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Sample records for additional experiments revealed

  1. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  2. Revealing a Child's Pathology: Physicians' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scelles, Regine; Aubert-Godard, Anne; Gargiulo, Marcela; Avant, Monique; Gortais, Jean

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 12 physicians and 12 care-givers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. We explored physicians' experiences when they revealed a diagnosis. We also tried to understand which family members the physician was thinking of, with whom they identified themselves, and their first choice of the person to whom they prefer to…

  3. Survey reveals physicians' experiences with cults.

    PubMed

    Lottick, E A

    1993-02-01

    In late June 1992, a stratified random sample of Pennsylvania physicians (5,400) were mailed a two-page questionnaire asking about experiences with destructive cults, either personal, professional, or both. Professional experience was defined as "with patients or their families," and personal experience was defined as "with self, family, or friends." The survey sample group was drawn from primary care physicians (family practice, general practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics) and psychiatrists. Surveys were returned by 1,396 participants, a 26 percent rate of return. A number of the returned surveys (173) included personal observations and comments. PMID:8327257

  4. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  5. Statpipe experience reveals techniques for seabed problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S.; Gjertveit, E.

    1986-04-28

    Design and construction problems posed by severe permanent seabed irregularities along the Statpipe route in the North Sea required careful route planning to avoid pipeline damage and extensive intervention work later. Experiences from the Statpipe project will prove useful for future pipeline construction on the Norwegian Shelf where even more severe seabed irregularities lie north of 62/sup 0/ N. This first of two articles categorizes the major seabed irregularities encountered and recounts design approaches to solving consequent pipelay problems. The Statpipe pipeline system consists of four pipeline legs and totals 842-km subsea and 40-km onshore lines. Two pipelines cross the Norwegian Trench at about 300 m water depth: a 289-km, 30-in. line from Statfjord to the landfall at Kalsto, and a 208-km, 28-in. line from Kalsto to riser platform 16/11S in block 16/11. One 155-km, 36-in. pipeline goes from Heimdal field to 16/11S, and another 191-km, 36-in. line links 16/11S to riser platform 2/4S which is bridge-connected to the Ekofisk field complex. The two 36-in. lines and parts of the 30-in. and 28-in. lines are laid on the North Sea Plateau, west of the Norwegian Trench, in relatively shallow water (70-150 m) on a regular seabed. These represent traditional North Sea pipeline problems only. On the other hand, the two lines crossing the Norwegian Trench have been a challenge both because of the water depth and because of the wide areas of severe seabed irregularities.

  6. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  7. Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Payn, Robert

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

  8. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Software reliability: Additional investigations into modeling with replicated experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.; Schotz, F. M.; Skirvan, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of programmer experience level, different program usage distributions, and programming languages are explored. All these factors affect performance, and some tentative relational hypotheses are presented. An analytic framework for replicated and non-replicated (traditional) software experiments is presented. A method of obtaining an upper bound on the error rate of the next error is proposed. The method was validated empirically by comparing forecasts with actual data. In all 14 cases the bound exceeded the observed parameter, albeit somewhat conservatively. Two other forecasting methods are proposed and compared to observed results. Although demonstrated relative to this framework that stages are neither independent nor exponentially distributed, empirical estimates show that the exponential assumption is nearly valid for all but the extreme tails of the distribution. Except for the dependence in the stage probabilities, Cox's model approximates to a degree what is being observed.

  11. Integration of Consonant and Pitch Processing as Revealed by the Absence of Additivity in Mismatch Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Diankun; Chen, Sifan; Kendrick, Keith M.; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-01-01

    Consonants, unlike vowels, are thought to be speech specific and therefore no interactions would be expected between consonants and pitch, a basic element for musical tones. The present study used an electrophysiological approach to investigate whether, contrary to this view, there is integrative processing of consonants and pitch by measuring additivity of changes in the mismatch negativity (MMN) of evoked potentials. The MMN is elicited by discriminable variations occurring in a sequence of repetitive, homogeneous sounds. In the experiment, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants heard frequently sung consonant-vowel syllables and rare stimuli deviating in either consonant identity only, pitch only, or in both dimensions. Every type of deviation elicited a reliable MMN. As expected, the two single-deviant MMNs had similar amplitudes, but that of the double-deviant MMN was also not significantly different from them. This absence of additivity in the double-deviant MMN suggests that consonant and pitch variations are processed, at least at a pre-attentive level, in an integrated rather than independent way. Domain-specificity of consonants may depend on higher-level processes in the hierarchy of speech perception. PMID:22693614

  12. Initiation process of a thrust fault revealed by analog experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Dotare, Tatsuya; Adam, Juergen; Hori, Takane; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted 2D (cross-sectional) analog experiments with dry sand using a high resolution digital image correlation (DIC) technique to reveal initiation process of a thrust fault in detail, and identified a number of "weak shear bands" and minor uplift prior to the thrust initiation. The observations suggest that the process can be divided into three stages. Stage 1: characterized by a series of abrupt and short-lived weak shear bands at the location where the thrust will be generated later. Before initiation of the fault, the area to be the hanging wall starts to uplift. Stage 2: defined by the generation of the new thrust and its active displacement. The location of the new thrust seems to be constrained by its associated back-thrust, produced at the foot of the surface slope (by the previous thrust). The activity of the previous thrust turns to zero once the new thrust is generated, but the timing of these two events is not the same. Stage 3: characterized by a constant displacement along the (new) thrust. Similar minor shear bands can be seen in the toe area of the Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan and we can correlate the along-strike variations in seismic profiles to the model results that show the characteristic features in each thrust development stage.

  13. Stories from the trenches: Experiences of Alberta pharmacists in obtaining additional prescribing authority

    PubMed Central

    Charrois, Theresa; Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmacists in Alberta can apply to the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to obtain the designation of additional prescriber. This designation uniquely allows them to initiate therapy, in addition to other medication-related activities. Our objective was to examine specific experiences of pharmacists regarding the decision to apply and the application itself, and use this information to help inform other pharmacists who are considering additional prescribing. Methods: All pharmacists involved in a randomized, controlled trial being conducted in rural Alberta who had received their additional prescribing authorization (APA) were invited to participate. Pharmacists were contacted via e-mail and asked to respond to questions regarding their experiences in applying for APA. Responses were analyzed using content analysis and the identites of all respondents were kept anonymous. Results: Fourteen pharmacists were invited to participate. Review and examination of the responses revealed 3 main themes: motivation, hurdles and outcomes. Motivation can be understood as the reasons why they applied for their APA. Hurdles include any problems encountered of a personal, environmental or professional nature. Outcomes refer to how this designation has changed their practice. Discussion: Pharmacists had to address many factors that were unexpected during the application process; however, the eventual outcome of obtaining APA was deemed beneficial, both professionally and with regard to patient care. Conclusion: The information shared from these pharmacists will help other pharmacists, regardless of jurisdiction, overcome some of the challenges associated with obtaining advanced prescribing privileges. PMID:23509485

  14. Maturation experiments reveal bias in the fossil record of feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Maria; Field, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary history of birds and feathers is a major focus in palaeobiology and evolutionary biology. Diverse exceptionally preserved birds and feathered dinosaurs from Jurassic and Cretaceous biotas in China have provided pivotal evidence of early feathers and feather-like integumentary features, but the true nature of many of these fossil soft tissues is still debated. Interpretations of feathers at intermediate developmental stages (i.e. Stages II, III and IV) and of simple quill-like (Stage I) feathers are particularly controversial. This reflects key uncertainties relating to the preservation potential of feathers at different evolutionary-developmental stages, and to the relative preservation potential of diagnostic features of Stage I feathers and hair. To resolve these issues, we used high pressure-high temperature autoclave experiments to simulate the effects of burial on modern feathers from the Black Coucal (Centropus grilii) and Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and on human hair. Our results reveal profound differences in the recalcitrance of feathers of different types during maturation: Stage I and Stage V feathers retain diagnostic morphological and ultrastructural details following maturation, whereas other feather types do not. Further, the morphology and arrangement of certain ultrastructural features diagnostic of Stages III and IV, e.g. barbules, are preferentially lost during maturation. These results indicate a pervasive bias in the fossil record of feathers, whereby preservation of feathers at Stages I and V is favored. Critical stages in the evolution of feathers, i.e. Stages II, III and IV, are less likely to be preserved and more likely to be misinterpreted as feathers at earlier developmental stages. Our discovery has major implications for our understanding of the fidelity of the fossil record of feathers and provides a framework for testing the significance of putative examples of fossil feathers at different developmental

  15. Lonely or Bored: Children's Lived Experiences Reveal the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of research on loneliness, the relationship between the phenomena of loneliness and boredom has not been sufficiently addressed, especially in respect to children. The question, "How does the child's experience of boredom stand phenomenologically in relation to the experience of loneliness?" is explored from a…

  16. When Values and Behaviors Conflict: Immigrant BSW Students' Experiences Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderwood, Kimberly; Harper, Kim; Ball, Kellie; Liang, David

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study reveals the discomfort seven immigrant bachelor of social work students reported experiencing when the behaviors expected of them as Canadian social workers conflicted with their fundamental family values. Behaviorally, participants had assimilated to Canadian and to social work cultures; however, the values they held from…

  17. Genetic Rearrangements of Six Wheat–Agropyron cristatum 6P Addition Lines Revealed by Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat–A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat–A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

  18. Traffic Experiment Reveals the Nature of Car-Following

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Zhang, H. M.; Gao, Zi-You; Jia, Bin; Wu, Qing-Song; Wang, Bing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    As a typical self-driven many-particle system far from equilibrium, traffic flow exhibits diverse fascinating non-equilibrium phenomena, most of which are closely related to traffic flow stability and specifically the growth/dissipation pattern of disturbances. However, the traffic theories have been controversial due to a lack of precise traffic data. We have studied traffic flow from a new perspective by carrying out large-scale car-following experiment on an open road section, which overcomes the intrinsic deficiency of empirical observations. The experiment has shown clearly the nature of car-following, which runs against the traditional traffic flow theory. Simulations show that by removing the fundamental notion in the traditional car-following models and allowing the traffic state to span a two-dimensional region in velocity-spacing plane, the growth pattern of disturbances has changed qualitatively and becomes qualitatively or even quantitatively in consistent with that observed in the experiment. PMID:24740284

  19. EREBUS: An experiment to REveal the BUrster sites

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Harmon, B. Alan; Horack, John M.; Wilson, Robert B.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-08-01

    There have been several suggestions that GRBs, if galactic, might be detected from M31. With the current crisis in determining the burster distance scale, this experiment has become crucial. EREBUS has been designed to detect a significant burst signal from M31 for any reasonable galactic model that is consistent with the BATSE isotropy and inhomogeneity constraints. The experiment uses 16 broadly collimated 2000 cm{sup 2} NaI detectors, obtaining a factor of {approx}10 improvement in peak sensitivity over BATSE. The similarity to the BATSE detectors eliminates spectral and temporal free parameters in model fits.

  20. Separateness Representations in a Sculpting Task: Revealing Maternal Subjective Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat Or, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study explored mothers' separateness representations via a clay sculpting task assigned to 24 mothers of preschool children aged 21 months to 4 years. Each participant created a clay sculpture of herself and her child, followed by a semi-structured interview about the sculpting experience and the meaning of the sculpture. Qualitative analyses…

  1. Seeing is believing: what experiments with microbes reveal about evolution.

    PubMed

    van Ditmarsch, Dave; Xavier, Joao B

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection is among the most powerful ideas in science, yet evolutionary ideas remain challenged to this day. This is in part because evolution often cannot be directly observed. Simple experiments with microbes can change that by enabling direct observation of evolutionary processes. PMID:24384383

  2. Absorption Reveals and Hydrogen Addition Explains New Interstellar Aldehydes: Propenal and Propanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Remijan, A.; Mollendal, H.

    2004-01-01

    New interstellar molecules propenal (CH2CHCHO) and propanal (CH3CH2CHO) have been detected largely in absorption toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of rotational transitions observed with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) operating in the range of 18 GHz (lambda approximately 1.7 cm) to 26 GHz (lambda approximately 1.2 cm). The GBT was also used to observe the previously reported interstellar aldehyde propynal (HC2CHO) in Sagittarius B2(N) which is known for large molecules believed to form on interstellar grains. The presence of these three interstellar aldehydes toward Sagittarius B2(N) strongly suggests that simple hydrogen addition on interstellar grains accounts for successively larger molecular species: from propynal to propenal and from propenal to propanal. Energy sources within Sagittarius B2(N) likely permit the hydrogen addition reactions on grain surfaces to proceed. This work demonstrates that successive hydrogen addition is probably an important chemistry route in the formation of a number of complex interstellar molecules. We also searched for but did not detect the three-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO).

  3. Seismic experiment reveals rifting of craton in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Langston, Charles A.; Last, Robert J.; Birt, Christopher; Owens, Thomas J.

    A research project in Tanzania, East Africa, is being conducted to examine seismic velocities within the crust and upper mantle in an area where cratonic lithosphere is experiencing extensional tectonism. The results will be used to evaluate models of cratonic structure. Waveforms from several hundred teleseismic earthquakes and over 10,000 regional and local earthquakes recorded in 1994 and 1995 by the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment are not only yielding new insights into deep continental structure, but are also helping to determine the tectonic stability of cratons by identifying the locus of rifting within northeastern Tanzania.

  4. Nonlinearly Additive Forces in Multivalent Ligand Binding to a Single Protein Revealed with Force Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T V; Rudd, R E; Langry, K C; Balhorn, R L; McElfresh, M W

    2005-07-15

    We present evidence of multivalent interactions between a single protein molecule and multiple carbohydrates at a pH where the protein can bind four ligands. The evidence is based not only on measurements of the force required to rupture the bonds formed between ConcanavalinA (ConA) and {alpha}-D-mannose, but also on an analysis of the polymer-extension force curves to infer the polymer architecture that binds the protein to the cantilever and the ligands to the substrate. We find that although the rupture forces for multiple carbohydrate connections to a single protein are larger than the rupture force for a single connection, they do not scale additively with increasing number. Specifically, the most common rupture forces are approximately 46, 66, and 85 pN, which we argue corresponds to 1, 2, and 3 ligands being pulled simultaneously from a single protein as corroborated by an analysis of the linkage architecture. As in our previous work polymer tethers allow us to discriminate between specific and non-specific binding. We analyze the binding configuration (i.e. serial versus parallel connections) through fitting the polymer stretching data with modified Worm-Like Chain (WLC) models that predict how the effective stiffness of the tethers is affected by multiple connections. This analysis establishes that the forces we measure are due to single proteins interacting with multiple ligands, the first force spectroscopy study that establishes single-molecule multivalent binding unambiguously.

  5. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others. PMID:27071089

  6. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E.; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I.; Nichols, David; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D.; Wise, Richard G.; Curran, H. Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD’s marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug’s other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of “ego-dissolution” and “altered meaning,” implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of “self” or “ego” and its processing of “meaning.” Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others. PMID:27071089

  7. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  8. Voices from the Classroom: Experiences of Teachers of Deaf Students with Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musyoka, Millicent Malinda; Gentry, Mary Anne; Bartlett, James Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate experiences of K-12 classroom teachers of deaf students with additional disabilities. Today, more deaf and hard of hearing students are identified as having additional disabilities (Bruce, DiNatale & Ford, 2008; Ewing, 2011; Gallaudet Research Institute, 2011; Jones, Jones & Ewing, 2006;…

  9. Response of non-added solutes during nutrient addition experiments in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Koenig, L.; Coble, A. A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient addition experiments, such as Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), have become widely popular as a means to study nutrient uptake dynamics in stream ecosystems. However, the impact of these additions on ambient concentrations of non-added solutes is often overlooked. TASCC addition experiments are ideal for assessing interactions among solutes because it allows for the characterization of multiple solute concentrations across a broad range of added nutrient concentrations. TASCC additions also require the addition of a conservative tracer (NaCl) to track changes in conductivity during the experimental manipulation. Despite its use as a conservative tracer, chloride (Cl) and its associated sodium (Na) might change the concentrations of other ions and non-added nutrients through ion exchange or other processes. Similarly, additions of biologically active solutes might change the concentrations of other non-added solutes. These methodological issues in nutrient addition experiments have been poorly addressed in the literature. Here we examine the response of non-added solutes to pulse additions (i.e. TASCC) of NaCl plus nitrate (NO3-), ammonium, and phosphate across biomes including temperate and tropical forests, and arctic taiga. Preliminary results demonstrate that non-added solutes respond to changes in the concentration of these added nutrients. For example, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in suburban headwater streams of New Hampshire both increase and decrease in response to NO3- additions, apparently due to biotic processes. Similarly, cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium also increase during TASCC experiments, likely due to cation exchange processes associated with Na addition. The response of non-added solutes to short-term pulses of added nutrients and tracers needs to be carefully assessed to ensure that nutrient uptake metrics are accurate, and to detect biotic interactions that may

  10. Untangling the Effect of Fatty Acid Addition at Species Level Revealed Different Transcriptional Responses of the Biogas Microbial Community Members.

    PubMed

    Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zhu, Xinyu; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, RNA-sequencing was used to elucidate the change of anaerobic digestion metatranscriptome after long chain fatty acids (oleate) exposure. To explore the general transcriptional behavior of the microbiome, the analysis was first performed on shotgun reads without considering a reference metagenome. As a second step, RNA reads were aligned on the genes encoded by the microbial community, revealing the expression of more than 51 000 different transcripts. The present study is the first research which was able to dissect the transcriptional behavior at a single species level by considering the 106 microbial genomes previously identified. The exploration of the metabolic pathways confirmed the importance of Syntrophomonas species in fatty acids degradation, and also highlighted the presence of protective mechanisms toward the long chain fatty acid effects in bacteria belonging to Clostridiales, Rykenellaceae, and in species of the genera Halothermothrix and Anaerobaculum. Additionally, an interesting transcriptional activation of the chemotaxis genes was evidenced in seven species belonging to Clostridia, Halothermothrix, and Tepidanaerobacter. Surprisingly, methanogens revealed a very versatile behavior different from each other, even among similar species of the Methanoculleus genus, while a strong increase of the expression level in Methanosarcina sp. was evidenced after oleate addition. PMID:27154312

  11. Analysis of biostimulated microbial communities from two field experiments reveals temporal and spatial differences in proteome profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, S.J.; Wilkins, M.J.; Nicora, C.D.; Williams, K.H.; Banfield, J.F.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Hettich, R.L.; NGuessan, A.L.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; Smith, R.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Lipton, M.S.; Long, P.E.

    2010-07-15

    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or “pseudo-metagenomes”, for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  12. Analysis of Biostimulated Microbial Communities from Two Field Experiments Reveals Temporal and Spatial Differences in Proteome Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, Stephen J; Wilkins, Mike; Nicora, Carrie D.; Williams, Ken; Banfield, Jillian F.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Mouser, Paula J; Elifantz, Hila; Smith, Richard D.; Lovley, Derek; Lipton, Mary S; Long, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetateamended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or pseudo-metagenomes , for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally,ashift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  13. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  14. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  15. An additional condition for Bell experiments for accepting local realistic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2013-12-01

    We assume that one source of two uncorrelated spin-carrying particles emits them in a state, which can be described as a spin-1/2 bipartite pure uncorrelated state. We consider a Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) experiment with two-orthogonal-settings. We propose an additional condition for the state to be reproducible by the property of local realistic theories. We use the proposed measurement theory in order to construct the additional condition (Nagata and Nakamura in Int J Theor Phys 49:162, 2010). The condition is that local measurement outcome is . Otherwise, such an experiment does not allow for the existence of local realistic theories even in the situation that all Bell-CHSH inequalities hold. Also we derive new set of Bell inequalities when local measurement outcome is.

  16. Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Adam J; Ginovska, Bojana; Thelen, Adam; da Silva, Julio C S; Soares, Thereza A; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; Shaw, Wendy J; Hegg, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a water molecule. A computational analysis of this pathway in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) forms hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implying that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. In this study, we show that substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in an ∼3-fold enhancement of H2 production activity when methyl viologen is used as an electron donor, suggesting that Arg286 may help control the rate of proton delivery. In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate ∼5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to permit proton transfer. Interestingly, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations indicate that Ser320 does not play a structural role or indirectly influence the barrier for proton movement at the entrance of the channel. Rather, it may act as an additional proton acceptor for the pathway or serve in a regulatory role. While further studies are needed to elucidate the role of Ser320, collectively these data provide insights into the complex proton transport process. PMID:27186945

  17. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  18. Revealing the Earth's mantle from the tallest mountains using the Jinping Neutrino Experiment.

    PubMed

    Šrámek, Ondřej; Roskovec, Bedřich; Wipperfurth, Scott A; Xi, Yufei; McDonough, William F

    2016-01-01

    The Earth's engine is driven by unknown proportions of primordial energy and heat produced in radioactive decay. Unfortunately, competing models of Earth's composition reveal an order of magnitude uncertainty in the amount of radiogenic power driving mantle dynamics. Recent measurements of the Earth's flux of geoneutrinos, electron antineutrinos from terrestrial natural radioactivity, reveal the amount of uranium and thorium in the Earth and set limits on the residual proportion of primordial energy. Comparison of the flux measured at large underground neutrino experiments with geologically informed predictions of geoneutrino emission from the crust provide the critical test needed to define the mantle's radiogenic power. Measurement at an oceanic location, distant from nuclear reactors and continental crust, would best reveal the mantle flux, however, no such experiment is anticipated. We predict the geoneutrino flux at the site of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment (Sichuan, China). Within 8 years, the combination of existing data and measurements from soon to come experiments, including Jinping, will exclude end-member models at the 1σ level, define the mantle's radiogenic contribution to the surface heat loss, set limits on the composition of the silicate Earth, and provide significant parameter bounds for models defining the mode of mantle convection. PMID:27611737

  19. Revealing the Earth’s mantle from the tallest mountains using the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Šrámek, Ondřej; Roskovec, Bedřich; Wipperfurth, Scott A.; Xi, Yufei; McDonough, William F.

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s engine is driven by unknown proportions of primordial energy and heat produced in radioactive decay. Unfortunately, competing models of Earth’s composition reveal an order of magnitude uncertainty in the amount of radiogenic power driving mantle dynamics. Recent measurements of the Earth’s flux of geoneutrinos, electron antineutrinos from terrestrial natural radioactivity, reveal the amount of uranium and thorium in the Earth and set limits on the residual proportion of primordial energy. Comparison of the flux measured at large underground neutrino experiments with geologically informed predictions of geoneutrino emission from the crust provide the critical test needed to define the mantle’s radiogenic power. Measurement at an oceanic location, distant from nuclear reactors and continental crust, would best reveal the mantle flux, however, no such experiment is anticipated. We predict the geoneutrino flux at the site of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment (Sichuan, China). Within 8 years, the combination of existing data and measurements from soon to come experiments, including Jinping, will exclude end-member models at the 1σ level, define the mantle’s radiogenic contribution to the surface heat loss, set limits on the composition of the silicate Earth, and provide significant parameter bounds for models defining the mode of mantle convection. PMID:27611737

  20. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Armijo, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    A continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS2 electrochemical couple is reported. The results relate to the long shelf life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10(-7) w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. Conclusions relevant to long term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi2 additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  1. Genome-wide meta-analysis of maize heterosis reveals the potential role of additive gene expression at pericentromeric loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of QTL involved in heterosis formation is one approach to unravel the not yet fully understood genetic basis of heterosis - the improved agronomic performance of hybrid F1 plants compared to their inbred parents. The identification of candidate genes underlying a QTL is important both for developing markers and determining the molecular genetic basis of a trait, but remains difficult owing to the large number of genes often contained within individual QTL. To address this problem in heterosis analysis, we applied a meta-analysis strategy for grain yield (GY) of Zea mays L. as example, incorporating QTL-, hybrid field-, and parental gene expression data. Results For the identification of genes underlying known heterotic QTL, we made use of tight associations between gene expression pattern and the trait of interest, identified by correlation analyses. Using this approach genes strongly associated with heterosis for GY were discovered to be clustered in pericentromeric regions of the complex maize genome. This suggests that expression differences of sequences in recombination-suppressed regions are important in the establishment of heterosis for GY in F1 hybrids and also in the conservation of heterosis for GY across genotypes. Importantly functional analysis of heterosis-associated genes from these genomic regions revealed over-representation of a number of functional classes, identifying key processes contributing to heterosis for GY. Based on the finding that the majority of the analyzed heterosis-associated genes were addtitively expressed, we propose a model referring to the influence of cis-regulatory variation on heterosis for GY by the compensation of fixed detrimental expression levels in parents. Conclusions The study highlights the utility of a meta-analysis approach that integrates phenotypic and multi-level molecular data to unravel complex traits in plants. It provides prospects for the identification of genes relevant for

  2. Development of schemas revealed by prior experience and NMDA receptor knock-out

    PubMed Central

    Dragoi, George; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Prior experience accelerates acquisition of novel, related information through processes like assimilation into mental schemas, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the roles that prior experience and hippocampal CA3 N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity play in CA1 place cell sequence encoding and learning during novel spatial experiences. We found that specific representations of de novo experiences on linear environments were formed on a framework of pre configured network activity expressed in the preceding sleep and were rapidly, flexibly adjusted via NMDAR-dependent activity. This prior experience accelerated encoding of subsequent experiences on contiguous or isolated novel tracks, significantly decreasing their NMDAR-dependence. Similarly, de novo learning of an alternation task was facilitated by CA3 NMDARs; this experience accelerated subsequent learning of related tasks, independent of CA3 NMDARs, consistent with a schema-based learning. These results reveal the existence of distinct neuronal encoding schemes which could explain why hippocampal dysfunction results in anterograde amnesia while sparing recollection of old, schema-based memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01326.001 PMID:24327561

  3. Responses of estuarine nematodes to an increase in nutrient supply: an in situ continuous addition experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R C; Nascimento-Junior, A B; Santos, P J P; Botter-Carvalho, M L; Pinto, T K

    2015-01-15

    An experiment was carried out on an estuarine mudflat to assess impacts of inorganic nutrients used to fertilize sugar-cane fields on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem, through changes in the nematode community structure. During 118 days, nine quadrats each 4m(2) were sampled six times after the beginning of fertilizer addition. The fertilizer was introduced weekly in six areas, at two different concentrations (low and high doses), and three areas were used as control. The introduction of nutrients modified key nematode community descriptors. In general, the nematodes were negatively affected over the study period. However, Comesa, Metachromadora, Metalinhomoeus, Spirinia and Terschellingia were considered tolerant, and other genera showed different degrees of sensitivity. Nutrient input also affect the availability and quality of food, changing the nematode trophic structure. The use of inorganic fertilizer should be evaluated with care because of the potential for damage to biological communities of coastal aquatic systems. PMID:25499965

  4. Modification of sandy soil hydrophysical environment through bagasse additive under laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Halim, A. A.; Kumlung, Arunsiri

    2015-01-01

    Until now sandy soils can be considered as one roup having common hydrophysical problems. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of bagasse as an amendment to improve hydrophysical properties of sandy soil, through the determination of bulk density, aggregatesize distribution, total porosity, hydraulic conductivity, pore-space structure and water retention. To fulfil this objective, sandy soils were amended with bagasse at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4% on the dry weight basis. The study results demonstrated that the addition of bagasse to sandy soils in between 3 to 4% on the dry weight basis led to a significant decrease in bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and rapid-drainable pores, and increase in the total porosity, water-holding pores, fine capillary pores, water retained at field capacity, wilting point, and soil available water as compared with the control treatment

  5. Additional experiments on flowability improvements of aviation fuels at low temperatures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, F. J.; Deane, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study flow improver additives and scale-model fuel heating systems for use with aviation hydrocarbon fuel at low temperatures. Test were performed in a facility that simulated the heat transfer and temperature profiles anticipated in wing fuel tanks during flight of long-range commercial aircraft. The results are presented of experiments conducted in a test tank simulating a section of an outer wing integral fuel tank approximately full-scale in height, chilled through heat exchange panels bonded to the upper and lower horizontal surfaces. A separate system heated lubricating oil externally by a controllable electric heater, to transfer heat to fuel pumped from the test tank through an oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, and to recirculate the heated fuel back to the test tank.

  6. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Kalb, N; Blok, M S; Dréau, A E; Reiserer, A; Vermeulen, R F L; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S; Taminiau, T H; Hanson, R

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682-686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  7. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  8. Augmenting a Waste Glass Mixture Experiment Study with Additional Glass Components and Experimental Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F. ); Cooley, Scott K. ); Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D. ); Edwards, Tommy B.

    2002-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored in Idaho is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and for other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed and are briefly described. This paper focuses on the CVS Phase 3 experimental design, which was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. In total, 16 glass components were varied in the Phase 3 experimental design. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software.

  9. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people. PMID:25259671

  10. Analysis of Biostimulated Microbial Communities from Two Field Experiments Reveals Temporal and Spatial Differences in Proteome Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, Stephen J.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Banfield, Jillian F.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Hettich, Robert L.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Mouser, Paula; Elifantz, H.; Smith, Richard D.; Lovley, Derek R.; Lipton, Mary S.; Long, Philip E.

    2010-12-01

    Stimulated by acetate-amendment field experiments conducted in 2007 and 2008, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this period, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points and used to quantitatively evaluate proteomes, both spatially and temporally to study the dynamics of the microbial community proteome dynamics in relationship to geochemical measurements. As there were no comprehensive genome sequence data available at the time, we systematically evaluated different organisms to generate a "pseudo-metagenome" for proteomics analyses. Proteomics results supported the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation and revealed a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction, evidenced by changes in community membership. Because U(VI) is reduced at a lower rate during sulfate reduction, detecting this shift is important to maintaining the maximum rate of U(VI) reduction. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made at the end of the 2007 field experiment to the 2008 field experiment revealed a modified community structure. Importantly, the failure of a community to rebound following the cessation of biostimulation needs to be included in long-term remediation strategies.

  11. Sensitivity of Arctic Permafrost Carbon in the Mackenzie River Basin: A substrate addition and incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgpeth, A.; Beilman, D.; Crow, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization processes are fundamental to the functioning of high latitude soils in relation to nutrients, stability, and feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 and climate. The arctic permafrost zone covers 25% of the northern hemisphere and contains 1672Pg of soil carbon (C). 88% of this C currently resides in frozen soils that are vulnerable to environmental change. For instance, arctic growing seasons may be lengthened, resulting in an increase in plant productivity and rate of below ground labile C inputs as root exudates. Understanding controls on Arctic SOM dynamics requires recognition that labile C inputs have the potential to significantly affect mineralization of previously stable SOM, also known as 'priming effects'. We conducted a substrate addition incubation experiment to quantify and compare respiration in highly organic (42-48 %C) permafrost soils along a north-south transect in western Canada. Near surface soils (10-20 cm) were collected from permafrost peatland sites in the Mackenzie River Basin from 69.2-62.6°N. The surface soils are fairly young (Δ14C values > -140.0) and can be assumed to contain relatively reactive soil carbon. To assess whether addition of labile substrate alters SOM decomposition dynamics, 4.77-11.75 g of permafrost soil were spiked with 0.5 mg D-glucose g-1 soil and incubated at 5°C. A mass balance approach was used to determin substrate-induced respiration and preliminary results suggest a potential for positive priming in these C-rich soils. Baseline respiration rates from the three sites were similar (0.067-0.263 mg CO2 g-1 soil C) yet show some site-specific trends. The rate at which added substrate was utilized within these soils suggests that other factors besides temperature and soil C content are controlling substrate consumption and its effect on SOM decomposition. Microbial activity can be stimulated by substrate addition to such an extent that SOM turnover is enhanced, suggesting that

  12. Shades of Emotion: What the Addition of Sunglasses or Masks to Faces Reveals about the Development of Facial Expression Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Debi; Kikutani, Mariko; Doge, Paula; Whitaker, Lydia; Majid, Asifa

    2012-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in facial expression processing, between 3 years-of-age and adulthood. For adults and older children, the addition of sunglasses to upright faces caused an equivalent decrement in performance to face inversion. However, younger children showed "better" classification of expressions of faces wearing…

  13. An experiment in software reliability: Additional analyses using data from automated replications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Janet R.; Lauterbach, Linda A.

    1988-01-01

    A study undertaken to collect software error data of laboratory quality for use in the development of credible methods for predicting the reliability of software used in life-critical applications is summarized. The software error data reported were acquired through automated repetitive run testing of three independent implementations of a launch interceptor condition module of a radar tracking problem. The results are based on 100 test applications to accumulate a sufficient sample size for error rate estimation. The data collected is used to confirm the results of two Boeing studies reported in NASA-CR-165836 Software Reliability: Repetitive Run Experimentation and Modeling, and NASA-CR-172378 Software Reliability: Additional Investigations into Modeling With Replicated Experiments, respectively. That is, the results confirm the log-linear pattern of software error rates and reject the hypothesis of equal error rates per individual fault. This rejection casts doubt on the assumption that the program's failure rate is a constant multiple of the number of residual bugs; an assumption which underlies some of the current models of software reliability. data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults.

  14. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  15. Structural evolution beneath Sakurajima Volcano, Japan, revealed through rounds of controlled seismic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Tomoki; Iguchi, Masato; Tameguri, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Haruhisa

    2016-04-01

    Structural evolution beneath an active volcano is detected as the variation of seismic reflectivity through controlled seismic experiments, which is interpreted as being associated with discharging magma. The target of the present study is Sakurajima Volcano, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. Six rounds of seismic experiments with controlled sources have been conducted annually at the volcano. Two seismic reflection profiles are obtained from the datasets for each successful round of experiments. The experiments reveal clear annual variation in seismic reflectivity at a depth of 6.2 km in the northeastern part of Sakurajima. The reflectivity is maximum in December 2009 upon the first intrusion of magma and decreases gradually until December 2013, which coincides with the inflation and deflation cycle of Sakurajima Volcano. Reflectivity variation occurred in the embedded clear reflector at depth. An evolving sandwiched structure in the intermediate layer is used as the reflector model. Lower-velocity magma embedded in the intermediate layer and its succeeding velocity increment explain the variation range of reflectivity. This is interpreted as a temperature decrease associated with discharging magma at depth. The present study describes a new approach for instantaneously sensing magma properties and for monitoring active volcanoes.

  16. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  17. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  18. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Tank, Jennifer; Sobota, Daniel; O'Brien, Jon; Webster, Jackson; Valett, H. Maurice; Dodds, Walter; Poole, Geoff; Peterson, Chris G.; Meyer, Judy; McDowell, William; Johnson, Sherri; Hamilton, Stephen; Gregory, Stanley; Grimm, Nancy; Dahm, Cliff; Cooper, Lee W; Ashkenas, Linda; Thomas, Suzanne; Sheibley, Rich; Potter, Jody; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Johnson, Laura; Helton, Ashley; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Burgin, Amy; Bernot, Melody; Beaulieu, Jake; Arango, Clay

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S{sub Wtot}). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Gross primary production shortened S{sub Wtot}, while increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} lengthened S{sub Wtot} resulting in no net effect of land use on NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal.

  19. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.O., Jr.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  20. MRS reveals additional hexose N-acetyl resonances in the brain of a mouse model for Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Lowe, J P; Stuckey, D J; Awan, F R; Jeyakumar, M; Neville, D C A; Platt, F M; Griffin, J L; Styles, P; Blamire, A M; Sibson, N R

    2005-12-01

    Sandhoff disease, one of several related lysosomal storage disorders, results from the build up of N-acetyl-containing glycosphingolipids in the brain and is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the hexosaminidase beta-subunit. Affected individuals undergo progressive neurodegeneration in response to the glycosphingolipid storage. (1)H magnetic resonance spectra of perchloric acid extracts of Sandhoff mouse brain exhibited several resonances ca 2.07 ppm that were not present in the corresponding spectra from extracts of wild-type mouse brain. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the Sandhoff extracts post-MRS identified the presence of N-acetylhexosamine-containing oligosaccharides, which are the likely cause of the additional MRS resonances. MRS of intact brain tissue with magic angle spinning also showed additional resonances at ca 2.07 ppm in the Sandhoff case. These resonances appeared to increase with disease progression and probably arise, for the most part, from the stored glycosphingolipids, which are absent in the aqueous extracts. Hence in vivo MRS may be a useful tool for detecting early-stage Sandhoff disease and response to treatment. PMID:16206131

  1. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption.

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Robino, Antonietta; van der Spek, Ashley; Navarini, Luciano; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption. PMID:27561104

  2. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption

    PubMed Central

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Robino, Antonietta; van der Spek, Ashley; Navarini, Luciano; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption. PMID:27561104

  3. LUT Reveals an Algol-type Eclipsing Binary With Three Additional Stellar Companions in a Multiple System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Hu, J.-Y.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H.

    2016-04-01

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson–Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O–C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i‧ ∼ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M⊙. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  4. Oceanic plate structures beneath the northwestern Pacific Ocean revealed by explosion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isse, T.; Shiobara, H.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Yagi, T.; Sugioka, H.; Utada, H.

    2014-12-01

    Plate tectonics is based on a concept that a rigid lithosphere moves over a weaker asthenosphere. Understanding of the plate tectonics is important to understand the Earth's system. However, the nature of the lithosphere and asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is not yet well determined. To understand the physical condition for the LAB, we have conduct a seafloor observation called " Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) Project". We focused on the oceanic plate because the nature and evolution history of the oceanic plate is simpler than the continental plate so that it is easier to investigate its nature. To analyze the upper mantle structures around the LAB, we conducted a seismic explosion experiments as a part of NOMan project. Seismic explosion experiments were conducted at four shot sites with ten broadband ocean bottom seismometers and the size of explosions is 400 kg at two sites, and 200 kg at other sites. The profile lengths are about 700 and 400 km, respectively. Previous studies in this area revealed the azimuthal anisotropy in the uppermost lithosphere (Shinohara et al., 2008), a sharp LAB at a depth of ~ 80 km (Kawakatsu et al. 2009), small-scale heterogeneities in the lithosphere (Shito et al., 2013). After explosion experiments, we recovered five BBOBSs. Rest of them will be recovered at this September.

  5. Photoinduced Oxidative DNA Damage Revealed by an Agarose Gel Nicking Assay: A Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirovich, Vladimir; Singh, Carolyn; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2003-11-01

    Oxidative damage of DNA molecules associated with electron-transfer reactions is an important phenomenon in living cells, which can lead to mutations and contribute to carcinogenesis and the aging processes. This article describes the design of several simple experiments to explore DNA damage initiated by photoinduced electron-transfer reactions sensitized by the acridine derivative, proflavine (PF). A supercoiled DNA agarose gel nicking assay is employed as a sensitive probe of DNA strand cleavage. A low-cost experimental and computer-interfaced imaging apparatus is described allowing for the digital recording and analysis of the gel electrophoresis results. The first experiment describes the formation of direct strand breaks in double-stranded DNA induced by photoexcitation of the intercalated PF molecules. The second experiment demonstrates that the addition of the well-known electron acceptor, methylviologen, gives rise to a significant enhancement of the photochemical DNA strand cleavage effect. This occurs by an electron transfer step to methylviologen that renders the inital photoinduced charge separation between photoexcited PF and DNA irreversible. The third experiment demonstrates that the action spectrum of the DNA photocleavage matches the absorption spectrum of DNA-bound, intercalated PF molecules, which differs from that of free PF molecules. This result demonstrates that the photoinduced DNA strand cleavage is initiated by intercalated rather than free PF molecules.

  6. Revealing the Effect of Additives with Different Solubility on the Morphology and the Donor Crystalline Structures of Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Qiao, Bo; Huang, Di; Zhao, Ling; Li, Yang; Zhu, Youqin; Wang, Peng

    2016-07-20

    The impact of two kinds of additives, such as 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT), 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), diphenylether (DPE), and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), on the performance of poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3‴-di(2-octyldodecyl)2,2';5',2″;5″,2‴-quaterthiophen-5,5‴-diyl)] (PffBT4T-2OD):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) based polymer solar cell are investigated. The polymer solar cells (PSCs) of PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM by using CN show a more improved PCE of 10.23%. The solubility difference of PffBT4T-2OD in DIO and CN creates the fine transformation in phase separation and favorable nanoscale morphology. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) data clearly shows molecular stacking and orientation of the active layer. Interestingly, DIO and CN have different functions on the effect of the molecular orientation. These interesting studies provide important guidance to optimize and control complicated molecular orientations and nanoscale morphology of PffBT4T-2OD based thick films for the application in PSCs. PMID:27328855

  7. Systems Biological Approaches Reveal Non-additive Responses and Multiple Crosstalk Mechanisms between TLR and GPCR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    A variety of ligands differ in their capacity to bind the receptor, elicit gene expression, and modulate physiological responses. Such receptors include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize various patterns of pathogens and lead to primary innate immune activation against invaders, and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), whose interaction with their cognate ligands activates heterotrimeric G proteins and regulates specific downstream effectors, including immuno-stimulating molecules. Once TLRs are activated, they lead to the expression of hundreds of genes together and bridge the arm of innate and adaptive immune responses. We characterized the gene expression profile of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in RAW 264.7 cells when it bound with its ligand, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO), the active part of lipopolysaccharide. In addition, to determine the network communications among the TLR, Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and GPCR, we tested RAW 264.7 cells with KDO, interferon-β, or cAMP analog 8-Br. The ligands were also administered as a pair of double and triple combinations. PMID:23166526

  8. The Additional-Mass Effect of Plates as Determined by Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1941-01-01

    The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included.

  9. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  10. Glassy dynamics of polymers confined to nanoporous glasses revealed by relaxational and scattering experiments.

    PubMed

    Schönhals, A; Goering, H; Schick, Ch; Frick, B; Zorn, R

    2003-09-01

    The glassy dynamics of poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) confined to a nanoporous host system revealed by dielectric spectroscopy, temperature-modulated DSC and neutron scattering is compared. For both systems the relaxation rates estimated from dielectric spectroscopy and temperature-modulated DSC agree quantitatively indicating that both experiments sense the glass transition. For PPG the segmental dynamics is determined by a counterbalance of adsorption and confinement effect. The former results form an interaction of the confined macromolecules with the internal surfaces. A confinement effect originates from an inherent length scale on which the underlying molecular motions take place. The increment of the specific-heat capacity [Formula: see text] at the glass transition vanishes at a finite length scale of 1.8 nm. Both results support the conception that a characteristic length scale is relevant for glassy dynamics. For PDMS only a confinement effect is observed which is much stronger than that for PPG. Down to a pore size of 7.5 nm, the temperature dependence of the relaxation times follows the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann dependence. At a pore size of 5 nm this changes to an Arrhenius-like behaviour with a low activation energy. At the same pore size [Formula: see text] vanishes for PDMS. Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments reveal that also the diffusive character of the relevant molecular motions --found to be characteristic above the glass transition-- seems to disappear at this length scale. These results gives further strong support that the glass transition has to be characterised by an inherent length scale of the relevant molecular motions. PMID:15007697

  11. National hiring experiments reveal 2:1 faculty preference for women on STEM tenure track

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wendy M.; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    National randomized experiments and validation studies were conducted on 873 tenure-track faculty (439 male, 434 female) from biology, engineering, economics, and psychology at 371 universities/colleges from 50 US states and the District of Columbia. In the main experiment, 363 faculty members evaluated narrative summaries describing hypothetical female and male applicants for tenure-track assistant professorships who shared the same lifestyle (e.g., single without children, married with children). Applicants' profiles were systematically varied to disguise identically rated scholarship; profiles were counterbalanced by gender across faculty to enable between-faculty comparisons of hiring preferences for identically qualified women versus men. Results revealed a 2:1 preference for women by faculty of both genders across both math-intensive and non–math-intensive fields, with the single exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Results were replicated using weighted analyses to control for national sample characteristics. In follow-up experiments, 144 faculty evaluated competing applicants with differing lifestyles (e.g., divorced mother vs. married father), and 204 faculty compared same-gender candidates with children, but differing in whether they took 1-y-parental leaves in graduate school. Women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers; men preferred mothers who took leaves to mothers who did not. In two validation studies, 35 engineering faculty provided rankings using full curricula vitae instead of narratives, and 127 faculty rated one applicant rather than choosing from a mixed-gender group; the same preference for women was shown by faculty of both genders. These results suggest it is a propitious time for women launching careers in academic science. Messages to the contrary may discourage women from applying for STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) tenure-track assistant professorships. PMID:25870272

  12. National hiring experiments reveal 2:1 faculty preference for women on STEM tenure track.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wendy M; Ceci, Stephen J

    2015-04-28

    National randomized experiments and validation studies were conducted on 873 tenure-track faculty (439 male, 434 female) from biology, engineering, economics, and psychology at 371 universities/colleges from 50 US states and the District of Columbia. In the main experiment, 363 faculty members evaluated narrative summaries describing hypothetical female and male applicants for tenure-track assistant professorships who shared the same lifestyle (e.g., single without children, married with children). Applicants' profiles were systematically varied to disguise identically rated scholarship; profiles were counterbalanced by gender across faculty to enable between-faculty comparisons of hiring preferences for identically qualified women versus men. Results revealed a 2:1 preference for women by faculty of both genders across both math-intensive and non-math-intensive fields, with the single exception of male economists, who showed no gender preference. Results were replicated using weighted analyses to control for national sample characteristics. In follow-up experiments, 144 faculty evaluated competing applicants with differing lifestyles (e.g., divorced mother vs. married father), and 204 faculty compared same-gender candidates with children, but differing in whether they took 1-y-parental leaves in graduate school. Women preferred divorced mothers to married fathers; men preferred mothers who took leaves to mothers who did not. In two validation studies, 35 engineering faculty provided rankings using full curricula vitae instead of narratives, and 127 faculty rated one applicant rather than choosing from a mixed-gender group; the same preference for women was shown by faculty of both genders. These results suggest it is a propitious time for women launching careers in academic science. Messages to the contrary may discourage women from applying for STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) tenure-track assistant professorships. PMID:25870272

  13. The ARSQ 2.0 reveals age and personality effects on mind-wandering experiences

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stoffers, Diederick; Hardstone, Richard; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The human brain frequently generates thoughts and feelings detached from environmental demands. Investigating the rich repertoire of these mind-wandering experiences is challenging, as it depends on introspection and mapping its content requires an unknown number of dimensions. We recently developed a retrospective self-report questionnaire—the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ)—which quantifies mind wandering along seven dimensions: “Discontinuity of Mind,” “Theory of Mind,” “Self,” “Planning,” “Sleepiness,” “Comfort,” and “Somatic Awareness.” Here, we show using confirmatory factor analysis that the ARSQ can be simplified by standardizing the number of items per factor and extending it to a 10-dimensional model, adding “Health Concern,” “Visual Thought,” and “Verbal Thought.” We will refer to this extended ARSQ as the “ARSQ 2.0.” Testing for effects of age and gender revealed no main effect for gender, yet a moderate and significant negative effect for age on the dimensions of “Self,” “Planning,” and “Visual Thought.” Interestingly, we observed stable and significant test-retest correlations across measurement intervals of 3–32 months except for “Sleepiness” and “Health Concern.” To investigate whether this stability could be related to personality traits, we correlated ARSQ scores to proxy measures of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, revealing multiple significant associations for the trait “Self-Directedness.” Other traits correlated to specific ARSQ dimensions, e.g., a negative association between “Harm Avoidance” and “Comfort.” Together, our results suggest that the ARSQ 2.0 is a promising instrument for quantitative studies on mind wandering and its relation to other psychological or physiological phenomena. PMID:24772097

  14. Using Embryology Screencasts: A Useful Addition to the Student Learning Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Although podcasting has been a well used resource format in the last few years as a way of improving the student learning experience, the inclusion of enhanced audiovisual formats such as screencasts has been less used, despite the advantage that they work well for both visual and auditory learners. This study examines the use of and student…

  15. Designing Location-Based Learning Experiences for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Additional Sensory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…

  16. Combustion Module-2 Preparations Completed for SPACEHAB Mission Including the Addition of a New Major Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Module-1 (CM-1) was a large, state-of-the-art space shuttle Spacelab facility that was designed, built, and operated on STS-83 and STS-94 by a team from the NASA Glenn Research Center composed of civil servants and local support contractors (Analex and Zin Technologies). CM-1 accomplished the incredible task of providing a safe environment to support flammable and toxic gases while providing a suite of diagnostics for science measurements more extensive than any prior shuttle experiment (or anything since). Finally, CM-1 proved that multiple science investigations can be accommodated in one facility, a crucial step for Glenn's Fluids and Combustion Facility developed for the International Space Station. However, the story does not end with CM-1. In 1998, CM-2 was authorized to take the CM-1 accomplishments a big step further by completing three major steps: Converting the entire experiment to operate in a SPACEHAB module. Conducting an extensive hardware refurbishment and upgrading diagnostics (e.g., cameras, gas chromatograph, and numerous sensors). Adding a new, completely different combustion experiment.

  17. Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert A. A.; King, Andrew J.; Nodal, Fernando R.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

  18. Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert A A; King, Andrew J; Nodal, Fernando R; Schnupp, Jan W H; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P

    2008-11-01

    Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But by using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

  19. Laser Additive Melting and Solidification of Inconel 718: Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, John; Ladani, Leila; Sadowski, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The field of powdered metal additive manufacturing is experiencing a surge in public interest finding uses in aerospace, defense, and biomedical industries. The relative youth of the technology coupled with public interest makes the field a vibrant research topic. The authors have expanded upon previously published finite element models used to analyze the processing of novel engineering materials through the use of laser- and electron beam-based additive manufacturing. In this work, the authors present a model for simulating fabrication of Inconel 718 using laser melting processes. Thermal transport phenomena and melt pool geometries are discussed and validation against experimental findings is presented. After comparing experimental and simulation results, the authors present two correction correlations to transform the modeling results into meaningful predictions of actual laser melting melt pool geometries in Inconel 718.

  20. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  1. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  2. In situ vitrification and the effects of soil additives; A mixture experiment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Shade, J.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving in situ vitrification (ISV), a process for immobilizing chemical or nuclear wastes in soil by melting-dissolving the contaminated soil into a glass block. One goal of the study was to investigate how viscosity and electrical conductivity were affected by mixing CaO and Na{sub 2}O with soil. A three-component constrained-region mixture experiment design was generated and the viscosity and electrical conductivity data collected. Several second-order mixture models were considered, and the Box-Cox transformation technique was applied to select property transformations. The fitted models were used to produce contour and component effects plots.

  3. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  4. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice. PMID:23421011

  5. CMS Pixel Telescope Addition to T-980 Bent Crystal Collimation Experiment at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Ryan; Annala, Jerry; Johnson, Todd; Kwan, Simon; Lundberg, Carl; Still, Dean; Prosser, Alan; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zagel, Jim; Zvodaya, Viktoriya; /Fermilab

    2011-09-14

    An enhancement to the T-980 bent crystal collimation experiment at the Tevatron has been completed. The enhancement was the installation of a pixel telescope inside the vacuum-sealed beam pipe of the Tevatron. The telescope is comprised of six CMS PSI46 pixel plaquettes, arranged as three stations of horizontal and vertical planes, with the CAPTAN system for data acquisition and control. The purpose of the pixel telescope is to measure beam profiles produced by bent crystals under various conditions. The telescope electronics inside the beam pipe initially were not adequately shielded from the image current of the passing beams. A new shielding approach was devised and installed, which resolved the problem. The noise issues encountered and the mitigating techniques are presented herein, as well as some preliminary results from the telescope.

  6. Summary and overview of the CYCLOPS P addition Lagrangian experiment in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krom, M. D.; Thingstad, T. F.; Brenner, S.; Carbo, P.; Drakopoulos, P.; Fileman, T. W.; Flaten, G. A. F.; Groom, S.; Herut, B.; Kitidis, V.; Kress, N.; Law, C. S.; Liddicoat, M. I.; Mantoura, R. F. C.; Pasternak, A.; Pitta, P.; Polychronaki, T.; Psarra, S.; Rassoulzadegan, F.; Skjoldal, E. F.; Spyres, G.; Tanaka, T.; Tselepides, A.; Wassmann, P.; Wexels Riser, C.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Zodiatis, G.; Zohary, T.

    2005-11-01

    CYCLOPS was a European Framework 5 program to further our understanding of phosphorus cycling in the Eastern Mediterranean. The core of CYCLOPS was a Lagrangian experiment in which buffered phosphoric acid was added to a <4×4 km patch of water together with SF 6 as the inert tracer. The patch was followed for nine days in total. Results obtained prior to the experiment showed that the system was typically ultra-oligotrophic and P-starved with DON:DOP, PON:POP and DIN:DIP all having ratios greatly in excess of 16:1 in surface waters. To our surprise, we found that although the added phosphate was rapidly taken up by the microbial biota, there was a small but significant decrease in chlorophyll a and no increase in primary production, together with an increase in heterotrophic bacterial activity, ciliate numbers and in the gut fullness and egg numbers in the zooplankton community. A microcosm experiment carried out using within-patch and out-of-patch water showed that the phytoplankton community were N and P co-limited while the bacteria and micrograzers were P-limited. Thus this system tends to N and P co-limitation of phytoplankton productivity in summer possibly caused by bioavailable DIN being converted into non-bioavailable forms of DON. On the basis of the data collected within the programme it was concluded that this behavior could be explained by three non-mutually exclusive processes described as (1) trophic by-pass in which the added phosphate gets directly to the grazing part of the predatory food chain from the heterotrophic bacteria bypassing the phytoplankton compartment phosphate, (2) trophic tunnelling in which phosphate is rapidly taken up by both phytoplankton and bacteria via rapid luxury consumption. This causes an immediate change in the phosphorus content but not the abundance of the prey organisms. The added P then "reappears" as responses at the predator level much more rapidly than expected, and (3) mixotrophic by-pass in which inorganic

  7. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits. PMID:27003322

  8. Effects of biochar addition to soil on nitrogen fluxes in a winter wheat lysimeter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Neftel, Albrecht; Conen, Franz; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous residue from pyrolysis of biomass that potentially increases crop yields by reducing losses of nitrogen from soils and/or enhancing the uptake of applied fertiliser by the crops. Previous research is scarce about biochar's ability to increase wheat yields in temperate soils or how it changes nitrogen dynamics in the field. In a lysimeter system with two different soils (sandy/silt loam) nitrogen fluxes were traced by isotopic 15N enriched fertiliser to identify changes in nitrous oxide emissions, leaching and plant uptake after biochar addition. 20t/ha woodchip-waste biochar (pH=13) was applied to these soils in four lysimeters per soil type; the same number of lysimeters served as a control. The soils were cropped with winter wheat during the season 2012/2013. 170 kg-N/ha ammonium nitrate fertiliser with 10% 15N was applied in 3 events during the growing season and 15N concentrations where measured at different points in time in plant, soil, leachate and emitted nitrous oxide. After one year the lysimeter system showed no difference between biochar and control treatment in grain- and straw yield or nitrogen uptake. However biochar did reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the silt loam and losses of nitrate leaching in sandy loam. This study indicates potential reduction of nitrogen loss from cropland soil by biochar application but could not confirm increased yields in an intensive wheat production system.

  9. Diesel engine experiments with oxygen enrichment, water addition and lower-grade fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO{sub x} emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO{sub x}. Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO{sub x} emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: 2. Denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Sobota, Daniel; Dodds, Walter; Findlay, Stuart; Grimm, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; McDowell, William; O'Brien, Jon; Tank, Jennifer; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Gregory, Stanley; Johnson, Sherri; Meyer, Judy; Peterson, Bruce; Poole, Geoff; Valett, H. Maurice; Webster, Jackson; Arango, Clay; Beaulieu, Jake; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Thomas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S{sub Wden}) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N{sub 2} production rates far exceeded N{sub 2}O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling S{sub Wden} were specific discharge (discharge/width) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (U{sub den}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although U{sub den} increased with increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, the efficiency of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup -} load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration.

  11. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Hall, R.O., Jr.; Sobota, D.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; McDowell, W.H.; O'Brien, J. M.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, S.V.; Johnson, S.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.J.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomasn, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field 15N-NO- 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (SWden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N2 production rates far exceeded N2O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO-3 removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NHz 4 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling SWden were specific discharge (discharge / width) and NO-3 concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (Uden) and NO- 3 concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although Uden increased with increasing NO- 3 concentration, the efficiency of NO-3 removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO-3 load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO-3 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO-3 concentration. ?? 2009.

  12. Experience Sampling Methodology reveals similarities in the experience of passage of time in young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John H

    2015-03-01

    Many people accept the idea that time seems to pass more quickly as they get older, as if this is a psychological reality. However, systematic investigations of differences in judgments of passage of time between young and elderly people are very rare and contradictory. The present study examined the experience of passage of time in daily life in young and elderly people using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM), with 8 alerts per day for 5 days being delivered by smartphones. At each alert, a short questionnaire was filled in, asking questions about passage of present time, affective state, arousal level, and attention to current activities, among others. Our ESM study found no difference between the young and the old participants in the judgment of passage of present time. Irrespective of the participants' age, the experience of passage of time in every-day life was significantly related to affective states and current activities when they captured attention. PMID:25701720

  13. The Media Deprivation Experience: Revealing Mass Media as both Message and Massage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrolia, Barbara Ann

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the mass media deprivation experience is a potent means with which to sensitize students to the seductive, yet iron-fisted, grip of the mass media. Offers advice with respect to guiding the experience; describing typical before and after reactions; and identifying theoretical discussion issues. (SR)

  14. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  15. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after three hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  16. Random Addition Concatenation Analysis: A Novel Approach to the Exploration of Phylogenomic Signal Reveals Strong Agreement between Core and Shell Genomic Partitions in the Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Narechania, Apurva; Baker, Richard H.; Sit, Ryan; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; DeSalle, Rob; Planet, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent whole-genome approaches to microbial phylogeny have emphasized partitioning genes into functional classes, often focusing on differences between a stable core of genes and a variable shell. To rigorously address the effects of partitioning and combining genes in genome-level analyses, we developed a novel technique called Random Addition Concatenation Analysis (RADICAL). RADICAL operates by sequentially concatenating randomly chosen gene partitions starting with a single-gene partition and ending with the entire genomic data set. A phylogenetic tree is built for every successive addition, and the entire process is repeated creating multiple random concatenation paths. The result is a library of trees representing a large variety of differently sized random gene partitions. This library can then be mined to identify unique topologies, assess overall agreement, and measure support for different trees. To evaluate RADICAL, we used 682 orthologous genes across 13 cyanobacterial genomes. Despite previous assertions of substantial differences between a core and a shell set of genes for this data set, RADICAL reveals the two partitions contain congruent phylogenetic signal. Substantial disagreement within the data set is limited to a few nodes and genes involved in metabolism, a functional group that is distributed evenly between the core and the shell partitions. We highlight numerous examples where RADICAL reveals aspects of phylogenetic behavior not evident by examining individual gene trees or a “‘total evidence” tree. Our method also demonstrates that most emergent phylogenetic signal appears early in the concatenation process. The software is freely available at http://desalle.amnh.org. PMID:22094860

  17. Functional connectivity dynamics during film viewing reveal common networks for different emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Raz, Gal; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Gilam, Gadi; Lin, Tamar; Gonen, Tal; Jacob, Yael; Atzil, Shir; Admon, Roee; Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Maron-Katz, Adi; Hendler, Talma; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-08-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work has highlighted the role of domain-general, large-scale brain networks in generating emotional experiences. These networks are hypothesized to process aspects of emotional experiences that are not unique to a specific emotional category (e.g., "sadness," "happiness"), but rather that generalize across categories. In this article, we examined the dynamic interactions (i.e., changing cohesiveness) between specific domain-general networks across time while participants experienced various instances of sadness, fear, and anger. We used a novel method for probing the network connectivity dynamics between two salience networks and three amygdala-based networks. We hypothesized, and found, that the functional connectivity between these networks covaried with the intensity of different emotional experiences. Stronger connectivity between the dorsal salience network and the medial amygdala network was associated with more intense ratings of emotional experience across six different instances of the three emotion categories examined. Also, stronger connectivity between the dorsal salience network and the ventrolateral amygdala network was associated with more intense ratings of emotional experience across five out of the six different instances. Our findings demonstrate that a variety of emotional experiences are associated with dynamic interactions of domain-general neural systems. PMID:27142636

  18. Importance of Rhodococcus strains in a bacterial consortium degrading a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc D; Yergeau, Etienne; Labbé, Diane; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Greer, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    A bacterial consortium (Mix3) composed of microorganisms originating from different environments (soils and wastewater) was obtained after enrichment in the presence of a mixture of 16 hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives. After addition of the mixture, the development of the microbial composition of Mix3 was monitored at three different times (35, 113, and 222 days) using fingerprinting method and dominant bacterial species were identified. In parallel, 14 bacteria were isolated after 113 days and identified. Degradation capacities for Mix3 and the isolated bacterial strains were characterized and compared. At day 113, we induced the expression of catabolic genes in Mix3 by adding the substrate mixture to resting cells and the metatranscriptome was analyzed. After addition of the substrate mixture, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased at day 222 while a shift between Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium was observed after 113 days. Mix3 was able to degrade 13 compounds completely, with partial degradation of isooctane and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, but tert-butyl alcohol was not degraded. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain IFP 2016 isolated from Mix3 showed almost the same degradation capacities as Mix3: these results were not observed with the other isolated strains. Transcriptomic results revealed that Actinobacteria and in particular, Rhodococcus species, were major contributors in terms of total and catabolic gene transcripts while other species were involved in cyclohexane degradation. Not all the microorganisms identified at day 113 were active except R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 that appeared to be a major player in the degradation activity observed in Mix3. PMID:25343979

  19. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien; Cryer, Nicolai; Faivre, Nicolas; Santoni, Sylvain; Severac, Dany; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Larsen, Klaus S; Beier, Claus; Sørensen, Jesper G; Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K

    2016-07-01

    Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionary response to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into models predicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response. PMID:27109012

  20. Models of single-molecule experiments with periodic perturbations reveal hidden dynamics in RNA folding.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Qu, Xiaohui; Ma, Ao; Smith, Glenna J; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R

    2009-05-28

    Traditionally, microscopic fluctuations of molecules have been probed by measuring responses of an ensemble to perturbations. Now, single-molecule experiments are capable of following fluctuations without introducing perturbations. However, dynamics not readily sampled at equilibrium should be accessible to nonequilibrium single-molecule measurements. In a recent study [Qu, X. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008, 105, 6602-6607], the efficiency of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between probes on the L18 loop and 3' terminus of the 260 nucleotide RNase P RNA from Bacillus stearothermophilus was found to exhibit complex kinetics that depended on the (periodically alternating) concentration of magnesium ions ([Mg2+]) in solution. Specifically, this time series was found to exhibit a quasi-periodic response to a square-wave pattern of [Mg2+] changes. Because these experiments directly probe only one of the many degrees of freedom in the macromolecule, models are needed to interpret these data. We find that Hidden Markov Models are inadequate for describing the nonequilibrium dynamics, but they serve as starting points for the construction of models in which a discrete observable degree of freedom is coupled to a continuously evolving (hidden) variable. Consideration of several models of this general form indicates that the quasi-periodic response in the nonequilibrium experiments results from the switching (back and forth) in positions of the minima of the effective potential for the hidden variable. This switching drives oscillation of that variable and synchronizes the population to the changing [Mg2+]. We set the models in the context of earlier theoretical and experimental studies and conclude that single-molecule experiments with periodic peturbations can indeed yield qualitatively new information beyond that obtained at equilibrium. PMID:19415919

  1. Fundamental studies and development of nickel-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl chlorides: active catalytic species and key roles of ligand and traceless MeCN additive revealed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoyin; Kalvet, Indrek; Englert, Ulli; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2015-04-01

    A catalytic protocol to convert aryl and heteroaryl chlorides to the corresponding trifluoromethyl sulfides is reported herein. It relies on a relatively inexpensive Ni(cod)2/dppf (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) catalyst system and the readily accessible coupling reagent (Me4N)SCF3. Our computational and experimental mechanistic data are consistent with a Ni(0)/Ni(II) cycle and inconsistent with Ni(I) as the reactive species. The relevant intermediates were prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and tested for their catalytic competence. This revealed that a monomeric tricoordinate Ni(I) complex is favored for dppf and Cl whose role was unambiguously assigned as being an off-cycle catalyst deactivation product. Only bidentate ligands with wide bite angles (e.g., dppf) are effective. These bulky ligands render the catalyst resting state as [(P-P)Ni(cod)]. The latter is more reactive than Ni(P-P)2, which was found to be the resting state for ligands with smaller bite angles and suffers from an initial high-energy dissociation of one ligand prior to oxidative addition, rendering the system unreactive. The key to effective catalysis is hence the presence of a labile auxiliary ligand in the catalyst resting state. For more challenging substrates, high conversions were achieved via the employment of MeCN as a traceless additive. Mechanistic data suggest that its beneficial role lies in decreasing the energetic span, therefore accelerating product formation. Finally, the methodology has been applied to synthetic targets of pharmaceutical relevance. PMID:25790253

  2. Multigene phylogenetic reconstruction of the Tubulinea (Amoebozoa) corroborates four of the six major lineages, while additionally revealing that shell composition does not predict phylogeny in the Arcellinida.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Grant, Jessica R; Katz, Laura A

    2013-05-01

    Tubulinea is a phylogenetically stable higher-level taxon within Amoebozoa, morphologically characterized by monoaxially streaming and cylindrical pseudopods. Contemporary phylogenetic reconstructions have largely relied on SSU rDNA, and to a lesser extent, on actin genes to reveal the relationships among these organisms. Additionally, the test (shell) forming Arcellinida, one of the most species-rich amoebozoan groups, is nested within Tubulinea and suffers from substantial under-sampling of taxa. Here, we increase taxonomic and gene sampling within the Tubulinea, characterizing molecular data for 22 taxa and six genes (SSU rDNA, actin, α- and β-tubulin, elongation factor 2 and the 14-3-3 regulatory protein). We perform concatenated phylogenetic analyses using these genes as well as approximately unbiased tests to assess evolutionary relationships within the Tubulinea. We confirm the monophyly of Tubulinea and four of the six included lineages (Echinamoeboidea, Leptomyxida, Amoebida and Poseidonida). Arcellinida and Hartmanellidae, the remaining lineages, are not monophyletic in our reconstructions, although statistical testing does not allow rejection of either group. We further investigate more fine-grained morphological evolution of previously defined groups, concluding that relationships within Arcellinida are more consistent with general test and aperture shape than with test composition. We also discuss the implications of this phylogeny for interpretations of the Precambrian fossil record of testate amoebae. PMID:23499265

  3. Underplating in the Himalaya-Tibet collision zone revealed by the Hi-CLIMB experiment.

    PubMed

    Nábelek, John; Hetényi, György; Vergne, Jérôme; Sapkota, Soma; Kafle, Basant; Jiang, Mei; Su, Heping; Chen, John; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2009-09-11

    We studied the formation of the Himalayan mountain range and the Tibetan Plateau by investigating their lithospheric structure. Using an 800-kilometer-long, densely spaced seismic array, we have constructed an image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Himalayas and the southern Tibetan Plateau. The image reveals in a continuous fashion the Main Himalayan thrust fault as it extends from a shallow depth under Nepal to the mid-crust under southern Tibet. Indian crust can be traced to 31 degrees N. The crust/mantle interface beneath Tibet is anisotropic, indicating shearing during its formation. The dipping mantle fabric suggests that the Indian mantle is subducting in a diffuse fashion along several evolving subparallel structures. PMID:19745147

  4. Ideal probe single-molecule experiments reveal the intrinsic dynamic heterogeneity of a supercooled liquid

    PubMed Central

    Paeng, Keewook; Park, Heungman; Hoang, Dat Tien; Kaufman, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of dynamic heterogeneity and the picture of the supercooled liquid as a mosaic of environments with distinct dynamics that interchange in time have been invoked to explain the nonexponential relaxations measured in these systems. The spatial extent and temporal persistence of these regions of distinct dynamics have remained challenging to identify. Here, single-molecule fluorescence measurements using a probe similar in size and mobility to the host o-terphenyl unambiguously reveal exponential relaxations distributed in time and space and directly demonstrate ergodicity of the system down to the glass transition temperature. In the temperature range probed, at least 200 times the structural relaxation time of the host is required to recover ensemble-averaged relaxation at every spatial region in the system. PMID:25825739

  5. An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing

  6. Early-onset binocularity in preterm infants reveals experience-dependent visual development in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jandó, Gábor; Mikó-Baráth, Eszter; Markó, Katalin; Hollódy, Katalin; Török, Béla; Kovacs, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a great deal of knowledge regarding the phylo- and ontogenetic plasticity of the neocortex, the precise nature of environmental impact on the newborn human brain is still one of the most controversial issues of neuroscience. The leading model–system of experience-dependent brain development is binocular vision, also called stereopsis. Here, we show that extra postnatal visual experience in preterm human neonates leads to a change in the developmental timing of binocular vision. The onset age of binocular function, as measured by the visual evoked response to dynamic random dot correlograms (DRDC-VEP), appears to be at around the same time after birth in preterm (4.07 mo) and full-term (3.78 mo) infants. To assess the integrity of the visual pathway in the studied infants, we also measured the latency of the visual-evoked response to pattern reversal stimuli (PR-VEP). PR-VEP latency is not affected by premature birth, demonstrating that the maturation of the visual pathway follows a preprogrammed developmental course. Despite the immaturity of the visual pathway, clearly demonstrated by the PR-VEP latencies, our DRCD-VEP data show that the visual cortex is remarkably ready to accept environmental stimulation right after birth. This early plasticity makes full use of the available extra stimulation time in preterm human infants and results in an early onset of cortical binocularity. According to our data, the developmental processes preceding the onset of binocular function are not preprogrammed, and the mechanisms turning on stereopsis are extremely experience-dependent in humans. PMID:22711824

  7. Inquiry projects in science teacher education: What can investigative experiences reveal about teacher thinking and eventual classroom practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windschitl, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Science education reform documents emphasize the importance of inquiry experiences for young learners. This means that teachers must be prepared with the knowledge, skills, and habits of thinking to mentor their students through authentic investigations. This study examines how preservice teachers' inquiry experiences, in a science methods course, influenced and were influenced by their conceptions of inquiry. The study also assesses how these experiences were associated with eventual classroom practice. Six preservice secondary teachers were observed during a 2-month inquiry project and then followed into the classroom as they began a 9-week teaching practicum. Data revealed that participants' preproject conceptions of the inquiry process were related to the conduct and interpretation of their own inquiry project, and that the project experience modified the inquiry conceptions of those participants who already had sophisticated understandings of scientific investigations. Perhaps most importantly, the participants who eventually used guided and open inquiry during their student teaching were not those who had more authentic views of inquiry or reflected most deeply about their own inquiry projects, but rather they were individuals who had significant undergraduate or professional experiences with authentic science research. Finally, this article advocates that independent science investigations be part of preservice education and that these experiences should be scaffolded to prompt reflection specifically about the nature of inquiry and conceptually linked to ways in which inquiry can be brought into the K-12 classroom.

  8. An overview on geophysical structures in the Eastern Alps revealed by recent seismic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, M.; Brueckl, E. P.; Grad, M.

    2009-12-01

    CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 were two large seismic wide-angle experiments which targeted the lithospheric structure of Central Europe. This presentation highlights crustal features of the Eastern Alps and their transition into adjacent tectonic provinces (Bohemian Massif, Carpathians, Pannonian Basin, Southern Alps and Dinarides) which were unknown prior to these experiments. The Eastern Alps result from the collision of the European platform with the Adriatic plate which got initiated in the Eocene. From the late Oligocene on, escape tectonics towards the unconstrained eastern margin contributed to the evolution of the Eastern Alps. Both processes left their imprints on the surface geology which differs significantly from the Western Alps. Considering the layout of the experiments, an innovative 3D processing scheme was implemented and supplemented by traditional 2D interpretation techniques. The 3D approach provides robust models with large spatial coverage, while the evaluation of 2D profiles allows resolving details at locations of particular interest. The P-wave velocity distribution of crust shows a clear separation into a low-velocity European plate and a high-velocity Adriatic plate. Crustal velocities below the Pannonian Basin are moderate to low. Velocity structures in the uppermost crust correlate well with surface geology and tectonic divisions. One of the most important results is a new map of the Moho discontinuity. Its depth varies between 52 and 24 km, and from its structure we deduce the new crustal fragment Pannonia. Pannonia has shallow crust and is underthrusted by both the European Moho in the North and the Adriatic Moho in the South-West. Although solely vertical component receivers were used, strong S-waves can be observed on some seismograms. Their evaluation confirms the separation into three crustal fragments and provides constraints on Poisson’s ratio. A subhorizontal mantle reflector in a depth range from approximately 55 km is found

  9. An economic experiment reveals that humans prefer pool punishment to maintain the commons

    PubMed Central

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Punishment can stabilize costly cooperation and ensure the success of a common project that is threatened by free-riders. Punishment mechanisms can be classified into pool punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by a paid third party, (e.g. a police system or a sheriff), and peer punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by peers. Which punishment mechanism is preferred when both are concurrently available within a society? In an economic experiment, we show that the majority of subjects choose pool punishment, despite being costly even in the absence of defectors, when second-order free-riders, cooperators that do not punish, are also punished. Pool punishers are mutually enforcing their support for the punishment organization, stably trapping each other. Our experimental results show how organized punishment could have displaced individual punishment in human societies. PMID:22764167

  10. Autonomy and Non-autonomy of Angiogenic Cell Movements Revealed by Experiment-Driven Mathematical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Kei; Nishiyama, Koichi; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Arima, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Ryo; Köhn-Luque, Alvaro; Mochizuki, Naoki; Suda, Toshio; Ogawa, Hisao; Kurihara, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    Angiogenesis is a multicellular phenomenon driven by morphogenetic cell movements. We recently reported morphogenetic vascular endothelial cell (EC) behaviors to be dynamic and complex. However, the principal mechanisms orchestrating individual EC movements in angiogenic morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we present an experiment-driven mathematical model that enables us to systematically dissect cellular mechanisms in branch elongation. We found that cell-autonomous and coordinated actions governed these multicellular behaviors, and a cell-autonomous process sufficiently illustrated essential features of the morphogenetic EC dynamics at both the single-cell and cell-population levels. Through refining our model and experimental verification, we further identified a coordinated mode of tip EC behaviors regulated via a spatial relationship between tip and follower ECs, which facilitates the forward motility of tip ECs. These findings provide insights that enhance our mechanistic understanding of not only angiogenic morphogenesis, but also other types of multicellular phenomenon. PMID:26655898

  11. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation.

    PubMed

    Ware, Heidi E; McClure, Christopher J W; Carlisle, Jay D; Barber, Jesse R

    2015-09-29

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a "phantom road" using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  12. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Heidi E.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Carlisle, Jay D.; Barber, Jesse R.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a “phantom road” using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  13. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  14. Revealing Dissociative Electron Attachment Dynamics in Polyatomic Molecules Using Momentum Imaging Experiments and Electron Scattering Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacem, Ali; Slaughter, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Understanding electron-driven chemical reactions is important for improving a variety of technological applications such as materials processing and the important role they play in the radiation damage in bulk matter. Furthermore, dissociative electron attachment often exhibits site-selective bond cleavage, which holds promise for prediction and precise control of electron-driven chemical reactions. Recent dynamical studies of these reactions have demonstrated that an understanding of anion dissociation dynamics beyond simple one-dimensional models is crucial in interpreting the measured fragment angular distributions. We combine ion fragment momentum imaging experiments with electron attachment entrance amplitude calculations to interrogate the non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics of dissociative electron attachment in polyatomic molecules. We will report recent experimental developments in molecules of technological interest including methanol, methane and uracil. Work supported by Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences division of BES/DOE.

  15. Engineered deafness reveals that mouse courtship vocalizations do not require auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, Elena J; Perkel, David J; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-03-27

    Auditory experience during development is necessary for normal language acquisition in humans. Although songbirds, some cetaceans, and maybe bats may also be vocal learners, vocal learning has yet to be well established for a laboratory mammal. Mice are potentially an excellent model organism for studying mechanisms underlying vocal communication. Mice vocalize in different social contexts, yet whether they learn their vocalizations remains unresolved. To address this question, we compared ultrasonic courtship vocalizations emitted by chronically deaf and normal hearing adult male mice. We deafened CBA/CaJ male mice, engineered to express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptors in hair cells, by systemic injection of DT at postnatal day 2 (P2). By P9, almost all inner hair cells were absent and by P16 all inner and outer hair cells were absent in DTR mice. These mice did not show any auditory brainstem responses as adults. Wild-type littermates, also treated with DT at P2, had normal hair cells and normal auditory brainstem responses. We compared the temporal structure of vocalization bouts, the types of vocalizations, the patterns of syllables, and the acoustic features of each syllable type emitted by hearing and deaf males in the presence of a female. We found that almost all of the vocalization features we examined were similar in hearing and deaf animals. These findings indicate that mice do not need auditory experience during development to produce normal ultrasonic vocalizations in adulthood. We conclude that mouse courtship vocalizations are not acquired through auditory feedback-dependent learning. PMID:23536072

  16. Large heterogeneous structure beneath the Atotsugawa Fault, central Japan, revealed by seismic refraction and reflection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iidaka, Takashi; Kurashimo, Eiji; Iwasaki, Takaya; Arai, Ryuta; Kato, Aitaro; Katao, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Fumihito

    2015-08-01

    A high-strain-rate zone termed the Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone is located in central Japan and contains an active right-lateral fault called the Atotsugawa Fault. We present the results of an explosive-source seismic experiment that focused on identifying the formation mechanisms of the fault. The experiment used seven explosive sources and 1108 seismic stations, and was undertaken during October 2007 in the area of the Atotsugawa Fault. The seismic stations were set up on a survey line with a length of ~ 170 km, oriented orthogonal to the strike of the fault. The linear array was used to identify the seismic structure of the fault zone and the deeper parts of the crust in the study area, yielding fine details of the seismic structure of the crust along the profile line, including lateral variations in P-wave velocity and the configuration of layers in the crust. A relatively low P-wave velocity reflective zone was detected beneath the fault at depths of 15-25 km. This zone also has extremely low S-wave velocities, directly underlies three active faults, and contains three low-resistivity zones that underlie these faults. These reflective and low-resistivity zones are thought to represent fluid within the crust, and the data obtained during this study are consistent with a weak zone model for the formation of the active faults in the study area. This suggests that the reflective layer represents a weak zone in the lower crust that is responsible for the concentration of deformation within the upper crust. The presence of abundant fluids beneath the Atotsugawa Fault could also reduce the strength of the lower crust, again focusing deformation related to the regional stress regime in areas that overlie these fluid-containing zones. The results suggest that the reflective layer was an important factor in the formation of the Atotsugawa Fault.

  17. Engineered Deafness Reveals That Mouse Courtship Vocalizations Do Not Require Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahrt, Elena J.; Perkel, David J.; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Portfors, Christine V.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory experience during development is necessary for normal language acquisition in humans. Although songbirds, some cetaceans, and maybe bats may also be vocal learners, vocal learning has yet to be well established for a laboratory mammal. Mice are potentially an excellent model organism for studying mechanisms underlying vocal communication. Mice vocalize in different social contexts, yet whether they learn their vocalizations remains unresolved. To address this question, we compared ultrasonic courtship vocalizations emitted by chronically deaf and normal hearing adult male mice. We deafened CBA/CaJ male mice, engineered to express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptors in hair cells, by systemic injection of DT at postnatal day 2 (P2). By P9, almost all inner hair cells were absent and by P16 all inner and outer hair cells were absent in DTR mice. These mice did not show any auditory brainstem responses as adults. Wild-type littermates, also treated with DT at P2, had normal hair cells and normal auditory brainstem responses. We compared the temporal structure of vocalization bouts, the types of vocalizations, the patterns of syllables, and the acoustic features of each syllable type emitted by hearing and deaf males in the presence of a female. We found that almost all of the vocalization features we examined were similar in hearing and deaf animals. These findings indicate that mice do not need auditory experience during development to produce normal ultrasonic vocalizations in adulthood. We conclude that mouse courtship vocalizations are not acquired through auditory feedback-dependent learning. PMID:23536072

  18. The myth of the tear-shaped raindrop - a classroom experiment to reveal the truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschl, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth and precipitation is the primarily source of freshwater. In large part precipitation reaches the Earth in the liquid form as raindrops. In Earth Sciences there are so many aspects to water and to rain in particular: storms, floods, landslides, droughts and still, there is a general misconception on the shape of such a common thing as a raindrop. These water drops - we all have seen them a thousand times. We see them at a leaking faucet just in the moment when a drop is released; we see them when a raindrop hits a water surface and on a windscreen. But when do we normally not observe them? - Right, on their path from the cloud to the ground. And on this journey they would not look like the ones we frequently see. Probably the picture of a leaking faucet is one reason why so many people would think of raindrops as streamlined teardrops. This myth is somehow subliminally advertised every day e.g. in the daily weather forecast where - more often than not - the symbol for rain is shown as a cloud with a few streamlined drops. In fact small raindrops are spherical and the bigger they get while falling through the atmosphere, the more they get flattened on the bottom - sometimes described as the top half of a hamburger bun. What props would you need to proof this fact in a classroom course? You can start off with a shaded classroom, a pipette filled with water, and a point-and-shoot camera with a permanent flash setting: Release a couple of drops by the pipette and try to catch at least one of them with the camera. Even if the drops have already a falling velocity of several meters per second it will be the flashlight that freezes the image. On these images the drops will be anything but tear-shaped. Sure enough, if you are not working e.g. in radar meteorology or related fields you need not necessarily care about raindrop shapes but this experiment can be a vivid example that invites students to have a closer look on something that

  19. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  20. Deformation of dry and wet sandstone targets during hypervelocity impact experiments, as revealed from the MEMIN Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Elmar; Poelchau, Michael H.; Dresen, Georg; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact experiments on dry and water-saturated targets of fine-grained quartz sandstone, performed within the MEMIN project, have been investigated to determine the effects of porosity and pore space saturation on deformation mechanisms in the crater's subsurface. A dry sandstone cube and a 90% water-saturated sandstone cube (Seeberger Sandstein, 20 cm side length, about 23% porosity) were impacted at the Fraunhofer EMI acceleration facilities by 2.5 mm diameter steel spheres at 4.8 and 5.3 km s-1, respectively. Microstructural postimpact analyses of the bisected craters revealed differences in the subsurface deformation for the dry and the wet target experiments. Enhanced grain comminution and compaction in the dry experiment and a wider extent of localized deformation in the saturated experiment suggest a direct influence of pore water on deformation mechanisms. We suggest that the pore water reduces the shock impedance mismatch between grains and pore space, and thus reduces the peak stresses at grain-grain contacts. This effect inhibits profound grain comminution and effective compaction, but allows for reduced shock wave attenuation and a more effective transport of energy into the target. The reduced shock wave attenuation is supposed to be responsible for the enhanced crater growth and the development of "near surface" fractures in the wet target.

  1. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs. PMID:26985781

  2. Revealing Additional Dimensions of Globalisation and Cultural Hegemony: A Response to Roland S. Persson's Call for Cultural Sensitivity in Gifted Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author finds the interdisciplinary approach of Roland S. Persson's (2012a) target article refreshing. Persson's (2012a) additional emphases on ethnocentricity, cultural bias and strong threads of influence from the global economy also are helpful. They shed light on some strong contextual influences that shape the…

  3. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  4. High Resolution DNA Stable Isotope Probing Reveals that Root Exudate Addition to Soil Changes the Identity of the Microbes that Degrade Cellulose but not the Rate of Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Nguyen, A. V. T.; Buckley, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Plant roots release compounds, such as root exudates, which can alter soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and have large impacts on soil carbon (C) retention. The changes in SOM turnover resulting from the addition of organic and/or inorganic substrates are termed 'priming effects'. In this study we examine the effects of root exudates on the priming of cellulose added as particulate organic matter. We amended soil microcosms with 13C-cellulose in the presence or absence of artificial root exudate additions and incubated over time for 45 days. Soils receiving the root exudate (RE) were given either one large dose or multiple, small doses of RE. In each treatment we tracked operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assimilating 13C from cellulose (herein, known as a 'responder') over time using DNA stable isotope probing coupled with next generation sequencing. In all treatments the same amount of cellulose-13C was respired indicating the addition of RE did not result in the priming of cellulose decomposition. However, cellulose responders were different depending on treatment and time of sampling (days 14, 28 and 45). We identified a total of 10,361 OTUs, of which there were 369 cellulose responders in the cellulose only treatment, 273 in the repeated, small dose RE treatment, and 358 in the RE single, large dose treatment. Most of the cellulose responders found in all treatments belonged to phyla Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Chloroflexi. The response time of phyla varies; for instance, more OTUs in Bacteroidetes were observed on day 14 and diminish with each subsequent sampling time. On the other hand, OTUs in Verrucomicrobia increased in response over time. Our study shows no priming effect resulting from the addition of root exudates, although the identity of the microbial mediators of cellulose decomposition varies in each treatment.

  5. Adaptation of the pore diffusion model to describe multi-addition batch uptake high-throughput screening experiments.

    PubMed

    Traylor, Steven J; Xu, Xuankuo; Li, Yi; Jin, Mi; Li, Zheng Jian

    2014-11-14

    Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic mass transfer measurements are critical to mechanistic modeling of binding and elution behavior within a chromatographic column. However, traditional methods of measuring these parameters are impractically time- and labor-intensive. While advances in high-throughput robotic liquid handling systems have created time and labor-saving methods of performing kinetic and equilibrium measurements of proteins on chromatographic resins in a 96-well plate format, these techniques continue to be limited by physical constraints on protein addition, incubation and separation times; the available concentration of protein stocks and process pools; and practical constraints on resin and fluid volumes in the 96-well format. In this study, a novel technique for measuring protein uptake kinetics (multi-addition batch uptake) has been developed to address some of these limitations during high-throughput batch uptake kinetic measurements. This technique uses sequential additions of protein stock to chromatographic resin in a 96-well plate and the subsequent removal of each addition by centrifugation or vacuum separation. The pore diffusion model was adapted here to model multi-addition batch uptake and was tested and compared with traditional batch uptake measurements of uptake of an Fc-fusion protein on an anion exchange resin. Acceptable agreement between the two techniques is achieved for the two solution conditions investigated here. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the model to the physical inputs is presented and the advantages and limitations of the multi-addition batch uptake technique are explored. PMID:25311484

  6. A multigene phylogeny of the fly superfamily Asiloidea (Insecta): Taxon sampling and additional genes reveal the sister-group to all higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Michelle D; Wiegmann, Brian M; Yeates, David K

    2010-09-01

    Asiloidea are a group of 9 lower brachyceran fly families, considered to be the closest relative to the large Metazoan radiation Eremoneura (Cyclorrhapha+Empidoidea). The evidence for asiloid monophyly is limited, and few characters define the relationships between the families of Asiloidea and Eremoneura. Additionally, enigmatic genera, Hilarimorpha and Apystomyia, retain morphological characters of both asiloids and higher flies. We use the nuclear protein-coding gene CAD and 28S rDNA to test the monophyly of Asiloidea and to resolve its relationship to Eremoneura. We explore the effects of taxon sampling on support values and topological stability, the resolving power of additional genes, and hypothesis testing using four-cluster likelihood mapping. We find that: (1) the 'asiloid' genus Apystomyia is sister to Cyclorrhapha, (2) the remaining asiloids are monophyletic at the exclusion of the family Bombyliidae, and (3) our best estimate of relationships places the asiloid flies excluding Bombyliidae as the sister-group to Eremoneura, though high support is lacking. PMID:20399874

  7. Decoupling of unpolluted temperate forests from rock nutrient sources revealed by natural 87Sr/86Sr and 84Sr tracer addition

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Martin J.; Hedin, Lars O.; Derry, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental tracer addition of 84Sr to an unpolluted temperate forest site in southern Chile, as well as the natural variation of 87Sr/86Sr within plants and soils, indicates that mechanisms in shallow soil organic horizons are of key importance for retaining and recycling atmospheric cation inputs at scales of decades or less. The dominant tree species Nothofagus nitida feeds nearly exclusively (>90%) on cations of atmospheric origin, despite strong variations in tree size and location in the forest landscape. Our results illustrate that (i) unpolluted temperate forests can become nutritionally decoupled from deeper weathering processes, virtually functioning as atmospherically fed ecosystems, and (ii) base cation turnover times are considerably more rapid than previously recognized in the plant available pool of soil. These results challenge the prevalent paradigm that plants largely feed on rock-derived cations and have important implications for understanding sensitivity of forests to air pollution. PMID:12119394

  8. Seed colour loci, homoeology and linkage groups of the C genome chromosomes revealed in Brassica rapa–B. oleracea monosomic alien addition lines

    PubMed Central

    Heneen, Waheeb K.; Geleta, Mulatu; Brismar, Kerstin; Xiong, Zhiyong; Pires, J. Chris; Hasterok, Robert; Stoute, Andrew I.; Scott, Roderick J.; King, Graham J.; Kurup, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Brassica rapa and B. oleracea are the progenitors of oilseed rape B. napus. The addition of each chromosome of B. oleracea to the chromosome complement of B. rapa results in a series of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs). Analysis of MAALs determines which B. oleracea chromosomes carry genes controlling specific phenotypic traits, such as seed colour. Yellow-seeded oilseed rape is a desirable breeding goal both for food and livestock feed end-uses that relate to oil, protein and fibre contents. The aims of this study included developing a missing MAAL to complement an available series, for studies on seed colour control, chromosome homoeology and assignment of linkage groups to B. oleracea chromosomes. Methods A new batch of B. rapa–B. oleracea aneuploids was produced to generate the missing MAAL. Seed colour and other plant morphological features relevant to differentiation of MAALs were recorded. For chromosome characterization, Snow's carmine, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used. Key Results The final MAAL was developed. Morphological traits that differentiated the MAALs comprised cotyledon number, leaf morphology, flower colour and seed colour. Seed colour was controlled by major genes on two B. oleracea chromosomes and minor genes on five other chromosomes of this species. Homoeologous pairing was largely between chromosomes with similar centromeric positions. FISH, GISH and a parallel microsatellite marker analysis defined the chromosomes in terms of their linkage groups. Conclusions A complete set of MAALs is now available for genetic, genomic, evolutionary and breeding perspectives. Defining chromosomes that carry specific genes, physical localization of DNA markers and access to established genetic linkage maps contribute to the integration of these approaches, manifested in the confirmed correspondence of linkage groups with specific chromosomes. Applications include marker

  9. Reflections on Doctoral Supervision: Drawing from the Experiences of Students with Additional Learning Needs in Two Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Bethan

    2015-01-01

    Supervision is an essential part of doctoral study, consisting of relationship and process aspects, underpinned by a range of values. To date there has been limited research specifically about disabled doctoral students' experiences of supervision. This paper draws on qualitative, narrative interviews about doctoral supervision with disabled…

  10. Examining the Influence of Additional Field-Based Experiences on Pre-Service Teachers and Their Perceived Ability to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse more closely the training experiences of pre-service teachers, the author conducted an exploratory quasi-experimental study at a university located in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. All students who were enrolled in the same reading methods course (but enrolled in different sections) were invited to participate in…

  11. An enhanced plant lipidomics method based on multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals additional insights into cold- and drought-induced membrane remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Pablo; Feussner, Kirstin; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-11-01

    Within the lipidome of plants a few bulk molecular species hamper the detection of the rest, which are present at relatively low levels. In addition, low-abundance species are often masked by numerous isobaric interferences, such as those caused by isoelemental species and isotopologues. This scenario not only means that minor species are underrepresented, but also leads to potential misidentifications and limits the structural information gathered by lipidomics approaches. In order to overcome these limitations we have developed a multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry lipidomics platform able to achieve an enhanced coverage of plant lipidomes. The platform is based on a single extraction step followed by a series of ultra-performance liquid chromatography separations. Post-column flow is then directed to both a triple quadrupole analyzer for targeted profiling and a time-of-flight analyzer for accurate mass analysis. As a proof of concept, plants were subjected to cold or drought, which are known to trigger widespread remodeling events in plant cell membranes. Analysis of the leaf lipidome yielded 393 molecular species within 23 different lipid classes. This enhanced coverage allowed us to identify lipid molecular species and even classes that are altered upon stress, allowing hypotheses on role of glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPC), steryl glycosides (SG) and acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) in drought stress to be addressed and confirming the findings from numerous previous studies with a single, wide-ranging lipidomics approach. This extended our knowledge on membrane remodeling during the drought response, integrating sphingolipids and sterol lipids into the current glycerolipid-based model. PMID:26340975

  12. Conserved intron positions in FGFR genes reflect the modular structure of FGFR and reveal stepwise addition of domains to an already complex ancestral FGFR.

    PubMed

    Rebscher, Nicole; Deichmann, Christina; Sudhop, Stefanie; Fritzenwanker, Jens Holger; Green, Stephen; Hassel, Monika

    2009-10-01

    We have analyzed the evolution of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase genes throughout a wide range of animal phyla. No evidence for an FGFR gene was found in Porifera, but we tentatively identified an FGFR gene in the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The gene encodes a protein with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single-pass transmembrane, and a split tyrosine kinase domain. By superimposing intron positions of 20 FGFR genes from Placozoa, Cnidaria, Protostomia, and Deuterostomia over the respective protein domain structure, we identified ten ancestral introns and three conserved intron groups. Our analysis shows (1) that the position of ancestral introns correlates to the modular structure of FGFRs, (2) that the acidic domain very likely evolved in the last common ancestor of triploblasts, (3) that splicing of IgIII was enabled by a triploblast-specific insertion, and (4) that IgI is subject to substantial loss or duplication particularly in quickly evolving genomes. Moreover, intron positions in the catalytic domain of FGFRs map to the borders of protein subdomains highly conserved in other serine/threonine kinases. Nevertheless, these introns were introduced in metazoan receptor tyrosine kinases exclusively. Our data support the view that protein evolution dating back to the Cambrian explosion took place in such a short time window that only subtle changes in the domain structure are detectable in extant representatives of animal phyla. We propose that the first multidomain FGFR originated in the last common ancestor of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. Additional domains were introduced mainly in the ancestor of triploblasts and in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:20016912

  13. A role for dZIP89B in Drosophila dietary zinc uptake reveals additional complexity in the zinc absorption process.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher D; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc is the principal source of zinc in eukaryotes, with its uptake and distribution controlled by a complex network of numerous membrane-spanning transport proteins. Dietary absorption is achieved by members of the SLC39A (ZIP) gene family, which encode proteins that are generally responsible for the movement of zinc into the cytosol. ZIP4 is thought to be the primary mammalian zinc uptake gene in the small intestine, with mutations in this gene causing the zinc deficiency disease Acrodermatitis enteropathica. In Drosophila, dual knockdown of the major dietary zinc uptake genes dZIP42C.1 (dZIP1) and dZIP42C.2 (dZIP2) results in a severe sensitivity to zinc-deficient media. However, the symptoms associated with ZIP4 loss can be reversed by zinc supplementation and dZIP42C.1 and 2 knockdown has minimal effect under normal dietary conditions, suggesting that additional pathways for zinc absorption exist in both mammals and flies. This study provides evidence that dZIP89B is an ideal candidate for this role in Drosophila, encoding a low-affinity zinc uptake transporter active in the posterior midgut. Flies lacking dZIP89B, while viable and apparently healthy, show indications of low midgut zinc levels, including reduced metallothionein B expression and compensatory up-regulation of dZIP42C.1 and 2. Furthermore dZIP89B mutants display a dramatic resistance to toxic dietary zinc levels which is abrogated by midgut-specific restoration of dZIP89B activity. We postulate that dZIP89B works in concert with the closely related dZIP42C.1 and 2 to ensure optimal zinc absorption under a range of dietary conditions. PMID:26545796

  14. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar. PMID:22751062

  15. SinoProbe-02: Integrated experiment of deep-exploring techniques to reveal the interior structure beneath the Chinese continent (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Lu, Z.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Zeng, L.

    2010-12-01

    the central part of HKT profile, seismic reflection demonstrated strong reflectors both in the lower crust and in the Moho, ~10 km offset in Moho across the Banggong-Nujian Suture, and ~10 km shallower Moho beneath the Qiangtang block than that of the average depth (~70 km). Experiments in the northern part of SCP mainly consisting of loess plateau uncover the northward thrust of the Western Qinling, structures related to the northward convergence with the Alashan block, and the deeper structures of the Haiyuan strike-slip fault. Available data of the NCP revealed (1) northward dipping crustal reflectors in the northern Yanshan orogenic belt, and (2) steep reflectors corresponding to the Xilamulun suture. These structures might be resulted from plate convergence and growth. The NECP profile has experiment new techniques to collect high resolution data in geologic complex areas. This has obtained important data to address the deep processes for the terrain convengence and accretion in the North East China, and the formation of large-scale terrestrial petroleum basins. In addition, these experiments also discovered the structures for the mantle upwelling beneath the Late Mesozoic volcanic field.

  16. Physiologically-Relevant Modes of Membrane Interactions by the Human Antimicrobial Peptide, LL-37, Revealed by SFG Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bei; Soblosky, Lauren; Nguyen, Khoi; Geng, Junqing; Yu, Xinglong; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Chen, Zhan

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could become the next generation antibiotic compounds which can overcome bacterial resistance by disrupting cell membranes and it is essential to determine the factors underlying its mechanism of action. Although high-resolution NMR and other biological studies have provided valuable insights, it has been a major challenge to follow the AMP-membrane interactions at physiologically-relevant low peptide concentrations. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to overcome this major limitation by performing Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopic experiments on lipid bilayers containing an AMP, LL-37. Our results demonstrate the power of SFG to study non-linear helical peptides and also infer that lipid-peptide interaction and the peptide orientation depend on the lipid membrane composition. The observed SFG signal changes capture the aggregating process of LL-37 on membrane. In addition, our SFG results on cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers indicate the inhibition effect of cholesterol on peptide-induced membrane permeation process.

  17. Physiologically-Relevant Modes of Membrane Interactions by the Human Antimicrobial Peptide, LL-37, Revealed by SFG Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bei; Soblosky, Lauren; Nguyen, Khoi; Geng, Junqing; Yu, Xinglong; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Chen, Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could become the next generation antibiotic compounds which can overcome bacterial resistance by disrupting cell membranes and it is essential to determine the factors underlying its mechanism of action. Although high-resolution NMR and other biological studies have provided valuable insights, it has been a major challenge to follow the AMP-membrane interactions at physiologically-relevant low peptide concentrations. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to overcome this major limitation by performing Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopic experiments on lipid bilayers containing an AMP, LL-37. Our results demonstrate the power of SFG to study non-linear helical peptides and also infer that lipid-peptide interaction and the peptide orientation depend on the lipid membrane composition. The observed SFG signal changes capture the aggregating process of LL-37 on membrane. In addition, our SFG results on cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers indicate the inhibition effect of cholesterol on peptide-induced membrane permeation process. PMID:23676762

  18. Biological and climatic controls on leaf litter decomposition across European forests and grasslands revealed by reciprocal litter transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Estrada, M.; Pihlatie, M.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Levula, J.; Frumau, A. K. F.; Ibrom, A.; Lembrechts, J. J.; Morillas, L.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.; Niinemets, Ü.

    2015-11-01

    Projection of carbon and nitrogen cycles to future climates is associated with large uncertainties, in particular due to uncertainties how changes in climate alter soil turnover, including litter decomposition. In addition, future conditions are expected to result in changes in vegetation composition, and accordingly in litter type and quality, but it is unclear how such changes could potentially alter litter decomposition. Litter transplantation experiments were carried out across 6 European sites (4 forest and 2 grasslands) spanning a large geographical and climatic gradient (5.6-11.4 °C in annual temperature 511-878 mm in precipitation) to gain insight into biological (litter origin and type, soil type) and climatic controls on litter decomposition. The decomposition k rates were overall higher in warmer and wetter sites than in colder and drier sites, and positively correlated to the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further. Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species, litter origin and soil type. Cumulative climatic variables, precipitation and air temperature (ignoring days with air temperatures below 0 °C), were appropriate to predict the litter remaining mass during decomposition (Mr). And Mr and cumulative air temperature were found to be the best predictors for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during decomposition. We concluded with an equation for predicting the decomposition k rate by using mean annual air temperature and litter total specific leaf area.

  19. Magmatic underplating and crustal growth in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China, revealed by a passive seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Xu, Yigang; Xu, Tao; Si, Shaokun; Liang, Xiaofeng; Tian, Xiaobo; Deng, Yangfan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Peng; Xu, Yihe; Lan, Haiqiang; Xiao, Fuhui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xi; Yuan, Xiaohui; Badal, José; Teng, Jiwen

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to characterize the subsurface structure that is related to fossil mantle plume activity, a comprehensive geophysical investigation was conducted in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP). The nature and geometry of the crust were examined within the scheme of the domal structure of ELIP, which comprises the Inner, Intermediate and Outer zones, which are defined on the basis of the biostratigraphy of pre-volcanic sediments. The bulk crustal properties within the Inner Zone are characterized by high density, high P-wave velocity, high Vp/Vs ratios and large crustal thickness. A visible continuous seismic converter is present in the upper part of the crust in the whole Intermediate Zone and the eastern part of the Inner Zone, but it is absent in the Inner Zone, where another seismic converter is observed in the lower part of the crust. The geometric configuration of these converters is attributable to the addition of mantle-derived melts to the pre-existing crust and subsequent interaction between them. The crustal geometry, which is delineated by the migrated image of receiver functions from the passive seismic experiment, and the crustal properties collectively suggest that a mafic layer of 15-20 km thickness and 150-180 km width exists at the base of the crust in the Inner Zone. Such a mafic layer reflects a vertical crustal growth through magmatic underplating at the base of the crust and intraplating within the upper crust. The salient spatial correlation between the deep crustal structure and the dome strongly supports a genetic link between crustal thickening and plume activity, if the pre-volcanic domal uplift is generated by the Permian Emeishan mantle plume. This arrangement is further supported by the consistency of the extent of crustal uplift estimated by isostatic equilibrium modeling and sedimentary data. This study therefore characterizes and provides evidence for a plume-modified crust in a large igneous province.

  20. Climatic controls on leaf litter decomposition across European forests and grasslands revealed by reciprocal litter transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Pihlatie, Mari; Korhonen, Janne F. J.; Levula, Janne; Frumau, Arnoud K. F.; Ibrom, Andreas; Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Morillas, Lourdes; Horváth, László; Jones, Stephanie K.; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-03-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under future climate change is associated with large uncertainties in litter decomposition and the turnover of soil C and N. In addition, future conditions (especially altered precipitation regimes and warming) are expected to result in changes in vegetation composition, and accordingly in litter species and chemical composition, but it is unclear how such changes could potentially alter litter decomposition. Litter transplantation experiments were carried out across six European sites (four forests and two grasslands) spanning a large geographical and climatic gradient (5.6-11.4 °C in annual temperature 511-878 mm in precipitation) to gain insight into the climatic controls on litter decomposition as well as the effect of litter origin and species. The decomposition k rates were overall higher in warmer and wetter sites than in colder and drier sites, and positively correlated with the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further. Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species or site of origin. Cumulative climatic variables, precipitation, soil water content and air temperature (ignoring days with air temperatures below zero degrees Celsius), were appropriate to predict the litter remaining mass during decomposition (Mr). Mr and cumulative air temperature were found to be the best predictors for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during the decomposition. Using mean annual air temperature, precipitation, soil water content and litter total specific leaf area as parameters we were able to predict the annual decomposition rate (k) accurately.

  1. Effect of pore size on bone ingrowth into porous titanium implants fabricated by additive manufacturing: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Otsuki, Bungo; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique with the ability to produce metallic scaffolds with accurately controlled pore size, porosity, and interconnectivity for orthopedic applications. However, the optimal pore structure of porous titanium manufactured by SLM remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pore size with constant porosity on in vivo bone ingrowth in rabbits into porous titanium implants manufactured by SLM. Three porous titanium implants (with an intended porosity of 65% and pore sizes of 300, 600, and 900μm, designated the P300, P600, and P900 implants, respectively) were manufactured by SLM. A diamond lattice was adapted as the basic structure. Their porous structures were evaluated and verified using microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Their bone-implant fixation ability was evaluated by their implantation as porous-surfaced titanium plates into the cortical bone of the rabbit tibia. Bone ingrowth was evaluated by their implantation as cylindrical porous titanium implants into the cancellous bone of the rabbit femur for 2, 4, and 8weeks. The average pore sizes of the P300, P600, and P900 implants were 309, 632, and 956μm, respectively. The P600 implant demonstrated a significantly higher fixation ability at 2weeks than the other implants. After 4weeks, all models had sufficiently high fixation ability in a detaching test. Bone ingrowth into the P300 implant was lower than into the other implants at 4weeks. Because of its appropriate mechanical strength, high fixation ability, and rapid bone ingrowth, our results indicate that the pore structure of the P600 implant is a suitable porous structure for orthopedic implants manufactured by SLM. PMID:26652423

  2. Ionic mechanisms of cardiac cell swelling induced by blocking Na+/K+ pump as revealed by experiments and simulation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Tatsumi, Shuji; Sarai, Nobuaki; Terashima, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Noma, Akinori

    2006-11-01

    Although the Na(+)/K(+) pump is one of the key mechanisms responsible for maintaining cell volume, we have observed experimentally that cell volume remained almost constant during 90 min exposure of guinea pig ventricular myocytes to ouabain. Simulation of this finding using a comprehensive cardiac cell model (Kyoto model incorporating Cl(-) and water fluxes) predicted roles for the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, in addition to low membrane permeabilities for Na(+) and Cl(-), in maintaining cell volume. PMCA might help maintain the [Ca(2+)] gradient across the membrane though compromised, and thereby promote reverse Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange stimulated by the increased [Na(+)](i) as well as the membrane depolarization. Na(+) extrusion via Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange delayed cell swelling during Na(+)/K(+) pump block. Supporting these model predictions, we observed ventricular cell swelling after blocking Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange with KB-R7943 or SEA0400 in the presence of ouabain. When Cl(-) conductance via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was activated with isoproterenol during the ouabain treatment, cells showed an initial shrinkage to 94.2 +/- 0.5%, followed by a marked swelling 52.0 +/- 4.9 min after drug application. Concomitantly with the onset of swelling, a rapid jump of membrane potential was observed. These experimental observations could be reproduced well by the model simulations. Namely, the Cl(-) efflux via CFTR accompanied by a concomitant cation efflux caused the initial volume decrease. Then, the gradual membrane depolarization induced by the Na(+)/K(+) pump block activated the window current of the L-type Ca(2+) current, which increased [Ca(2+)](i). Finally, the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent cation conductance induced the jump of membrane potential, and the rapid accumulation of intracellular Na(+) accompanied by the Cl(-) influx via CFTR, resulting in the cell swelling. The pivotal role of L

  3. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  4. A simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments: Revealing the importance of across-frequency processing in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Ewert, Stephan D; Kollmeier, Birger

    2016-05-01

    A framework for simulating auditory discrimination experiments, based on an approach from Schädler, Warzybok, Hochmuth, and Kollmeier [(2015). Int. J. Audiol. 54, 100-107] which was originally designed to predict speech recognition thresholds, is extended to also predict psychoacoustic thresholds. The proposed framework is used to assess the suitability of different auditory-inspired feature sets for a range of auditory discrimination experiments that included psychoacoustic as well as speech recognition experiments in noise. The considered experiments were 2 kHz tone-in-broadband-noise simultaneous masking depending on the tone length, spectral masking with simultaneously presented tone signals and narrow-band noise maskers, and German Matrix sentence test reception threshold in stationary and modulated noise. The employed feature sets included spectro-temporal Gabor filter bank features, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, logarithmically scaled Mel-spectrograms, and the internal representation of the Perception Model from Dau, Kollmeier, and Kohlrausch [(1997). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(5), 2892-2905]. The proposed framework was successfully employed to simulate all experiments with a common parameter set and obtain objective thresholds with less assumptions compared to traditional modeling approaches. Depending on the feature set, the simulated reference-free thresholds were found to agree with-and hence to predict-empirical data from the literature. Across-frequency processing was found to be crucial to accurately model the lower speech reception threshold in modulated noise conditions than in stationary noise conditions. PMID:27250164

  5. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A. PMID:16411131

  6. Changes in water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes with the addition of biochar to soils: lessons learned from laboratory and greenhouse experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T.; Gallagher, M. E.; Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The addition of biochar to agricultural soils has the potential to provide a number of ecosystem services, ranging from carbon (C) sequestration to increased soil fertility and crop production. It is estimated that 0.5 to 0.9 Pg of C yr-1 can be sequestered through the addition of biochar to soils, significantly increasing the charcoal flux to the biosphere over natural inputs from fire (0.05 to 0.20 Pg C yr-1). There remain large uncertainties about biochar mobility within the environment, making it a challenge to assess the ecosystem residence time of biochar. We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to understand how soil amendment with laboratory-produced biochar changes water, C, and nitrogen (N) fluxes from soils. We used column experiments to assess how biochar amendment to three types of soils (sand, organic, clay-rich) affected hydraulic conductivity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes. Results varied with soil type; biochar significantly decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and organic soils by a factor of 10.6 and 2.7, respectively. While not statistically significant, biochar addition increased the hydraulic conductivity of the clay-rich soil by 50% on average. The addition of biochar significantly increased the DOC fluxes from the C-poor sand and clay soils while it significantly decreased the DOC flux from the organic-rich soil. In contrast, TDN fluxes decreased with biochar additions from all soil types, though the results were not statistically significant from the clay-rich soil. These laboratory experiments suggest that changes in the hydraulic conductivity of soil due to biochar amendments could play a significant role in understanding how biochar additions to agricultural fields will change watershed C and N dynamics. We additionally conducted a 28-day greenhouse experiment with sorghum plants using a three-way factorial treatment (water availability x biochar x mycorrhizae) to

  7. Assessing traumatic experiences in screening for PTSD in substance use disorder patients: what is the gain in addition to PTSD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa; de Jong, Cor

    2015-03-30

    Traumatic experiences have been linked with substance use disorders (SUD) and may be an important factor in the perpetuation of SUD, even in the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and substance use severity in 192 SUD inpatients. Childhood trauma was assessed using the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC). With variables derived from this measure in addition to PTSD symptoms, two regression models were created with alcohol use or drug use severity as dependent variables. Alcohol severity was explained by PTSD symptoms as well as the age of trauma. Drug severity was explained solely by PTSD symptoms. The clinical value of assessing childhood trauma in determining the addiction severity appears to be limited in comparison with PTSD symptoms. PMID:25687377

  8. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  9. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition - a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  10. Ecosystem experiment reveals benefits of natural and simulated beaver dams to a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Bouwes, Nicolaas; Weber, Nicholas; Jordan, Chris E.; Saunders, W. Carl; Tattam, Ian A.; Volk, Carol; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Pollock, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have been referred to as ecosystem engineers because of the large impacts their dam building activities have on the landscape; however, the benefits they may provide to fluvial fish species has been debated. We conducted a watershed-scale experiment to test how increasing beaver dam and colony persistence in a highly degraded incised stream affects the freshwater production of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following the installation of beaver dam analogs (BDAs), we observed significant increases in the density, survival, and production of juvenile steelhead without impacting upstream and downstream migrations. The steelhead response occurred as the quantity and complexity of their habitat increased. This study is the first large-scale experiment to quantify the benefits of beavers and BDAs to a fish population and its habitat. Beaver mediated restoration may be a viable and efficient strategy to recover ecosystem function of previously incised streams and to increase the production of imperiled fish populations. PMID:27373190

  11. Ecosystem experiment reveals benefits of natural and simulated beaver dams to a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Bouwes, Nicolaas; Weber, Nicholas; Jordan, Chris E; Saunders, W Carl; Tattam, Ian A; Volk, Carol; Wheaton, Joseph M; Pollock, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have been referred to as ecosystem engineers because of the large impacts their dam building activities have on the landscape; however, the benefits they may provide to fluvial fish species has been debated. We conducted a watershed-scale experiment to test how increasing beaver dam and colony persistence in a highly degraded incised stream affects the freshwater production of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following the installation of beaver dam analogs (BDAs), we observed significant increases in the density, survival, and production of juvenile steelhead without impacting upstream and downstream migrations. The steelhead response occurred as the quantity and complexity of their habitat increased. This study is the first large-scale experiment to quantify the benefits of beavers and BDAs to a fish population and its habitat. Beaver mediated restoration may be a viable and efficient strategy to recover ecosystem function of previously incised streams and to increase the production of imperiled fish populations. PMID:27373190

  12. Thirty-five voices in search of an author: what focus groups reveal about patients experiences in managed care settings.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Richard M; Hourigan, Nancy Treger

    2004-01-01

    Surprisingly little direct information from patients is available in the medical literature. Focus groups, which came into use in the 1940s, provide a simple, cost effective way of exploring attitudes and values within market segments or targeted groups. In healthcare, focus groups are being used to track patients' experiences, expectations and satisfaction in order to optimize quality and cost effectiveness. This study reports on a collaboration of three upstate New York Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) that used the same focus group format and questions to identify' best practices' and opportunities for improvement. Participants across groups reported similar experiences despite differences in geography and plan organization. Members' most positive comments were about costs, preventive services, ease of paper work and access to sick care, all administrative functions of the health plans. The most negative focused on retaining one's physician, telephone access, providers' medical skills, provider behavior and notification of results, all related to interpersonal/communication issues. We conclude that focus groups are useful for understanding and responding to the 'voice of the customer'. They also have some distinct advantages over forced-choice questionnaires, especially in trying to discover the range of patients' experiences and expectations, though they are not without their challenges. PMID:16808688

  13. Design of experiments reveals critical parameters for pilot-scale freeze-and-thaw processing of L-lactic dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Roessl, Ulrich; Humi, Sebastian; Leitgeb, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Freezing constitutes an important unit operation of biotechnological protein production. Effects of freeze-and-thaw (F/T) process parameters on stability and other quality attributes of the protein product are usually not well understood. Here a design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to characterize the F/T behavior of L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in a 700-mL pilot-scale freeze container equipped with internal temperature and pH probes. In 24-hour experiments, target temperature between -10 and -38°C most strongly affected LDH stability whereby enzyme activity was retained best at the highest temperature of -10°C. Cooling profile and liquid fill volume also had significant effects on LDH stability and affected the protein aggregation significantly. Parameters of the thawing phase had a comparably small effect on LDH stability. Experiments in which the standard sodium phosphate buffer was exchanged by Tris-HCl and the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 was added to the protein solution showed that pH shift during freezing and protein surface exposure were the main factors responsible for LDH instability at the lower freeze temperatures. Collectively, evidence is presented that supports the use of DoE-based systematic analysis at pilot scale in the identification of F/T process parameters critical for protein stability and in the development of suitable process control strategies. PMID:25820483

  14. Meta-Stable Magnetic Domain States That Prevent Reliable Absolute Palaeointensity Experiments Revealed By Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, L. V.; Fabian, K.; Bakelaar, I. A.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Obtaining reliable estimates of the absolute palaeointensity of the Earth's magnetic field is notoriously difficult. Many methods to obtain paleointensities from suitable records such as lavas and archeological artifacts involve heating the samples. These heating steps are believed to induce 'magnetic alteration' - a process that is still poorly understood but prevents obtaining correct paleointensity estimates. To observe this magnetic alteration directly we imaged the magnetic domain state of titanomagnetite particles - a common carrier of the magnetic remanence in samples used for paleointensity studies. We selected samples from the 1971-flow of Mt. Etna from a site that systematically yields underestimates of the known intensity of the paleofield - in spite of rigorous testing by various groups. Magnetic Force Microscope images were taken before and after a heating step typically used in absolute palaeointensity experiments. Before heating, the samples feature distinct, blocky domains that sometimes seem to resemble a classical magnetite domain structure. After imparting a partial thermo-remanent magnetization at a temperature often critical to paleointensity experiments (250 °C) the domain state of the same titanomagnetite grains changes into curvier, wavy domains. Furthermore, these structures appeared to be unstable over time: after one-year storage in a magnetic field-free environment the domain states evolved into a viscous remanent magnetization state. Our observations may qualitatively explain reported underestimates from technically successful paleointensity experiments for this site and other sites reported previously. Furthermore the occurrence of intriguing observations such as 'the drawer storage effect' by Shaar et al (EPSL, 2011), and viscous magnetizations observed by Muxworthy and Williams (JGR, 2006) may be (partially) explained by our observations. The major implications of our study for all palaeointensity methods involving heating may be

  15. Brain-based decoding of mentally imagined film clips and sounds reveals experience-based information patterns in film professionals.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Aline W; Valente, Giancarlo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Tikka, Pia

    2016-04-01

    In the perceptual domain, it has been shown that the human brain is strongly shaped through experience, leading to expertise in highly-skilled professionals. What has remained unclear is whether specialization also shapes brain networks underlying mental imagery. In our fMRI study, we aimed to uncover modality-specific mental imagery specialization of film experts. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis we decoded from brain activity of professional cinematographers and sound designers whether they were imagining sounds or images of particular film clips. In each expert group distinct multi-voxel patterns, specific for the modality of their expertise, were found during classification of imagery modality. These patterns were mainly localized in the occipito-temporal and parietal cortex for cinematographers and in the auditory cortex for sound designers. We also found generalized patterns across perception and imagery that were distinct for the two expert groups: they involved frontal cortex for the cinematographers and temporal cortex for the sound designers. Notably, the mental representations of film clips and sounds of cinematographers contained information that went beyond modality-specificity. We were able to successfully decode the implicit presence of film genre from brain activity during mental imagery in cinematographers. The results extend existing neuroimaging literature on expertise into the domain of mental imagery and show that experience in visual versus auditory imagery can alter the representation of information in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:26826515

  16. Apatite/Melt Partitioning Experiments Reveal Redox Sensitivity to Cr, V, Mn, Ni, Eu, W, Th, and U

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Yang, S.; Humayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    Apatite is a common mineral in terrestrial, planetary, and asteroidal materials. It is commonly used for geochronology (U-Pb), sensing volatiles (H, F, Cl, S), and can concentrate rare earth elements (REE) during magmatic fractionation and in general. Some recent studies have shown that some kinds of phosphate may fractionate Hf and W and that Mn may be redox sensitive. Experimental studies have focused on REE and other lithophile elements and at simplified or not specified oxygen fugacities. There is a dearth of partitioning data for chalcophile, siderophile and other elements between apatite and melt. Here we carry out several experiments at variable fO2 to study the partitioning of a broad range of trace elements. We compare to existing data and then focus on several elements that exhibit redox dependent partitioning behavior.

  17. The stream of experience when watching artistic movies. Dynamic aesthetic effects revealed by the Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP)

    PubMed Central

    Muth, Claudia; Raab, Marius H.; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Research in perception and appreciation is often focused on snapshots, stills of experience. Static approaches allow for multidimensional assessment, but are unable to catch the crucial dynamics of affective and perceptual processes; for instance, aesthetic phenomena such as the “Aesthetic-Aha” (the increase in liking after the sudden detection of Gestalt), effects of expectation, or Berlyne's idea that “disorientation” with a “promise of success” elicits interest. We conducted empirical studies on indeterminate artistic movies depicting the evolution and metamorphosis of Gestalt and investigated (i) the effects of sudden perceptual insights on liking; that is, “Aesthetic Aha”-effects, (ii) the dynamics of interest before moments of insight, and (iii) the dynamics of complexity before and after moments of insight. Via the so-called Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP) enabling analogous evaluation in a continuous way, participants assessed the material on two aesthetic dimensions blockwise either in a gallery or a laboratory. The material's inherent dynamics were described via assessments of liking, interest, determinacy, and surprise along with a computational analysis on the variable complexity. We identified moments of insight as peaks in determinacy and surprise. Statistically significant changes in liking and interest demonstrated that: (i) insights increase liking, (ii) interest already increases 1500 ms before such moments of insight, supporting the idea that it is evoked by an expectation of understanding, and (iii) insights occur during increasing complexity. We propose a preliminary model of dynamics in liking and interest with regard to complexity and perceptual insight and discuss descriptions of participants' experiences of insight. Our results point to the importance of systematic analyses of dynamics in art perception and appreciation. PMID:25873907

  18. Energetic changes caused by antigenic module insertion in a virus-like particle revealed by experiment and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Tang, Ronghong; Bai, Shu; Connors, Natalie K; Lua, Linda H L; Chuan, Yap P; Middelberg, Anton P J; Sun, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The success of recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) for human papillomavirus and hepatitis B demonstrates the potential of VLPs as safe and efficacious vaccines. With new modular designs emerging, the effects of antigen module insertion on the self-assembly and structural integrity of VLPs should be clarified so as to better enabling improved design. Previous work has revealed insights into the molecular energetics of a VLP subunit, capsomere, comparing energetics within various solution conditions known to drive or inhibit self-assembly. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method were performed to examine the molecular interactions and energetics in a modular capsomere of a murine polyomavirus (MPV) VLP designed to protect against influenza. Insertion of an influenza antigenic module is found to lower the binding energy within the capsomere, and a more active state is observed in Assembly Buffer as compared with that in Stabilization Buffer, which has been experimentally validated through measurements using differential scanning calorimetry. Further in-depth analysis based on free-energy decomposition indicates that destabilized binding can be attributed to electrostatic interaction induced by the chosen antigen module. These results provide molecular insights into the conformational stability of capsomeres and their abilities to be exploited for antigen presentation, and are expected to be beneficial for the biomolecular engineering of VLP vaccines. PMID:25215874

  19. Single Enzyme Experiments Reveal a Long-Lifetime Proton Leak State in a Heme-Copper Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqiu; Jørgensen, Sune K; McMillan, Duncan G G; Krzemiński, Łukasz; Daskalakis, Nikolaos N; Partanen, Riitta H; Tutkus, Marijonas; Tuma, Roman; Stamou, Dimitrios; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2015-12-30

    Heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) are key enzymes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes for energy production during aerobic respiration. They catalyze the reduction of the terminal electron acceptor, oxygen, and utilize the Gibbs free energy to transport protons across a membrane to generate a proton (ΔpH) and electrochemical gradient termed proton motive force (PMF), which provides the driving force for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Excessive PMF is known to limit the turnover of HCOs, but the molecular mechanism of this regulatory feedback remains relatively unexplored. Here we present a single-enzyme study that reveals that cytochrome bo3 from Escherichia coli, an HCO closely homologous to Complex IV in human mitochondria, can enter a rare, long-lifetime leak state during which proton flow is reversed. The probability of entering the leak state is increased at higher ΔpH. By rapidly dissipating the PMF, we propose that this leak state may enable cytochrome bo3, and possibly other HCOs, to maintain a suitable ΔpH under extreme redox conditions. PMID:26618221

  20. Nature of the band gap and origin of the conductivity of PbO2 revealed by theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, David O; Kehoe, Aoife B; Watson, Graeme W; Jones, Martin O; David, William I F; Payne, David J; Egdell, Russell G; Edwards, Peter P; Walsh, Aron

    2011-12-01

    Lead dioxide has been used for over a century in the lead-acid battery. Many fundamental questions concerning PbO2 remain unanswered, principally: (i) is the bulk material a metal or a semiconductor, and (ii) what is the source of the high levels of conductivity? We calculate the electronic structure and defect physics of PbO2, using a hybrid density functional, and show that it is an n-type semiconductor with a small indirect band gap of ∼0.2  eV. The origin of electron carriers in the undoped material is found to be oxygen vacancies, which forms a donor state resonant in the conduction band. A dipole-forbidden band gap combined with a large carrier induced Moss-Burstein shift results in a large effective optical band gap. The model is supported by neutron diffraction, which reveals that the oxygen sublattice is only 98.4% occupied, thus confirming oxygen substoichiometry as the electron source. PMID:22243014

  1. Nature of the Band Gap and Origin of the Conductivity of PbO2 Revealed by Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, David O.; Kehoe, Aoife B.; Watson, Graeme W.; Jones, Martin O.; David, William I. F.; Payne, David J.; Egdell, Russell G.; Edwards, Peter P.; Walsh, Aron

    2011-12-01

    Lead dioxide has been used for over a century in the lead-acid battery. Many fundamental questions concerning PbO2 remain unanswered, principally: (i) is the bulk material a metal or a semiconductor, and (ii) what is the source of the high levels of conductivity? We calculate the electronic structure and defect physics of PbO2, using a hybrid density functional, and show that it is an n-type semiconductor with a small indirect band gap of ˜0.2eV. The origin of electron carriers in the undoped material is found to be oxygen vacancies, which forms a donor state resonant in the conduction band. A dipole-forbidden band gap combined with a large carrier induced Moss-Burstein shift results in a large effective optical band gap. The model is supported by neutron diffraction, which reveals that the oxygen sublattice is only 98.4% occupied, thus confirming oxygen substoichiometry as the electron source.

  2. Accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets using SESAME-79 field data as revealed by observing system simulation experiments. [Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Y.-H.; Anthes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments are used to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets which employ the AVE-SESAME 1979 data. The time-including, four-dimensional data set of a mesoscale model is used to simulate rawinsonde observations from AVE-SESAME 1979. The 5 C/day (heat budget) and 2 g/kg per day (moisture budget) magnitudes of error obtained indicate difficulties in the diagnosis of the heating rate in weak convective systems. The influences exerted by observational frequency, objective analysis, observational density, vertical interpolation, and observational errors on the budget are also studied, and it is found that the temporal and spatial resolution of the SESAME regional network is marginal for diagnosing convective effects on a horizontal time scale of 550 x 550 km.

  3. Partial lateral forcing experiments reveal how multi-scale processes induce devastating rainfall: a new application of regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongwei; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    The 1998 extremely heavy rainfall events over East Asia are investigated through partial lateral forcing (PLF) experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting model to determine the impacts of the synoptic (SY), intra-seasonal (IS), and inter-annual (IA) forcing across the lateral boundary on the extreme climate anomalies. The large-scale lateral boundary forcing was derived from an ensemble reanalysis dataset and decomposed into climatological, SY, IS, and IA components. The PLF experiments show that the IS forcing not only triggers the monsoon onset and drives two northward propagation events of the subtropical front but also has dominant contributions to the two heaviest rainfall events over the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) and South China, suggesting the critical role of the intra-seasonal variability in the devastating 1998 floods. Previous studies perceived that the northward propagating IS oscillation from the tropics regulates the extreme heavy rainfall of East Asia summer monsoon in 1998. However, we find that the IS forcing from the mid-latitude plays a more important role than the forcing from the tropics in generating the two extreme rainfall events in 1998. During the first extreme event in June, the IS forcing across the western boundary is the major cause of the northward advance of the subtropical front and the heavy rainfall over the YRB and South China, with the IS forcing across the northern boundary providing the second largest contribution. During the second extreme event (July 15-August 5), the IS forcing from the eastern boundary plays a dominant role in driving the southward retreat and northward advance of the subtropical front, causing another heavy rainfall over the YRB and South China. The western and northern IS forcing also has large contributions to the second extreme event. We have estimated the contributions to the seasonal anomalous rainfall by the three types of forcing. The SY forcing tends to have a moderate effect on the YRB

  4. 2-color photo bleaching experiments reveal distinct intracellular dynamics of two components of the Hsp90 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, Didier . E-mail: didier.picard@cellbio.unige.ch; Suslova, Elena; Briand, Pierre-Andre

    2006-11-15

    The abundant molecular chaperone Hsp90 functions in association with co-chaperones including p23 to promote the folding and maturation of a subset of cytosolic proteins. 'Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching' (FRAP) experiments showed that the dynamics of p23 in live cells is dictated by Hsp90. Since Hsp90 is present in large excess over p23, the mobility of Hsp90 could conceivably be quite different. To facilitate the analysis and to allow a direct comparison with p23, we developed a 2-color FRAP technique. Two test proteins are expressed as fusion proteins with the two spectrally separable fluorescent proteins mCherry and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The 2-color FRAP technique is powerful for the concomitant recording of two proteins located in the same area of a cell, two components of the same protein complex, or mutant and wild-type versions of the same protein under identical experimental conditions. 2-color FRAP of Hsp90 and p23 is virtually indistinguishable, consistent with the notion that they are both engaged in a multitude of large protein complexes. However, when Hsp90-p23 complexes are disrupted by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin, p23 moves by free diffusion while Hsp90 maintains its low mobility because it remains bound in remodeled multicomponent complexes.

  5. Cross-hole tracer experiment reveals rapid fluid flow and low effective porosity in the upper oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, N. M.; Clark, J. F.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.; Haymon, R. M.; Becker, K.

    2016-09-01

    Numerous field, laboratory, and modeling studies have explored the flows of fluid, heat, and solutes during seafloor hydrothermal circulation, but it has been challenging to determine transport rates and flow directions within natural systems. Here we present results from the first cross-hole tracer experiment in the upper oceanic crust, using four subseafloor borehole observatories equipped with autonomous samplers to track the transport of a dissolved tracer (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) injected into a ridge-flank hydrothermal system. During the first three years after tracer injection, SF6 was transported both north and south through the basaltic aquifer. The observed tracer transport rate of ∼2-3 m/day is orders of magnitude greater than bulk rates of flow inferred from thermal and chemical observations and calculated with coupled fluid-heat flow simulations. Taken together, these results suggest that the effective porosity of the upper volcanic crust through which much tracer was transported is <1%, with fluid flowing rapidly along a few well-connected channels. This is consistent with the heterogeneous (layered, faulted, and/or fractured) nature of the volcanic upper oceanic crust.

  6. Magmatic underplating beneath the Emeishan large igneous province (South China) revealed by the COMGRA-ELIP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yangfan; Chen, Yun; Wang, Peng; Essa, Khalid S.; Xu, Tao; Liang, Xiaofeng; Badal, José

    2016-03-01

    Because of the abundant geological, geochemical and geophysical studies conducted on the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in South China, the Permian mantle plume model associated with this region is widely accepted. Furthermore, the dome-shaped structure related with this plume has been determined with success by sedimentological data and gravity stripping. Although the sediment thickness, upper crust, Moho depth and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are well constrained by active- and passive-source seismological results, the density anomaly in ELIP is still a poorly constrained issue that needs further attention. With the aim especially to understand the impact on surface of the magmatic processes that originated in the deep mantle, we performed the COMGRA-ELIP gravity experiment across this region. Using a stripping method, we determined the residual gravity in ELIP and surrounding areas. The residual gravity reaches a maximum value of + 150 mGal in the inner zone of ELIP and its strength decreases gradually when measuring from the inner zone to the middle and outer zones. Combining active and passive seismic results and the least-squares variance analysis method, we propose a strong density contrast of 0.2 g/cm3 (density of 3.14 g/cm3) for the 15- to 20-km-thick igneous layer accreted at the base of the crust, as evidence of crustal underplating in ELIP, to explain the present-day residual gravity anomaly.

  7. Computational Modeling and Molecular Physiology Experiments Reveal New Insights into Shoot Branching in Pea[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Elizabeth A.; Hanan, Jim; Beveridge, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Bud outgrowth is regulated by the interplay of multiple hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, strigolactones, and an unidentified long-distance feedback signal that moves from shoot to root. The model of bud outgrowth regulation in pea (Pisum sativum) includes these signals and a network of five RAMOSUS (RMS) genes that operate in a shoot-root-shoot loop to regulate the synthesis of, and response to, strigolactones. The number of components in this network renders the integration of new and existing hypotheses both complex and cumbersome. A hypothesis-driven computational model was therefore developed to help understand regulation of shoot branching. The model evolved in parallel with stepwise laboratory research, helping to define and test key hypotheses. The computational model was used to verify new mechanisms involved in the regulation of shoot branching by confirming that the new hypotheses captured all relevant biological data sets. Based on cytokinin and RMS1 expression analyses, this model is extended to include subtle but important differences in the function of RMS3 and RMS4 genes in the shoot and rootstock. Additionally, this research indicates that a branch-derived signal upregulates RMS1 expression independent of the other feedback signal. Furthermore, we propose xylem-sap cytokinin promotes sustained bud outgrowth, rather than acting at the earlier stage of bud release. PMID:19948786

  8. Lithospheric sutures, continental fragments and hot spots revealed by a transportable seismic array experiment in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlinson, N.; Vanacore, E. A.; Pozgay, S.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning in 1998, passive seismic arrays have been progressively deployed throughout southeast Australia in an attempt to image the 3-D seismic structure of the underlying lithosphere at high resolution. To date, over 600 stations have been deployed as part of 14 separate arrays. Station spacing on the mainland is ˜50 km, which reduces to ˜20 km in Tasmania, an island that lies at the southern tip of the continent. The majority of stations use 3-component short period sensors (1 Hz natural frequency), but several of the early arrays use vertical component short period sensors, and a number of 3-component broadband sensors are distributed throughout. In the past, teleseismic traveltime tomography has been separately applied to data from most of the arrays. More recently, the emphasis has been on joint treatment of the data, with ambient noise tomography and teleseismic traveltime tomography being applied to multiple array data. The latest developments involve the use of an irregular grid approach for traveltime tomography which incorporates global ISC traveltimes as well as relative arrival times obtained from each array, thus enabling high resolution recovery of structure where justified by the path coverage. Differential attenuation tomography is also beginning to be applied, which complements the results obtained from the traveltime tomography. To date, a wealth of features have been revealed by 3-D seismic tomography, the most significant being: (1) an easterly dipping velocity transition zone which suggests that the older Delamerian Orogen extends beneath the younger Western Subprovince of the Lachlan Orogen; (2) a distinct region of low velocity in the upper mantle north of Melbourne, which can be associated with recent Quaternary hot-spot volcanism; (3) a gradual east-southeast decrease in velocity towards the coast, which is consistent with lithospheric stretching and thinning near a passive margin; (4) a zone of high velocity north of Adelaide that may

  9. Doubly Stochastic Earthquake Source Model: "Omega-Square" Spectrum and Low High-Frequency Directivity Revealed by Numerical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Since its formulation in 1967-1970, the classical ω -2 model of earthquake source spectrum awaits a consistent theoretical foundation. To obtain one, stochastic elements are incorporated both into the final structure of the fault and into the mode of rupture propagation. The main components of the proposed "doubly stochastic" model are: (1) the Andrews's concept, that local stress drop over a fault is a random self-similar field; (2) the concept of rupture with running slip pulse, after Heaton; (3) the hypothesis that a rupture front is a tortuous, multiply connected ("lacy") fractal polyline that occupies a strip of finite width close to the slip-pulse width; and (4) the assumption that the propagation distance of fault-guided, mostly Rayleigh waves from a failing spot on a fault is determined by the slip-pulse width. Waveforms produced by this model are determined based on the fault asperity failure model after Das and Kostrov. Properties of the model are studied by numerical experiments. At high frequency, simulated source spectra behave as ω -2, and acceleration spectra are flat. Their level, at a given seismic moment and rms stress drop, is inversely related to the relative width of the slip pulse. When this width is relatively low, a well-defined second corner frequency (lower cutoff of acceleration spectrum) is seen. The model shows clear dependence of propagation-related directivity on frequency. Between the first and the second corner frequency, amplitude spectra are strongly enhanced for the forward direction; whereas, above the second corner frequency, directivity is significantly reduced. Still, it is not inhibited totally, suggesting incomplete incoherence of the simulated radiator at high frequencies.

  10. The preferential growth of branched GDGT source microorganisms under aerobic conditions in peat revealed by stable isotope probing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Meador, Travis B.; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Könneke, Martin; Derenne, Sylvie; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    fen, whereas corresponding rates in the anaerobic acrotelm incubations were more than an order of magnitude slower (< 3 ng cm‑3 y‑1). Production rates of bacterial fatty acids approached or exceeded 1 μg cm‑3 y‑1 in both aerobic and anaerobic incubations, and were therefore much higher than those of brGDGTs. This suggests that the brGDGT producers are a minor constituent of the microbial community in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands or brGDGTs are a small component of the microbial cell membrane in comparison to fatty acids, despite the typically high brGDGT concentrations observed in peat. In conclusion, our results reveal that brGDGT source microorganisms preferentially grow under oxic to sub-oxic conditions, likely as facultative anaerobes. We show for the first time that these microorganisms are especially active at the peat surface, in contrast to the deeper layers, implying that the high abundance of brGDGTs observed in the catotlem should result from the accumulation of the brGDGTs actively produced in the acrotelm. Reference Weijers, J.W.H., Wiesenberg, G.L.B., Bol, R., Hopmans, E.C., Pancost, R.D., 2010. Biogeosciences 7, 2959-2973.

  11. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  12. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  13. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil. PMID:25958362

  14. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  15. Closed-Flow Column Experiments - A Numerical Study on Breakthrough Oscillations Reveals a Decreased Uncertainty in the Inverse Determination of Transport Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The identification of transport parameters by inverse modeling often suffers from large uncertainties due to equifinality or parameter correlation when models are fitted to observations of the solute breakthrough in column outflow experiments. This issue can be approached by increasing the information potential of the observation, e.g. by running multiple experiments at different boundary conditions. A promising complementary approach of designing soil column experiments in order to further increase the obtained information is the closed-flow mode that is characterized by the recirculation of the effluent solution into the solution supply vessel. Depending on the experimental conditions, the solute concentration in the mixing vessel and the effluent follows a damped sinusoidal oscillation. As a result, the closed-flow experiment provides additional observables in the breakthrough curve, which are the initial exponential decrease in concentration in mixing vessel concentration, the oscillation wavelength and the extent of damping, each indicative for corresponding transport parameters. Furthermore, the concentration in the porous medium and the mixing vessel converges to equilibrium due to the closed loop. The evaluation of these emergent features allows intrinsic control over boundary conditions and impacts the uncertainty of parameters in inverse modeling. We present a comprehensive numerical sensitivity analysis to illustrate the potential application of closed-flow experiments. We can show that the sensitivity with respect to the apparent dispersion can be controlled by the experimenter leading to a decrease in parameter uncertainty as compared to classical experiments by an order of magnitude for optimal settings. With these finding we are also able to show a reduction of equifinality found for situations, where rate-limited interactions impede a proper determination of the apparent dispersion and rate coefficients. This renders the closed-flow mode a useful

  16. The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sieta T.; de Vries, Folgerdiena M.; Dekker, Thijs; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether patients’ willingness to add a blood pressure-lowering drug and the importance they attach to specific treatment characteristics differ among age groups in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients being prescribed at least an oral glucose-lowering and a blood pressure-lowering drug completed a questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment. This experiment contained choice sets with hypothetical blood pressure-lowering drugs and a no additional drug alternative, which differed in their characteristics (i.e. effects and intake moments). Differences in willingness to add a drug were compared between patients <75 years (non-aged) and ≥75 years (aged) using Pearson χ2-tests. Multinomial logit models were used to assess and compare the importance attached to the characteristics. Results Of the 161 patients who completed the questionnaire, 151 (72%) could be included in the analyses (mean age 68 years; 42% female). Aged patients were less willing to add a drug than non-aged patients (67% versus 84% respectively; P = 0.017). In both age groups, the effect on blood pressure was most important for choosing a drug, followed by the risk of adverse drug events and the risk of death. The effect on limitations due to stroke was only significant in the non-aged group. The effect on blood pressure was slightly more important in the non-aged than the aged group (P = 0.043). Conclusions Aged patients appear less willing to add a preventive drug than non-aged patients. The importance attached to various treatment characteristics does not seem to differ much among age groups. PMID:26445349

  17. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  18. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  19. Addition of trim coils to the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) magnet system to improve the magnetic field mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.L.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Baldwin, D.E.; Hibbs, S.M.; Hill, D.N.; Hornady, R.H.; Jackson, M.C.

    1985-11-14

    The mapping of the magnetic flux bundle from the center cell to the Plasma Potential Control plates (PPC) on the end fan of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U), was improved by the addition of trim coils (12,000 amp-turns) on each side of each end fan next to the pump beam magnetic shields. The coils' axes are oriented perpendicular to the machine centerline. These coils made the necessary corrections to the field-line mapping, while keeping the field in the nearby pump beam magnetic shield below the saturation threshold. This paper briefly describes the problem, discusses the design as it evolved, and presents the results of the field testing. The disturbance to the field mapping and the appropriate corrections were determined using the code GFUN (a three dimensional electromagnetic field analysis code that includes the presence of permeable materials). The racetrack-shaped coils have dimensions of 1.5 feet by 3 feet and are powered by a renovated 600 kW Bart-Messing power supply controlled by the machine's magnet control system. The magnets were fabricated from polyimide-coated magnet wire. They are rated to 200/sup 0/C, although in pulsed operation they rise only a few degrees centigrade. The coils are placed outside of the vacuum system, and thus are considerably simpler than the other machine magnets. The restraints are designed to withstand a force of 1000 pounds per coil and a turning moment of 1000 foot pounds. The calculated field strengths were verified on the machine by inserting a Hall probe along the axis. The perturbations to the neutral beam magnetic shields were also measured. A brief description of the improvement in the machine performance is also included.

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  1. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Conformational dynamics of phenylene rings in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) as revealed by 13C magic-angle-spinning exchange nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deAzevedo, E. R.; Franco, R. W. A.; Marletta, A.; Faria, R. M.; Bonagamba, T. J.

    2003-08-01

    Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) has shown a great potential for electro-optical applications due to its electroluminescent and semiconducting properties. Such properties are directly related with the polymer chain conformation and dynamics. Then, it is important to understand in detail the local chain motions. In this work, three 13C solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) exchange NMR techniques were used to study conformational dynamics of phenylene rings in PPV. The standard 2D MAS exchange experiment was used to identify exchange processes between equivalent and nonequivalent sites. Centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX) experiments were applied to determine the amplitude of the phenylene ring flips and small-angle oscillations. Additionally, a new version of the CODEX technique, which allows for the selective observation of segments executing exchange between non-equivalent sites, is demonstrated and applied to determine the flipping fractions and the activation energies of the phenylene ring rotations. It was found that, at -15 °C, (26±3)% of the rings undergo 180° flips in the millisecond time scale, with average imprecision of (30±5)° and activation energies of (23±3) kJ/mol. Other (31±10)% of the rings perform only small-angle oscillations with an average amplitude of (9±2)°. These results corroborate previous experimental data and agree with recent ab initio calculations of potential energies barriers in phenylenevinylene oligomers.

  3. Li(+) Local Structure in Li-Tetraglyme Solvate Ionic Liquid Revealed by Neutron Total Scattering Experiments with the (6/7)Li Isotopic Substitution Technique.

    PubMed

    Saito, Soshi; Watanabe, Hikari; Hayashi, Yutaka; Matsugami, Masaru; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Canongia Lopes, José N; Atkin, Rob; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Kameda, Yasuo; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-21

    Equimolar mixtures of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) and tetraglyme (G4: CH3O-(CH2CH2O)4-CH3) yield the solvate (or chelate) ionic liquid [Li(G4)][TFSA], which is a homogeneous transparent solution at room temperature. Solvate ionic liquids (SILs) are currently attracting increasing research interest, especially as new electrolytes for Li-sulfur batteries. Here, we performed neutron total scattering experiments with (6/7)Li isotopic substitution to reveal the Li(+) solvation/local structure in [Li(G4)][TFSA] SILs. The experimental interference function and radial distribution function around Li(+) agree well with predictions from ab initio calculations and MD simulations. The model solvation/local structure was optimized with nonlinear least-squares analysis to yield structural parameters. The refined Li(+) solvation/local structure in the [Li(G4)][TFSA] SIL shows that lithium cations are not coordinated to all five oxygen atoms of the G4 molecule (deficient five-coordination) but only to four of them (actual four-coordination). The solvate cation is thus considerably distorted, which can be ascribed to the limited phase space of the ethylene oxide chain and competition for coordination sites from the TFSA anion. PMID:27388117

  4. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  5. Generation, Isolation, and Characterization of a Stable Enol from Grignard Addition to a Bis-Ester: A Microscale Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicaise, Olivier J. C.; Ostrom, Kyle F.; Dalke, Brent J.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described that introduces students to the concept of temperature-dependent stability of the tetrahedral intermediate in an acyl-transfer reaction. The process involves the determination of the structure of an alpha-ketoester and its corresponding remarkably stable enol ester to suggest a mechanism for the formation of the products.

  6. Competitive hydration and dehydration at olivine-quartz boundary revealed by hydrothermal experiments: Implications for silica metasomatism at the crust-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Ryosuke; Okamoto, Atsushi; Hirano, Nobuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Serpentinization occurs via interactions between mantle peridotite and water that commonly passes through the crust. Given that such a fluid has a high silica activity compared with mantle peridotite, it is thought that serpentinization and silica metasomatism occur simultaneously at the crust-mantle boundary. In this study, we conducted hydrothermal experiments in the olivine (Ol)-quartz (Qtz)-H2O system at 250 °C and vapor-saturated pressure under highly alkaline conditions (NaOHaq, pH = 13.8 at 25 °C) to clarify the mechanism of silica metasomatism at the crust-mantle boundary. Composite powders consisting of a Qtz layer and an Ol layer were set in tube-in-tube vessels. After the experiments, the extents of serpentinization and metasomatic reactions were evaluated as a function of distance from the Ol-Qtz boundary. The mineralogy of the reaction products in the Ol-hosted region changed with increasing distance from the Ol-Qtz boundary, from smectite + serpentine (Smc zone) to serpentine + brucite + magnetite (Brc zone). Olivine hydration proceeded in both zones, but the total H2O content in the products was greater in the Brc zone than in the Smc zone. Mass balance calculations revealed that olivine hydration occurred without any supply of silica in the brucite zone. In contrast, the Smc zone was formed by silica metasomatism via competitive hydration and dehydration reactions. In the Smc zone, smectite formed via the simultaneous progress of olivine hydration and serpentine dehydration, and around the boundary of the Smc and Brc zones, serpentine formation occurred by olivine hydration and brucite dehydration. The relative extent of hydration and dehydration reactions controlled the along-tube variation in the rate of H2O production/consumption and the rate of volume increase. Our findings suggest that the competitive progress of serpentinization and silica metasomatic reactions would cause fluctuations in pore fluid pressure, possibly affecting the

  7. Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Porous Media Using Polymer Additives: Column and Flow Cell Ex-periments

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-03-20

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate whether barrier reductive capacity can be enhanced by adding micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers. Porous media were packed in a wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel sur-rounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced iron in the ISRM barrier. Calculations show that a 1-m-long Fe0 amended zone with an average concentration of 0.6% w/w iron subject to a groundwater velocity of 1 m/day will have an estimated longevity of 7.2 years.

  8. Qualitative impact of salinity, UV radiation and turbulence on leaching of organic plastic additives from four common plastics - A lab experiment.

    PubMed

    Suhrhoff, Tim Jesper; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara M

    2016-01-15

    Four common consumer plastic samples (polyethylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride) were studied to investigate the impact of physical parameters such as turbulence, salinity and UV irradiance on leaching behavior of selected plastic components. Polymers were exposed to two different salinities (i.e. 0 and 35 g/kg), UV radiation and turbulence. Additives (e.g. bisphenol A, phthalates, citrates, and Irgafos® 168 phosphate) and oligomers were detected in initial plastics and aqueous extracts. Identification and quantification was performed by GC-FID/MS. Bisphenol A and citrate based additives are leached easier compared to phthalates. The print highly contributed to the chemical burden of the analyzed polyethylene bag. The study underlines a positive relationship between turbulence and magnitude of leaching. Salinity had a minor impact that differs for each analyte. Global annual release of additives from assessed plastics into marine environments is estimated to be between 35 and 917 tons, of which most are derived from plasticized polyvinylchloride. PMID:26696590

  9. Langerin-heparin interaction: two binding sites for small and large ligands as revealed by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and cross-linking mapping experiments.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-García, Juan C; Chabrol, Eric; Vivès, Romain R; Thomas, Aline; de Paz, José L; Rojo, Javier; Imberty, Anne; Fieschi, Franck; Nieto, Pedro M; Angulo, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Langerin is a C-type lectin present on Langerhans cells that mediates capture of pathogens in a carbohydrate-dependent manner, leading to subsequent internalization and elimination in the cellular organelles called Birbeck granules. This mechanism mediated by langerin was shown to constitute a natural barrier for HIV-1 particle transmission. Besides interacting specifically with high mannose and fucosylated neutral carbohydrate structures, langerin has the ability to bind sulfated carbohydrate ligands as 6-sulfated galactosides in the Ca(2+)-dependent binding site. Very recently langerin was demonstrated to interact with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), in a Ca(2+)-independent way, resulting in the proposal of a new binding site for GAGs. On the basis of those results, we have conducted a structural study of the interactions of small heparin (HEP)-like oligosaccharides with langerin in solution. Heparin bead cross-linking experiments, an approach specifically designed to identify HEP/heparan sulfate binding sites in proteins were first carried out and experimentally validated the previously proposed model for the interaction of langerin extracellular domain with 6 kDa HEP. High-resolution NMR studies of a set of eight synthetic HEP-like trisaccharides harboring different sulfation patterns demonstrated that all of them bound to langerin in a Ca(2+)-dependent way. The binding epitopes were determined by saturation transfer difference NMR and the bound conformations by transferred NOESY experiments. These experimental data were combined with docking and molecular dynamics and resulted in the proposal of a binding mode characterized by the coordination of calcium by the two equatorial hydroxyl groups, OH3 and OH4, at the non-reducing end. The binding also includes the carboxylate group at the adjacent iduronate residue. This epitope is shared by all eight ligands, explaining the absence of any impact on binding from differences in their substitution patterns

  10. Use of 13C and 15N mass spectrometry to study the decomposition of Calamagrostis epigeios in soil column experiments with and without ash additions.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, B; Heil, B; Flessa, H; Beese, F

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of C and N in terrestrial ecosystems are not completely understood and the use of stable isotopes may be useful to gain further insight in the pathways of CO2 emissions and leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) during decomposition of litter. Objectives were (i) to study the decomposition dynamics of Calamagrostis epigeios, a common grass species in forests, using 13C-depleted and 15N-enriched plants and (ii) to quantify the effect wood ash addition on the decomposition and leaching of DOC and DON. Decomposition was studied for 128 days under aerobic conditions at 8 degrees C and moisture close to field capacity in a spodic dystric Cambisol with mor-moder layer. Variants included control plots and additions of (i) Calamagrostis litter and (ii) Calamagrostis litter plus 4 kg ash m-2. (i) Decomposition of Calamagrostis resulted in a CO2 production of 76.2 g CO2-C m-2 (10% of added C) after 128 days and cumulative DOC production was 14.0 g C m-2 out of which 0.9 g C m-2 was Calamagrostis-derived (0.1% of added C). The specific CO2 formation and specific DOC production from Calamagrostis were 6 times higher (CO2) and 4 times smaller (DOC) than those from the organic layer. The amount of Calamagrostis-derived total N (NH4+, NO3-, DON) leached was 0.7 g N m-2 (4.8% of added N). Cumulative DON production was 0.8 g N m-2 which was slightly higher than for the control. During soil passage, much of the DOC and DON was removed due to sorption or decomposition. DOC and DON releases from the mineral soil (17 cm depth) were 6.3 g C m-2 and 0.5 g N m-2. (ii) Addition of ash resulted in a complete fixing of CO2 for 40 days due to carbonatisation. Afterwards, the CO2 production rates were similar to the variant without ash addition. Production of DOC (98.6 g C m-2) and DON (2.5 g N m-2) was marked, mainly owing to humus decay. However, Calamagrostis-derived DOC and Calamagrostis-derived total N were only 3.9 g C m-2 (0.5% of added C) and 0.5 g N

  11. Influence of roots and mycorrhiza on the internal nitrogen cycle in an organic forest soil ­revealed by a 15N tracing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, M.; Rutting, T.; Klemedtsson, L.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The cycle of nitrogen in soil is complex, consisting of many simultaneous occurring transformation processes. So far, microorganisms have been thought to govern N cycling in soil. Nevertheless, plant roots and their associated mycorrhizal symbionts may exert control on N turnover for example by input of labile C to soil. However, studies investigating the effect of roots on gross N turnover rates are scarce. We conducted a 15N tracer study under field conditions to reveal the effect of plants on soil N cycle. The experiment includes three treatments: (a) control, (b) excluding roots and (c) excluding roots + mycorrhiza. On the study site, exclusion of roots + mycorrhiza has previously been shown to increase N2O emissions which indicate that plants affect internal N cycling. 15NH4NO3 and NH415NO3 were given to the soil and traced for a period of 10 days. Gross N turnover rates were determined applying a numerical 15N tracing model. Results on N turnover rates showed that roots and their fungal symbionts increased N cycling probably by input of labile C to soil which may results in an activation of the microbial biomass. While gross N mineralization increased by 270 and 313 % compared to the treatment excluding roots + mycorrhiza, NH4+ immobilization increased by 402 and 489 %. Differences in ammonium and nitrate immobilization further indicated that ammonium was the preferred N source for roots and microorganisms. While ammonium availability decreased with trenching (0.59 compared to -0.47 and -0.96 μg N g-1 d-1), the opposite was true for nitrate (0.50 compared to 2.08 and 2.18 μg N g-1 d-1), explaining the increased N2O emissions which were likely caused by denitrification. Further, plants increased dissimilarity nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and affected autotrophic nitrification probably by the release of nitrification inhibitors and by influencing ammonium availability. We conclude that plants and their mycorrhizal symbionts actively control N cycling

  12. The Contribution of the Long-term Carbon Pool to Nighttime Foliage Respiration as Revealed by a Year-long C-13 Labeling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Mortazavi, B.; Chanton, J.

    2005-12-01

    Slash pine (Pinus elliottii) saplings were placed in a CO2 enrichment (~500 ppm above ambient) facility for an entire year, starting in June of 2004. The CO2 used for the enrichment, with an isotopic signature of -48‰, allowed us to track the fate of the labeled photosynthate during nighttime respiration experiments once the saplings were removed from the enrichment facility. A set of saplings subject to similar environmental conditions, but not subject to CO2 enrichment, served as controls. Nighttime respiration experiments for the labeled saplings were measured by two methods. The first procedure consisted in determining the isotopic signature of nighttime integrated (sunset to sunrise) foliage respired CO2, while the second procedure consisted in determining the pre-dawn signal. The nighttime integrated signal was determined by enclosing the entire foliage of four labeled saplings in a non-destructive manner in a 300-liter airtight chamber. Initial and final samples were collected at sunset and sunrise for CO2 concentration and 13C determination and a mass balance equation was used to determine the 13C of respired CO2. In the second procedure foliage from four labeled saplings were collected just prior to dawn and placed in a leaf-chamber. Sequential CO2 samples evolved in darkness over a 15 min period were collected for CO2 concentration and 13C determination from which a Keeling plot was constructed to determine the isotopic signature of foliage respired CO2. The isotopic signature of pre-dawn foliage respired CO2 for the control plants was also determined with an identical leaf-chamber system. Immediately after removal from the enrichment facility, the 13C of foliage respired CO2 had a pre-dawn signature of -40.2‰ and a nighttime integrated signal of -44.1‰, while the control plants had a dCf value of -25.8‰ signature. Monitoring of dCf during a 35-day period revealed a non-linear approach in dCf of the labeled plants towards the control dCf values

  13. Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks in Lab and Field: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Effects of Fluids (Detecting a Biosurfactant Additive in a Field Irrigation Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Spetzler, Hartmut

    2006-05-01

    We have been exploring a new technology that is based on using low-frequency seismic attenuation data to monitor changes in fluid saturation conditions in two-fluid phase porous materials. The seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of energy due to the hysteresis of resistance to meniscus movement (changes in surface tension, wettability) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (< 10 Hz). This technology has potential applications to monitoring changes in (1) leakage at buried waste sites, (2) contaminant remediation, and (3) flooding during enhanced petroleum recovery. We have concluded a three year field study at the Maricopa Agricultural Center site of the University of Arizona. Three sets of instruments were installed along an East-West line perpendicular to the 50m by 50m inigation site. Each set of instruments consisted of one three component seismometer and one tiltmeter. Microseisms and solid Earth-tides served as strain sources. The former have a power peak at a period of about 6 seconds and the tides have about two cycles per day. Installation of instruments commenced in late summer of 2002. The instruments operated nearly continuously until April 2005. During the fall of 2003 the site was irrigated with water and one year later with water containing 150 ppm of a biosurfactant additive. This biodegradable additive served to mimic a class of contaminants that change the surface tension of the inigation fluid. Tilt data clearly show tidal tilts superimposed on local tilts due to agricultural irrigation and field work. When the observed signals were correlated with site specific theoretical tilt signals we saw no anomalies for the water irrigation in 2003, but large anomalies on two stations for the surfactant irrigation in 2004. Occasional failures of seismometers as well as data acquisition systems contributed to less than continuous coverage. These data are noisier than the tilt data, but do also show possible

  14. Can additive measures add to an intersectional understanding? Experiences of gay and ethnic discrimination among HIV-positive Latino gay men

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.; Bianchi, Fernanda T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated a methodological question of whether traditional, additive, quantitative data can be used to address intersectional issues, and illustrated such an approach with a sample of 301 HIV-positive, Latino gay men in the U.S. Participants were surveyed using A-CASI. Hierarchical logistic set regression investigated the role of sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, gender nonconformity, and gay and ethnic discrimination in relation to depression and gay collective identity. Results showed the discrimination set was related to depression and to gay collective identity, as was gender nonconformity. Follow-up logistic regression showed that both types of discrimination were associated with greater depression, but gender nonconformity was not. Gay discrimination and gender nonconformity were positively associated with gay collective identity, whereas ethnic discrimination was negatively associated. Results are discussed in terms of the use of traditional quantitative data as a potential means of understanding intersectional issues, as well as of contributing to knowledge about individuals facing multiple structural inequalities. PMID:23647331

  15. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: The Addition of Systemic Chemotherapy to Radiotherapy Led to an Observed Improvement in Survival—A Single Centre Experience and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Natalie M.; Loughran, Sean; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Yap, Beng K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare yet accounts for up to 50% of all thyroid cancer deaths. This study reviews outcomes of patients with confirmed ATC referred to a tertiary oncology centre plus reviews the literature to explore how poor outcomes may be improved. Materials and Methods. The management and outcomes of 20 patients with ATC were reviewed. Results. Median age at diagnosis was 69.5 years. 19 patients died due to ATC, 40% of whom died from asphyxiation. Median survival for all cases was 59 days. Patients who had previous surgery prior to other treatment modalities had a longer median survival overall compared to those who had not had previous surgery (142 days compared to 59 days) and produced the one long-term survivor. Chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (without previous surgery) was associated with longer median survival (220 days). Palliative radiotherapy alone did not decrease the rate of death by asphyxiation when compared to other single modality treatments. Conclusion. Multimodality treatment including surgery when feasible remains the best strategy to improve survival and prevent death from asphyxiation in the management of ATC. The addition of chemotherapy to our institutional protocol led to improved survival but prognosis remains very poor. PMID:25184150

  16. Molecular characterization of Trichomonas gallinae isolates recovered from the Canadian Maritime provinces' wild avifauna reveals the presence of the genotype responsible for the European finch trichomonosis epidemic and additional strains.

    PubMed

    McBurney, Scott; Kelly-Clark, Whitney K; Forzán, María J; Lawson, Becki; Tyler, Kevin M; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2015-07-01

    Finch trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas gallinae, emerged in the Canadian Maritime provinces in 2007 and has since caused ongoing mortality in regional purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) populations. Trichomonas gallinae was isolated from (1) finches and rock pigeons (Columbia livia) submitted for post-mortem or live-captured at bird feeding sites experiencing trichomonosis mortality; (2) bird seed at these same sites; and (3) rock pigeons live-captured at known roosts or humanely killed. Isolates were characterized using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and iron hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) gene sequences. Two distinct ITS types were found. Type A was identical to the UK finch epidemic strain and was isolated from finches and a rock pigeon with trichomonosis; apparently healthy rock pigeons and finches; and bird seed at an outbreak site. Type B was obtained from apparently healthy rock pigeons. Fe-hyd sequencing revealed six distinct subtypes. The predominant subtype in both finches and the rock pigeon with trichomonosis was identical to the UK finch epidemic strain A1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Fe-hyd sequences suggest there is fine-scale variation amongst isolates and that finch trichomonosis emergence in this region may not have been caused by a single spill-over event. PMID:25804862

  17. Origins of enigmatic C-3 methyl and C-3 H porphyrins in ancient sediments revealed from formation of pyrophaeophorbide d in simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Matthew D.; Keely, Brendan J.

    2013-03-01

    The reaction of methyl pyrophaeophorbide a with hydrogen sulfide and oxygen under mild conditions (low temperature, moderate pH), which resemble those in certain natural environments, leads to its near quantitative conversion into methyl pyrophaeophorbide d (82-89%). The transformation, via oxidative cleavage of the C-3 vinyl substituent of pyrophaeophorbide a to afford an aldehyde at C-3, results from co-oxidation of the vinyl group and hydrogen sulfide by molecular oxygen. The co-oxidation transformation pathway operating on vinyl substituted chlorophyll derivatives can explain the origins of C-3 methyl and C-3 H porphyrins in ancient sediments and oils, structures for which the origins were previously unresolved. Evaluation of previous reports of C-3 methyl and C-3 H porphyrins in ancient sediments and oils reveals that their distributions are consistent with insights provided from analysis of the reaction mechanisms revealed by the laboratory studies. Thus, the sedimentary distributions reveal key features of the depositional settings, in particular the presence of a deep or a shallow chemocline. The oxidative cleavage of the C-3 vinyl group also provides insight into the biosynthesis of chlorophyll d by the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina, and offers a mild alternative to classical methods for the synthetic manipulation of the vinyl substituents of tetrapyrroles.

  18. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  19. Modeling and experiment reveal an unexpected stereoelectronic effect on conformation and scalar couplings of alpha-aminoorganostannanes, with possible relevance to the tin-lithium exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Marcelina; Low, Eddy; Chambournier, Gilles; Gawley, Robert E

    2003-10-31

    The solution conformation of N-methyl-2-(tributylstannyl)piperidines has been determined through the use of vicinal 119Sn-13C coupling constants, revealing a conformational distortion caused by an unexpected stereoelectronic effect in some cases. Specifically, the "equatorial" conformer is distorted into a half-chair, in which the nitrogen lone pair eclipses the C-Sn bond. This distortion, which "costs" approximately 1 kcal/mol, correlates with a conformational dependence of geminal 119Sn-15N couplings and a possible correlation with reactivity in the tin-lithium exchange reaction. PMID:14575474

  20. The Classroom Experiences of Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools--1976 to 2012. What Do Data from Systematic Observation Studies Reveal about Pupils' Educational Experiences over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of an analysis of primary-aged pupils' educational experiences over a 35 year period. Data drawn from a set of large-scale systematic observation studies, conducted in the UK between 1976 and 2012, are used to describe pupils' average classroom experiences at six points in time over this period. These data are then used…

  1. Tapping to a Slow Tempo in the Presence of Simple and Complex Meters Reveals Experience-Specific Biases for Processing Music

    PubMed Central

    Ullal-Gupta, Sangeeta; Hannon, Erin E.; Snyder, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians) or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians). A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase). When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after) the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters. PMID:25075514

  2. Aspirin revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, D.; Hu, X. K.; Loboda, A. V.; Mosey, N. J.; Lipson, R. H.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments are described where the experimental conditions have been optimized to detect aspirin by MALDI mass spectrometry. Although protonated aspirin was not observed by MALDI, sodium and potassium aspirin adducts could be found. Significantly better signals could be obtained by using Rb and Cs salts as cationization sources. Quantum calculations were carried out to determine the structure and energetics of the Li, K, Rb, and Cs alkali--aspirin adducts.

  3. The complex folding behavior of HIV-1-protease monomer revealed by optical-tweezer single-molecule experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Caldarini, M; Sonar, P; Valpapuram, I; Tavella, D; Volonté, C; Pandini, V; Vanoni, M A; Aliverti, A; Broglia, R A; Tiana, G; Cecconi, C

    2014-12-01

    We have used optical tweezers and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the unfolding and refolding process of a stable monomeric form of HIV-1-protease (PR). We have characterized the behavior under tension of the native state (N), and that of the ensemble of partially folded (PF) conformations the protein visits en route to N, which collectively act as a long-lived state controlling the slow kinetic phase of the folding process. Our results reveal a rich network of unfolding events, where the native state unfolds either in a two-state manner or by populating an intermediate state I, while the PF state unravels through a multitude of pathways, underscoring its structural heterogeneity. Refolding of mechanically denatured HIV-1-PR monomers is also a multiple-pathway process. Molecular dynamics simulations allowed us to gain insight into possible conformations the protein adopts along the unfolding pathways, and provide information regarding possible structural features of the PF state. PMID:25194276

  4. ¹¹³Cd NMR experiments reveal an unusual metal cluster in the solution structure of the yeast splicing protein Bud31p.

    PubMed

    van Roon, Anne-Marie M; Yang, Ji-Chun; Mathieu, Daniel; Bermel, Wolfgang; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Neuhaus, David

    2015-04-13

    Establishing the binding topology of structural zinc ions in proteins is an essential part of their structure determination by NMR spectroscopy. Using (113)Cd NMR experiments with (113)Cd-substituted samples is a useful approach but has previously been limited mainly to very small protein domains. Here we used (113)Cd NMR spectroscopy during structure determination of Bud31p, a 157-residue yeast protein containing an unusual Zn3Cys9 cluster, demonstrating that recent hardware developments make this approach feasible for significantly larger systems. PMID:25703931

  5. 113Cd NMR Experiments Reveal an Unusual Metal Cluster in the Solution Structure of the Yeast Splicing Protein Bud31p**

    PubMed Central

    van Roon, Anne-Marie M; Yang, Ji-Chun; Mathieu, Daniel; Bermel, Wolfgang; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Neuhaus, David

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the binding topology of structural zinc ions in proteins is an essential part of their structure determination by NMR spectroscopy. Using 113Cd NMR experiments with 113Cd-substituted samples is a useful approach but has previously been limited mainly to very small protein domains. Here we used 113Cd NMR spectroscopy during structure determination of Bud31p, a 157-residue yeast protein containing an unusual Zn3Cys9 cluster, demonstrating that recent hardware developments make this approach feasible for significantly larger systems. PMID:25703931

  6. Stability of MnB2 with AlB2-type structure revealed by first-principles calculations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Huiyang; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Bykova, Elena; Nakajima, Yoichi; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Li, Yuan; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia

    2013-02-01

    MnB2 with the ReB2-type structure has been theoretically predicted to be a superhard material which could be synthesized at ambient pressure. However, this phase has not been observed experimentally to date. In the present work, we show that even applying moderate pressure does not facilitate the formation of ReB2-structured MnB2. Our high-pressure high-temperature experiments resulted in the synthesis of single crystals of MnB2 with the previously known AlB2-type structure. This is at odds with results from density functional theory-based calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The discrepancy with the computational prediction was reconciled by including on-site repulsion (GGA + U), which found the anti-ferromagnetically ordered AlB2-type structure energetically favored over the ReB2-structure for MnB2.

  7. Revealing Ligand Binding Sites and Quantifying Subunit Variants of Noncovalent Protein Complexes in a Single Native Top-Down FTICR MS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huilin; Wongkongkathep, Piriya; Van Orden, Steve L.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2014-12-01

    "Native" mass spectrometry (MS) has been proven to be increasingly useful for structural biology studies of macromolecular assemblies. Using horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (hADH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH) as examples, we demonstrate that rich information can be obtained in a single native top-down MS experiment using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Beyond measuring the molecular weights of the protein complexes, isotopic mass resolution was achieved for yeast ADH tetramer (147 kDa) with an average resolving power of 412,700 at m/z 5466 in absorption mode, and the mass reflects that each subunit binds to two zinc atoms. The N-terminal 89 amino acid residues were sequenced in a top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) experiment, along with the identifications of the zinc binding site at Cys46 and a point mutation (V58T). With the combination of various activation/dissociation techniques, including ECD, in-source dissociation (ISD), collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), 40% of the yADH sequence was derived directly from the native tetramer complex. For hADH, native top-down ECD-MS shows that both E and S subunits are present in the hADH sample, with a relative ratio of 4:1. Native top-down ISD of the hADH dimer shows that each subunit (E and S chains) binds not only to two zinc atoms, but also the NAD/NADH ligand, with a higher NAD/NADH binding preference for the S chain relative to the E chain. In total, 32% sequence coverage was achieved for both E and S chains.

  8. Revealing Ligand Binding Sites and Quantifying Subunit Variants of Non-Covalent Protein Complexes in a Single Native Top-Down FTICR MS Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huilin; Wongkongkathep, Piriya; Van Orden, Steve L.; Loo, Rachel R. Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    “Native” mass spectrometry (MS) has been proven increasingly useful for structural biology studies of macromolecular assemblies. Using horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (hADH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH) as examples, we demonstrate that rich information can be obtained in a single native top-down MS experiment using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Beyond measuring the molecular weights of the protein complexes, isotopic mass resolution was achieved for yeast ADH tetramer (147 kDa) with an average resolving power of 412,700 at m/z 5466 in absorption mode and the mass reflects that each subunit binds to two zinc atoms. The N-terminal 89 amino acid residues were sequenced in a top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) experiment, along with the identifications of the zinc binding site at Cys46 and a point mutation (V58T). With the combination of various activation/dissociation techniques, including ECD, in-source dissociation (ISD), collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), 40% of the yADH sequence was derived directly from the native tetramer complex. For hADH, native top-down ECD-MS shows that both E and S subunits are present in the hADH sample, with a relative ratio of 4:1. Native top-down ISD MS hADH dimer shows that each subunit (E and S chain) binds not only to two zinc atoms, but also the NAD+/NADH ligand, with a higher NAD+/NADH binding preference for the S chain relative to the E chain. In total, 32% sequence coverage was achieved for both E and S chains. PMID:24912433

  9. Trophic relationships on a fucoid shore in south-western Iceland as revealed by stable isotope analyses, laboratory experiments, field observations and gut analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinarsdóttir, M. B.; Ingólfsson, A.; Ólafsson, E.

    2009-04-01

    Rocky shores in the North Atlantic are known for their zonation patterns of both algae and animals, which can be expected to greatly affect food availability to consumers at different height levels on the shore. We tested the hypothesis that consumers would feed on the most abundant suitable food source in their surroundings. In total 36 species/taxa of common primary producers and consumers were sampled for stable isotope analyses from a sheltered fucoid shore at Hvassahraun in south-western Iceland. A selection of these species was also collected seasonally and from different height levels. Feeding experiments, field observations and gut analyses were also conducted. Our results were in good overall agreement with pre-existing knowledge of trophic relationships in the rocky intertidal. Consumers often appeared to be assimilating carbon and nitrogen from the most common diet in their immediate surroundings. The predator Nucella lapillus was thus feeding on different prey at different height levels in accordance with different densities of prey species. When tested in the laboratory, individuals taken from low on the shore would ignore the gastropod Littorina obtusata, uncommon at that height level, even when starved, while individuals from mid-shore readily ate the gastropod. This indicated that some kind of learned behaviour was involved. There were, however, important exceptions, most noteworthy the relatively small contribution to herbivores, both slow moving (the gastropod L. obtusata) and fast moving (the isopod Idotea granulosa and the amphipod Gammarus obtusatus) of the dominant alga at this site, Ascophyllum nodosum. The recent colonizer Fucus serratus seemed to be favoured. Selective feeding was indicated both by isotope signatures as well as by results of feeding experiments. Seasonal migrations of both slow and fast moving species could partly explain patterns observed.

  10. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 3. Englacial and subglacial conditions revealed by seismic reflection data on Store Glacier, West Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstede, Coen; Eisen, Olaf; Young, Tun Jan; Doyle, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Christoffersen, Poul; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    Basal conditions have a profound influence on the dynamics of outlet glaciers. As part of the SAFIRE research programme, we carried out a seismic survey on Store Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Uummanaq Fjord in West Greenland (see joint abstracts by Christoffersen et al. and Doyle et al. for details). At the survey site the ice moves 700m/a making the terrain crevassed and bumpy. Despite the rough terrain we collected two 1.5 km long survey lines parallel and perpendicular to the ice flow direction using a 300m snow streamer and explosives as a source. The seismic data reveal an ice thickness of about 620m and 20 to 30m of subglacial sediment on the upstream side of the area thinning in the downstream direction. From polarity reversals seen along the ice-bed contact we speculate that the sediments have varying degrees of water content. The ice itself has several englacial reflections parallel and close to the bed. At approximately 475m depth, a clear single englacial reflection is observed in the parallel survey line. Thermistor data installed at this location show a clear increase in ice temperature starting at this depth. We speculate that the observed englacial reflection is caused by a change in crystal orientation fabric allowing greater ice deformation below this depth causing increased strain heating.

  11. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  12. Revealing Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size

  13. Role of Active Site Residues in Promoting Cobalt-Carbon Bond Homolysis in Adenosylcobalamin-Dependent Mutases Revealed Through Experiment and Computation

    PubMed Central

    Román-Meléndez, Gabriel D.; von Glehn, Patrick; Harvey, Jeremy N.; Mulholland, Adrian J.; Marsh, E. Neil G.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosylcobalamin serves as a source of reactive free radicals that are generated by homolytic scission of the coenzyme’s cobalt-carbon bond. AdoCbl-dependent enzymes accelerate AdoCbl homolysis by ~1012-fold, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished remains unclear. We have combined experimental and computational approaches to gain molecular-level insight into this process for glutamate mutase. Two residues, glutamate-330 and lysine-326, form hydrogen bonds with the adenosyl group of the coenzyme. A series of mutations were introduced at these positions that impair the enzyme’s ability to catalyze coenzyme homolysis and tritium exchange with the substrate by 2 – 4 orders of magnitude. These mutations, together with the wild-type enzyme, were also characterized in silico by molecular dynamics simulations of the enzyme:AdoCbl:substrate with AdoCbl modeled in either the associated (Co-C bond formed) or the dissociated (adenosyl radical + CblII) state. The simulations reveal that the number of hydrogen bonds between the adenosyl group and the protein side-chains increases in the homolytically-dissociated state, with respect to the associated state, for both the wild-type and mutant enzymes. The mutations also cause a progressive increase in the mean distance between the 5′-carbon of the adenosyl radical and the abstractable hydrogen of the substrate. Interestingly, the distance between the 5′-carbon and substrate hydrogen, determined computationally, was found to inversely correlate with the logk for tritium exchange (r = 0.93) determined experimentally. Taken together, these results point to a dual role for these residues: they both stabilize the homolytic state through electrostatic interactions between the protein and the dissociated coenzyme, and correctly position the adenosyl radical to facilitate hydrogen abstraction from the substrate. PMID:24341954

  14. The Glycan Role in the Glycopeptide Immunogenicity Revealed by Atomistic Simulations and Spectroscopic Experiments on the Multiple Sclerosis Biomarker CSF114(Glc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Agostino; Scrima, Mario; Novellino, Ettore; D'Errico, Gerardino; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    Glycoproteins are often recognized as not-self molecules by antibodies triggering the onset of severe autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Thus, the development of antigen-mimicking biomarkers represents an attractive strategy for an early diagnosis of the disease. An example is the synthetic glycopeptide CSF114(Glc), which was designed and tested as MS biomarker and whose clinical application was limited by its reduced ability to detect autoantibodies in MS patients. In the attempt to improve the efficacy of CSF114(Glc), we have characterized all the events leading to the final binding of the biomarker to the autoantibody using atomistic simulations, ESR and NMR experiments. The glycosydic moiety plays a primary role in the whole process. In particular, in an environment mimicking that used in the clinical tests the glycopeptide assumes a α-helix structure that is functional for the interaction with the antibody. In this conformation CSF114(Glc) binds the monoclonal antibody mAb8-18C5 similarly to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG, which is a known MS auto-antigen, thus explaining its diagnostic activity. Our study offers new molecular bases to design more effective biomarkers and provides a most valid protocol to investigate other systems where the environment effect is determinant for the biological activity.

  15. Magnetic fluctuations in n-type high-Tc superconductors reveal breakdown of fermiology:Experiments and Fermi-liquid/RPA calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, S.D.

    2010-03-02

    By combining experimental measurements of the quasiparticle and dynamical magnetic properties of optimally electron-doped Pr{sub 0.88}LaCe{sub 0.12}CuO{sub 4} with theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that the conventional fermiology approach cannot possibly account for the magnetic fluctuations in these materials. In particular, we perform tunneling experiments on the very same sample for which a dynamical magnetic resonance has been reported recently and use photoemission data by others on a similar sample to characterize the fermionic quasiparticle excitations in great detail. We subsequently use this information to calculate the magnetic response within the conventional fermiology framework as applied in a large body of work for the hole-doped superconductors to find a profound disagreement between the theoretical expectations and the measurements: this approach predicts a steplike feature rather than a sharp resonance peak, it underestimates the intensity of the resonance by an order of magnitude, it suggests an unreasonable temperature dependence of the resonance, and most severely, it predicts that most of the spectral weight resides in incommensurate wings which are a key feature of the hole-doped cuprates but have never been observed in the electron-doped counterparts. Our findings strongly suggest that the magnetic fluctuations reflect the quantum-mechanical competition between antiferromagnetic and superconducting orders.

  16. Lithospheric structures and Precambrian terrane boundaries in northeastern Botswana revealed through magnetotelluric profiling as part of the Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, M. P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Garcia, X.; Evans, R. L.

    2011-02-01

    Within the framework of the Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment a focused study was undertaken to gain improved knowledge of the lithospheric geometries and structures of the westerly extension of the Zimbabwe craton (ZIM) into Botswana, with the overarching aim of increasing our understanding of southern African tectonics. The area of interest is located in northeastern Botswana, where Kalahari sands cover most of the geological terranes and very little is known about lithospheric structures and thicknesses. Some of the regional-scale terrane boundary locations, defined based on potential field data, are not sufficiently accurate for local-scale studies. Investigation of the NNW-SSE orientated, 600 km long ZIM line profile crossing the Zimbabwe craton, Magondi mobile belt, and Ghanzi-Chobe belt showed that the Zimbabwe craton is characterized by thick (˜220 km) resistive lithosphere, consistent with geochemical and geothermal estimates from kimberlite samples of the nearby Orapa and Letlhakane pipes (˜175 km west of the profile). The lithospheric mantle of the Ghanzi-Chobe belt is resistive, but its lithosphere is only about 180 km thick. At crustal depths a northward dipping boundary between the Ghanzi-Chobe and the Magondi belts is identified, and two middle to lower crustal conductors are discovered in the Magondi belt. The crustal terrane boundary between the Magondi and Ghanzi-Chobe belts is found to be located further to the north, and the southwestern boundary of the Zimbabwe craton might be further to the west, than previously inferred from the regional potential field data.

  17. The glycan role in the glycopeptide immunogenicity revealed by atomistic simulations and spectroscopic experiments on the multiple sclerosis biomarker CSF114(Glc).

    PubMed

    Bruno, Agostino; Scrima, Mario; Novellino, Ettore; D'Errico, Gerardino; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Glycoproteins are often recognized as not-self molecules by antibodies triggering the onset of severe autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Thus, the development of antigen-mimicking biomarkers represents an attractive strategy for an early diagnosis of the disease. An example is the synthetic glycopeptide CSF114(Glc), which was designed and tested as MS biomarker and whose clinical application was limited by its reduced ability to detect autoantibodies in MS patients. In the attempt to improve the efficacy of CSF114(Glc), we have characterized all the events leading to the final binding of the biomarker to the autoantibody using atomistic simulations, ESR and NMR experiments. The glycosydic moiety plays a primary role in the whole process. In particular, in an environment mimicking that used in the clinical tests the glycopeptide assumes a α-helix structure that is functional for the interaction with the antibody. In this conformation CSF114(Glc) binds the monoclonal antibody mAb8-18C5 similarly to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG, which is a known MS auto-antigen, thus explaining its diagnostic activity. Our study offers new molecular bases to design more effective biomarkers and provides a most valid protocol to investigate other systems where the environment effect is determinant for the biological activity. PMID:25776265

  18. Water-induced drag and air-induced creep of clasts - revealing two unique earth surface processes by physical experiments and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Kleber, Arno

    2013-04-01

    Earth surface processes, especially in arid environments, have received attention for several hundreds of years and most relief-shaping mechanisms have been investigated thoroughly by now. However, the current state of process knowledge allows not to consistently explain many properties of a surface type, covering up to 15 % of terrestrial surfaces worldwide: stone pavements and the associated vesicular horizons, fine-grained aeolian veneers with a distinct foamy structure. Throughout hot to cold deserts, from semi-arid to hyper-arid conditions, stone pavements usually show slope aspect-controlled bimodal alignment patterns of their clast length axes and are able to recover from disturbance by lateral processes. Two yet disregarded earth surface processes play an essential role in both, recovery of disturbed sites and formation of the preferred clast alignment pattern. The vesicular horizon with its unique properties has fundamental control functions for the two processes. One process is unconcentrated overland flow, which supports rapid accumulation of clasts during the initial stages of recovery, given preconditions for sufficiently deep flows. The other process is clast creep due to air, escaping from the vesicular horizon upon rapid wetting. The latter process is unique in several aspects: it affects clasts but does not transport finer material and it is more effective the gentler the slope is. Both processes lead to clast rotation upon collision and thereby create the bimodal orientation pattern. Both processes are described conceptionally, explored by physical-based numerical modelling and consistently validated by laboratory experiments. Water-induced drag and air-induced creep of clasts may represent two key mechanisms to explain unresolved challenges of many desert surfaces and underlying soil-sediment complexes regarding i) stability versus fragility, ii) dust sink versus dust source, and iii) the palaeoenvironmental archive function.

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  20. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  1. Direct Diastereo- and Enantioselective Vinylogous Michael Additions of Linear Enones.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qunsheng; Fraboni, Americo J; Brenner-Moyer, Stacey E

    2016-06-01

    A direct vinylogous Michael addition using linear vinylogous Michael donors has been developed. Notably, even γ-substituted Michael donors cleanly afforded γ-alkylated products in high yield and ee by this method. Moreover, control experiments revealed that, for these and related linear vinylogous Michael donors, the size of the Michael acceptor strongly influences whether α- or γ-alkylation occurs, not simply blocking effects of cocatalysts as suggested previously. PMID:27186662

  2. Plant uptake and downward migration of 85Sr and 137Cs after their deposition on to flooded rice fields: lysimeter experiments with and without the addition of KCl and lime.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Lim, K M; Choi, H J; Choi, G S; Lee, H S; Lee, C W

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the plant uptake and downward migration of radiostrontium and radiocesium deposited on to a flooded rice field, 85Sr and 137Cs were applied to the standing water over an acidic sandy soil in planted lysimeters. The plant uptake was quantified with the areal transfer factor (TFa, m2 kg(-1)-dry plant). Following the spiking 14 days after transplanting, the TFa values for the hulled seeds were 3.9 x 10(-4) for 85Sr and 1.4 x 10(-4) for 137Cs, whereas those for the straws were 1.3 x 10(-2) and 3.2 x 10(-4), respectively. The 137Cs TFa from the spiking at the anthesis/milky-ripe stage was several times higher than that from the earlier spiking, whereas the difference was much less in the 85Sr TFa. Such an increase in the 137Cs TFa was attributed mainly to an enhanced plant-base uptake. The addition of KCl and lime after the spiking significantly reduced the TFa values of both radionuclides. The reducing effect was greater for the later spiking. An appreciable fraction of the applied activity leached out of the lysimeter for 85Sr, whereas a negligible fraction leached for 137Cs. The leaching was remarkably increased by the KCl and lime addition for both. A conspicuous localization of 137Cs with respect to the soil surface was observed. In a batch experiment, the 137Cs concentration in the standing water decreased more rapidly than that of 85Sr, both of which were fitted to the power functions of the elapsed time. To add KCl and lime slowed such decreases to lessen the distribution coefficients (Kd) of both 85Sr and 137Cs. PMID:15465178

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  4. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  5. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  7. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  8. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  9. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Mechanistic investigations reveal that dibromobimane extrudes sulfur from biological sulfhydryl sources other than hydrogen sulfide† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, pH stability data for BTE, NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01875c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Leticia A.; Shen, Xinggui; McDermott, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule in the last decade. During the growth of this field, significant controversy has arisen centered on the physiological concentrations of H2S. Recently, a monobromobimane (mBB) method has been developed for the quantification of different biologically-relevant sulfide pools. Based on the prevalence of the mBB method for sulfide quantification, we expand on this method to report the use of dibromobimane (dBB) for sulfide quantification. Reaction of H2S with dBB results in formation of highly-fluorescent bimane thioether (BTE), which is readily quantifiable by HPLC. Additionally, the reaction of sulfide with dBB to form BTE is significantly faster than the reaction of sulfide with mBB to form sulfide dibimane. Using the dBB method, BTE levels as low as 0.6 pM can be detected. Upon use of the dBB method in wild-type and CSE–/– mice, however, dBB reports significantly higher sulfide levels than those measured using mBB. Further investigation revealed that dBB is able to extract sulfur from other sulfhydryl sources including thiols. Based on mechanistic studies, we demonstrate that dBB extracts sulfur from thiols with α- or β-hydrogens, thus leading to higher BTE formation than from sulfide alone. Taken together, the dBB method is a highly sensitive method for H2S but is not compatible for use in studies in which other thiols are present. PMID:25632344

  13. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  14. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  15. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  19. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  20. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  1. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  2. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  3. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  4. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  5. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  6. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  7. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  8. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  9. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  10. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  11. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  14. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  15. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  16. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  17. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. PMID:25490128

  18. Simulating heat addition via mass addition in constant area compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, W. H.; McClure, W. B.; Wood, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    A study conducted demonstrated the striking similarity between the influence of heat addition and mass addition on compressible flows. These results encourage the belief that relatively modest laboratory experiments employing mass addition can be devised that will reproduce the leading phenomena of heat addition, such as the axial variation of properties, choking, and wall-boundary-layer separation. These suggest that some aspects of the complex behavior of dual-mode ramjet/scramjet combustors could be experimentally evaluated or demonstrated by replacing combustion with less expensive, more easily controlled, and safer mass addition.

  19. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  20. Hiding personal information reveals the worst

    PubMed Central

    John, Leslie K.; Barasz, Kate; Norton, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Seven experiments explore people’s decisions to share or withhold personal information, and the wisdom of such decisions. When people choose not to reveal information—to be “hiders”—they are judged negatively by others (experiment 1). These negative judgments emerge when hiding is volitional (experiments 2A and 2B) and are driven by decreases in trustworthiness engendered by decisions to hide (experiments 3A and 3B). Moreover, hiders do not intuit these negative consequences: given the choice to withhold or reveal unsavory information, people often choose to withhold, but observers rate those who reveal even questionable behavior more positively (experiments 4A and 4B). The negative impact of hiding holds whether opting not to disclose unflattering (drug use, poor grades, and sexually transmitted diseases) or flattering (blood donations) information, and across decisions ranging from whom to date to whom to hire. When faced with decisions about disclosure, decision-makers should be aware not just of the risk of revealing, but of what hiding reveals. PMID:26755591

  1. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  2. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  3. US weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  4. On the nature of growth and new growth based on experiments designed to reveal a structure and function for laboratory space. Part I. A synopsis of experimental results and discussion (thermodynamics aspects, transmission of cell radiations, the role of oxygen).

    PubMed

    Reid, B L

    1989-06-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the contribution of space existing outside the immediate range of chemical reactions of crystal growth and biological phenomena with special reference to growth. Results have been interpreted on the basis that space has both structure and function. Properties derived from the interpretation include action at a distance, memory and the ability to sustain matter in steady states which inter alia constitute patterns of growth. A throughflow (or dissipation) of space was shown necessary to sustain the pattern. Patterns so formed in biomatter can reproduce themselves as virtual images which can be rescued as real images which exhibit a remarkable fidelity of copy. The discussion enters contributions to the prime idea that space has structure and function by recource to modern ideas on non-linear thermodynamics, radiations between cells, quantum field theory and vortex theory, only the first two of which are treated in this paper. PMID:2755366

  5. Multiplicative and additive Adelson's snake illusions.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Two different versions of Adelson's snake lightness illusion are quantitatively investigated. In one experiment an additive version of the illusion is investigated by varying the additive component of the atmosphere transfer function (ATF) introduced by Adelson [2000, in The New Cognitive Neuroscience Ed. M Gazzaniga (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) pp 339-351]. In the other, a multiplicative version of the illusion is examined by varying the multiplicative component of the ATE In both experiments four observers matched the targets' lightness of the snake patterns with Munsell samples. Increasing the additive or the multiplicative component elicited an approximately equal increase in the magnitude of the lightness illusion. The results show that both components, in the absence of other kinds of information, can be used as heuristics by our visual system to anchor luminance of the object when converting it into lightness. PMID:19189728

  6. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    PubMed

    Voordeckers, Karin; Kominek, Jacek; Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-11-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  7. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; De Maeyer, Dries; Arslan, Ahmed; Van Pee, Michiel; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Yang, Yudi; Zhu, Bo; Marchal, Kathleen; DeLuna, Alexander; Van Noort, Vera; Jelier, Rob; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts. PMID:26545090

  8. An Examination of Game-Based Learning from Theories of Flow Experience and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…

  9. Revealing advantage in a quantum network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Sarkar, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    The assumption of source independence was used to reveal nonlocal (apart from standard Bell-CHSH scenario) nature of correlations generated in entanglement swapping experiments. In this work, we have discussed the various utilities of this assumption to reveal nonlocality (via generation of nonbilocal correlations) and thereby exploiting quantumness under lesser requirements compared to some standard means of doing the same. We have also provided with a set of sufficient criteria, imposed on the states (produced by the sources) under which source independence can reveal nonbilocal nature of correlations in a quantum network.

  10. The Decisive Moment Revealed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zichittella, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Henri Cartier-Bresson's notion of the "aesthetic of the decisive moment" and its role in photographic composition. Argues that recording spontaneous moments from real life can produce significant and complex photographs. Suggests that instilling this technique in photography students frees them to experiment without fear of failure. (DSK)

  11. Discovery of two additional Jovian irregulars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandersen, M.; Gladman, B.; Jacobson, R.; Brozovic, M.; Veillet, C.

    2011-10-01

    In September 2010 Jupiter and Uranus passed each other on the sky. This allowed our team to easily recover many Jovian and Uranian irregular satellites with uncertain orbits. In addition to the planned recoveries, our observations revealed two previously undetected Jovian irregular satellites. Jacobson et al. [3] and Veillet et al. [7] provided the discovery data for S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2, respectively. Follow up observations in October 2010 to January 2011 indicates that these are ˜1 km objects on bound retrograde orbits. However, the fitted orbits are still too uncertain to determine which, if any, satellite group these additional satellites belong to [2]. We will obtain additional observations in July and August 2011, allowing us to present accurate orbital and grouping information.

  12. Experience with Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine, and Melphalan Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Nonmalignant Diseases Reveals Good Outcomes and That the Risk of Mixed Chimerism Depends on Underlying Disease, Stem Cell Source, and Alemtuzumab Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rebecca A.; Rao, Marepalli B.; Gefen, Aharon; Bellman, Denise; Mehta, Parinda A.; Khandelwal, Pooja; Chandra, Sharat; Jodele, Sonata; Myers, Kasiani C.; Grimley, Michael; Dandoy, Christopher; El-Bietar, Javier; Kumar, Ashish R.; Leemhuis, Tom; Zhang, Kejian; Bleesing, Jack J.; Jordan, Michael B.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Davies, Stella M.

    2015-01-01

    Alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens are increasingly used for the hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) of pediatric and young adult patients with nonmalignant diseases. Early experience suggests that these regimens are associated with good survival but a high incidence of mixed chimerism, which we have previously shown to be influenced by the alemtuzumab schedule. We hypothesized that the underlying diagnosis and donor graft source would also affect the development of mixed chimerism and that the majority of patients would survive RIC HCT without graft loss. To examine this, we conducted a retrospective study of 206 patients with metabolic diseases, non-Fanconi anemia marrow failure disorders, and primary immune deficiencies who underwent 210 consecutive RIC HCT procedures at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital. Ninety-seven percent of the patients engrafted. Mixed donor and recipient chimerism developed in 46% of patients. Patients with marrow failure had a low risk of mixed chimerism (hazard ratio [HR], .208; 95% confidence interval [CI], .061 to .709; P = .012). The risk of mixed chimerism was high in patients who received a cord blood graft (HR, 3.122; 95% CI, 1.236 to 7.888; P = .016). As expected, patients who received a proximal or higher dose per kilogram of alemtuzumab schedule also experienced higher rates of mixed chimerism (all HR > 2, all P < .05). At the time of last follow-up (median, 654 days; range, 13 to 3337), over 75% of patients had greater than 90% whole blood donor chimerism. A second transplantation was performed in 5% of patients. Three-year survival without retransplantation was 84% (95% CI, 71% to 98%) for patients who underwent transplantation with an HLA-matched sibling donor. Survival without retransplantation was negatively affected by lack of a matched related donor, increasing age, and development of grades III and IV acute graft-versus-host disease. We conclude that alemtuzumab

  13. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  14. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  15. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  16. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  17. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  18. A Proposed Instructional Theory for Integer Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Michelle; Akyuz, Didem

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a 7th-grade classroom teaching experiment that supported students' understanding of integer addition and subtraction. The experiment was conducted to test and revise a hypothetical learning trajectory so as to propose a potential instructional theory for integer addition and subtraction. The instructional…

  19. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  20. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  1. Revealing the Beast Within

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  2. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  3. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  4. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  5. Augmented Annotation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Genome Reveals Additional Genes Required for Growth and Viability

    PubMed Central

    Bitton, Danny A.; Wood, Valerie; Scutt, Paul J.; Grallert, Agnes; Yates, Tim; Smith, Duncan L.; Hagan, Iain M.; Miller, Crispin J.

    2011-01-01

    Genome annotation is a synthesis of computational prediction and experimental evidence. Small genes are notoriously difficult to detect because the patterns used to identify them are often indistinguishable from chance occurrences, leading to an arbitrary cutoff threshold for the length of a protein-coding gene identified solely by in silico analysis. We report a systematic reappraisal of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome that ignores thresholds. A complete six-frame translation was compared to a proteome data set, the Pfam domain database, and the genomes of six other fungi. Thirty-nine novel loci were identified. RT-PCR and RNA-Seq confirmed transcription at 38 loci; 33 novel gene structures were delineated by 5′ and 3′ RACE. Expression levels of 14 transcripts fluctuated during meiosis. Translational evidence for 10 genes, evolutionary conservation data supporting 35 predictions, and distinct phenotypes upon ORF deletion (one essential, four slow-growth, two delayed-division phenotypes) suggest that all 39 predictions encode functional proteins. The popularity of S. pombe as a model organism suggests that this augmented annotation will be of interest in diverse areas of molecular and cellular biology, while the generality of the approach suggests widespread applicability to other genomes. PMID:21270388

  6. A study of vertebra number in pigs confirms the association of vertnin and reveals additional QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Formation of the vertebral column is a critical developmental stage in mammals. The strict control of this process has resulted in little variation in number of vertebrae across mammalian species and no variation within most mammalian species. The pig is quite unique as considerable vari...

  7. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  8. Microbially mediated cobalt oxidation in seawater revealed by radiotracer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.G.; Fisher, N.S. )

    1993-12-01

    The influence of microbial activity on Co and Mn oxidation in decomposing diatom cultures was determined with radiotracer techniques. Adding a consortium of microorganisms collected from coastal seawater (0.2-3-[mu]m size fraction) to the cultures increased particulate Co formation rates at 18[degrees]C by an order of magnitude (to 3.8% d[sup [minus]1]) and particulate Mn formation rates 3-fold (to 7.9% d[sup [minus

  9. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  10. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  11. "Scientific Method" through Laboratory Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Allen L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes how a sulfate-iodide "clock reaction" experiment can be used to emphasize the importance of observations and hypotheses in revealing cause-effect relationships. Investigative steps, theory, experimental principle, procedure, and the experiment report are discussed. (CS)

  12. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  13. Carbon additions and grain defect formation in directionally solidified nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, Sammy

    Over the past fifty years, technological advances leading up to the development of modern high-performance turbine engines for aircraft and power generation applications have coincided with significant engineering accomplishments in the area of Ni-base superalloy metallurgy. As the levels of refractory alloying additions to these Ni-base superalloys increase to enhance high-temperature mechanical properties, grain defect formation, particularly the development of freckle chains, during directional solidification has become an increasingly important problem. In this dissertation, the effect of carbon additions on the solidification characteristics of single crystal Ni-base superalloys has been investigated over a wide range of composition. Using statistically designed experiments, carbon additions of 0.1 to 0.125 wt. % were shown to be beneficial in stabilizing against the formation of grain defects due to thermosolutal convective instabilities. Detailed analyses were performed on the single crystal castings to identify the underlying mechanisms by which the carbon additions improve the solidification characteristics. In addition to forming Ta-rich MC carbides during solidification, the carbon additions were also revealed to influence the segregation behavior of the constituent elements in a manner that was beneficial in suppressing the formation of freckle defects during solidification. Using a segregation mapping technique, less segregation of rhenium, tungsten and tantalum was measured in the carbon containing alloys. Carbide formation during solidification was studied using differential thermal analysis. The influence of carbon additions on the solidification characteristics of the experimental single crystal alloys was assessed using a dimensionless Rayleigh analysis. Based on these analyses, the physical presence of carbides during the initial stages of solidification was also shown to inhibit the formation of freckle defects. In this investigation, carbon

  14. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  15. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  16. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  19. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  20. Plant transcriptomes reveal hidden guests.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao; Wang, Guirong; Pelosi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    With the wide adoption of transcriptome sequencing an ever increasing amount of information is becoming available, together with spurious data originating from contamination. We show that sometimes errors and inaccuracy can turn beneficial, revealing insect and arthropod pests when analysing plant transcriptomes. We have found a large number of soluble olfactory proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs), in plant databases, likely due to contamination by guest insects. In fact, both classes of proteins are only expressed in insects, with few CSPs also present in other arthropods. In addition, we found many sequences of the Niemann-Pick (Npc2) family, proteins dedicated to cholesterol transport in vertebrates and hypothesised to be involved in chemical communication in insects, but absent in plants. In several cases we were able to trace down members of the three classes of proteins to the insect or arthopod species responsible for contamination. Our work suggests that genes found in plants and recognised as contaminants can be turned into useful information to investigate plant-insect relationships or to identify new sequences from insects species not yet investigated. PMID:27130825

  1. Middle atmosphere composition revealed by satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. M., III; Solomon, S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Miller, A. J.; Barnett, J. J.; Jones, R. L.; Rusch, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    A series of plots that describe the state of the stratosphere and to some degree, the mesosphere as revealed by satellite observations are shown. The pertinent instrument features, spatial and temporal coverage, and details of accuracy and precision for the experiments providing the data were described. The main features of zonal mean cross sections and polar stereographic projections were noted and intercomparisons were discussed where a parameter was measured by more than one experiment. The main purpose was to collect the available data in one place and provide enough inforamation on limitations or cautions about the data so that they could be used in model comparisons and science studies.

  2. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  3. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  4. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  5. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  6. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  7. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  8. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  9. Asphalt and asphalt additives. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Contents: use of asphalt emulsions for in-place recycling: oregon experience; gap-graded cold asphalt concrete: benefits of polymer-modified asphalt cement and fibers; cold in-place recycling for rehabilitation and widening of low-volume flexible pavements in indiana; in situ cold recycling of bituminous pavements with polymer-modified high float emulsions; evaluation of new generation of antistripping additives; correlation between performance-related characteristics of asphalt cement and its physicochemical parameters using corbett's fractions and hpgc; reaction rates and hardening susceptibilities as determined from pressure oxygen vessel aging of asphalts; evaluation of aging characteristics of asphalts by using tfot and rtfot at different temperature levels; summary of asphalt additive performance at selected sites; relating asphalt absorption to properties of asphalt cement and aggregate; study of the effectiveness of styrene-butadiene rubber latex in hot mix asphalt mixes; stability of straight and polymer-modified asphalts.

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  11. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  12. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Upon written request describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to... additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

  13. Mathematics Anxiety Effects in Simple and Complex Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Michael W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports three experiments that show that anxiety effects were prominent in two-column addition problems, especially those involving carrying. Elaborates a theory of mathematics anxiety. Contains 50 references. (SKS)

  14. APEX reveals glowing stellar nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Illustrating the power of submillimetre-wavelength astronomy, an APEX image reveals how an expanding bubble of ionised gas about ten light-years across is causing the surrounding material to collapse into dense clumps that are the birthplaces of new stars. Submillimetre light is the key to revealing some of the coldest material in the Universe, such as these cold, dense clouds. Glowing Stellar Nurseries ESO PR Photo 40/08 Glowing Stellar Nurseries The region, called RCW120, is about 4200 light years from Earth, towards the constellation of Scorpius. A hot, massive star in its centre is emitting huge amounts of ultraviolet radiation, which ionises the surrounding gas, stripping the electrons from hydrogen atoms and producing the characteristic red glow of so-called H-alpha emission. As this ionised region expands into space, the associated shock wave sweeps up a layer of the surrounding cold interstellar gas and cosmic dust. This layer becomes unstable and collapses under its own gravity into dense clumps, forming cold, dense clouds of hydrogen where new stars are born. However, as the clouds are still very cold, with temperatures of around -250˚ Celsius, their faint heat glow can only be seen at submillimetre wavelengths. Submillimetre light is therefore vital in studying the earliest stages of the birth and life of stars. The submillimetre-wavelength data were taken with the LABOCA camera on the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, located on the 5000 m high plateau of Chajnantor in the Chilean Atacama desert. Thanks to LABOCA's high sensitivity, astronomers were able to detect clumps of cold gas four times fainter than previously possible. Since the brightness of the clumps is a measure of their mass, this also means that astronomers can now study the formation of less massive stars than they could before. The plateau of Chajnantor is also where ESO, together with international partners, is building a next generation submillimetre telescope, ALMA

  15. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  16. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  17. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  18. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  20. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  1. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  2. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  3. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  4. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  5. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  6. Lightning Climatology with a Generalized Additive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Thorsten; Mayr, Georg; Umlauf, Nikolaus; Zeileis, Achim

    2016-04-01

    This study present a lightning climatology on a 1km x 1km grid estimated via generalized additive models (GAM). GAMs provide a framework to account for non-linear effects in time and space and for non-linear spatial-temporal interaction terms simultaneously. The degrees of smoothness of the non-linear effects is selected automatically in our approach. Furthermore, the influence of topography is captured in the model by including a non-linear term. To illustrate our approach we use lightning data from the ALDIS networks and selected a region in Southeastern Austria, where complex terrain extends from 200 an 3800 m asl and summertime lightning activity is high compared to other parts of the Eastern Alps. The temporal effect in the GAM shows a rapid increase in lightning activity in early July and a slow decay in activity afterwards. The estimated spatial effect is not very smooth and requires approximately 225 effective degrees of freedom. It reveals that lightning is more likely in the Eastern and Southern part of the region of interest. This spatial effect only accounts for variability not already explained by the topography. The topography effect shows lightning to be more likely at higher altitudes. The effect describing the spatio-temporal interactions takes approximately 200 degrees of freedom, and reveals local deviations of the climatology.

  7. Limits of control: the effects of uncontrollability experiences on the efficiency of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Marcin; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Marzecová, Anna; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of experiencing uncontrollability on the efficiency of attentional control. The experience of uncontrollability was induced either by unsolvable tasks (Experiment 1) or by tasks in which non-contingent feedback was provided (Experiment 2). A version of the Attentional Network Test-Interactions with an additional measure of vigilance (ANTI-V) was used to evaluate the efficiency of the attentional networks (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive). Results of both experiments revealed a decreased efficiency of executive attention in participants who experienced stable control deprivation but no negative effects in participants who were able to restore their sense of previously deprived control. Additionally, when participants were asked to perform unsolvable tasks and did not receive feedback (Experiment 1), detrimental effects on the orienting network and vigilance were observed. The motivational and cognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of various uncontrollability experiences on conflict resolution and attentional control are discussed. PMID:25482404

  8. Reveal for Salmonella test system.

    PubMed

    Bird, C B; Miller, R L; Miller, B M

    1999-01-01

    The Reveal for Salmonella (RSS) test system is a presumptive qualitative test that detects the presence of Salmonella organisms in foods within 21 h total testing time, allowing the user to release negative products 24 h earlier than when using other rapid test kits. Foods are enriched with a proprietary resuscitation medium called Revive and then selectively enriched with either Selenite Cystine or Rappaport-Vassiliadis selective media. The enriched culture is used to inoculate the RSS detection device, which initiates a lateral flow through a reagent zone containing anti-Salmonella antibodies conjugated to colloidal gold particles that capture antigens present in the culture. The antigen-antibody complex migrates farther and is captured by an additional anti-Salmonella antibody, causing the colloidal gold to precipitate and form a visual line, indicating a positive result. A procedural control line also will form regardless of the presence of Salmonella organisms to indicate the test is working properly. Existing AOAC Official Methods for Salmonella organisms require a 48 h enrichment before testing. Hence, a food product has to be held before release, adding extra cost to the company and the consumer. The RSS test system was evaluated by quantitative spiking studies. Although AOAC encourages inclusion of naturally contaminated foods, almost all microbiological AOAC validation studies have been performed with artificially contaminated foods for absolute control over the study. The RSS test system is designed to test many food types for Salmonella organisms and has a limit of detection of 5-10 colony-forming units (cfu)/25 g with a false-negative rate of < 1% and a false-positive rate of < 5.0%. It showed an 81% overall agreement with the traditional procedure of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service. PMID:10367381

  9. Pyrolysis of Carbonaceous Foundry Sand Additives: Seacoal and Gilsonite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seacoal and gilsonite are used by the foundry industry as carbonaceous additives in green molding sands. In this study, pyrolysis was used to simulate the heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience during metal casting. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to tent...

  10. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  11. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  12. Bubble formation in additive manufacturing of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Peters, Daniel C.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-05-01

    Bubble formation is a common problem in glass manufacturing. The spatial density of bubbles in a piece of glass is a key limiting factor to the optical quality of the glass. Bubble formation is also a common problem in additive manufacturing, leading to anisotropic material properties. In glass Additive Manufacturing (AM) two separate types of bubbles have been observed: a foam layer caused by the reboil of the glass melt and a periodic pattern of bubbles which appears to be unique to glass additive manufacturing. This paper presents a series of studies to relate the periodicity of bubble formation to part scan speed, laser power, and filament feed rate. These experiments suggest that bubbles are formed by the reboil phenomena why periodic bubbles result from air being trapped between the glass filament and the substrate. Reboil can be detected using spectroscopy and avoided by minimizing the laser power while periodic bubbles can be avoided by a two-step laser melting process to first establish good contact between the filament and substrate before reflowing the track with higher laser power.

  13. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  14. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  15. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  16. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  17. Amine-intercalated α-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Dai, Wei; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, three types of amines intercalated α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of α-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators.

  18. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  19. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  20. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  1. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  2. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  3. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1993-01-01

    Modeling plays a vital role in providing physical insights into behavior revealed by experiment. The program at the University of Illinois is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena through the analytical and numerical modeling of a variety of configurations undergoing experimental study in NASA's microgravity combustion program. Significant progress has been made in two areas: (1) flame-balls, studied experimentally by Ronney and his co-workers; (2) particle-cloud flames studied by Berlad and his collaborators. Additional work is mentioned below. NASA funding for the U. of Illinois program commenced in February 1991 but work was initiated prior to that date and the program can only be understood with this foundation exposed. Accordingly, we start with a brief description of some key results obtained in the pre - 2/91 work.

  4. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  5. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  6. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  7. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  8. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  9. Students' Perspectives on University Experiences; The Role of Protective Factors in Students' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jdaitawi, Malek; Maya-Panorama; Nawafleh, Ahmad; Nabrawi, Ismaeel; Talafha, Feras; Mohd, Amani

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between protective factors and students' university experiences among 289 first year university students. The study made use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to reveal initial support for the research variables. In addition, path analysis was utilized to investigate the relationship among the…

  10. Enhancement of Corrosion Resistance of Zinc Coatings Using Green Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punith Kumar, M. K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, morphology, microstructure, and electrochemical behavior of Zn coatings containing non-toxic additives have been investigated. Zn coatings were electrodeposited over mild steel substrates using Zn sulphate baths containing four different organic additives: sodium gluconate, dextrose, dextrin, and saccharin. All these additives are "green" and can be derived from food contents. Morphological and structural characterization using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and texture co-efficient analysis revealed an appreciable alteration in the morphology and texture of the deposit depending on the type of additive used in the Zn plating bath. All the Zn coatings, however, were nano-crystalline irrespective of the type of additive used. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis, used to investigate the effect of the change in microstructure and morphology on corrosion resistance behavior, illustrated an improved corrosion resistance for Zn deposits obtained from plating bath containing additives as compared to the pure Zn coatings.

  11. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  12. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  13. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  14. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF POWER BUILDING WITH ADDITION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF POWER BUILDING WITH ADDITION. NOTE WINDOW OPENINGS, WHICH ARE MERELY OPENINGS IN THE BOARD AND BATTEN SIDING AND REVEAL THE CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILDING. - Radar Station B-71, Power Building, Coastal Drive, Klamath, Del Norte County, CA

  15. Efficient Improvement of Silage Additives by Using Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Zoe S.; Gilbert, Richard J.; Merry, Roger J.; Kell, Douglas B.; Theodorou, Michael K.; Griffith, Gareth W.

    2000-01-01

    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e., no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a “fitness” value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a “cost” element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage

  16. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-06-27

    This research is directed towards the development of engineering guidelines that define the application of distributed fuel addition as a technique for NOx abatement. It is expected that multiple fuel and air addition in the post-flame of a combustion process will increase free radical concentrations which destroy nitrogenous species and thus help them decay toward their equilibrium concentrations, which can be very low in that region of the combustor. Screening experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale downfired combustor. The objective was to compare NOx emissions arising from various combustion configurations, including fuel and/or air staging. Although the primary focus of this research is on NO control, a secondary effort was directed towards the measurement of N2O emissions from various coal combustion processes. N2O has been identified as a trace gas responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion, and has been hypothesized to arise from combustion processes, in amounts roughly proportional to NO emissions. Results presented in this report showed that the ratio N2O/NO was far from constant. The introduction of secondary air into a combustion process was accompanied an increase in N2O emissions. The measured N2O was always less than 10 ppm even under the most favorable combustion conditions. Reburning with premixed fuel and air mixtures was not effective in reducing NO emissions.

  17. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  18. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  19. Layered gadolinium hydroxides for low-temperature magnetic cooling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PXRD analysis, SEM experiments, and isothermal magnetization curves. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05150a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Espallargas, Guillermo Mínguez; Lorusso, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Layered gadolinium hydroxides have revealed to be excellent candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. These materials behave as pure 2D magnetic systems with a Heisenberg–Ising critical crossover, induced by dipolar interactions. This 2D character and the possibility offered by these materials to be delaminated open the possibility of rapid heat dissipation upon substrate deposition. PMID:26256944

  20. Children's patterns of reasoning about reading and addition concepts.

    PubMed

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Canobi, Katherine H; Wood, Clare; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2010-06-01

    Children's reasoning was examined within two educational contexts (word reading and addition) so as to understand the factors that contribute to relational reasoning in the two domains. Sixty-seven 5- to 7-year-olds were given a series of related words to read or single-digit addition items to solve (interspersed with unrelated items). The frequency, accuracy, and response times of children's self-reports on the conceptually related items provided a measure of relational reasoning, while performance on the unrelated addition and reading items provided a measure of procedural skill. The results indicated that the children's ability to use conceptual relations to solve both reading and addition problems enhanced speed and accuracy levels, increased with age, and was related to procedural skill. However, regression analyses revealed that domain-specific competencies can best explain the use of conceptual relations in both reading and addition. Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that children differ according to the academic domain in which they first apply conceptual relations and these differences are related to individual variation in their procedural skills within these particular domains. These results highlight the developmental significance of relational reasoning in the context of reading and addition and underscore the importance of concept-procedure links in explaining children's literacy and arithmetical development. PMID:20481396

  1. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  2. Ischemic Colitis Revealing Polyarteritis Nodosa

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, Amira; Litaiem, Noureddine; Smiti Khanfir, M.; Ayadi, Sofiene; Nfoussi, Haifa; Houman, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is one of the most common intestinal ischemic injuries. It results from impaired perfusion of blood to the bowel and is rarely caused by vasculitis. We report a case of ischemic colitis revealing polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) in a 55-year-old man. Histological examination of the resected colon led to the diagnosis of PAN. PMID:24382967

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  5. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  6. Effect of sulfur additions on soil and the nutrition of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.J.; Maples, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to determine the effects of four sulfur (S) sources applied at various rates on the elemental composition of Coker 747/sup 3/ wheat and on the soil S concentration. The concentration of S in plants increased by all sources of applied S. Increased S in the soil from S application decreased P concentrations in plants regardless of the S source used. Sulfur additions did not significantly affect the concentrations of Cu, Ca, Mg, or N in plants. The concentrations of Mn, Zn, and Fe in plants either increased or decreased depending on S source used. Analysis of the silt loam soil to a depth of 90 cm revealed that applied S moved readily from the surface to the lower depths and that the elemental form of S moved less rapidly than the more soluble forms of applied S.

  7. Benefits of additives application during combustion of phytomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacka, Matej; Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Phytomass, particularly wheat straw as a source of energy has countless benefits, but it has many problems in its direct burn too. The worst problem is the ash flow temperature. The aim of study was to analyze and reduce the problems of the wheat straw combustion. The experiment was conducted under realistic conditions. In this paper was implemented analysis of ash features with and without adding additives into the wheat straw. Selected samples were laboratory processed and examined. The result of the work was the impact of additional additives for ash features.

  8. Sufficient dimension reduction with additional information.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung; Liu, Chih-Yen; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction is widely applied to help model building between the response [Formula: see text] and covariate [Formula: see text] In some situations, we also collect additional covariate [Formula: see text] that has better performance in predicting [Formula: see text], but has a higher obtaining cost, than [Formula: see text] While constructing a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] is straightforward, this strategy is not applicable since [Formula: see text] is not available for future observations in which the constructed model is to be applied. As a result, the aim of the study is to build a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] only, where the available data is [Formula: see text] A naive method is to conduct analysis using [Formula: see text] directly, but ignoring [Formula: see text] can cause the problem of inefficiency. On the other hand, it is not trivial to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] to infer [Formula: see text], either. In this article, we propose a two-stage dimension reduction method for [Formula: see text] that is able to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] In the breast cancer data, the risk score constructed from the two-stage method can well separate patients with different survival experiences. In the Pima data, the two-stage method requires fewer components to infer the diabetes status, while achieving higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:26704765

  9. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  10. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data has been "generalized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. SLM-produced IN718, tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of-experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  11. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  12. Overnight lexical consolidation revealed by speech segmentation.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Nicolas; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments explored the consolidation of spoken words, and assessed whether post-sleep novel competitor effects truly reflect engagement of these novel words in competition for lexical segmentation. Two types of competitor relationships were contrasted: the onset-aligned case (such as "frenzylk"), where the novel word is a close variant of the existing word: they start at the same time point and overlap on most of their segments; and the fully embedding case (such as "lirmucktoze"), where the existing word corresponds to a smaller embedded portion of its novel competitor and is thus less noticeable. Experiment 1 (pause detection) revealed a similar performance for both cases, with no competitor effect immediately after exposure, but significant inhibition after 24 h and seven days. Experiment 2 (word spotting) produced exactly the same pattern; however, as is the case with existing word carriers (cf. McQueen, Norris, & Cutler, 1994), the inhibition was much stronger for fully embedded than for onset-aligned targets (e.g., "lirmuckt" vs. "frenzyl"). Meanwhile, explicit measures of learning, i.e., free recall and recognition, improved over time. These results cannot be explained by either consolidation of episodic traces or acquisition of new phonological/dialectal variants. We argue instead that they reflect a general trait of vocabulary learning and consolidation. PMID:22261419

  13. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  14. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  15. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  16. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  17. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  18. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  19. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  20. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  1. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  2. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  3. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a color additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for...

  4. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  5. Microscopic study reveals the singular origins of growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaari, G.; Nowak, A.; Rakocy, K.; Solomon, S.

    2008-04-01

    Anderson [Science 177, 293 (1972)] proposed the concept of complexity in order to describe the emergence and growth of macroscopic collective patterns out of the simple interactions of many microscopic agents. In the physical sciences this paradigm was implemented systematically and confirmed repeatedly by successful confrontation with reality. In the social sciences however, the possibilities to stage experiments to validate it are limited. During the 90's a series of dramatic political and economic events have provided the opportunity to do so. We exploit the resulting empirical evidence to validate a simple agent based alternative to the classical logistic dynamics. The post-liberalization empirical data from Poland confirm the theoretical prediction that the dynamics is dominated by singular rare events which insure the resilience and adaptability of the system. We have shown that growth is led by few singular “growth centers" (Fig. 1), that initially developed at a tremendous rate (Fig. 3), followed by a diffusion process to the rest of the country and leading to a positive growth rate uniform across the counties. In addition to the interdisciplinary unifying potential of our generic formal approach, the present work reveals the strong causal ties between the “softer" social conditions and their “hard" economic consequences.

  6. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  7. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  8. Learning to Learn an Additional Language: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language…

  9. Relativistic Velocity Addition Law from Machine Gun Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Many derivations of the relativistic addition law of parallel velocities without use of the Lorentz transformations (LT) are known. Some of them are based on thought experiments that require knowledge of the time dilation and the length contraction effects. Other derivations involve the Doppler effect in the optic domain considered from three…

  10. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  11. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  12. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  13. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  14. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  15. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association. PMID:23000939

  16. The Effect of Cerium Oxide Addition on the Properties and Behavior of Y-TZP

    PubMed Central

    Ragurajan, D.; Satgunam, M.; Golieskardi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of CeO2 addition on the sintering behavior and mechanical properties of Y-TZP have been investigated over a wide sintering regime by pressureless sintering. It has been revealed that small additions of CeO2 (0.3–1.0 wt%) to Y-TZP were beneficial in enhancing the mechanical properties and hydrothermal ageing resistance of Y-TZP. Sintered samples were used to evaluate the bulk density, Vickers's hardness, Young's modulus, and fracture toughness of the material. CeO2 doped Y-TZPs were sintered at relatively low temperatures (1250°C and 1350°C) retaining high bulk density (>97% of theoretical density) and high Young's modulus (>200 GPa) without sacrificing tetragonal phase stability. The optimum level of dopant was found to be at 0.5 wt% for sintering between 1250°C and 1450°C using the standard 2 h holding time cycle, with sintered body exhibiting excellent combination of properties when compared to the undoped ceramics. In this experiment, the addition of 0.5 wt% recorded a bulk density reading of 5.9 g/cm3, Vickers hardness value of 13.2 GPa, Young's modulus value of 211 GPa, and fracture toughness of 6.4 MPam1/2, respectively, in a temperature range of 1400–1450°C.

  17. Twofold polyketide branching by a stereoselective enzymatic Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Heine, Daniel; Sundaram, Srividhya; Bretschneider, Tom; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-06-18

    The versatility of the branching module of the rhizoxin polyketide synthase was tested in an in vitro enzyme assay with a polyketide mimic and branched (di)methylmalonyl-CoA extender units. Comparison of the products with synthetic reference compounds revealed that the module is able to stereoselectively introduce two branches in one step by a Michael addition-lactonisation sequence, thus expanding the scope of previously studied PKS systems. PMID:25994388

  18. THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRAJEWSKI,R.F.; ANDREWS,J.W.; WEI,G.

    1999-09-01

    A laboratory experiment has been conducted which tests for the effects of distribution system purging on system Delivery Effectiveness (DE) as defined in ASHRAE 152P. The experiment is described in its configuration, instrumentation, and data acquisition system. Data gathered in the experiment is given and discussed. The results show that purging of the distribution system alone does not offer any improvement of the system DE. Additional supporting tests were conducted regarding experimental simulations of buffer zones and bare pipe and are also discussed.

  19. Investigation on the Clogging Behavior and Additional Wall Cooling for the Axial-Injection Cold Spray Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Bo; Lv, Jinsheng; Yin, Shuo

    2015-04-01

    During the cold spray process, nozzle clogging always happens when spraying low-melting point materials, e.g., aluminum, significantly decreasing the working efficiency. In this paper, a comprehensive investigation was carried out to clarify the reason for inducing nozzle clogging and then to evaluate a home-made nozzle cooling device for preventing nozzle clogging. Computational fluid dynamics technique was employed as the main method with some necessary experiment validation. It is found that the particle dispersion and the high-temperature nozzle wall at the near-throat region are two dominant factors that cause nozzle clogging. The numerical results also reveal that the home-made cooling device can significantly reduce the nozzle wall temperature, which was validated by the experimental measurement. Besides, the aluminum coating build-up experiment further indicates that the additional cooling device can truly prevent the nozzle clogging.

  20. Semantic priming revealed by mouse movement trajectories.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Congruency effects are taken as evidence that semantic information can be processed automatically. However, these effects are often weak, and the straightforward association between primes and targets can exaggerate congruency effects. To address these problems, a mouse movement method is applied to scrutinize congruency effects. In one experiment, participants judged whether two numbers were the same ("3\\3") or different ("3\\5"), preceded by briefly presented pictures with either positive or negative connotations. Participants indicated their responses by clicking a "Same" or "Different" button on the computer screen, while their cursor trajectories were recorded for each trial. The trajectory data revealed greater deviation to unselected buttons in incongruent trials (e.g., "3\\5" preceded by a green traffic light picture). This effect was influenced by the type of responses but not by prime durations. We suggest that the mouse movement method can complement the reaction time to study masked semantic priming. PMID:24797040

  1. Get real: Effects of repeated simulation and emotion on the perceived plausibility of future experiences

    PubMed Central

    Szpunar, Karl K.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    People frequently imagine specific interpersonal experiences that might occur in their futures. The present study used a novel experimental paradigm to examine the influence of repeated simulation of future interpersonal experiences on subjective assessments of plausibility for positive, negative, and neutral events. The results demonstrate that repeated simulation increases estimates of plausibility for emotional, but not neutral, future interpersonal experiences. Additional correlational analyses reveal that increases in plausibility for emotional events are associated with concurrent increases in ease of simulation, event detail, and arousal. Implications for daily life and affective disorders such as depression and anxiety are noted. PMID:22686637

  2. Network Reconstruction Using Nonparametric Additive ODE Models

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, James; Michailidis, George

    2014-01-01

    Network representations of biological systems are widespread and reconstructing unknown networks from data is a focal problem for computational biologists. For example, the series of biochemical reactions in a metabolic pathway can be represented as a network, with nodes corresponding to metabolites and edges linking reactants to products. In a different context, regulatory relationships among genes are commonly represented as directed networks with edges pointing from influential genes to their targets. Reconstructing such networks from data is a challenging problem receiving much attention in the literature. There is a particular need for approaches tailored to time-series data and not reliant on direct intervention experiments, as the former are often more readily available. In this paper, we introduce an approach to reconstructing directed networks based on dynamic systems models. Our approach generalizes commonly used ODE models based on linear or nonlinear dynamics by extending the functional class for the functions involved from parametric to nonparametric models. Concomitantly we limit the complexity by imposing an additive structure on the estimated slope functions. Thus the submodel associated with each node is a sum of univariate functions. These univariate component functions form the basis for a novel coupling metric that we define in order to quantify the strength of proposed relationships and hence rank potential edges. We show the utility of the method by reconstructing networks using simulated data from computational models for the glycolytic pathway of Lactocaccus Lactis and a gene network regulating the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. For purposes of comparison, we also assess reconstruction performance using gene networks from the DREAM challenges. We compare our method to those that similarly rely on dynamic systems models and use the results to attempt to disentangle the distinct roles of linearity, sparsity, and derivative

  3. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  4. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured, in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the n-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a “phylogenetic tree” across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study many additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  6. Saturn's secrets revealed - A special report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, C.

    1980-11-01

    Scientific results of the encounter of Voyager 1 with Saturn are reported. Instruments on the Voyager spacecraft, which was launched on September 5, 1977 and flew within 124,200 km of the Saturn cloud tops on November 12, 1980, revealed the presence of several hundred rings within the six visible from earth, as well as eccentric rings, braiding and clumps within the narrow F ring, and spoke-like structures in the B ring. During its flight beneath the ring plane, Voyager 1 also discovered that the rings extend toward the visible surface of the cloud tops, and are composed of ice chunks or silicate with an icy coating about a meter in diameter. Observations of Titan revealed the satellite to have a dense atmosphere, composed primarily of molecular nitrogen, with as many as three layers of haze above the cloud tops. Three additional moons of Saturn were discovered apparently focusing ring particles, and the moon Janus, discovered from earth in 1966, was shown to be actually two moons. Close approaches to other Saturn satellites show Mimas, Tethys, Dione and Rhea to be heavily cratered, icy bodies, some with features indicating they had been struck by objects almost large enough to shatter them. Surface features on Saturn, which is covered by a deep layer of haze, and the details of the Saturn magnetosphere have also been observed.

  7. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  8. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  9. 20 CFR 901.72 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional rules. 901.72 Section 901.72... Additional rules. The Joint Board may, in notice or other guidance of general applicability, provide additional rules regarding the enrollment of actuaries. Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 17776, Mar. 31,...

  10. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  11. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10...) REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading...

  12. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  13. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  14. 77 FR 49783 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/22/2012 (77 FR 37659-37660), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  16. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  17. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to determine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section...

  18. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/31/2013 (78 FR 32631-32632); 6/7/2013 (78 FR 34350-34351); and 6/14/2013 (78 FR... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information. 75.231 Section 75.231 Education... Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  1. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  2. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  3. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  4. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  5. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  6. 12 CFR 1249.19 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional provisions. 1249.19 Section 1249.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 1249.19 Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under this part, an Enterprise may require such...

  7. 75 FR 33269 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  9. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  10. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  11. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  12. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 75 FR 54114 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/2/2010 (75 FR 38467-38468) and 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  15. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  18. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in...

  19. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  20. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  1. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  2. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  3. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  4. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  5. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  6. 77 FR 17034 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/13/2012 (77 FR 2048), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  7. 75 FR 39497 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/14/2010 (75 FR 27313), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. 78 FR 59658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/26/2013 (78 FR 45183); 8/9/2013 (78 FR 48656-48657) and 8/16/ 2013 (78 FR 50040... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  9. 77 FR 12816 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/24/2011 (76 FR 37069-37070) and 1/6/2012 (77 FR 780), the Committee for Purchase... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  10. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 10/14/2011 (76 FR 63905-63906) and 10/28/2011 (76 FR 66913- 66914), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  11. 75 FR 21246 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/26/2010 (75 FR 8927), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  12. 75 FR 43152 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/28/2010 (75 FR 29994-29995) and 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 75 FR 29995 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 12/18/2009 (74 FR 67176-67177), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List....

  15. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/25/2011 (76 FR 10571), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  16. 77 FR 59595 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/9/2012 (77 FR 40344-40345) and 7/20/2012 (77 FR 42701-42702), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  17. 76 FR 35415 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  18. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769) and 10/1/2010 (75 FR 60739-60740), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. 78 FR 16476 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...: Additions On 1/18/2013 (78 FR 4133-4134), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  1. 75 FR 70908 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 9/24/2010 (75 FR 58367), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  2. 75 FR 58366 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271) and 7/16/2010 (75 FR 41451), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  3. 75 FR 52723 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  4. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do not... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  5. 47 CFR 74.28 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 74.28 Section 74.28... Services in Part 74 § 74.28 Additional orders. In case the rules contained in this part do not cover all... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  6. 27 CFR 19.967 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional security. 19..., Equipment and Security § 19.967 Additional security. If the appropriate TTB officer finds that security is... diversion of spirits to unauthorized purposes, additional security measures may be required. Such...

  7. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  8. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  9. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  10. Effects of chemical additives on microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.; Chase, K.L.; Bertus, K.M.; Stepp, A.K.

    1989-12-01

    An extensive laboratory study has been conducted to determine (1) the role of the microbial cells and products in oil displacement, (2) the relative rates of transport of microbial cells and chemical products from the metabolism of nutrient in porous media, and (3) the effects of chemical additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. This report describes experiments relating to the effects of additives on oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations. The effects of additives on the oil recovery efficiency of microbial formulations were determined by conducting oil displacement experiments in 1-foot-long Berea sandstone cores. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer, a lignosulfonate surfactant, and sodium bicarbonate were added to a microbial formulation at a concentration of 1%. The effects of using these additives in a preflush prior to injection of the microbial formulation were also evaluated. Oil-displacement experiments with and without a sodium bicarbonate preflush were conducted in 4-foot-long Berea sandstone cores, and samples of in situ fluids were collected at various times at four intermediate points along the core. The concentrations of metabolic products and microbes in the fluid samples were determined. 9 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives... of a color additive petition to change a provisionally listed color additive to permanent listing...

  12. ADME-Tox profiles of some food additives and pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, Dana; Modra, Dorina; Isvoran, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    Within this study we compute the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles of several commonly used food additives and some pesticides. As expected, all the food additives considered in this study provided to be safe, their ADME-Tox profiles indicating that they have a good oral bioavailability and they do not produce phosphoslipidosis. The ADME-Tox profiles of the pesticides indicate that, with a few exceptions, they are highly toxic (some of them being not approved in the EU, but still used in other countries) and may cause many diseases. Our results are in good agreement with published data concerning the considered food additives and pesticides revealing that the ADME-Tox profiling method may be successfully used to test other chemicals than drug candidates.

  13. Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  14. Simulated Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snadden, R. B.; Runquist, O.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an experiment in which a programmable calculator is employed as a data generating system for simulated laboratory experiments. The example used as an illustration is a simulated conductimetric titration of an aqueous solution of HC1 with an aqueous solution of NaOH. (Author/EB)

  15. TRIO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  16. CMB source apportionment during REVEAL

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenthal, D.H.; Gertler, A.W.; Wittorff, D.; Sakiyama, S.

    1997-01-01

    Source contributions to PM{sub 2.5} aerosol measured at Chilliwack and Pitt Meadows in the Lower Fraser Valley, B.C., Canada, during the REVEAL study, were estimated using chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling. ON average, motor vehicles accounted for 34 and 43% of PM{sub 2.5} at Chilliwack and Pitt Meadows, respectively. Secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate were the next most significant PM{sub 2.5} components, accounting for 25 and 27%, respectively, at Chilliwack, and 27 and 12%, respectively, at Pitt Meadows. Geological material accounted for 3 and 5% of PM{sub 2.5} at Chilliwack and Pitt Meadows, respectively. A significant contribution of wood smoke was estimated for both sites: 8% at Chilliwack and 9% at Pitt Meadows.

  17. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2004-02-24

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  18. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  19. Erosion and what it Reveals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 20 November 2003

    This image is located near the boundary between Syrtis Major and Isidis Planitia. The top of the image shows rough material that has eroded away from the lower portion of the image, revealing an underlying surface that has many small craters. It also reveals an ancient flow lobe that is barely discernable, crossing the southern part of the image (this flow lobe is much easier to see as a smooth region in the context image).

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16.4, Longitude 77.9 East (282.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Dunes reveal Titan's recent history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Christopher J.; Radebaugh, Jani

    2010-04-01

    Large fields of linear dunes are abundant on Titan, covering nearly 20% of the surface. They are among the youngest features and represent interactions between near-surface winds and sediment. This interaction may vary from area to area creating unique populations of eolian features identified by dune field parameters such as crest-to-crest spacing, dune width and orientation. These parameters respond to changes in near-surface conditions over periods of time ranging from minutes to many thousands of years depending on dune size and the duration of the changes. While pattern analysis of dune field parameters on Earth and, in this study, Titan reveals much about current climatic conditions, such as wind regimes and wetter vs. drier areas, many inferences about past conditions can also be made. Initial pattern analysis of linear dunes on Titan reveals a single population of linear dunes representing a large percentage of all observed dunes. This single population is the result of two leading possibilities: Either there has been only one long period of dune building, leading to very old cores that have been built upon over long periods of time, perhaps punctuated with few or many intervals of non-deposition; or the current conditions of dune building have persisted long enough to completely erase any evidence of previous conditions. We have not yet worked through all the input parameters to adjust Earth's time scales to Titan's, and thus it is not yet possible to give a precise age for Titan's dunes. However, if these large linear dunes are similar to Earth's large linear dunes, they may represent at least several thousand years of dune building.

  1. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  2. Molecular Aluminum Additive for Burn Enhancement of Hydrocarbon Fuels.

    PubMed

    Guerieri, Philip M; DeCarlo, Samantha; Eichhorn, Bryan; Connell, Terrence; Yetter, Richard A; Tang, Xin; Hicks, Zachary; Bowen, Kit H; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-11-12

    Additives to hydrocarbon fuels are commonly explored to change the combustion dynamics, chemical distribution, and/or product integrity. Here we employ a novel aluminum-based molecular additive, Al(I) tetrameric cluster [AlBrNEt3]4 (Et = C2H5), to a hydrocarbon fuel and evaluate the resultant single-droplet combustion properties. This Al4 cluster offers a soluble alternative to nanoscale particulate additives that have recently been explored and may mitigate the observed problems of particle aggregation. Results show the [AlBrNEt3]4 additive to increase the burn rate constant of a toluene-diethyl ether fuel mixture by ∼20% in a room temperature oxygen environment with only 39 mM of active aluminum additive (0.16 wt % limited by additive solubility). In comparison, a roughly similar addition of nano-aluminum particulate shows no discernible difference in burn properties of the hydrocarbon fuel. High speed video shows the [AlBrNEt3]4 to induce microexplosive gas release events during the last ∼30% of the droplet combustion time. We attribute this to HBr gas release based on results of temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) experiments of the [AlBrNEt3]4 dosed with O2 and D2O. A possible mechanism of burn rate enhancement is presented that is consistent with microexplosion observations and TPR results. PMID:26488461

  3. The Basics of How to Reveal Epilepsy--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittan, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    In the April 2009 edition of "Exceptional Parent," Part One of this series explored why, for their own emotional well-being, it is so important for parents to tell others about their or their child's epilepsy. This month's installment will discuss the basics of how to reveal epilepsy to others, including some additional advantages one receives in…

  4. Nuclear RNA-seq of single neurons reveals molecular signatures of activation

    PubMed Central

    Lacar, Benjamin; Linker, Sara B.; Jaeger, Baptiste N.; Krishnaswami, Suguna; Barron, Jerika; Kelder, Martijn; Parylak, Sarah; Paquola, Apuã; Venepally, Pratap; Novotny, Mark; O'Connor, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Erwin, Jennifer; Hsu, Jonathan Y.; Husband, David; McConnell, Michael J.; Lasken, Roger; Gage, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell sequencing methods have emerged as powerful tools for identification of heterogeneous cell types within defined brain regions. Application of single-cell techniques to study the transcriptome of activated neurons can offer insight into molecular dynamics associated with differential neuronal responses to a given experience. Through evaluation of common whole-cell and single-nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) methods, here we show that snRNA-seq faithfully recapitulates transcriptional patterns associated with experience-driven induction of activity, including immediate early genes (IEGs) such as Fos, Arc and Egr1. SnRNA-seq of mouse dentate granule cells reveals large-scale changes in the activated neuronal transcriptome after brief novel environment exposure, including induction of MAPK pathway genes. In addition, we observe a continuum of activation states, revealing a pseudotemporal pattern of activation from gene expression alone. In summary, snRNA-seq of activated neurons enables the examination of gene expression beyond IEGs, allowing for novel insights into neuronal activation patterns in vivo. PMID:27090946

  5. Molecular force modulation spectroscopy revealing the dynamic response of single bacteriorhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Janovjak, Harald; Müller, Daniel J; Humphris, Andrew D L

    2005-02-01

    Recent advances in atomic force microscopy allowed globular and membrane proteins to be mechanically unfolded on a single-molecule level. Presented is an extension to the existing force spectroscopy experiments. While unfolding single bacteriorhodopsins from native purple membranes, small oscillation amplitudes (6-9 nm) were supplied to the vertical displacement of the cantilever at a frequency of 3 kHz. The phase and amplitude response of the cantilever-protein system was converted to reveal the elastic (conservative) and viscous (dissipative) contributions to the unfolding process. The elastic response (stiffness) of the extended parts of the protein were in the range of a few tens pN/nm and could be well described by the derivative of the wormlike chain model. Discrete events in the viscous response coincided with the unfolding of single secondary structure elements and were in the range of 1 microNs/m. In addition, these force modulation spectroscopy experiments revealed novel mechanical unfolding intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin. We found that kinks result in a loss of unfolding cooperativity in transmembrane helices. Reconstructing force-distance spectra by the integration of amplitude-distance spectra verified their position, offering a novel approach to detect intermediates during the forced unfolding of single proteins. PMID:15574708

  6. Nuclear RNA-seq of single neurons reveals molecular signatures of activation.

    PubMed

    Lacar, Benjamin; Linker, Sara B; Jaeger, Baptiste N; Krishnaswami, Suguna; Barron, Jerika; Kelder, Martijn; Parylak, Sarah; Paquola, Apuã; Venepally, Pratap; Novotny, Mark; O'Connor, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Erwin, Jennifer; Hsu, Jonathan Y; Husband, David; McConnell, Michael J; Lasken, Roger; Gage, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell sequencing methods have emerged as powerful tools for identification of heterogeneous cell types within defined brain regions. Application of single-cell techniques to study the transcriptome of activated neurons can offer insight into molecular dynamics associated with differential neuronal responses to a given experience. Through evaluation of common whole-cell and single-nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) methods, here we show that snRNA-seq faithfully recapitulates transcriptional patterns associated with experience-driven induction of activity, including immediate early genes (IEGs) such as Fos, Arc and Egr1. SnRNA-seq of mouse dentate granule cells reveals large-scale changes in the activated neuronal transcriptome after brief novel environment exposure, including induction of MAPK pathway genes. In addition, we observe a continuum of activation states, revealing a pseudotemporal pattern of activation from gene expression alone. In summary, snRNA-seq of activated neurons enables the examination of gene expression beyond IEGs, allowing for novel insights into neuronal activation patterns in vivo. PMID:27090946

  7. Recognition of two additional pine-feeding Neodiprion species (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) in the eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence studies revealed two additional species of Neodiprion in eastern United States, and morphological studies support their recognition. One, which is sympatric with and morphologically similar to Neodiprion abbotii (Leach) in southeastern United States, is recognized as Neodiprion fabrici...

  8. Systems-Based Analyses of Brain Regions Functionally Impacted in Parkinson's Disease Reveals Underlying Causal Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Emig-Agius, Dorothea; Bessarabova, Marina; Ivliev, Alexander E.; Schüle, Birgit; Alexander, Jeff; Wallace, William; Halliday, Glenda M.; Langston, J. William; Braxton, Scott; Yednock, Ted; Shaler, Thomas; Johnston, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of disease-affected tissue provides insight into molecular mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis. Substantia nigra, striatum, and cortex are functionally connected with increasing degrees of alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. We undertook functional and causal pathway analysis of gene expression and proteomic alterations in these three regions, and the data revealed pathways that correlated with disease progression. In addition, microarray and RNAseq experiments revealed previously unidentified causal changes related to oligodendrocyte function and synaptic vesicle release, and these and other changes were reflected across all brain regions. Importantly, subsets of these changes were replicated in Parkinson's disease blood; suggesting peripheral tissue may provide important avenues for understanding and measuring disease status and progression. Proteomic assessment revealed alterations in mitochondria and vesicular transport proteins that preceded gene expression changes indicating defects in translation and/or protein turnover. Our combined approach of proteomics, RNAseq and microarray analyses provides a comprehensive view of the molecular changes that accompany functional loss and alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease, and may be instrumental to understand, diagnose and follow Parkinson's disease progression. PMID:25170892

  9. Near earth propagation: physics revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wert, R.; Goroch, A.; Worthington, E.; Wong, V.

    2007-04-01

    Both the military and consumer sectors are pursuing distributed networked systems and sensors. A major stumbling block to deployment of these sensors will be the radio frequency (RF) propagation environment within a few wavelengths of the earth. Increasing transmit power (battery consumption) is not a practical solution to the problem. This paper will discuss some of the physical phenomena related to the near earth propagation (NEP) problem. When radiating near the earth the communications link is subjected to a list of physical impairments. On the list are the expected Fresnel region encroachment and multipath reflections. Additionally, radiation pattern changes and near earth boundary layer perturbations exist. A significant amount of data has been collected on NEP. Disturbances in the NEP atmosphere can have a time varying attenuation related to the time of day and these discoveries will be discussed. Solutions, or workarounds, to the near earth propagation problem hinge on dynamic adaptive RF elements. Adaptive RF elements will allow the distributed sensor to direct energy, beam form, impedance correct, increase communication efficiency, and decrease battery consumption. Small electrically controllable elements are under development to enable antenna impedance matching in a dynamic environment. Additionally, small dynamic beam forming arrays are under development to focus RF energy in the direction of need. With an increased understanding of the near earth propagation problem, distributed autonomous networked sensors can become a reality within a few centimeters of the earth.

  10. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  11. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.

    The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.

    The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.

    The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.

    The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.

    This image and

  12. 3D printed microfluidic circuitry via multijet-based additive manufacturing†

    PubMed Central

    Sochol, R. D.; Sweet, E.; Glick, C. C.; Venkatesh, S.; Avetisyan, A.; Ekman, K. F.; Raulinaitis, A.; Tsai, A.; Wienkers, A.; Korner, K.; Hanson, K.; Long, A.; Hightower, B. J.; Slatton, G.; Burnett, D. C.; Massey, T. L.; Iwai, K.; Lee, L. P.; Pister, K. S. J.; Lin, L.

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated fluidic processors affords extensive benefits for chemical and biological fields, yet traditional, monolithic methods of microfabrication present numerous obstacles for the scaling of fluidic operators. Recently, researchers have investigated the use of additive manufacturing or “three-dimensional (3D) printing” technologies – predominantly stereolithography – as a promising alternative for the construction of submillimeter-scale fluidic components. One challenge, however, is that current stereolithography methods lack the ability to simultaneously print sacrificial support materials, which limits the geometric versatility of such approaches. In this work, we investigate the use of multijet modelling (alternatively, polyjet printing) – a layer-by-layer, multi-material inkjetting process – for 3D printing geometrically complex, yet functionally advantageous fluidic components comprised of both static and dynamic physical elements. We examine a fundamental class of 3D printed microfluidic operators, including fluidic capacitors, fluidic diodes, and fluidic transistors. In addition, we evaluate the potential to advance on-chip automation of integrated fluidic systems via geometric modification of component parameters. Theoretical and experimental results for 3D fluidic capacitors demonstrated that transitioning from planar to non-planar diaphragm architectures improved component performance. Flow rectification experiments for 3D printed fluidic diodes revealed a diodicity of 80.6 ± 1.8. Geometry-based gain enhancement for 3D printed fluidic transistors yielded pressure gain of 3.01 ± 0.78. Consistent with additional additive manufacturing methodologies, the use of digitally-transferrable 3D models of fluidic components combined with commercially-available 3D printers could extend the fluidic routing capabilities presented here to researchers in fields beyond the core engineering community. PMID:26725379

  13. 3D printed microfluidic circuitry via multijet-based additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sochol, R D; Sweet, E; Glick, C C; Venkatesh, S; Avetisyan, A; Ekman, K F; Raulinaitis, A; Tsai, A; Wienkers, A; Korner, K; Hanson, K; Long, A; Hightower, B J; Slatton, G; Burnett, D C; Massey, T L; Iwai, K; Lee, L P; Pister, K S J; Lin, L

    2016-02-21

    The miniaturization of integrated fluidic processors affords extensive benefits for chemical and biological fields, yet traditional, monolithic methods of microfabrication present numerous obstacles for the scaling of fluidic operators. Recently, researchers have investigated the use of additive manufacturing or "three-dimensional (3D) printing" technologies - predominantly stereolithography - as a promising alternative for the construction of submillimeter-scale fluidic components. One challenge, however, is that current stereolithography methods lack the ability to simultaneously print sacrificial support materials, which limits the geometric versatility of such approaches. In this work, we investigate the use of multijet modelling (alternatively, polyjet printing) - a layer-by-layer, multi-material inkjetting process - for 3D printing geometrically complex, yet functionally advantageous fluidic components comprised of both static and dynamic physical elements. We examine a fundamental class of 3D printed microfluidic operators, including fluidic capacitors, fluidic diodes, and fluidic transistors. In addition, we evaluate the potential to advance on-chip automation of integrated fluidic systems via geometric modification of component parameters. Theoretical and experimental results for 3D fluidic capacitors demonstrated that transitioning from planar to non-planar diaphragm architectures improved component performance. Flow rectification experiments for 3D printed fluidic diodes revealed a diodicity of 80.6 ± 1.8. Geometry-based gain enhancement for 3D printed fluidic transistors yielded pressure gain of 3.01 ± 0.78. Consistent with additional additive manufacturing methodologies, the use of digitally-transferrable 3D models of fluidic components combined with commercially-available 3D printers could extend the fluidic routing capabilities presented here to researchers in fields beyond the core engineering community. PMID:26725379

  14. Experience Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laslett, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The author, a tertiary chemistry teacher, spent a period of six weeks in a research project with an industrial firm. Describes his experience, the benefits and insight he gained from such an exchange. (GA)

  15. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  16. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  17. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  18. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  19. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  20. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...