levels of up to 1000.0 μg/kg of dry matter. DON was the second major found in the hay at concentration levels of up to 600.0 μg/kg of dry matter. The highest concentration AFB1- 10.0 μg/kg was determined in ground barley. The Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (AMA) Mycofix Plus 3.E was given individually to 14 cows at a concentration of 40.0 g daily for 9 weeks. The present results indicate that feeds naturally contaminated with low concentration of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. in a diet of dairy cows can have a negative influence on somatic cell count, blood parameters and immunity. The addition of an Anti-Mycotoxin Additive (Mycofix Plus 3.E) to diet of dairy cows can prevent many of these effects.

  12. Learning Style and Other Correlates of Performance on a Scanning Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Martha J.

    The relationship between learning style (impulsivity-constriction and stability-anxiety), reading scores, and scanning performance was investigated. Twenty high school students enrolled in a precollege reading and study skills program participated in an 80-trial (10-session) scanning experiment. The task involved searching for a target sentence…

  13. Going Beyond, Going Further: An Inexpensive Experiment for the Introduction of High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Background information, materials needed, laboratory procedures, and typical results are provided for five high performance liquid chromatography experiments (three isocratic and two step gradient separations). Suggestions for further experimentation are also provided, including quantitative determinations and separation of charged solutes. (JN)

  14. The Role of Online Reader Experience in Explaining Students' Performance in Digital Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Flores, Javier; Torres-Gordillo, Juan-Jesus; Perera-Rodriguez, Victor-Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' extracurricular experiences online and their performance on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), focusing specifically on students' competence in digital reading. The study uses a descriptive, correlational, ex post facto design. The data are taken from Spanish students'…

  15. Health Education Field Experience Stories: A Reflective, Digital, Performance-Based Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyde, Adrian R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a reflective, systematic, performance-based project resulting in the development of a digital story about a community health education field experience. The project is designed for preservice health education students at the college/university level. The primary benefit of the project is that it challenges students to engage…

  16. Achievement Motivation: Conceptions of Ability, Subjective Experience, Task Choice, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.

    1984-01-01

    Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at demonstrating high ability. Ability is conceived as relative to one's own past performance, or relative to that of others. Conditions under which these conceptions of ability function as individual's goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. (Author/BW)

  17. Experiences of Second-Class Citizenship Related to Continued Poor Academic Performance of Minority Xhosa Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, Lorna M.; Singh, Suzanne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the subjective life experiences of racial minority Xhosa speakers and the factors that contribute to their continued poor academic performance in a previously Whites-only school in South Africa. Vygotskian sociocultural perspective in relation to creating a democratic educational system and Bronfenbrenner's biosystemic theory…

  18. The Career Fair Project: A Ten Year Experiment in Performance-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Vicki

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes my experiences in developing an educational initiative known as the Career Fair Project within the curriculum of the Legal Administration/Law Clerk program at Durham College over the past ten years. A performance-based, student-centered project, the Career Fair empowers students to work collaboratively with one another in…

  19. Effects of Marking Method and Rater Experience on ESL Essay Scores and Rater Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marking method and rater experience on ESL (English as a Second Language) essay test scores and rater performance. Each of 31 novice and 29 experienced raters rated a sample of ESL essays both holistically and analytically. Essay scores were analysed using a multi-faceted Rasch model to compare test-takers'…

  20. Performance data for a terrestrial solar photovoltaic/water electrolysis experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Yasui, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the equipment used in the experiment, taking into account the surplus solar panel from the Mariner 4 spacecraft which was used as a solar array source and an electrolytic hydrogen generator. Attention is also given to operational considerations and performance data, system considerations and aspects of optimization, and large-scale hydrogen production considerations.

  1. Work Experiences, Job Performance, and Feelings of Personal and Family Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined interaction between job performance and specific work experiences on three indicators of personal and family well-being among 336 accountants. Perceptions of nonsupportive and inequitable work environment, role conflict, and extensive time commitment to work were each related to one or more indicators of well-being. (Author)

  2. Flipping the Classroom and Student Performance in Advanced Statistics: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    I administer a quasi-experiment using undergraduate political science majors in statistics classes to evaluate whether "flipping the classroom" (the treatment) alters students' applied problem-solving performance and satisfaction relative to students in a traditional classroom environment (the control). I also assess whether general…

  3. The Influence of Training and Experience on Rater Performance in Scoring Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Two factors were investigated that are thought to contribute to consistency in rater scoring judgments: rater training and experience in scoring. Also considered were the relative effects of scoring rubrics and exemplars on rater performance. Experienced teachers of English (N = 20) scored recorded responses from the TOEFL iBT speaking test prior…

  4. An Analysis of High School Students' Perceptions and Academic Performance in Laboratory Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirchin, Robert Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This research study is an investigation of student-laboratory (i.e., lab) learning based on students' perceptions of experiences using questionnaire data and evidence of their science-laboratory performance based on paper-and-pencil assessments using Maryland-mandated criteria, Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) criteria, and published…

  5. Poetry Performances and Academic Identity Negotiations in the Literacy Experiences of Seventh Grade Language Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores seventh grade students' experiences with writing and performing poetry. Teacher and student interviews along with class observations provide insight into how the teacher and students viewed spoken word poetry and identity. The researcher recommends practices for the teaching of critical literacy using spoken word and…

  6. College and Community Choir Member Experiences in a Collaborative Intergenerational Performance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen; Hodgman, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the experiences of college and community choir members in a collaborative intergenerational performance project. Data included an initial focus group interview with college choir participants (n = 8), an initial focus group interview with community chorus participants (n = 8); collaborative…

  7. Effect of prior grazing experiences on grazing behavior and performance of lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of grazing experiences early in life on grazing behavior and performance of lactating dairy heifers was evaluated in a 3-year study. Sixty-four Holstein and Holstein x Jersey calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments (n = 16) in 2008. Treatments were combinations of managing he...

  8. A Program to Perform Analyses of Variance for Data from Round-robin Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A round-robin experiment involves observation of all possible pairs of subjects within each experimental condition. A program is described which performs analyses of variance for such data. Output includes an ANOVA summary table, exact or quasi-F statistics for tests of various hypotheses, and least squares estimates of relevant parameters.…

  9. Virtual navigation performance: the relationship to field of view and prior video gaming experience.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Anthony E; Collaer, Marcia L

    2011-04-01

    Two experiments examined whether learning a virtual environment was influenced by field of view and how it related to prior video gaming experience. In the first experiment, participants (42 men, 39 women; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.8) performed worse on a spatial orientation task displayed with a narrow field of view in comparison to medium and wide field-of-view displays. Counter to initial hypotheses, wide field-of-view displays did not improve performance over medium displays, and this was replicated in a second experiment (30 men, 30 women; M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.9) presenting a more complex learning environment. Self-reported video gaming experience correlated with several spatial tasks: virtual environment pointing and tests of Judgment of Line Angle and Position, mental rotation, and Useful Field of View (with correlations between .31 and .45). When prior video gaming experience was included as a covariate, sex differences in spatial tasks disappeared.

  10. Parallel Reaction Monitoring: A Targeted Experiment Performed Using High Resolution and High Mass Accuracy Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay has emerged as an alternative method of targeted quantification. The PRM assay is performed in a high resolution and high mass accuracy mode on a mass spectrometer. This review presents the features that make PRM a highly specific and selective method for targeted quantification using quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid instruments. In addition, this review discusses the label-based and label-free methods of quantification that can be performed with the targeted approach. PMID:26633379

  11. Examiner performance in calibration exercises compared with field conditions when scoring caries experience.

    PubMed

    Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo; Mutsvari, Timothy; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Declerck, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to verify how valid misclassification measurements obtained from a 'pre-survey' calibration exercise are by comparing them to validation scores obtained in 'field' conditions. Validation data were collected from the 'Smile for Life' project, an oral health intervention study in Flemish children. A calibration exercise was organized under 'pre-survey' conditions (32 age-matched children examined by eight examiners and the benchmark scorer). In addition, using a pre-determined sampling scheme blinded to the examiners, the benchmark scorer re-examined between six and 11 children screened by each of the dentists during the survey. Factors influencing sensitivity and specificity for scoring caries experience (CE) were investigated, including examiner, tooth type, surface type, tooth position (upper/lower jaw, right/left side) and validation setting (pre-survey versus field). In order to account for the clustering effect in the data, a generalized estimating equations approach was applied. Sensitivity scores were influenced not only by the calibration setting (lower sensitivity in field conditions, p < 0.01), but also by examiner, tooth type (lower sensitivity in molar teeth, p < 0.01) and tooth position (lower sensitivity in the lower jaw, p < 0.01). Factors influencing specificity were examiner, tooth type (lower specificity in molar teeth, p < 0.01) and surface type (the occlusal surface with a lower specificity than other surfaces) but not the validation setting. Misclassification measurements for scoring CE are influenced by several factors. In this study, the validation setting influenced sensitivity, with lower scores obtained when measuring data validity in 'field' conditions. Results obtained in a pre-survey calibration setting need to be interpreted with caution and do not (always) reflect the actual performance of examiners during the field work.

  12. Operation Experience and Performance of the First 300MWe CFB Boiler Developed by DBC in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Zheng, X. S.; Zhou, Q.; Nie, L.; Liu, T. S.; Hu, X. K.; Lu, J. F.

    In this paper, general layout, design, operational experience and performance of the first 300MWe circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler that developed by Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd China, are introduced. The furnace was with large width-depth ratio. The problems occurred during in commissioning were analyzed and the corresponding modifications were presented. Cold-state experiment and operation experience showed that both fluidization quality and circulating flow rate meet the designated value in the frunace. The imbalance of circulating material flow caused by asymmetric layout of three cyclones was very limited. Heating surfaces were safe except wing wall superheater located in upper part of the furnace was overheated at low load. After commissioning, the boiler was correspondingly modified and its performance was excellent.

  13. Validation studies based on critical experiments performed with fuel pin arrays moderated by Pu + U solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.; Matsumoto, T. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of a calculational study that was performed to validate the SCALE computer code system using data from critical experiments performed with fuel pin arrays moderated by mixed Pu + U aqueous solutions. A companion paper describes the experiments and discusses the criticality data that were obtained. These experimental activities are part of a joint exchange program between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The Consolidated fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages the program for the DOE. The experiments were conducted at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories-Critical Mass Laboratory (PNL-CML).

  14. Lead acid battery performance and cycle life increased through addition of discrete carbon nanotubes to both electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, Nanjan; Everill, Paul; Swogger, Steven W.; Dubey, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary applications are changing the failure mechanisms of lead acid batteries. Sulfation at the negative electrode, acid stratification, and dendrite formation now precede positive electrode failures such as grid corrosion and active material shedding. To attenuate these failures, carbon has been explored as a negative electrode additive to increase charge acceptance, eliminate sulfation, and extend cycle life. Frequently, however, carbon incorporation decreases paste density and hinders manufacturability. Discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT), also known as Molecular Rebar®, are lead acid battery additives which can be stably incorporated into either electrode to increase charge acceptance and cycle life with no change to paste density and without impeding the manufacturing process. Here, full-scale automotive batteries containing dCNT in the negative electrode or both negative and positive electrodes are compared to control batteries. dCNT batteries show little change to Reserve Capacity, improved Cold Cranking, increased charge acceptance, and enhanced overall system efficiency. Life cycle tests show >60% increases when dCNT are incorporated into the negative electrode (HRPSoC/SBA) and up to 500% when incorporated into both electrodes (SBA), with water loss per cycle reduced >20%. Failure modes of cycled batteries are discussed and a hypothesis of dCNT action is introduced: the dCNT/Had Overcharge Reaction Mechanism.

  15. Improving performance and cyclability of zinc-silver oxide batteries by using graphene as a two dimensional conductive additive.

    PubMed

    Ozgit, Dilek; Hiralal, Pritesh; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2014-12-10

    In this article, the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a high-surface-area conductive additive for enhancing zinc-silver oxide (Zn-Ag2O) batteries is reported for the first time. Specific capacity, rate capability and cyclability are all improved with the addition of 5% thermally reduced graphene oxide to the electrode. It is shown that the rGO morphology becomes more beneficial as the active materials tend toward the nanoscale. The combination results in a better utilization of the active material, which in turn improves the specific capacity of the zinc-silver oxide batteries by ca. 50%, as a result of the more intimate contact with the nano (∼50 nm) electrode particles. The resulting rGO network also creates a high-surface-area conducting template for ZnO electrodeposition upon discharge, significantly reducing the overall particle size of the ZnO deposit, thus inhibiting the formation of dendrites, and increasing the number of achievable cycles from 4 to >160 with a basic cellulose separator. The morphology of the electrodes and its electrochemical parameters are studied as a function of cycling.

  16. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  17. Performance experiments with alternative advanced teleoperator control modes for a simulated solar maximum satellite repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Zak, H.; Kim, W. S.; Bejczy, A. K.; Schenker, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which were conducted at the JPL Advanced Teleoperator Lab to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of various teleoperator control modes in the performance of a simulated Solar Max Satellite Repair (SMSR) task. THe SMSR was selected as a test because it is very rich in performance capability requirements and it actually has been performed by two EVA astronauts in the Space Shuttle Bay in 1984. The main subtasks are: thermal blanket removal; installation of a hinge attachment for electrical panel opening; opening of electrical panel; removal of electrical connectors; relining of cable bundles; replacement of electrical panel; securing parts and cables; re-mate electrical connectors; closing of electrical panel; and reinstating thermal blanket. The current performance experiments are limited to thermal blanket cutting, electrical panel unbolting and handling electrical bundles and connectors. In one formal experiment even different control modes were applied to the unbolting and reinsertion of electrical panel screws subtasks. The seven control modes are alternative combinations of manual position and rate control with force feedback and remote compliance referenced to force-torque sensor information. Force-torque sensor and end effector position data and task completion times were recorded for analysis and quantification of operator performance.

  18. InP homojunction solar cell performance on the LIPS 3 flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hart, Russell E., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving; Smith, Brian S.

    1988-01-01

    Performance data for the NASA Lewis Research Center indium phosphide n+p homojunction solar cell module on the LIPS 3 Flight Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment is to measure the performance of InP cells in the natural radiation environment of the 1100 km altitude, 60+ deg inclination orbit. Analysis of flight data indicates that the performance of the four cells throughout the first year is near expected values. No degradation in short-circuit current was seen, as was expected from radiation tolerance studies of similar cells. Details of the cell structure and flight module design are discussed. The results of the temperature dependency and radiation tolerance studies necessary for normalization and analysis of the data are included.

  19. Instrumentation and Performance Analysis Plans for the HIFiRE Flight 2 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Mark; Barhorst, Todd; Jackson, Kevin; Eklund, Dean; Hass, Neal; Storch, Andrea M.; Liu, Jiwen

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic combustion performance of a bi-component gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture is one of the primary aspects under investigation in the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In-flight instrumentation and post-test analyses will be two key elements used to determine the combustion performance. Pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses provide valuable information that can be used to optimize the placement of a constrained set of wall pressure instrumentation in the experiment. The simulations also allow pre-flight assessments of performance sensitivities leading to estimates of overall uncertainty in the determination of combustion efficiency. Based on the pre-flight CFD results, 128 wall pressure sensors have been located throughout the isolator/combustor flowpath to minimize the error in determining the wall pressure force at Mach 8 flight conditions. Also, sensitivity analyses show that mass capture and combustor exit stream thrust are the two primary contributors to uncertainty in combustion efficiency.

  20. ACC Neuro-over-Connectivity Is Associated with Mathematically Modeled Additional Encoding Operations of Schizophrenia Stroop-Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Reggie; Théberge, Jean; Williamson, Peter C.; Densmore, Maria; Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 Tesla was undertaken among Schizophrenia participants (Sz), and clinical (major mood disorder; MDD) and healthy controls (HC), during performance of the Stoop task. Stroop conditions included congruent and incongruent word color items, color-only items, and word-only items. Previous modeling results extended to this most widely used selective-attention task. All groups executed item-encoding operations (subprocesses of the item encoding process) at the same rate (performance accuracy being similarly high throughout), thus displaying like processing capacity; Sz participants, however, employed more subprocesses for item completions than did the MDD participants, who in turn used more subprocesses than the HC group. The reduced efficiency in deploying cognitive-workload capacity among the Sz participants was paralleled by more diffuse neuroconnectivity (Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent co-activation) with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (Broadman Area 32), spreading away from this encoding-intensive region; and by less evidence of network dissociation across Stroop conditions. Estimates of cognitive work done to accomplish item completion were greater for the Sz participants, as were estimates of entropy in both the modeled trial-latency distribution, and its associated neuro-circuitry. Findings are held to be symptom and assessment significant, and to have potential implications for clinical intervention. PMID:27695425

  1. Performance-based financing and changing the district health system: experience from Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Robert; Habineza, Christian; Peerenboom, Peter Bob

    2006-11-01

    Evidence from low-income Asian countries shows that performance-based financing (as a specific form of contracting) can improve health service delivery more successfully than traditional input financing mechanisms. We report a field experience from Rwanda demonstrating that performance-based financing is a feasible strategy in sub-Saharan Africa too. Performance-based financing requires at least one new actor, an independent well equipped fundholder organization in the district health system separating the purchasing, service delivery as well as regulatory roles of local health authorities from the technical role of contract negotiation and fund disbursement. In Rwanda, local community groups, through patient surveys, verified the performance of health facilities and monitored consumer satisfaction. A precondition for the success of performance-based financing is that authorities must respect the autonomous management of health facilities competing for public subsidies. These changes are an opportunity to redistribute roles within the health district in a more transparent and efficient fashion.

  2. Performance-based financing and changing the district health system: experience from Rwanda.

    PubMed Central

    Soeters, Robert; Habineza, Christian; Peerenboom, Peter Bob

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from low-income Asian countries shows that performance-based financing (as a specific form of contracting) can improve health service delivery more successfully than traditional input financing mechanisms. We report a field experience from Rwanda demonstrating that performance-based financing is a feasible strategy in sub-Saharan Africa too. Performance-based financing requires at least one new actor, an independent well equipped fundholder organization in the district health system separating the purchasing, service delivery as well as regulatory roles of local health authorities from the technical role of contract negotiation and fund disbursement. In Rwanda, local community groups, through patient surveys, verified the performance of health facilities and monitored consumer satisfaction. A precondition for the success of performance-based financing is that authorities must respect the autonomous management of health facilities competing for public subsidies. These changes are an opportunity to redistribute roles within the health district in a more transparent and efficient fashion. PMID:17143462

  3. Changes in water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes with the addition of biochar to soils: lessons learned from laboratory and greenhouse experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T.; Gallagher, M. E.; Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The addition of biochar to agricultural soils has the potential to provide a number of ecosystem services, ranging from carbon (C) sequestration to increased soil fertility and crop production. It is estimated that 0.5 to 0.9 Pg of C yr-1 can be sequestered through the addition of biochar to soils, significantly increasing the charcoal flux to the biosphere over natural inputs from fire (0.05 to 0.20 Pg C yr-1). There remain large uncertainties about biochar mobility within the environment, making it a challenge to assess the ecosystem residence time of biochar. We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to understand how soil amendment with laboratory-produced biochar changes water, C, and nitrogen (N) fluxes from soils. We used column experiments to assess how biochar amendment to three types of soils (sand, organic, clay-rich) affected hydraulic conductivity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes. Results varied with soil type; biochar significantly decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and organic soils by a factor of 10.6 and 2.7, respectively. While not statistically significant, biochar addition increased the hydraulic conductivity of the clay-rich soil by 50% on average. The addition of biochar significantly increased the DOC fluxes from the C-poor sand and clay soils while it significantly decreased the DOC flux from the organic-rich soil. In contrast, TDN fluxes decreased with biochar additions from all soil types, though the results were not statistically significant from the clay-rich soil. These laboratory experiments suggest that changes in the hydraulic conductivity of soil due to biochar amendments could play a significant role in understanding how biochar additions to agricultural fields will change watershed C and N dynamics. We additionally conducted a 28-day greenhouse experiment with sorghum plants using a three-way factorial treatment (water availability x biochar x mycorrhizae) to

  4. Qualitative impact of salinity, UV radiation and turbulence on leaching of organic plastic additives from four common plastics - A lab experiment.

    PubMed

    Suhrhoff, Tim Jesper; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara M

    2016-01-15

    Four common consumer plastic samples (polyethylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride) were studied to investigate the impact of physical parameters such as turbulence, salinity and UV irradiance on leaching behavior of selected plastic components. Polymers were exposed to two different salinities (i.e. 0 and 35 g/kg), UV radiation and turbulence. Additives (e.g. bisphenol A, phthalates, citrates, and Irgafos® 168 phosphate) and oligomers were detected in initial plastics and aqueous extracts. Identification and quantification was performed by GC-FID/MS. Bisphenol A and citrate based additives are leached easier compared to phthalates. The print highly contributed to the chemical burden of the analyzed polyethylene bag. The study underlines a positive relationship between turbulence and magnitude of leaching. Salinity had a minor impact that differs for each analyte. Global annual release of additives from assessed plastics into marine environments is estimated to be between 35 and 917 tons, of which most are derived from plasticized polyvinylchloride.

  5. Effect of the addition CNTs on performance of CaP/chitosan/coating deposited on magnesium alloy by electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wen, Zhaohui; Zhao, Meng; Li, Guozhong; Dai, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    CaP/chitosan/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was prepared via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by conversion in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The bonding between the layer and the substrate was studied by an automatic scratch instrument. The phase compositions and microstructures of the composite coatings were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The element concentration and gentamicin concentration were respectively determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) test and ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV). The cell counting kit (CCK) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of samples to SaOS-2 cells. The results showed that a few CNTs with their original tubular morphology could be found in the CaP/chitosan coating and they were beneficial for the crystal growth of phosphate and improvement of the coating bonding when the addition amount of CNTs in 500 ml of electrophoretic solution was from 0.05 g to 0.125 g. The loading amount of gentamicin increased and the releasing speed of gentamicin decreased after CNTs was added into the CaP/chitosan coating for immersion loading and EPD loading. The cell viability of Mg based CaP/chitosan/CNTs was higher than that of Mg based CaP/chitosan from 16 days to 90 days.

  6. Design and Performance of an Automated Bioreactor for Cell Culture Experiments in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Park, Seul-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a bioreactor for a cell-culture experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The bioreactor is an experimental device for culturing mouse muscle cells in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the impact of microgravity on the muscles to address the possibility of longterm human residence in space. After investigation of previously developed bioreactors, and analysis of the requirements for microgravity cell culture experiments, a bioreactor design is herein proposed that is able to automatically culture 32 samples simultaneously. This reactor design is capable of automatic control of temperature, humidity, and culture-medium injection rate; and satisfies the interface requirements of the ISS. Since bioreactors are vulnerable to cell contamination, the medium-circulation modules were designed to be a completely replaceable, in order to reuse the bioreactor after each experiment. The bioreactor control system is designed to circulate culture media to 32 culture chambers at a maximum speed of 1 ml/min, to maintain the temperature of the reactor at 36°C, and to keep the relative humidity of the reactor above 70%. Because bubbles in the culture media negatively affect cell culture, a de-bubbler unit was provided to eliminate such bubbles. A working model of the reactor was built according to the new design, to verify its performance, and was used to perform a cell culture experiment that confirmed the feasibility of this device.

  7. First results from experiments performed with the ESA Anthrorack during the D-2 spacelab mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers, A.

    1996-06-01

    In 1993 four astronauts performed physiological experiments on the payload "Anthrorack" during the second German Spacelab mission D-2. The Anthrorack set-up is a Spacelab double rack developed under the management of the European Space Agency. It consists of an ECHO machine, a respiratory monitoring system (gas analyzer with flow meter), a blood centrifuge, an ergometer, a finger blood pressure device, ECG, body impedance measurement device and a respiratory inductance plethysmograph. Experiment-specific equipment was used as well. Nineteen investigators performed experiments in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, fluid-renal and nutritional physiology area. Results on central venous pressure, ocular pressure, vascular resistance, cardiac output, tissue thickness and orthostatic intolerance are presented in the cardiovascular area. In the pulmonary area first results are mentioned on O 2 transport perfusion and ventilation distribution and breathing pattern. From the fluid-renal experiments, data from diuresis, sodium excretion and hormonal determinations are given. Finally results from glucose metabolism and nitrogen turnover experiments are presented.

  8. Gravity-gradient dynamics experiments performed in orbit utilizing the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE-1) spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, H.

    1973-01-01

    Six dynamic experiments were performed in earth orbit utilizing the RAE spacecraft in order to test the accuracy of the mathematical model of RAE dynamics. The spacecraft consisted of four flexible antenna booms, mounted on a rigid cylindrical spacecraft hub at center, for measuring radio emissions from extraterrestrial sources. Attitude control of the gravity stabilized spacecraft was tested by using damper clamping, single lower leading boom operations, and double lower boom operations. Results and conclusions of the in-orbit dynamic experiments proved the accuracy of the analytic techniques used to model RAE dynamical behavior.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of trace polymer additives in plastic beverage packaging by solvent sublation followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Bi, Pengyu; Liu, Yanan; Mu, Yinglin; Nie, Fengquan; Luo, Shizhong; Wei, Yun

    2013-07-24

    Using solvent sublation (SS), a novel pretreatment method for separating and concentrating antioxidants and ultraviolet absorbers from plastic beverage packaging was developed, and these target compounds were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the pretreatment section, the effects of the sublation solvent, solution pH, NaCl concentration, nitrogen flow rate, sublation time, and light condition on the sublation efficiency were investigated in detail and the optimal conditions of the solvent sublation process were selected. The analytical method of SS-HPLC showed good linearity in the range from 0.33 to 667 ng/mL with good presenting regression coefficients (0.9995 ≥ R(2) ≥ 0.9972). Low limits of detection (LODs) of 0.34-1.25 ng/mL and limits of quantification (LOQs) of 1.13-4.15 ng/mL were achieved. The mean recoveries were in the range from 88.73 to 107.65% at 20, 30, and 40 ng/mL spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range from 2.16 to 10.55%.

  10. Kinetics of the addition of olefins to Si-centered radicals: the critical role of dispersion interactions revealed by theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erin R; Clarkin, Owen J; Dale, Stephen G; DiLabio, Gino A

    2015-06-04

    Solution-phase rate constants for the addition of selected olefins to the triethylsilyl and tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl radicals are measured using laser-flash photolysis and competition kinetics. The results are compared with predictions from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, both with and without dispersion corrections obtained from the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) model. Without a dispersion correction, the rate constants are consistently underestimated; the errors increase with system size, up to 10(6) s(-1) for the largest system considered. Dispersion interactions preferentially stabilize the transition states relative to the separated reactants and bring the DFT-calculated rate constants into excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, dispersion interactions are found to play a key role in determining the kinetics for addition reactions, particularly those involving sterically bulky functional groups.

  11. Visual and Optical Performances of Multifocal Intraocular Lenses with Three Different Near Additions: 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengmeng; Corpuz, Christine Carole C; Fujiwara, Megumi; Tomita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To compare the visual and optical outcomes of four multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with three different near additions of +3.00 diopters (D), +3.75 D and +4.00 D. Methods : In this prospective study, 133 eyes of 88 patients were implanted with one of the following IOLs: AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 (+3.00 D) for Group A, AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 or BB MFM 611 (+3.75 D) for Group B, and AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) for Group C. The visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, tomography and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) were compared between the three groups preoperatively and at 6 month postoperatively. Defocus curve, contrast sensitivity and higher order aberrations (HOAs) at 6 month postoperative visit were measured and compared. Results : There were no statistically significant differences in distance visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure or ECD among the three groups after 6 months (P > 0.05). The photopic contrast sensitivity in Group C was statistically better than in Group A (P < 0.05). The scotopic ocular aberration in Group B was statistically greater compared to that in Group A (P < 0.05). The highest near-visual peaks were -0.06 logMAR at a -2.50 D (40 cm) in Group A, -0.07 logMAR at -3.00D (33 cm) in Group B, and -0.06 logMAR at -3.50 D (29 cm) in Group C. Statistically significant differences in near and intermediate visual acuities were observed among the three groups at -2.00 D (50 cm), -2.50 D (40 cm), -3.50 D (29 cm) and -4.00 D (25 cm) (P < 0.01). Conclusion : AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 IOLs (+3.00 D) and SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) IOLs provided the best intermediate and near vision, respectively. Both intermediate and near vision were comparatively better in the eyes with AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 IOLs or BB MF 613 IOLs (+3.75 D). PMID:25674189

  12. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  13. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years.

  14. [Experience of performing the extraurethral transvesical adenomectomy in patients with BPH].

    PubMed

    Vasil'chenko, M I; Shershnev, S P; Zelenin, D A; Zagarova, V I; Proletarskiĭ, A V

    2012-01-01

    Despite the development of endourology, issues of open surgical treatment of prostate adenoma remain relevant. It is not always possible to perform transurethral electro-resection of prostate or other minimally invasive surgery. Urologists performing the transvesical adenomectomy still often face serious complications in both early and late in the postoperative period. This article presents a 15-year experience of performing the extraurethral transvesical adenomectomy according to N.F. Sergienko procedure in 308 patients with BPH. Assessment of functional results was performed using uroflowmetry and IPSS score. The effectiveness of extraurethral transvesical adenomectomy (EUTA) was statistically confirmed. The use of EUTA technique allows minimizing intraoperative injury, maintaining the integrity of the front semicircumference and lateral sides of the vesico-urethral segment, which provides early rehabilitation of damaged tissues and contributes to a significant reduction in the number of early and late postoperative complications.

  15. The Additive Effects of Values Clarification Training to an Online Goal-Setting Procedure on Measures of Student Retention and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Jared A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide individuals with online tutorials to help participants generate strategies to achieve their academic goals and clarify their academic values to assess the additive effects of values clarification training to an online goal-setting training procedure on (1) measures of academic performance and (2) student…

  16. The oxidation of organic additives in the positive vanadium electrolyte and its effect on the performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tam D.; Whitehead, Adam; Scherer, Günther G.; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe O.; Bhattarai, Arjun; Chandra, Ghimire P.; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2016-12-01

    Despite many desirable properties, the vanadium redox flow battery is limited, in the maximum operation temperature that can be continuously endured, before precipitation begins in the positive electrolyte. Many additives have been proposed to improve the thermal stability of the charged positive electrolyte. However, we have found that the apparent stability, revealed in laboratory testing, is often simply an artifact of the test method and arises from the oxidation of the additive, with corresponding partial reduction of V(V) to V(IV). This does not improve the stability of the electrolyte in an operating system. Here, we examined the oxidation of some typical organic additives with carboxyl, alcohol, and multi-functional groups, in sulfuric acid solutions containing V(V). The UV-vis measurements and titration results showed that many compounds reduced the state-of-charge (SOC) of vanadium electrolyte, for example, by 27.8, 88.5, and 81.9% with the addition of 1%wt of EDTA disodium salt, pyrogallol, and ascorbic acid, respectively. The cell cycling also indicated the effect of organic additives on the cell performance, with significant reduction in the usable charge capacity. In addition, a standard screening method for thermally stable additives was introduced, to quickly screen suitable additives for the positive vanadium electrolyte.

  17. The Effect of Expert Performance Microtiming on Listeners' Experience of Groove in Swing or Funk Music

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Olivier; Kilchenmann, Lorenz; von Georgi, Richard; Bullerjahn, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' experience of groove. Two professional rhythm section performances (bass/drums) in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several levels of magnitude. Music expert (n = 79) and non-expert (n = 81) listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation). Findings show that music expert listeners were more sensitive to microtiming manipulations than non-experts. Across both expertise groups and for both styles, groove ratings were high for microtiming magnitudes equal or smaller than those originally performed and decreased for exaggerated microtiming magnitudes. In particular, both the fully quantized music and the music with the originally performed microtiming pattern were rated equally high on groove. This means that neither the claims of PD theory (that microtiming deviations are necessary for groove) nor the opposing exactitude hypothesis (that microtiming deviations are detrimental to groove) were supported by the data. PMID:27761117

  18. The Effect of Expert Performance Microtiming on Listeners' Experience of Groove in Swing or Funk Music.

    PubMed

    Senn, Olivier; Kilchenmann, Lorenz; von Georgi, Richard; Bullerjahn, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' experience of groove. Two professional rhythm section performances (bass/drums) in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several levels of magnitude. Music expert (n = 79) and non-expert (n = 81) listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation). Findings show that music expert listeners were more sensitive to microtiming manipulations than non-experts. Across both expertise groups and for both styles, groove ratings were high for microtiming magnitudes equal or smaller than those originally performed and decreased for exaggerated microtiming magnitudes. In particular, both the fully quantized music and the music with the originally performed microtiming pattern were rated equally high on groove. This means that neither the claims of PD theory (that microtiming deviations are necessary for groove) nor the opposing exactitude hypothesis (that microtiming deviations are detrimental to groove) were supported by the data.

  19. Characterization of good teleoperators - What aptitudes, interests, and experience correlate with measures of teleoperator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorchak, J. P.; Hartley, C. S.; Hinman, E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of aptitude tests and questionnaries to evaluate an individuals aptitude for teleoperation is studied. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test and Differential Aptitude Tests, and a 16-item questionnaire for assessing the subject's interests, academic background, and previous experience are described. The Proto-Flight Manipulator Arm, cameras, console, hand controller, and task board utilized by the 17 engineers are examined. The correlation between aptitude scores and questionnaire responses, and operator performance is investigated. Multiple regression data reveal that the eight predictor variables are not individually significant for evaluating operator performance; however, the complete test battery is applicable for predicting 49 percent of subject variance on the criterion task.

  20. [Animal experiment study of performance ultrasound in the welding of liver wounds].

    PubMed

    Mikus, E

    1990-01-01

    Liver cuts were performed on 21 Mini-Leewe-pigs and than closed with suture and by ultrasonic welding with Ligament-FIMOMED and Gelaspon. The sound pressure leads to the forced penetration of the monomere into performed gaps. The application of the ultrasound is sensible in order to force the polymerisation. The experiments resulted in the succesful closure of the liver wounds in all cases where ultrasonic welding of Fimomed-Gelaspon compound was used. Application to human medicine is, however, not yet justified.

  1. Clinical experience with a high-performance ATM-connected DICOM archive for cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Harry P.

    1997-05-01

    A system to archive large image sets, such as cardiac cine runs, with near realtime response must address several functional and performance issues, including efficient use of a high performance network connection with standard protocols, an architecture which effectively integrates both short- and long-term mass storage devices, and a flexible data management policy which allows optimization of image distribution and retrieval strategies based on modality and site-specific operational use. Clinical experience with such as archive has allowed evaluation of these systems issues and refinement of a traffic model for cardiac angiography.

  2. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  3. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  4. Modeling to predict pilot performance during CDTI-based in-trail following experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed of the flight system with the pilot using a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) to establish and maintain in-trail spacing behind a lead aircraft during approach. Both in-trail and vertical dynamics were included. The nominal spacing was based on one of three criteria (Constant Time Predictor; Constant Time Delay; or Acceleration Cue). This model was used to simulate digitally the dynamics of a string of multiple following aircraft, including response to initial position errors. The simulation was used to predict the outcome of a series of in-trail following experiments, including pilot performance in maintaining correct longitudinal spacing and vertical position. The experiments were run in the NASA Ames Research Center multi-cab cockpit simulator facility. The experimental results were then used to evaluate the model and its prediction accuracy. Model parameters were adjusted, so that modeled performance matched experimental results. Lessons learned in this modeling and prediction study are summarized.

  5. Phase space density as a measure of cooling performance for the international muon ionization cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an experiment to demonstrate ionization cooling of a muon beam in a beamline that shares characteristics with one that might be used for a muon collider or neutrino factory. I describe a way to quantify cooling performance by examining the phase space density of muons, and determining how much that density increases. This contrasts with the more common methods that rely on the covariance matrix and compute emittances from that. I discuss why a direct measure of phase space density might be preferable to a covariance matrix method. I apply this technique to an early proposal for the MICE final step beamline. I discuss how matching impacts the measured performance.

  6. Performance of a digital video camcorder for the Autonomous Biological System experiment onboard Space Station Mir.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Sasada, M; Sugiura, K; Ishikawa, Y; Kobayashi, K; Mizutani, H; Kawasaki, Y; Koike, J; Ijiri, K; Poynter, J; MacCallum, T; Anderson, G

    1998-12-01

    A video imaging and recording system was utilized in the Autonomous Biological System experiment onboard the space station Mir. Video image of the mini-ecological system was successfully recorded. The whole system was retrieved to the ground after its operation in orbit for four months. Performance of the video system is summarized here together with technical problems encountered. Defects of pixel had been developed in the imaging device. Cause of these defects could be attributed to its exposure against space radiation. Auto white balance was another function of the camcorder that was deviated from normal range of its performance once in orbit but recovered to normal after a while. Possible use of imaging devices for dosimetry is proposed to record space radiation environment at the site close to the experiment.

  7. Experiment attributes to establish tube with twisted tape insert performance cooling plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Emily; Ramirez, Emilio; Ruggles, Art E.; Griffard, Cory

    2015-08-18

    The modeling capability for tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with reference to the application of cooling plasma facing components in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The history of experiments examining the cooling performance of tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with emphasis on the manner of heating, flow stability limits and the details of the test section and fluid delivery system. Models for heat transfer, burnout, and onset of net vapor generation in straight tube flows and tube with twisted tape are compared. As a result, the gaps in knowledge required to establish performance limits of the plasma facing components are identified and attributes of an experiment to close those gaps are presented.

  8. Experiment attributes to establish tube with twisted tape insert performance cooling plasma facing components

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Emily; Ramirez, Emilio; Ruggles, Art E.; ...

    2015-08-18

    The modeling capability for tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with reference to the application of cooling plasma facing components in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The history of experiments examining the cooling performance of tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with emphasis on the manner of heating, flow stability limits and the details of the test section and fluid delivery system. Models for heat transfer, burnout, and onset of net vapor generation in straight tube flows and tube with twisted tape are compared. As a result, the gaps in knowledge required to establish performance limits of the plasmamore » facing components are identified and attributes of an experiment to close those gaps are presented.« less

  9. Clock synchronization experiments performed via the ATS-1 and ATS-3 satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramasastry, J.; Rosenbaum, B.; Michelini, R. D.; Kuegler, G. K.

    1973-01-01

    Clock synchronization experiments were carried out May 10 to June 10, 1971, via the ATS-1 and ATS-3 geostationary satellites between the NASA tracking stations at Rosman, N.C., and Mojave, Calif., in order to determine the offset and the relative drift rate between the two station clocks. Pulses at C band with very sharp risetime and of 10 microsec duration were exchanged by the two stations through the dual transponders of the satellites. At each station, a time-interval counter was started by the transmitted pulse and stopped by the pulse received via satellite from the other station. The probable error of the clock offset as measured by the counter is 10 msec. A very long baseline interferometer experiment was also performed between the two stations at the same time and provided independent clock-offset data to check the accuracy of the time-synchronization experiment.

  10. The Fatigue Equivalent of Job Experience and Performance in Sustained Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Participants 4 Training and Software Development 4 Fatigue Experience Questionnaire 4 ANAM Subset Battery 4 Study Design 5 RESULTS 7 DISCUSSION 13...incumbents. Each incumbent, performing 16 tasks, was rated by AGE experts with a week of training on rating AGE personnel. Incumbents with all the steps...test results. 3 METHOD Participants A pool of USAF officers awaiting Air Battle Management Training at Tyndall AFB FL was the source of the research

  11. ATS-6 - Flight performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on ATS-6 was designed to demonstrate the thermal control capability of a thermal diode (one-way) heat pipe, a phase-change material for thermal storage, and a feedback-controlled heat pipe. Flight data for the different operational modes are compared to ground test data, and the performance of the components is evaluated on an individual basis and as an integrated temperature-control system.

  12. Performance assessment of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) experiment on EP/EUVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramling, C. J.; Hart, R. C.; Teles, Jerome; Long, A. C.; Maher, M. J.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) to provide onboard knowledge of high-accuracy navigation products autonomously to users of TDRSS and its successor, TDRS-2. A TONS experiment has been implemented on the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft, launched June 7, 1992, to flight qualify the TONS operational system using TDRSS forward-link communications services. This paper assesses the performance of the TONS flight hardware, an ultrastable oscillator (USO) and Doppler extractor (DE) card in one of the TDRSS user transponders, and the protoype flight software, based on the TONS experiment results. An overview of onboard navigation via TDRSS is also presented for both the EP/EUVE experiment and for future users of TONS. USO and DE short-term and long-term stability performance has been excellent. TONS Flight Software analysis indicates that position accuracies of better than 25 meters root-mean-square are achievable with tracking every one to two orbits, for the EP/EUVE 525-kilometer altitudes, 28.5-degree inclination orbit. The success of the TONS experiment demonstrates the flight readiness of TONS, which is scheduled to provide autonomous navigation for the Earth Observing System (EOS)-AM mission.

  13. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either "perturbing" or "functional" depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  14. Interpersonal Coordination and Individual Organization Combined with Shared Phenomenological Experience in Rowing Performance: Two Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ludovic; Lardy, Julien; Bourbousson, Jérôme; Adé, David; Nordez, Antoine; Thouvarecq, Régis; Saury, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to examine the impact of variability in interpersonal coordination and individual organization on rowing performance. The second aim was to analyze crew phenomenology in order to understand how rowers experience their joint actions when coping with constraints emerging from the race. We conducted a descriptive and exploratory study of two coxless pair crews during a 3000-m rowing race against the clock. As the investigation was performed in an ecological context, we postulated that our understanding of the behavioral dynamics of interpersonal coordination and individual organization and the variability in performance would be enriched through the analysis of crew phenomenology. The behavioral dynamics of individual organization were assessed at kinematic and kinetic levels, and interpersonal coordination was examined by computing the relative phase between oar angles and oar forces and the difference in the oar force impulse of the two rowers. The inter-cycle variability of the behavioral dynamics of one international and one national crew was evaluated by computing the root mean square and the Cauchy index. Inter-cycle variability was considered significantly high when the behavioral and performance data for each cycle were outside of the confidence interval. Crew phenomenology was characterized on the basis of self-confrontation interviews and the rowers' concerns were then analyzed according to course-of-action methodology to identify the shared experiences. Our findings showed that greater behavioral variability could be either “perturbing” or “functional” depending on its impact on performance (boat velocity); the rowers experienced it as sometimes meaningful and sometimes meaningless; and their experiences were similar or diverging. By combining phenomenological and behavioral data, we explain how constraints not manipulated by an experimenter but emerging from the ecological context of a race can be associated with

  15. Evidence for the importance of openness to experience on performance of a fluid intelligence task by physically active and inactive participants.

    PubMed

    Lochbaum, Marc R; Karoly, Paul; Landers, Daniel M

    2002-12-01

    The cross-sectional relationship between exercise training history and performance on a fluid intelligence test was examined. In addition, openness to experience was included as a potential trait-based contributor to predicting cognitive performance. Results supported past literature demonstrating that aerobically trained or active participants performed significantly better on the fluid intelligence task than aerobically untrained or inactive participants. Hierarchical regression analysis results revealed, as predicted, that openness to experience was a significant predictor of fluid intellectual performance. When entered into the hierarchical regression equation, openness to experience accounted for 16.0% of unique variance in Culture Fair Intelligence Test performance. By contrast, participants' exercise training history, which initially and significantly (p < .05) accounted for approximately 12.0% of the variance in cognitive performance, accounted for 5.0% (p > .05) after openness was entered. Participants were, on average, more open than inactive participants. Results are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms aerobic exercise training and openness to experience share in regard to brain functioning and performance of fluid intelligence tasks. Future research is suggested that examines biological factors known to influence cognitive performance in exercise settings.

  16. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  17. Performance Study for a Muon Forward Tracker in the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uras, A.

    2012-08-01

    ALICE is the experiment dedicated to the study of the quark gluon plasma in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN LHC. Improvements of ALICE subdetectors are envisaged for the upgrade plans of year 2017. The Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) is a proposal in view of this upgrade, motivated both by the possibility to increase the physics potential of the muon spectrometer and to allow new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this upgrade, a detailed simulation of the MFT setup is being performed within the AliRoot framework, with emphasis on the tracking capabilities as a function of the number, position and size of the pixel planes, and the corresponding physics performances. In this report, we present preliminary results on the MFT performances in a low-multiplicity environment.

  18. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M.

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  19. In-depth performance evaluation of PFP and ESG sequence-based function prediction methods in CAFA 2011 experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many Automatic Function Prediction (AFP) methods were developed to cope with an increasing growth of the number of gene sequences that are available from high throughput sequencing experiments. To support the development of AFP methods, it is essential to have community wide experiments for evaluating performance of existing AFP methods. Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA) is one such community experiment. The meeting of CAFA was held as a Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting at the Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference in 2011. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of two sequence-based function prediction methods, PFP and ESG, which were developed in our lab, using the predictions submitted to CAFA. Results We evaluate PFP and ESG using four different measures in comparison with BLAST, Prior, and GOtcha. In addition to the predictions submitted to CAFA, we further investigate performance of a different scoring function to rank order predictions by PFP as well as PFP/ESG predictions enriched with Priors that simply adds frequently occurring Gene Ontology terms as a part of predictions. Prediction accuracies of each method were also evaluated separately for different functional categories. Successful and unsuccessful predictions by PFP and ESG are also discussed in comparison with BLAST. Conclusion The in-depth analysis discussed here will complement the overall assessment by the CAFA organizers. Since PFP and ESG are based on sequence database search results, our analyses are not only useful for PFP and ESG users but will also shed light on the relationship of the sequence similarity space and functions that can be inferred from the sequences. PMID:23514353

  20. Skylab task and work performance /Experiment M-151 - Time and motion study/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubis, J. F.; Mclaughlin, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The primary objective of Experiment M151 was to study the inflight adaptation of Skylab crewmen to a variety of task situations involving different types of activity. A parallel objective was to examine astronaut inflight performance for any behavioral stress effects associated with the working and living conditions of the Skylab environment. Training data provided the basis for comparison of preflight and inflight performance. Efficiency was evaluated through the adaptation function, namely, the relation of performance time over task trials. The results indicate that the initial changeover from preflight to inflight was accompanied by a substantial increase in performance time for most work and task activities. Equally important was the finding that crewmen adjusted rapidly to the weightless environment and became proficient in developing techniques with which to optimize task performance. By the end of the second inflight trial, most of the activities were performed almost as efficiently as on the last preflight trial. The analysis demonstrated the sensitivity of the adaptation function to differences in task and hardware configurations. The function was found to be more regular and less variable inflight than preflight. Translation and control of masses were accomplished easily and efficiently through the rapid development of the arms and legs as subtle guidance and restraint systems.

  1. Relationships Among Performance Anxiety, Agari Experience, and Depressive Tendencies in Japanese Music Students.

    PubMed

    Bannai, Kurara; Kase, Takayoshi; Endo, Shintaro; Oishi, Kazou

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among anxiety prior to actual performance (music performance anxiety, MPA), mental and physical negative responses during performance (agari), and depressive tendencies in Japanese college students majoring in music. Participants were 171 music majors (33 males, 138 females, 20.6±1.7 yrs). They rated the degree of self-perceived MPA before their performance on a scale ranging from 0-100%. The Features of Agari Experience Questionnaire was used to assess agari response levels during standard performances, and the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) was used to measure depressive tendencies. Path analysis showed that MPA levels were positively related to agari scores, which were positively related to CES-D scores. Mediation analysis found a significant indirect effect of MPA scores on CES-D scores via the agari scores. These results suggest that MPA first occurs before an actual music performance and evokes agari, which in turn may cause an increase in depressive tendencies.

  2. Dissection and dissection-associated required experiences improve student performance in gross anatomy: Differences among quartiles.

    PubMed

    Pizzimenti, Marc A; Pantazis, Nicholas; Sandra, Alexander; Hoffmann, Darren S; Lenoch, Susan; Ferguson, Kristi J

    2016-05-06

    To promote student learning, educational strategies should provide multiple levels of engagement with the subject matter. This study investigated examination data from five first year medical gross anatomy class cohorts (692 students) to determine if enhanced student performance was correlated with learning through dissection in a course that used a rotating dissection schedule coupled with peer teaching and other associated experiences. When students performed two of five weekly dissections for a given unit, their average scores on both laboratory and written examinations tended to increase as compared to when they had completed only one week of dissection (P < 0.01). However, these performance gains differed across the class strata and were related to the amount of dissection completed. Students in the upper quartile (UQS) of the class benefited when they had dissected once (92.8%) or twice (92.4%), and these scores were significantly higher than those attained when learning from peers (90.3%, P < 0.01). Students in the lower quartile (LQS) benefited most from the dissection experiences, where practical examination performance was better (77.8% and 80.5%) than when these students learned material from their peers (73.7%, P < 0.01). Although UQS benefited from dissection, LQS benefited to a greater extent in both the practical and written examinations with dissection. Although limited, these data suggest that dissection, coupled with associated educational activities, is an effective pedagogical strategy for learning. Further investigation is required to evaluate the concomitant benefits of peer teaching that are associated with the dissection experience. Anat Sci Educ 9: 238-246. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Performance analysis of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless system in additive white Gaussian noise and indoor multipath channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Zhou, Zhou; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We have compared the bit error rate (BER) performance of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) optical wireless (OW) systems in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and indoor multipath frequency selective channel. Simulation and analytical results show that precoding schemes such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and Zadoff-Chu sequences do not affect the performance of the OW systems in the AWGN channel while they do reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM output signal. However, in a multipath indoor channel, using zero forcing frequency domain equalization precoding-based systems give better BER performance than their conventional counterparts. With additional clipping to further reduce the PAPR, precoding-based systems also show better BER performance compared to nonprecoded systems when clipped relative to the peak of nonprecoded systems. Therefore, precoding-based ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems offer better BER performance, zero signaling overhead, and low PAPR compared to conventional systems.

  4. The role of visual deprivation and experience on the performance of sensory substitution devices.

    PubMed

    Stronks, H Christiaan; Nau, Amy C; Ibbotson, Michael R; Barnes, Nick

    2015-10-22

    It is commonly accepted that the blind can partially compensate for their loss of vision by developing enhanced abilities with their remaining senses. This visual compensation may be related to the fact that blind people rely on their other senses in everyday life. Many studies have indeed shown that experience plays an important role in visual compensation. Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown that the visual cortices of the blind are recruited by other functional brain areas and can become responsive to tactile or auditory input instead. These cross-modal plastic changes are more pronounced in the early blind compared to late blind individuals. The functional consequences of cross-modal plasticity on visual compensation in the blind are debated, as are the influences of various etiologies of vision loss (i.e., blindness acquired early or late in life). Distinguishing between the influences of experience and visual deprivation on compensation is especially relevant for rehabilitation of the blind with sensory substitution devices. The BrainPort artificial vision device and The vOICe are assistive devices for the blind that redirect visual information to another intact sensory system. Establishing how experience and different etiologies of vision loss affect the performance of these devices may help to improve existing rehabilitation strategies, formulate effective selection criteria and develop prognostic measures. In this review we will discuss studies that investigated the influence of training and visual deprivation on the performance of various sensory substitution approaches.

  5. Charge-storage performance of Li/LiFePO4 cells with additive-incorporated ionic liquid electrolytes at various temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongittharom, Nithinai; Wang, Chueh-Han; Wang, Yi-Chen; Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Li, Hui-Ying; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Lee, Tai-Chou; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

    2014-08-01

    Butylmethylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with LiTFSI solute is used as a base electrolyte for Li/LiFePO4 cells. Three kinds of electrolyte additive, namely vinylene carbonate (VC), gamma-butyrolactone (γ-BL), and propylene carbonate (PC), with various concentrations are introduced. The thermal stability, flammability, and electrochemical properties of the electrolytes are investigated. At 25 °C, the additives (γ-BL is found to be the most effective) can significantly improve the capacity, high-rate performance, and cyclability of the cells. With an increase in temperature to 50 °C, the benefits of the additives gradually become insignificant. At 75 °C, the additives even have adverse effects. At such an elevated temperature, in the plain IL electrolyte (without additives), a LiFePO4 capacity of 152 mAh g-1 is found at 0.1 C. 77% of this capacity can be retained when the rate is increased to 3 C. These values are superior to those found for the additive-incorporated IL and conventional organic electrolytes. Moreover, negligible capacity loss is measured after 100 charge-discharge cycles at 75 °C in the plain IL electrolyte.

  6. Closed-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Closed-loop HIRF experiments were performed on a fault tolerant flight control computer (FCC) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The FCC used in the experiments was a quad-redundant flight control computer executing B737 Autoland control laws. The FCC was placed in one of the mode-stirred reverberation chambers in the HIRF Laboratory and interfaced to a computer simulation of the B737 flight dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators, and atmosphere in the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory. Disturbances to the aircraft associated with wind gusts and turbulence were simulated during tests. Electrical isolation between the FCC under test and the simulation computer was achieved via a fiber optic interface for the analog and discrete signals. Closed-loop operation of the FCC enabled flight dynamics and atmospheric disturbances affecting the aircraft to be represented during tests. Upset was induced in the FCC as a result of exposure to HIRF, and the effect of upset on the simulated flight of the aircraft was observed and recorded. This paper presents a description of these closed- loop HIRF experiments, upset data obtained from the FCC during these experiments, and closed-loop effects on the simulated flight of the aircraft.

  7. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques developed for measuring stagnation-point radiation in NASA's cancelled Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). It specifies the need for such a measurement; the types and requirements for the needed instruments; the Radiative Heating Experiment (RHE) developed for the AFE; the requirements, design parameters, and performance of the window developed for the RHE; the procedures and summary of the technique; and results of the arc-jet wind tunnel experiment conducted to demonstrate the overall concept. Subjects emphasized are the commercial implications of the knowledge to be gained by this experiment in connection with the Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV), the nonequilibrium nature of the radiation, concerns over the contribution of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation to the overall radiation, and the limit on the flight environment of the vehicle imposed by the limitations on the window material. Results show that a technique exists with which the stagnation-point radiation can be measured in flight in an environment of interest to commercial ASTV applications.

  8. Influence of chlorinated paraffin/titanium additives on burning and radiance performances of Magnesium/Teflon/Viton(MTV) foil-type composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Guan, Hua; Song, Dong-ming; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The influence of chlorinated paraffin/titanium (C24H29Cl21/Ti) additives on burning and radiance performances of Magnesium/Teflon/Viton™ (MTV) foil-type was investigated via a high-speed camera, high-temperature differential thermobalance, far-infrared thermal imager and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) remote-sensing spectrometer. We found that the burning temperature, radiance brightness, radiance area and radiance intensity after addition of C24H29Cl21/Ti are improved by 124-196 °C (8-13%), 300-475 W·m-2·sr-1 (12-19%), 943-1422 mm2 (67-101%) and 3.17-4.99 W·sr-1 (88-138%), respectively, and are maximized at the addition ratio of 10%. The substances formed by adding C24H29Cl21/Ti could improve the middle and far infrared radiation.

  9. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt Transmitter Experiment Package for CTS. [Communication Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Measured performance characteristics from ground test of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite are presented. The experiment package consists of a 200 W Output Stage Tube (OST) powered by a Power Processing System (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 per cent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 per cent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, intermodulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  10. Particle identification performance of the prototype aerogel RICH counter for the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, S.; Adachi, I.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kakuno, H.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kumita, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovic, E.; Yusa, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a new type of particle identification device, called an aerogel ring imaging Cherenkov (ARICH) counter, for the Belle II experiment. It uses silica aerogel tiles as Cherenkov radiators. For detection of Cherenkov photons, hybrid avalanche photo-detectors (HAPDs) are used. The designed HAPD has a high sensitivity to single photons under a strong magnetic field. We have confirmed that the HAPD provides high efficiency for single-photon detection even after exposure to neutron and γ -ray radiation that exceeds the levels expected in the 10-year Belle II operation. In order to confirm the basic performance of the ARICH counter system, we carried out a beam test at the using a prototype of the ARICH counter with six HAPD modules. The results are in agreement with our expectations and confirm the suitability of the ARICH counter for the Belle II experiment. Based on the in-beam performance of the device, we expect that the identification efficiency at 3.5 GeV/c is 97.4% and 4.9% for pions and kaons, respectively. This paper summarizes the development of the HAPD for the ARICH and the evaluation of the performance of the prototype ARICH counter built with the final design components.

  11. The Resistive Plate Chambers of the ATLAS experiment:. performance studies on Calibration Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzaferro, Luca

    2012-08-01

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the four experiments installed on the hadron-hadron collider LHC at CERN. It is a general purpose experiment, with a physics program which spans from the search for the Higgs Boson to the search of physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). An integrated luminosity of about 5 fb-1 is expected to be reached by the end of 2011. The Resistive Plate Chambers, installed in the barrel region, are used to provide the first muon level trigger, and cover an area of 16000 m2, readout by about 350000 electronic channels. To ensure optimal trigger performance, the RPC operational parameters like cluster size, efficiency and spatial resolution are constantly monitored. In order to achieve the desired precision, the data used for the analysis are extracted directly from the second level of the trigger, hence assuring very high statistics. This dedicated event stream, called Calibration Stream, is sent automatically to the RPC Calibration Center in Naples. Here the analysis is performed using an automatic tool tightly integrated in the ATLAS GRID environment, the Local Calibration Data Splitter (LCDS), which configures and manages all the operations required by the analysis (e.g. software environment initialization, grid jobs configuration and submission, data saving and retrieval, etc). The monitored RPC operational parameters, the performance analysis and the LCDS will be presented.

  12. Best Bang for the Buck: Part 1 – The Size of Experiments Relative to Design Performance

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela; Lu, Lu

    2016-10-01

    There are many choices to make, when designing an experiment for a study, such as: what design factors to consider, which levels of the factors to use and which model to focus on. One aspect of design, however, is often left unquestioned: the size of the experiment. When learning about design of experiments, problems are often posed as "select a design for a particular objective with N runs." It’s tempting to consider the design size as a given constraint in the design-selection process. If you think of learning through designed experiments as a sequential process, however, strategically planning for themore » use of resources at different stages of data collection can be beneficial: Saving experimental runs for later is advantageous if you can efficiently learn with less in the early stages. Alternatively, if you’re too frugal in the early stages, you might not learn enough to proceed confidently with the next stages. Therefore, choosing the right-sized experiment is important—not too large or too small, but with a thoughtful balance to maximize the knowledge gained given the available resources. It can be a great advantage to think about the design size as flexible and include it as an aspect for comparisons. Sometimes you’re asked to provide a small design that is too ambitious for the goals of the study. Finally, if you can show quantitatively how the suggested design size might be inadequate or lead to problems during analysis—and also offer a formal comparison to some alternatives of different (likely larger) sizes—you may have a better chance to ask for additional resources to deliver statistically sound and satisfying results« less

  13. Best Bang for the Buck: Part 1 – The Size of Experiments Relative to Design Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela; Lu, Lu

    2016-10-01

    There are many choices to make, when designing an experiment for a study, such as: what design factors to consider, which levels of the factors to use and which model to focus on. One aspect of design, however, is often left unquestioned: the size of the experiment. When learning about design of experiments, problems are often posed as "select a design for a particular objective with N runs." It’s tempting to consider the design size as a given constraint in the design-selection process. If you think of learning through designed experiments as a sequential process, however, strategically planning for the use of resources at different stages of data collection can be beneficial: Saving experimental runs for later is advantageous if you can efficiently learn with less in the early stages. Alternatively, if you’re too frugal in the early stages, you might not learn enough to proceed confidently with the next stages. Therefore, choosing the right-sized experiment is important—not too large or too small, but with a thoughtful balance to maximize the knowledge gained given the available resources. It can be a great advantage to think about the design size as flexible and include it as an aspect for comparisons. Sometimes you’re asked to provide a small design that is too ambitious for the goals of the study. Finally, if you can show quantitatively how the suggested design size might be inadequate or lead to problems during analysis—and also offer a formal comparison to some alternatives of different (likely larger) sizes—you may have a better chance to ask for additional resources to deliver statistically sound and satisfying results

  14. The electrochemical performance improvement of LiMn2O4/Zn based on zinc foil as the current collector and thiourea as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Yehua; Li, Chuanchang; He, Zhangxing; Xiang, Yanhong; Xiong, Lizhi; Chen, Doris; Yu, Yan; Sun, Kate; He, Zeqiang; Chen, Pu

    2015-12-01

    The polished commercial zinc foil as the current collector and thiourea (TU) as the electrolyte additive are studied systematically to improve the performance of LiMn2O4/Zn aqueous battery. The results show that the coulombic efficiency and the cycling performance are significantly improved by using the polished zinc foil as the anode current collector. Moreover, the TU addition increases the cycling performance of LiMn2O4/Zn battery and decreases the float charge current density of the battery at room as well as high temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests confirm that there is nearly no effect of TU in the electrolyte on the crystal structure of LiMn2O4 electrode. However, the addition of TU has an indirect effect on the morphology. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and deposition-dissolution measurement demonstrate that TU is stable on the cathode electrode and it is able to adsorb to the surface of the zinc anode current collector. As such, the deposition-dissolution efficiency and energy efficiency are improved, which also can be attributed to faster deposition-dissolution and smaller self-discharge process of zinc.

  15. [Analysis of seven compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke by ultra performance liquid chromatography using a beta-cyclodextrin mobile phase additive].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghao; Tang, Gangling; Pang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Xingyi; Chen, Zaigen; Hu, Qingyuan

    2010-08-01

    A rapid method for the analysis of hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, phenol, p-cresol, m-cresol, and o-cresol in mainstream cigarette smoke by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using a beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) mobile phase additive was developed. The seven major phenolic compounds in mainstream smoke were collected with YC/T 255-2008 standard method. The extract was filtrated with 0.22 microm filtration film and then subjected to UPLC analysis. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column, and the mobile phase with 4 g/L beta-CD additive was used. The fluorescence detection condition was optimized. The analysis time was 10 mm for one sample. Comparing with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods published, the p-cresol and m-cresol were completely separated. In addition, the effect of beta-CD on fluorescence enhancement for seven major phenolic compounds was significant. The linearity were good between the peak area and the concentration in the linear ranges of seven phenolic compounds, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 9. The limits of detection of the method were 4 - 14 ng/cig, and the recoveries were 95.5% - 103.5% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4%.

  16. Open-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Daniel M.

    1997-01-01

    During the third quarter of 1996, the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory was established at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to study the effects of High Intensity Radiated Fields on complex avionic systems and control system components. This new facility provided a link and expanded upon the existing capabilities of the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory at LaRC that were constructed and certified during 1995-96. The scope of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory is to place highly integrated avionics instrumentation into a high intensity radiated field environment, interface the avionics to a real-time flight simulation that incorporates aircraft dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators and atmospheric turbulence, and collect, analyze, and model aircraft performance. This paper describes the layout and functionality of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory, and the open-loop calibration experiments that led up to the commencement of closed-loop real-time flight experiments.

  17. An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system.

  18. Development of an experiment for measuring film cooling performance in supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqbool, Daanish

    This thesis describes the development of an experiment for acquiring supersonic film cooling performance data in canonical configurations suitable for code validation. A methodology for selecting appropriate experimental conditions is developed and used to select test conditions in the UMD atmospheric pressure wind tunnel that are relevant to film cooling conditions encountered in the J-2X rocket engine. A new technique for inferring wall heat flux with 10% uncertainty from temperature-time histories of embedded sensors is developed and implemented. Preliminary heat flux measurements on the uncooled upper wall and on the lower wall with the film cooling flow turned off suggest that RANS solvers using Menter's SST model are able to predict heat flux within 15% in the far-field (> 10 injection slot heights) but are very inaccurate in the near-field. However, more experiments are needed to confirm this finding. Preliminary Schlieren images showing the shear layer growth rate are also presented.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF A LIQUID XENON CALORIMETER CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR THE MEG EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Hisamitsu, Y.; Iwamoto, T.; Mihara, S.; Mori, T.; Nishiguchi, H.; Otani, W.; Sawada, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Nishitani, T.

    2008-03-16

    The {mu}-particle rare decay physics experiment, the MU-E-GAMMA (MEG) experiment, will soon be operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Zurich. To achieve the extremely high sensitivity required to detect gamma rays, 800 L of liquid xenon is used as the medium in the calorimeter, viewed by 830 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) immersed in it. The required liquid xenon purity is of the order of ppb of water, and is obtained by using a cryogenic centrifugal pump and cold molecular sieves. The heat load of the calorimeter at 165 K is to be approximately 120 W, which is removed by a pulse-tube cryocooler developed at KEK and built by Iwatani Industrial Gas Corp., with a cooling power of about 200 W at 165 K. The cryogenic system is also equipped with a 1000-L dewar. This paper describes the results of an initial performance test of each cryogenic component.

  20. THE IPOS FRAMEWORK: LINKING FISH SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IN ALTERED FLOWS FROM LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO RIVERS

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Current understanding of the effects of turbulence on the swimming performance of fish 32 is primarily derived from laboratory experiments under pressurized flow swim tunnels 33 and open channel flow facilities. These studies have produced valuable information on 34 the swimming mechanics and behavior of fish in turbulent flow. However, laboratory 35 studies have limited representation of the flows fish experience in nature. The complex 36 flow structure in rivers is imparted primarily by the highly heterogeneous and non37 uniform bed and planform geometry. Our goal is to direct future laboratory and field 38 studies to adopt a common framework that will shape the integration of both approaches. 39 This paper outlines four characteristics of turbulent flow, which we suggest should be 40 evaluated when generalizing results from fish turbulent studies in both the laboratory and 41 the field. The framework is based on four turbulence characteristics that are summarized 42 under the acronym IPOS: Intensity, Periodicity, Orientation, and Scale.

  1. Experiment and numerical simulation of cavitation performance on a pressure-regulating valve with different openings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. S.; Tan, L.; Cao, S. L.; Xu, Y.; Huang, J.; Xu, Q. H.

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of widely used device in pipe system for pressure and flow rate regulating, the valve would experience cavitation in the case when a sharp pressure drop occurs, which will induce the energy loss, noise and vibration of pipeline system, and even operational accidents. The experiment on flow resistance coefficient of a DN600 pressure-regulating valve under operation conditions from 0% to 100% openings is conducted. Based on the RNG k-e turbulence model and the Rayleigh-Plesset cavitation equation, a set of computational model is developed to simulate the turbulent flow in the valve under operational conditions from 0% to 100% openings. The computational results of flow resistance coefficient are compared to the experimental data. And the numerical simulation is employed to predict the cavitation performance of the valve at different inlet flow conditions. The transient cavitating flow is calculated to reveal the time evolution of cavitation in the valve.

  2. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiative Heating Experiment, RHE, aboard the Aeroassist Flight Experiment, AFE, (now cancelled) was to make in-situ measurements of the stagnation region shock layer radiation during an aerobraking maneuver from geosynchronous to low earth orbit. The measurements were to provide a data base to help develop and validate aerothermodynamic computational models. Although cancelled, much work was done to develop the science requirements and to successfully meet RHE technical challenges. This paper discusses the RHE scientific objectives and expected science performance of a small sapphire window for the RHE radiometers. The spectral range required was from 170 to 900 nm. The window size was based on radiometer sensitivity requirements including capability of on-orbit solar calibration.

  3. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  4. A Study of High School Students' Performance of a Chemistry Experiment within the Virtual World of Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Scott, Matthew; Wong, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A small group of high school students performed a virtual laboratory experiment in Second Life that mimicked a real experiment in both its appearance and procedure. Lab report grades were equivalent to report grades for hands-on experiments, and the quality of students' results was similar. Results of an attitudinal survey show that students…

  5. Performance of the New Los Alamos UCN Source and Implications for Future Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, Mark; LANL UCN Team

    2017-01-01

    The Los Alamos Ultracold Neutron (UCN) source was replaced during this past summer and has been commissioned during the last few months. The new source is the result of lessons learned during the 10 year operation of the first UCN source and extensive Monte Carlo analysis. The new source is a spallation driven source based on a solid deuterium UCN moderator similar the previous one. This talk will present an overview of the new source design and the results of commissioning tests. The talk will conclude with a brief overview of the implications of source performance on the neutron lifetime and LANL nEDM experiments. This work was funded by LANL LDRD.

  6. Should Aid Reward Performance?: Evidence from a Field Experiment on Health and Education in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Olken, Benjamin A; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-10-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas.

  7. Initial observations of GeSe-xenon transport experiments performed on the D1 space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.; Trivedi, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    GeSe-xenon experiments performed aboard the D1 mission at xenon pressures of 2 and 6 atm confirm the crystal growth pattern, sizes, and surface morphology of crystals previously grown aboard STS-7 for different pressures. Besides the deposition and growth of GeSe crystals on the ampoule wall, several large single-crystalline GeSe platelets with lateral dimensions much greater than those of crystals on the wall and obtained on the ground are found. The present results reemphasize the question concerning the nucleation phenomena in microgravity.

  8. Canadian Advanced Nanospace Experiment 2 Orbit Operations: Two Years of Pushing the Nanosatellite Performance Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarda, Karan

    The objective of the Canadian Advanced Nanospace eXperiment (CanX) program is to de-velop highly capable nanospacecraft, i.e. spacecraft under 10 kilograms, in short timeframes of 2-3 years. CanX missions offer low-cost and rapid access to space for scientists, technol-ogy developers and operationally-responsive missions. The Space Flight Laboratory (SFL), at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) has developed the CanX-2 nanosatellite that launched in April 2008. CanX-2, a 3.5-kg, 10 x 10 x 34 cm satellite, features a collection of scientific and engineering payloads that push the envelope of capability for this class of spacecraft. The primary mission of CanX-2 is to perform a number of university exper-iments. These experiments include a miniature atmospheric spectrometer designed to detect greenhouse gas concentrations, a GPS signal occultation experiment designed to map electron and water vapour concentrations in the ionosphere and troposphere respectively, and a materi-als science experiment which evaluates a novel atomic oxygen resistant coating. The secondary mission of CanX-2 is to test and demonstrate several enabling technologies for precise formation flight. These technologies include a custom cold-gas propulsion system, a nanosatellite reac-tion wheel as part of a three-axis stabilized attitude control subsystem, and a GPS receiver. After two successful years in orbit, the nanosatellite has met or exceeded all mission objectives and continues to demonstrate the cost-effective capabilities of this class of spacecraft. Key achievements to date include a characterization of the propulsion system, a full demonstration of the attitude determination and control subsystem including capabilities in accurate pay-load pointing, unprecedented radio performance for an operational nanosatellite, and hundreds of successful science operations. The mission, the engineering and scientific payloads, and a discussion of notable orbit

  9. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil.

  10. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  11. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt transmitter experiment package for CTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment package consists of a 200 W output stage tube (OST) powered by a power processing system (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 percent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 percent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, inter-modulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  12. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  13. The relationship between characteristics of nursing performance and years of experience in nurses with high emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yuriko; Tanaka, Michiko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of nursing performance among nurses with high emotional intelligence (EI) and examine the influence of years of experience on nursing performance and EI. A survey, including The Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Six-Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance, was administered to 1395 nurses working at general hospitals in Japan from November 2010 to March 2011. We received 1045 responses (76% response rate). There was a significant positive correlation between EI and nursing performance. Nurses with high EI reported more professional development activities, suggesting that they continue learning, attain licenses and actively improve their nursing skills. High-performing nurses had high situational abilities and showed improved nursing performance with experience. However, nurses with low situational abilities demonstrated no improvement in nursing performance related to experience. EI involves skills that can be acquired from training. Therefore, educational programmes to improve EI could improve nursing performance.

  14. Experience, use, and performance measurement of the Hadoop File System in a typical nuclear physics analysis workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaline, E.; Lauret, J.

    2014-06-01

    The quantity of information produced in Nuclear and Particle Physics (NPP) experiments necessitates the transmission and storage of data across diverse collections of computing resources. Robust solutions such as XRootD have been used in NPP, but as the usage of cloud resources grows, the difficulties in the dynamic configuration of these systems become a concern. Hadoop File System (HDFS) exists as a possible cloud storage solution with a proven track record in dynamic environments. Though currently not extensively used in NPP, HDFS is an attractive solution offering both elastic storage and rapid deployment. We will present the performance of HDFS in both canonical I/O tests and for a typical data analysis pattern within the RHIC/STAR experimental framework. These tests explore the scaling with different levels of redundancy and numbers of clients. Additionally, the performance of FUSE and NFS interfaces to HDFS were evaluated as a way to allow existing software to function without modification. Unfortunately, the complicated data structures in NPP are non-trivial to integrate with Hadoop and so many of the benefits of the MapReduce paradigm could not be directly realized. Despite this, our results indicate that using HDFS as a distributed filesystem offers reasonable performance and scalability and that it excels in its ease of configuration and deployment in a cloud environment.

  15. Fatigue performance of laser additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V in very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime up to 109 cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wycisk, Eric; Siddique, Shafaqat; Herzog, Dirk; Walther, Frank; Emmelmann, Claus

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies are in the process of establishing themselves as an alternative production technology to conventional manufacturing such as casting or milling. Especially laser additive manufacturing (LAM) enables the production of metallic parts with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured components. Due to the high geometrical freedom in LAM the technology enables the production of ultra-light weight designs and therefore gains increasing importance in aircraft and space industry. The high quality standards of these industries demand predictability of material properties for static and dynamic load cases. However, fatigue properties especially in the very high cycle fatigue regime until 109 cycles have not been sufficiently determined yet. Therefore this paper presents an analysis of fatigue properties of laser additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V under cyclic tension-tension until 107 cycles and tension-compression load until 109 cycles. For the analysis of laser additive manufactured titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V Woehler fatigue tests under tension-tension and tension-compression were carried out in the high cycle and very high cycle fatigue regime. Specimens in stress-relieved as well as hot-isostatic-pressed conditions were analyzed regarding crack initiation site, mean stress sensitivity and overall fatigue performance. The determined fatigue properties show values in the range of conventionally manufactured Ti-6Al-4V with particularly good performance for hot-isostatic-pressed additive-manufactured material. For all conditions the results show no conventional fatigue limit but a constant increase in fatigue life with decreasing loads. No effects of test frequency on life span could be determined. However, independently of testing principle, a shift of crack initiation from surface to internal initiation could be observed with increasing cycles to failure.

  16. Improvements in state-of-the-art uncooled microbolometer system performance based on volume manufacturing experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, Brian S.; Breen, Thomas E.; Hartle, Nancy; Kohin, Margaret; Murphy, Robert

    2003-09-01

    Starting in the early 1990"s, BAE SYSTEMS began a significant investment in the development of MicroIR Uncooled Microbolometers. 160 x 120, 320 x 240, and 640 x 480 focal plane array (FPA) technology advances in both large pixel and small pixel format have driven Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD), power, size, weight, and price lower. These improvements have resulted in many new applications that previously could not afford larger, heavier, costlier cooled systems. While advancements in state of the art performance have been published regularly at Aerosense and other industry forums, far less has been discussed on the performance advances that have occurred as a result of volume manufacturing. This paper describes the improvements in performance that have been a result of BAE SYSTEMS leadership position in MicroIR microbolometer manufacturing. With over 15,000 units shipped through 2002, ranging from Standard Imaging Modules (SIM) to Standard Camera Cores (SCC) to complete imaging systems, the cumulative expertise gathered from this manufacturing experience over the past seven years has also pushed the state of the art system performance, in ways that single/small quantity technology demonstrators never could. Comparisons of temporal NETD, spatial NETD, dynamic range, operability, throughput, capacity, and other key metrics from early manufacturing lots to the present will be presented to demonstrate the advances that can only be achieved through volume manufacturing.

  17. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  18. Study on shortwave infrared long-distance imaging performance based on multiband imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junwei, Lang; Yueming, Wang; Xizhong, Xiao; Xiaoqiong, Zhuang; Shengwei, Wang; Jun, Liu; Jianyu, Wang

    2013-04-01

    Balloon-borne or ground-based high resolution long range observation has extensive applications in border monitoring and area surveillance. Performance of long-distance oblique or horizontal imaging systems is closely related to the atmospheric transmittance of the observing spectral band. Compared with visible and near infrared, the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band benefits from less scattering effects, which enables it to provide better quality images under harsh atmospheric conditions. We present a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) model including atmospheric influences. Based on the model, image SNR was calculated in the spectral range of 0.4 μm to 2.5 μm. In order to validate the imaging performance model of SWIR, a multi-band camera was designed and spectral imaging experiments were conducted. The results clearly demonstrated the advantage of SWIR imaging. The experiments show that the contrast and SNR of SWIR images reduced insignificantly for long distances and under low visibility conditions. This advantage makes SWIR multiband cameras suitable for long-distance remote sensing and for observing through haze.

  19. Wanting to Be Seen: Young People's Experiences of Performative Making Out.

    PubMed

    Esterline, Kate M; Muehlenhard, Charlene L

    2016-11-21

    People engage in sexual behavior for many reasons, some of which require an audience (e.g., arousing onlookers, making someone jealous). In this study, we investigated the prevalence, motivations, and outcomes of young people's experiences with performative making out-making out with someone and wanting others to see. Of the 155 female and 194 male college students who completed the online questionnaire, 32% of the women and 37% of the men reported having done this, often before entering college. Significantly more women than men reported same-sex performative experiences. We used thematic analysis to identify themes in the qualitative data. Participants' motivations included enhancing their image, causing jealousy or envy, demonstrating a relationship, sexually arousing men, and participating in fun and games. Men reported that their reputations were enhanced more often than damaged; women reported the opposite pattern. These results provide insights into the functions of sexual behavior as a means of communication and highlight gender differences consistent with problematic cultural belief systems such as "slut shaming," victim blaming, and sexual double standards.

  20. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured activities are of the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.