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Sample records for additional explanatory variables

  1. Predicting conditional means of explanatory variables for energy-demand forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Parti, M.; Parti, C.B.; Gould, D.M.; Parris, K.M.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of the research was to explore the feasibility of an economic and statistical approach to the problem of forecasting the conditional means of variables used to predict appliance-specific energy demand. The technique recognizes the necessity of using conditional means of explanatory variables, and it takes into account the changing distributions of these variables over time. Statistical relationships are used to derive the probability distribution of the explanatory variables, given ownership of an appliance such as a pool heater. The conditional means of the explanatory variables can then be calculated on the basis of this conditional probability distribution. The present research has found sizable differences in forecasts of appliance-specific energy demand generated from the conditional means approach and the non-specific approach.

  2. Addendum: Factor Analysis of Explanatory Variables in an Achievement Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Combining explanatory variables into factors instead of using individual variables in an achievement production function is advocated in several of the articles in this special issue. This article provides a brief overview of factor analysis explaining and illustrating the reasoning for this technique. There is a linchpin: Factor analysis is an…

  3. Self-Consciousness and Assertiveness as Explanatory Variables of L2 Oral Ability: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on current theories in personality, second-language (L2) oral ability, and psychometrics, this study investigates the extent to which self-consciousness and assertiveness are explanatory variables of L2 oral ability. Three hundred sixty first-year Japanese university students who were studying English as a foreign language participated in…

  4. A case study of alternative site response explanatory variables in Parkfield, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Morgan, E.C.; Kaklamanos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of densely-spaced strong-motion stations in Parkfield, California, and spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) profiles provides an ideal dataset for assessing the accuracy of different site response explanatory variables. We judge accuracy in terms of spatial coverage and correlation with observations. The performance of the alternative models is period-dependent, but generally we observe that: (1) where a profile is available, the square-root-of-impedance method outperforms VS30 (average S-wave velocity to 30 m depth), and (2) where a profile is unavailable, the topographic-slope method outperforms surficial geology. The fundamental site frequency is a valuable site response explanatory variable, though less valuable than VS30. However, given the expense and difficulty of obtaining reliable estimates of VS30 and the relative ease with which the fundamental site frequency can be computed, the fundamental site frequency may prove to be a valuable site response explanatory variable for many applications. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  5. Detection of outliers in the response and explanatory variables of the simple circular regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Ehab A.; Rana, Sohel; Hussin, Abdul Ghapor; Midi, Habshah

    2016-06-01

    The circular regression model may contain one or more data points which appear to be peculiar or inconsistent with the main part of the model. This may be occur due to recording errors, sudden short events, sampling under abnormal conditions etc. The existence of these data points "outliers" in the data set cause lot of problems in the research results and the conclusions. Therefore, we should identify them before applying statistical analysis. In this article, we aim to propose a statistic to identify outliers in the both of the response and explanatory variables of the simple circular regression model. Our proposed statistic is robust circular distance RCDxy and it is justified by the three robust measurements such as proportion of detection outliers, masking and swamping rates.

  6. Remotely sensed vegetation moisture as explanatory variable of Lyme borreliosis incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, J. M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Maes, P.; Clement, J.; Aerts, J. M.; Farifteh, J.; Lagrou, K.; Van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

    2012-08-01

    The strong correlation between environmental conditions and abundance and spatial spread of the tick Ixodes ricinus is widely documented. I. ricinus is in Europe the main vector of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen causing Lyme borreliosis (LB). Humidity in vegetated systems is a major factor in tick ecology and its effects might translate into disease incidence in humans. Time series of two remotely sensed indices with sensitivity to vegetation greenness and moisture were tested as explanatory variables of LB incidence. Wavelet-based multiresolution analysis allowed the examination of these signals at different temporal scales in study sites in Belgium, where increases in LB incidence were reported in recent years. The analysis showed the potential of the tested indices for disease monitoring, the usefulness of analyzing the signal in different time frames and the importance of local characteristics of the study area for the selection of the vegetation index.

  7. A new method for dealing with measurement error in explanatory variables of regression models.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Fainberg, Vitaly; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a new method, moment reconstruction, of correcting for measurement error in covariates in regression models. The central idea is similar to regression calibration in that the values of the covariates that are measured with error are replaced by "adjusted" values. In regression calibration the adjusted value is the expectation of the true value conditional on the measured value. In moment reconstruction the adjusted value is the variance-preserving empirical Bayes estimate of the true value conditional on the outcome variable. The adjusted values thereby have the same first two moments and the same covariance with the outcome variable as the unobserved "true" covariate values. We show that moment reconstruction is equivalent to regression calibration in the case of linear regression, but leads to different results for logistic regression. For case-control studies with logistic regression and covariates that are normally distributed within cases and controls, we show that the resulting estimates of the regression coefficients are consistent. In simulations we demonstrate that for logistic regression, moment reconstruction carries less bias than regression calibration, and for case-control studies is superior in mean-square error to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we give an example of the use of moment reconstruction in linear discriminant analysis and a nonstandard problem where we wish to adjust a classification tree for measurement error in the explanatory variables. PMID:15032787

  8. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and the effect of explanatory variables in paramedic trainees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency healthcare workers, including trainees and individuals in related occupations are at heightened risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression owing to work-related stressors. We aimed to investigate the type, frequency, and severity of direct trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms and other psychopathology amongst paramedic trainees. In order to create a risk profile for individuals who are at higher occupational risk of developing PTSD, we examined risk and resilience factors that possibly contributed to the presence and severity of posttraumatic symptomatology. Methods Paramedic trainees (n = 131) were recruited from a local university. A logistic regression analysis was conducted using the explanatory variables age, gender, population group, trauma exposure, depression, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, resilience and social support. Results 94% of paramedic trainees had directly experienced trauma, with 16% meeting PTSD criteria. A high rate of depression (28%), alcohol abuse (23%) and chronic perceived stress (7%) and low levels of social support was found. The number of previous trauma exposures, depression, resilience and social support significantly predicted PTSD status and depression had a mediating effect. Conclusion There is a need for efficient, ongoing screening of depressive and PTSD symptomatology in trauma exposed high risk groups so that early psychological supportive interventions can be offered. PMID:24755358

  9. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  10. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A.; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students’ level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students’ performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain. PMID:26441739

  11. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students' level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students' performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain. PMID:26441739

  12. Epistemological Posture as an Intellectual Variable: The Explanatory Modes Project, Background Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Douglas C.

    A useful means for conceptualizing important differences in the way people actually perceive issues regarding truth and knowledge is discussed. An individual's attitudes and beliefs concerning the nature of truth and knowledge, termed "epistemological posture," is developed as a psychological variable and compared to other variables such as…

  13. Relations of nonpoint-source nitrate and atrazine concentrations in the High Plains aquifer to selected explanatory variables in six Nebraska study areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druliner, A.D.; Chen, H.H.; McGrath, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical techniques were used to relate nonpoint-source ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine to a variety of explanatory variables for six study areas in Nebraska. Water samples were collected from 268 wells in 12 counties from 1984 through 1987 and were analyzed for nitrate concentrations; water samples from 210 of the wells were analyzed for atrazine. A number of hydrochemical, climatic, hydrologic, soil, and land-use explanatory variables, which were believed to affect the contamination of ground water by agricultural chemicals, were identified and quantified for each of the 268 wells. Multiple regression methods were used to determine which explanatory variables were statistically related to ground-water concentrations of nitrate and atrazine. Regression models predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations were produced that explained from about 50 to 68 percent of the variation in the dependent variables. Geographic- information-system methods were used to produce maps predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations in ground water for one study area using selected regression and logistic models. The results of this study indicate that multiple regression techniques coupled with geographic information systems can be an effective means of identifying areas of potential ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine.

  14. The relationship of explanatory flexibility to explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M

    2007-12-01

    Traditional cognitive vulnerability-stress models regarding the etiology of depression emphasize the content of the depressed individual's thoughts. One important cognitive content index, explanatory style, represents the habitual way that individuals assign causes to events that occur in their lives. A more contemporary model, however, emphasizes the cognitive process by which these attributions are made and to what extent the individual can make different attributions depending on the particular context of the event. This process is referred to as explanatory flexibility. Given that both indices of causal explanation are derived from the same assessment instrument, the Attributional Style Questionnaire, the current investigation sought to examine the extent to which the two variables can be differentiated from one another. Results indicated that explanatory style (a measure of cognitive content) and explanatory flexibility (a cognitive process measure) are empirically related, but distinct, constructs. PMID:18021947

  15. Explanatory models for psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2008-06-01

    How can we best develop explanatory models for psychiatric disorders? Because causal factors have an impact on psychiatric illness both at micro levels and macro levels, both within and outside of the individual, and involving processes best understood from biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives, traditional models of science that strive for single broadly applicable explanatory laws are ill suited for our field. Such models are based on the incorrect assumption that psychiatric illnesses can be understood from a single perspective. A more appropriate scientific model for psychiatry emphasizes the understanding of mechanisms, an approach that fits naturally with a multicausal framework and provides a realistic paradigm for scientific progress, that is, understanding mechanisms through decomposition and reassembly. Simple subunits of complicated mechanisms can be usefully studied in isolation. Reassembling these constituent parts into a functioning whole, which is straightforward for simple additive mechanisms, will be far more challenging in psychiatry where causal networks contain multiple nonlinear interactions and causal loops. Our field has long struggled with the interrelationship between biological and psychological explanatory perspectives. Building from the seminal work of the neuronal modeler and philosopher David Marr, the author suggests that biology will implement but not replace psychology within our explanatory systems. The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes. PMID:18483135

  16. Explanatory style and illness.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C; Seligman, M E

    1987-06-01

    Explanatory style is an individual difference that influences people's response to bad events. The present article discusses the possibility that a pessimistic explanatory style makes illness more likely. Several studies suggest that people who offer internal, stable, and global explanations for bad events are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. We tentatively conclude that passivity, pessimism, and low morale foreshadow disease and death, although the process by which this occurs is unclear. PMID:3612470

  17. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test: adult norms and moderator variables.

    PubMed

    Wiens, A N; Fuller, K H; Crossen, J R

    1997-08-01

    This study examined the performance of a sample of 821 healthy job applicants on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Subjects had previously passed basic academic skills tests and physical examinations and were deemed free of cognitive impairment and medical illness. They were also motivated to perform well on cognitive tests. Gender, ethnicity, and education were not significant moderator variables in our subjects. Age and IQ did significantly affect PASAT test results. Normative data are stratified by age and WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores to be useful to those who administer the PASAT in clinical practice. PMID:9342683

  18. The Variable Transition State in Polar Additions to Pi Bonds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2010-01-01

    A vast majority of polar additions of Bronsted acids to alkynes involve a termolecular transition state. With strong acids, considerable positive charge is developed on carbon and Markovnikov addition predominates. In less acidic solutions, however, the reaction is much slower and the transition state more closely resembles the olefinic product.…

  19. Explanatory style and academic performance among college students beginning a major course of study.

    PubMed

    LaForge, Mary C; Cantrell, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Explanatory style, a cognitive variable, reflects how people typically explain the causes of bad events involving themselves. Explanatory style emerged from the attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness and depression model as a way of explaining individual differences in response to uncontrollability. A central prediction of the reformulation is that people with habitual explanatory tendencies differ, and individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style will be more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms following bad events than individuals with an optimistic explanatory style. 116 upper-level undergraduates beginning a degree program at this university completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Scores were correlated with students' cumulative grade point averages and their total points earned in Consumer Behavior, the first course required in the Marketing major. Students with pessimistic explanatory style scores outperformed colleagues with optimistic explanatory style scores. Implications of these findings and possible explanations for why explanatory style did not correlate in the theoretically predicted way with academic achievement are considered. PMID:12841458

  20. Intra-Site Variability in the Still Bay Fauna at Blombos Cave: Implications for Explanatory Models of the Middle Stone Age Cultural and Technological Evolution.

    PubMed

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    To explain cultural and technological innovations in the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, scholars invoke several factors. A major question in this research theme is whether MSA technocomplexes are adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions and subsistence strategies or, on the contrary, to a wide range of different foraging behaviours. While faunal studies provide key information for addressing these factors, most analyses do not assess intra-technocomplex variability of faunal exploitation (i.e. variability within MSA phases). In this study, we assess the spatial variability of the Still Bay fauna in one phase (M1) of the Blombos Cave sequence. Analyses of taxonomic composition, taphonomic alterations and combustion patterns reveal important faunal variability both across space (lateral variation in the post-depositional history of the deposits, spatial organisation of combustion features) and over time (fine-scale diachronic changes throughout a single phase). Our results show how grouping material prior to zooarchaeological interpretations (e.g. by layer or phase) can induce a loss of information. Finally, we discuss how multiple independent subdivisions of archaeological sequences can improve our understanding of both the timing of different changes (for example in technology, culture, subsistence, environment) and how they may be inter-related. PMID:26658195

  1. Intra-Site Variability in the Still Bay Fauna at Blombos Cave: Implications for Explanatory Models of the Middle Stone Age Cultural and Technological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    To explain cultural and technological innovations in the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, scholars invoke several factors. A major question in this research theme is whether MSA technocomplexes are adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions and subsistence strategies or, on the contrary, to a wide range of different foraging behaviours. While faunal studies provide key information for addressing these factors, most analyses do not assess intra-technocomplex variability of faunal exploitation (i.e. variability within MSA phases). In this study, we assess the spatial variability of the Still Bay fauna in one phase (M1) of the Blombos Cave sequence. Analyses of taxonomic composition, taphonomic alterations and combustion patterns reveal important faunal variability both across space (lateral variation in the post-depositional history of the deposits, spatial organisation of combustion features) and over time (fine-scale diachronic changes throughout a single phase). Our results show how grouping material prior to zooarchaeological interpretations (e.g. by layer or phase) can induce a loss of information. Finally, we discuss how multiple independent subdivisions of archaeological sequences can improve our understanding of both the timing of different changes (for example in technology, culture, subsistence, environment) and how they may be inter-related. PMID:26658195

  2. Agricultural losses related to frost events: use of the 850 hPa level temperature as an explanatory variable of the damage cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannaki, K.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Papagiannakis, G.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is the analysis of damaging frost events in agriculture, by examining the relationship between the daily minimum temperature in the lower atmosphere (at an isobaric level of 850 hPa) and crop production losses. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodological approach for estimating agriculture risk due to frost events, with the aim of estimating the short-term probability and magnitude of frost-related financial losses for different levels of 850 hPa temperature. Compared with near-surface temperature forecasts, temperature forecasts at the level of 850 hPa are less influenced by varying weather conditions or by local topographical features; thus, they constitute a more consistent indicator of the forthcoming weather conditions. The analysis of the daily monetary compensations for insured crop losses caused by weather events in Greece shows that, during the period 1999-2011, frost caused more damage to crop production than any other meteorological phenomenon. Two regions of different geographical latitudes are examined further, to account for the differences in the temperature ranges developed within their ecological environment. Using a series of linear and logistic regressions, we found that minimum temperature (at an 850 hPa level), grouped into three categories according to its magnitude, and seasonality, are significant variables when trying to explain crop damage costs, as well as to predict and quantify the likelihood and magnitude of damaging frost events.

  3. Agricultural losses related to frost events: use of the 850 hPa level temperature as an explanatory variable of the damage cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannaki, K.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Papagiannakis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze frost damaging events in agriculture, by examining the relationship between the daily minimum temperature at the lower atmosphere (at the pressure level of 850 hPa) and crop production losses. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodological approach for estimating agriculture risk due to frost events, with the aim to estimate the short-term probability and magnitude of frost-related financial losses for different levels of 850 hPa temperature. Compared with near surface temperature forecasts, temperature forecast at the level of 850 hPa is less influenced by varying weather conditions, as well as by local topographical features, thus it constitutes a more consistent indicator of the forthcoming weather conditions. The analysis of the daily monetary compensations for insured crop losses caused by weather events in Greece, during the period 1999-2011, shows that frost is the major meteorological phenomenon with adverse effects on crop productivity in the largest part of the country. Two regions of different geographical latitude are further examined, to account for the differences in the temperature ranges developed within their ecological environment. Using a series of linear and logistic regressions, we found that minimum temperature (at 850 hPa level), grouped in three categories according to its magnitude, and seasonality are significant variables when trying to explain crop damage costs, as well as to predict and quantify the likelihood and magnitude of frost damaging events.

  4. The relative importance of body size and paleoclimatic change as explanatory variables influencing lineage diversification rate: an evolutionary analysis of bullhead catfishes (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae).

    PubMed

    Hardman, Michael; Hardman, Lotta M

    2008-02-01

    We applied Bayesian phylogenetics, divergence time estimation, diversification pattern analysis, and parsimony-based methods of ancestral state reconstruction to a combination of nucleotide sequences, maximum body sizes, fossils, and paleoclimate data to explore the influence of an extrinsic (climate change) and an intrinsic (maximum body size) factor on diversification rates in a North American clade of catfishes (Ictaluridae). We found diversification rate to have been significantly variable over time, with significant (or nearly significant) rate increases in the early history of Noturus. Though the latter coincided closely with a period of dramatic climate change at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we did not detect evidence for a general association between climate change and diversification rate during the entire history of Ictaluridae. Within Ictaluridae, small body size was found to be a near significant predictor of species richness. Morphological stasis of several species appears to be a consequence of a homoplastic increase in body size. We estimated the maximum standard length of the ictalurid ancestor to be approximately 50 cm, comparable to Eocene ictalurids (Astephus) and similar to modern sizes of Ameiurus and their Asian sister-taxon Cranoglanis. During the late Paleocene and early Eocene, the ictalurid ancestor diversified into the lineages represented by the modern epigean genera. The majority of modern species originated in the Oligocene and Miocene, most likely according to a peripheral isolates model of speciation. We discuss the difficulties of detecting macroevolutionary patterns within a lineage history and encourage the scrutiny of the terminal Eocene climatic event as a direct promoter of diversification. PMID:18288621

  5. The Relationship of Explanatory Flexibility to Explanatory Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michael T.; Fresco, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional cognitive vulnerability-stress models regarding the etiology of depression emphasize the content of the depressed individual's thoughts. One important cognitive content index, explanatory style, represents the habitual way that individuals assign causes to events that occur in their lives. A more contemporary model, however, emphasizes…

  6. Explanatory Style of Secondary Vocational Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Helen C.; Smith, Bettye P.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the explanatory style of secondary vocational education in Georgia (n=219) indicated that most had an optimistic explanatory style. Business teachers were most likely and agriculture teachers least likely to use this style. (JOW)

  7. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  8. Sex differences in depression and explanatory style in children.

    PubMed

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1991-04-01

    We report data from the first two years of a longitudinal study of depression, and explanatory style in children. Measures of these variables have been obtained from a group of elementary school children every six months since they were in the third grade. Results show that the boys consistently reported more depressive symptoms than the girls. This was particularly true for symptoms of anhedonia and behavioral disturbance. The boys also showed much more maladaptive explanatory styles than the girls. These results are discussed in light of previous studies of sex differences in children's attributions. Possible reasons for the expected switch in the sex differences in puberty are also discussed. PMID:24265008

  9. Explanatory style and Immunoglobulin A (IgA).

    PubMed

    Brennan, F X; Charnetski, C J

    2000-01-01

    The construct of explanatory style has been related to numerous aspects of human psychology, including health. Our research has focused on the effects of various psychological variables on the immune system, in particular Immunoglobulin A (IgA). We had participants fill out the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), the predominant measure of explanatory style, and assayed saliva samples for secretory IgA. No relationship was observed between overall ASQ score and IgA, or composite optimism score and IgA. However, we observed significant negative correlations between both the composite pessimism score and IgA, as well as the hopelessness score and IgA. Pessimistic explanatory style may therefore be related to immune system deficits and poor health. PMID:11330488

  10. Increased rainfall variability and N addition accelerate litter decomposition in a restored prairie.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition and projected increases in rainfall variability (the frequency of drought and heavy rainfall events) are expected to strongly influence ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition. However, how these two global change factors interact to influence litter decomposition is largely unknown. I examined how increased rainfall variability and nitrogen addition affected mass and nitrogen loss of litter from two tallgrass prairie species, Schizachyrium scoparium and Solidago canadensis, and isolated the effects of each during plant growth and during litter decomposition. I increased rainfall variability by consolidating ambient rainfall into larger events and simulated chronic nitrogen deposition using a slow-release urea fertilizer. S. scoparium litter decay was more strongly regulated by the treatments applied during plant growth than by those applied during decomposition. During plant growth, increased rainfall variability resulted in S. scoparium litter that subsequently decomposed more slowly and immobilized more nitrogen than litter grown under ambient conditions, whereas nitrogen addition during plant growth accelerated subsequent mass loss of S. scoparium litter. In contrast, S. canadensis litter mass and N losses were enhanced under either N addition or increased rainfall variability both during plant growth and during decomposition. These results suggest that ongoing changes in rainfall variability and nitrogen availability are accelerating nutrient cycling in tallgrass prairies through their combined effects on litter quality, environmental conditions, and plant community composition. PMID:26216200

  11. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; Mccallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-01-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  12. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; McCallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-05-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  13. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Urban, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter "The Explanatory Supplement") is a comprehensive reference book on the topic of positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce "The Astronomical Almanac" (AsA), an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) of the UK Hydrographic Office. The first edition of The Explanatory Supplement appeared in 1961 and was reprinted with amendments during the 1970s. The second edition was printed in 1992 and reprinted until 2006. Since the second edition, several changes have taken place in positional astronomy regarding reference systems and internationally accepted models, data sets, and computational methods; these have been incorporated into the AsA. Additionally, the data presented in the AsA have been modified over the years, with new tables being added and some being discontinued. Given these changes, a new edition of The Explanatory Supplement is appropriate. The third edition has been in development for the last few years and will be available in 2010. The book is organized similarly to the second (1991) edition, with each chapter written by subject matter experts. Authors from USNO and HMNAO contributed to the majority of the book, but there are authors from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical University of Dresden, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, University of Texas Austin, and University of Virginia. This paper will discuss this latest edition of the Explanatory Supplement.

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Determinism, indeterminism, and explanatory bias.

    PubMed

    Targett, M

    1997-12-01

    Actions are a subclass of human behaviours which are distinguished, on a modest view, by certain antecedent mental and neural processes and events, including desires and beliefs. Libertarian philosophies have taken a less modest view, according to which some actions come under the influence of individual persons in a way distinct from being the necessary effect of a sequence of psychoneural events. Determinism claims necessary connections between sequences of events and conditions, including those sequences that involve desires and beliefs and subsequent actions. Even if a certain interpretation of modern physics shows determinism to be false, the sense of personal influence over action which libertarians have remains obscure. It is not enlightened by the physicist's idea of inexplicable fluctuations between courses of events with greater or lesser probabilities. If libertarianism remains obscure, so do the grounds for an approach to explaining behaviour which might be called "explanatory individualism". According to the latter stance, the local outcomes of actions and larger social tendencies are only properly explained in terms of the choices of individuals, rather than, for example, their neural or environmental antecedents. Again, bare indeterminism will not help to supply the required grounds. A more justifiable stance is "explanatory pluralism", a doctrine which denies the intrinsic priority of individualistic modes of explanation over those which focus on psychoneural, environmental, social or genetic conditions. It is stressed that on a sensible pluralism, any determinism which correctly describes the history of actions would be no more "genetic", than indeterminism could be "individualistic". PMID:9421834

  16. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  17. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  18. Patient satisfaction: ethnic origin or explanatory model?

    PubMed

    Callan, A; Littlewood, R

    1998-01-01

    Despite concern over their psychiatric treatment, little is known about black and ethnic minority patient satisfaction with psychiatric services and whether perceived 'ethnicity' or discrepant understanding of illness experience is most relevant. Twenty-one white British and 63 ethnic minority patients were interviewed for their opinions on psychiatric in-patient care, their treatment preferences and their explanatory models of their illness. The most significant association with satisfaction was not ethnic origin but the patient's explanatory model of their illness which showed little association with ethnicity whether patients were voluntary or involuntary. Satisfaction is most likely when there is concordance between the patient's and psychiatrist's explanatory model. PMID:9574847

  19. Use of generalised additive models to categorise continuous variables in clinical prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In medical practice many, essentially continuous, clinical parameters tend to be categorised by physicians for ease of decision-making. Indeed, categorisation is a common practice both in medical research and in the development of clinical prediction rules, particularly where the ensuing models are to be applied in daily clinical practice to support clinicians in the decision-making process. Since the number of categories into which a continuous predictor must be categorised depends partly on the relationship between the predictor and the outcome, the need for more than two categories must be borne in mind. Methods We propose a categorisation methodology for clinical-prediction models, using Generalised Additive Models (GAMs) with P-spline smoothers to determine the relationship between the continuous predictor and the outcome. The proposed method consists of creating at least one average-risk category along with high- and low-risk categories based on the GAM smooth function. We applied this methodology to a prospective cohort of patients with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The predictors selected were respiratory rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood (PCO2), and the response variable was poor evolution. An additive logistic regression model was used to show the relationship between the covariates and the dichotomous response variable. The proposed categorisation was compared to the continuous predictor as the best option, using the AIC and AUC evaluation parameters. The sample was divided into a derivation (60%) and validation (40%) samples. The first was used to obtain the cut points while the second was used to validate the proposed methodology. Results The three-category proposal for the respiratory rate was ≤ 20;(20,24];> 24, for which the following values were obtained: AIC=314.5 and AUC=0.638. The respective values for the continuous predictor were AIC=317.1 and AUC=0.634, with no statistically

  20. Explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem among Asian American and European American college students.

    PubMed

    Kao, E M; Nagata, D K; Peterson, C

    1997-08-01

    Fifty-nine Asian American and 40 European American college students completed questionnaires measuring explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem. In both groups, a global explanatory style correlated with low self-esteem, but only among European Americans was an internal style associated with low self-esteem. The two groups differed in reported styles of family expressiveness, with Asian Americans indicating more emotional restraint. The participants who reported more negative submissiveness had a more global explanatory style, whereas those who reported more positive dominance had a less global explanatory style. An additional measure developed to assess attribution to collectivities did not distinguish the two groups. Results were discussed in terms of the cross-cultural generality of the learned helplessness reformulation. PMID:9248358

  1. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  2. Law school performance predicted by explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, J M; Monahan, J; Seligman, M E

    1997-01-01

    The explanatory styles of 387 law students were assessed prior to law school using the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Longitudinal performance measures were collected throughout law school and related to each student's initial explanatory style. In contrast to studies with undergraduates, students who made stable, global, and internal attributions for negative events combined with the converse attributions for success (typically called pessimists) outperformed more optimistic students on measures of grade point averages and law journal success. We discuss the limitations of current attributional research methodologies and suggest the prudent and cautious perspective necessary for law or skill-based professions may account for our findings. PMID:9160992

  3. Pathological Left-Handedness: An Explanatory Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Paul

    Reported was an explanatory conceptual model for pathological left-handedness (PLH) and related hypotheses, some of which could not be tested empirically due to lack of information. The model was reported to provide an explanation for the relationship between handedness and specific learning disability, and handedness and cerebral dominance for…

  4. 7 CFR 28.522 - Explanatory terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explanatory terms. 28.522 Section 28.522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND...

  5. Older Men's Explanatory Model for Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solimeo, Samantha L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Gold, Deborah T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the nature of men's experiences of osteoporosis by developing an understanding of men's explanatory models. Design and Methods: This descriptive study invited community-residing male osteoporosis patients aged 50+ to participate in interviews about osteoporosis. Participants were recruited from a hospital-affiliated bone…

  6. Pessimistic explanatory style and response to illness.

    PubMed

    Lin, E H; Peterson, C

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for illness, but the factors linking explanatory style and illness are unknown. One's characteristic response to poor health may mediate this relationship. Perhaps pessimistic individuals act helplessly in the face of their symptoms, thereby exacerbating disease. In the present study, we investigated this possibility by asking 96 young adults to complete measures of explanatory style, habitual response to illness, and ways of coping during their most recent episode of illness. Subjects who explain bad events pessimistically (with internal, stable, and global causes) reported more frequent illnesses during the past year and rated their overall health more poorly than those who habitually favor external, unstable, and specific explanations. When ill, the pessimistic subjects were less likely than their optimistic counterparts to take active steps to combat their illness. Our results suggest that one pathway leading from pessimistic explanatory style to poor health is mundane: passivity in the face of disease. PMID:2369407

  7. Spray droplet sizes with additives discharged from an air-assisted variable-rate nozzle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding droplet size distributions is essential to achieve constant spray quality for real-time variable-rate sprayers that synchronize spray outputs with canopy structures. Droplet sizes were measured for a custom-designed, air-assisted, five-port nozzle coupled with a pulse width modulated (...

  8. Addition of simultaneous heat and solute transport and variable fluid viscosity to SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, D.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    SEAWAT is a finite-difference computer code designed to simulate coupled variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. This paper describes a new version of SEAWAT that adds the ability to simultaneously model energy and solute transport. This is necessary for simulating the transport of heat and salinity in coastal aquifers for example. This work extends the equation of state for fluid density to vary as a function of temperature and/or solute concentration. The program has also been modified to represent the effects of variable fluid viscosity as a function of temperature and/or concentration. The viscosity mechanism is verified against an analytical solution, and a test of temperature-dependent viscosity is provided. Finally, the classic Henry-Hilleke problem is solved with the new code. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of an explanatory crop model at the regional scale using geospatial data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Explanatory, or process-based, crop models are computational tools that have been developed for a wide range of applications, such as optimizing crop production and simulating the effects of climate change. Crop models rely on a diverse set of input variables for predicting outcomes such as crop yie...

  10. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  11. How is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, Andrea I.

    2013-07-01

    Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight insights from these investigations that are salient for pedagogical concerns. Perhaps most importantly, this essay argues that science teachers should be mindful of the normative and prescriptive components of explanatory discourse both in the classroom and in science more generally. Giving attention to this dimension of explanation not only will do justice to the nature of explanatory activity in science but also will support the development of robust reasoning skills in science students while helping them understand an important respect in which science is more than a straightforward collection of empirical facts, and consequently, science education involves more than simply learning them.

  12. Explanatory style among elite ice hockey athletes.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Zaichkowsky, L

    1998-12-01

    Mentally tough' athletes show resilience and an ability to compete during adverse conditions. The present study investigated mental toughness and assessed causal explanations for positive and negative reactions to imagined events using Seligman's Attributional Style Questionnaire. Pessimistic Explanatory style on this scale is a risk factor for negative affect and behavior following negative events. 38 elite athletes in ice hockey were rated for mental toughness by the National Hockey League's scouts on consensually derived criteria. The comparison of players above and below the median split on mental toughness showed composite explanations for negative events that were more internal, stable and global for players above the median. Contrary to predictions, these results suggest that a Pessimistic Explanatory style may benefit hockey performance. PMID:9885080

  13. The effect of a negative mood priming challenge on dysfunctional attitudes, explanatory style, and explanatory flexibility.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramowitz, Adrienne; Bertram, Tara L

    2006-06-01

    Ninety-seven undergraduates, 48 of whom had a history of self-reported major depression, completed measures of mood and cognitive style (e.g. explanatory style, explanatory flexibility, dysfunctional attitudes) prior to and directly after a negative mood priming challenge that consisted of listening to sad music and thinking about an upsetting past event. Eighteen of the previously depressed participants endorsed baseline levels of depression, explanatory style for negative events, and dysfunctional attitudes higher than levels reported by never depressed participants or euthymic participants with a history of depression. All three groups (never depressed participants, dysphoric participants with a history of depression, euthymic participants with a history of depression) demonstrated increases in dysphoria and dysfunctional attitudes in response to the negative mood priming challenge. Dysphoric participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced modest increases in explanatory style following the negative mood priming challenge. Finally, euthymic participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced drops in explanatory flexibility. Findings from the present study suggest that the cognitive theories of depression may benefit from examining both cognitive content and cognitive flexibility when assessing risk for depression. PMID:16719978

  14. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  15. Children with autism spectrum disorder have an exceptional explanatory drive.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M D; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-08-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated problem-solving and explanation-seeking responses. In the physical context (but not the social context), the children with autism spectrum disorder showed a stronger explanatory drive than controls. Importantly, the number of explanatory behaviors made by children with autism spectrum disorder in the social context was independent of social and communicative impairments. Children with autism spectrum disorder did not show an exceptional explanatory drive in the social domain. These results suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder have an explanatory drive and that the explanatory drive may be domain specific. PMID:26503988

  16. Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clelland, Peggie L.

    The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

  17. Using instrumental variables to estimate a Cox's proportional hazards regression subject to additive confounding

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Tor D.; Morden, Nancy E.; Stukel, Therese A.; O'Malley, A. James

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of treatment effects is one of the primary goals of statistics in medicine. Estimation based on observational studies is subject to confounding. Statistical methods for controlling bias due to confounding include regression adjustment, propensity scores and inverse probability weighted estimators. These methods require that all confounders are recorded in the data. The method of instrumental variables (IVs) can eliminate bias in observational studies even in the absence of information on confounders. We propose a method for integrating IVs within the framework of Cox's proportional hazards model and demonstrate the conditions under which it recovers the causal effect of treatment. The methodology is based on the approximate orthogonality of an instrument with unobserved confounders among those at risk. We derive an estimator as the solution to an estimating equation that resembles the score equation of the partial likelihood in much the same way as the traditional IV estimator resembles the normal equations. To justify this IV estimator for a Cox model we perform simulations to evaluate its operating characteristics. Finally, we apply the estimator to an observational study of the effect of coronary catheterization on survival. PMID:25506259

  18. Numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations using density gradients as additional dependent variables. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solution of two dimensional, time dependent, compressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations about arbitrary bodies was treated using density gradients as additional dependent variables. Thus, six dependent variables were computed with the SOR iteration method. Besides formulation for pressure gradient terms, a formulation for computing the body density was presented. To approximate the governing equations, an implicit finite difference method was employed. In computing the solution for the flow about a circular cylinder, a problem arose near the wall at both stagnation points. Thus, computations with various conditions were tried to examine the problem. Also, computations with and without formulations are compared. The flow variables were computed on 37 by 40 field first, then on an 81 by 40 field.

  19. Dust Around Herbig Ae Stars: Additional Constraints from their Photometric and Polarimetric Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivova, N. A.; Ilin, V. B.; Fischer, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the Herbig Ae stars with Algol-like minima (UX Ori, WW Vul, etc), the effects of circumstellar dust include: excess infrared emission, anomalous ultraviolet extinction, the 'blueing' of the stars in minima accompanying by an increase of intrinsic polarization. Using a Monte-Carlo code for polarized radiation transfer we have simulated these effects and compared the results obtained for different models with the observational data available. We found that the photometric and polarimetric behavior of the stars provided essential additional constraints on the circumstellar dust models. The models with spheroidal shell geometry and compact (non-fluffy) dust grains do not appear to be able to explain all the data.

  20. Spatially variable synergistic effects of disturbance and additional nutrients on kelp recruitment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Paul E; Keough, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the impact of multiple stressors on ecosystems is of pronounced importance, particularly when one or more of those stressors is anthropogenic. Here we investigated the role of physical disturbance and increased nutrients on reefs dominated by the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. We combined experimental kelp canopy removals and additional nutrient at three different locations in a large embayment in temperate southeastern Australia. Over the following winter recruitment season, Ecklonia recruitment was unaffected by increased nutrients alone, but tripled at all sites where the canopy had been removed. At one site, the combination of disturbance and increased nutrients resulted in more than four times the recruitment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Six months after disturbance, the proliferation of the Undaria canopy in the canopy-removal and nutrient-addition treatment negatively influenced the recovery of the native kelp Ecklonia. Given the otherwise competitive dominance of adult Ecklonia, this provides a mechanism whereby Undaria could maintain open space for the following recruitment season. This interplay between disturbance, nutrients and the response of native and invasive species makes a compelling case for how a combination of factors can influence species dynamics. PMID:24604540

  1. An Explanatory Model of Self-Service on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Dave; Livermore, Celia Romm; Farag, Neveen Awad

    This chapter describes research that identifies and classifies the dimensions of self-service activity enabled through the Internet. Self-service is effected by organizations providing ways and means whereby customers perform tasks related to the procurement of goods and services. We describe how an instrument used to measure Internet-based self-service was developed, validated and applied. The results from applying the instrument to a large number of Web sites, covering a range of industries, countries and cultures, are analyzed and discussed. The study presents a model in which type of industry, level of technological development, income and cultural factors are proposed as explanatory variables for Web-based self-service. We conclude with an assessment of this program of research’s achievements so far.

  2. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  3. Older Hispanics' explanatory model of depression.

    PubMed

    Sadule-Rios, Nohemi; Tappen, Ruth; Williams, Christine L; Rosselli, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Cultural variations in the perception of depression make it difficult to recognize the disorder resulting in older Hispanics not being diagnosed and not receiving appropriate treatment. This study used a mixed-method design to explore older Hispanics' explanatory model of depression. Depression was recognized as the result of life stressors and personal weaknesses. Terms used for depressed people included "crazy, worry, bored, and nerves." These culturally coded terms may confound diagnosis among many Hispanics who find depression a shameful condition. Findings can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant approaches to better serve the Hispanic community in this country. PMID:25017557

  4. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131) were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5%) patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4%) achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context, acceptable cultural explanations

  5. Causes of Job Turnover in the Public School Superintendency: An Explanatory Analysis in the Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melver, Toby A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine the factors that affect public school superintendent turnover in five western states. An explanatory theory was developed to cover all of the possible variables and show the relationship between those variables. The questions that guided this research study were: (1) What environmental…

  6. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  7. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  8. [Brua as an explanatory model for diseases].

    PubMed

    Minkenberg, E H M; Blom, J D

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman from the island of Aruba who had been living in the Netherlands for ten years felt she was misunderstood by the various health professionals she had consulted because of her fear that she was being poisoned and would soon die. Due to her background en her belief in brua, she attributed her symptoms and her illness to 'voodoo', allegedly practiced by members of her husband's family in connection with relationship problems. A culture-sensitive approach to the patient, along with thorough psychiatric and neurological tests, yielded a surprising result. Our findings emphasise how important it is for us as health professionals to acquaint ourselves with explanatory models of the diseases of our patients, and how vital it is for us to be aware of a patient's background, particularly if the patient is of foreign descent. PMID:26028018

  9. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  10. Optimal Development and Performance: The Role of Explanatory Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how explanatory style, an individual's perspective on the experiences of success and failure, can contribute to gifted students' vulnerability or resilience. The three dimensions of explanatory style: permanence, pervasiveness, and personalization are explained, and case studies are provided. Tips for helping students become…

  11. Examining Explanatory Style's Relationship to Efficacy and Burnout in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineburg, Amy Cheek

    2010-01-01

    Explanatory style, the ways in which people explain both good and bad events (Seligman, 1998), shares theoretical components with teachers' sense of efficacy (Tshannon-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001), which is how capable teachers feel about teaching. According to Bandura (1994), efficacy informs explanatory style, but this assertion does not explain…

  12. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  13. Modelling Analysis of Students' Processes of Generating Scientific Explanatory Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jongwon

    2006-01-01

    It has recently been determined that generating an explanatory hypothesis to explain a discrepant event is important for students' conceptual change. The purpose of this study is to investigate how students' generate new explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this goal, questions are used to identify students prior ideas related to electromagnetic…

  14. 29 CFR 793.2 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 793.2 Section 793.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Introductory § 793.2 General explanatory statement. Some employees of radio and television stations...

  15. 29 CFR 793.2 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 793.2 Section 793.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Introductory § 793.2 General explanatory statement. Some employees of radio and television stations...

  16. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (3rd Edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Sean E.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Publications and software from the the Astronomical Applications Department of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) are used throughout the world, not only in the Department of Defense for safe navigation, but by many people including other navigators, astronomers, aerospace engineers, and geodesists. Products such as The Nautical Almanac, The Astronomical Almanac, and the Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA) are regarded as international standards. To maintain credibility, it is imperative that the methodologies employed and the data used are well documented. "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter, "The ES") is a major source of such documentation. It is a comprehensive reference book on positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of USNO and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). The first edition of The ES appeared in 1961, and the second followed in 1992. Several major changes have taken place in fundamental astronomy since the second edition was published. Advances in radio observations allowed the celestial reference frame to be tied to extragalactic radio sources, thus the International Celestial Reference System replaced the FK5 system. The success of ESA's Hipparcos satellite dramatically altered observational astrometry. Improvements in Earth orientation observations lead to new precession and nutation theories. Additionally, a new positional paradigm, no longer tied to the ecliptic and equinox, was accepted. Largely because of these changes, staff at USNO and HMNAO decided the time was right for the next edition of The ES. The third edition is now available; it is a complete revision of the 1992 book. Along with subjects covered in the previous two editions, the book also contains descriptions of the major advancements in positional astronomy over the last 20 years, some of which are

  17. THE GJ1214 SUPER-EARTH SYSTEM: STELLAR VARIABILITY, NEW TRANSITS, AND A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Bean, Jacob; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Nutzman, Philip; Falco, Emilio E.

    2011-07-20

    The super-Earth GJ1214b transits a nearby M dwarf that exhibits a 1% intrinsic variability in the near-infrared. Here, we analyze new observations to refine the physical properties of both the star and planet. We present three years of out-of-transit photometric monitoring of the stellar host GJ1214 from the MEarth Observatory and find the rotation period to be long, most likely an integer multiple of 53 days, suggesting low levels of magnetic activity and an old age for the system. We show that such variability will not pose significant problems to ongoing studies of the planet's atmosphere with transmission spectroscopy. We analyze two high-precision transit light curves from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) along with seven others from the MEarth and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.2 m telescopes, finding physical parameters for the planet that are consistent with previous work. The VLT light curves show tentative evidence for spot occultations during transit. Using two years of MEarth light curves, we place limits on additional transiting planets around GJ1214 with periods out to the habitable zone of the system. We also improve upon the previous photographic V-band estimate for the star, finding V = 14.71 {+-} 0.03.

  18. The GJ1214 Super-Earth System: Stellar Variability, New Transits, and a Search for Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Bean, Jacob; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Nutzman, Philip; Falco, Emilio E.

    2011-07-01

    The super-Earth GJ1214b transits a nearby M dwarf that exhibits a 1% intrinsic variability in the near-infrared. Here, we analyze new observations to refine the physical properties of both the star and planet. We present three years of out-of-transit photometric monitoring of the stellar host GJ1214 from the MEarth Observatory and find the rotation period to be long, most likely an integer multiple of 53 days, suggesting low levels of magnetic activity and an old age for the system. We show that such variability will not pose significant problems to ongoing studies of the planet's atmosphere with transmission spectroscopy. We analyze two high-precision transit light curves from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) along with seven others from the MEarth and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.2 m telescopes, finding physical parameters for the planet that are consistent with previous work. The VLT light curves show tentative evidence for spot occultations during transit. Using two years of MEarth light curves, we place limits on additional transiting planets around GJ1214 with periods out to the habitable zone of the system. We also improve upon the previous photographic V-band estimate for the star, finding V = 14.71 ± 0.03.

  19. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mortality and Repeated Measurement of Explanatory Risk Factors in a 25 Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Skalická, Věra; Ringdal, Kristen; Witvliet, Margot I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality can be explained by different groups of risk factors. However, little is known whether repeated measurement of risk factors can provide better explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Our study examines the extent to which relative educational and income inequalities in mortality might be explained by explanatory risk factors (behavioral, psychosocial, biomedical risk factors and employment) measured at two points in time, as compared to one measurement at baseline. Methods and Findings From the Norwegian total county population-based HUNT Study (years 1984–86 and 1995–1997, respectively) 61 513 men and women aged 25–80 (82.5% of all enrolled) were followed-up for mortality in 25 years until 2009, employing a discrete time survival analysis. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were observed. As compared to their highest socioeconomic counterparts, the lowest educated men had an OR (odds ratio) of 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55) and for the lowest income quartile OR = 1.59 (1.48–1.571), for women OR = 1.35 (1.17–1.55), and OR = 1.40 (1.28–1.52), respectively. Baseline explanatory variables attenuated the association between education and income with mortality by 54% and 54% in men, respectively, and by 69% and 18% in women. After entering time-varying variables, this attainment increased to 63% and 59% in men, respectively, and to 25% (income) in women, with no improvement in regard to education in women. Change in biomedical factors and employment did not amend the explanation. Conclusions Addition of a second measurement for risk factors provided only a modest improvement in explaining educational and income inequalities in mortality in Norwegian men and women. Accounting for change in behavior provided the largest improvement in explained inequalities in mortality for both men and women, as compared to measurement at baseline. Psychosocial factors explained the largest share of income

  20. Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Fowler, J. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H. L.; Wheelock, S. L.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Yan, L.; Benford, D.; Harbut, M.; Jarrett, T.; Lake, S.; Leisawitz, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Stanford, S. A.; Tsai, C. W.; Liu, F.; Helou, G.; Mainzer, A.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Hoffman, D.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beck, R. P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2013-11-01

    The AllWISE program builds upon the successful Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) mission by combining data from all WISE and NEOWISE (Mainzer et al. 2011) survey phases to form the most comprehensive view of the mid-infrared sky currently available. By combining the data from two complete sky coverage epochs in an advanced data processing system, AllWISE has generated new products that have enhanced photometric sensitivity and accuracy, and improved astrometric precision compared with the earlier WISE All-Sky Data Release. Exploiting the 6 month baseline between the WISE sky coverage epochs enables AllWISE to measure source motions for the first time, and to compute improved flux variability statistics. AllWISE data release products include: a Source Catalog that contains 4-band fluxes, positions, apparent motion measurements, and flux variability statistics for over 747 million objects detected at SNR>5 in the combined exposures; a Multiepoch Photometry Database containing over 42 billion time-tagged, single-exposure fluxes for each object detected on the combined exposures; and an Image Atlas of 18,240 4-band calibrated FITS images, depth-of-coverage and noise maps that cover the sky produced by coadding nearly 7.9 million single-exposure images from the cryogenic and post-cryogenic survey phases. The Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the AllWISE data. The Supplement contains detailed descriptions of the format and characteristics of the AllWISE data products, as well as a summary of cautionary notes that describe known limitations. The Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the AllWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/allwise/expsup/index.html AllWISE makes use of data from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of

  1. Adolescent Fathers Who Are Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders: Explanatory Study of the Co-Occurrence of Two Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…

  2. Explanatory style and gambling: how pessimists respond to losing wagers.

    PubMed

    Atlas, G D; Peterson, C

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-three patrons of a harness racing track completed two measures of explanatory style prior to an afternoon's races. One measure assessed general explanatory style, using bad events taken from the Attributional Style Questionnaire, and the other measure assessed betting-specific explanatory style, using bad events specific to harness race betting. Subjects then kept a diary during the first eight races. After each race, they reported how much they had bet, whether they had won or lost, the major cause of the outcome, their confidence about winning future bets, and whether they were ruminating about past or future races. Explanatory style assessed in both ways had similar correlates. Explanatory style predicted the specific attributions made by subjects for losses. Pessimistic explanatory style (internal + stable + global attributions) predicted rumination following a lost bet, but it was unrelated to expressed confidence. Rumination after a loss was in turn associated with larger wagers on subsequent races and a tendency toward less successful wagers. These results clarify one way in which pessimistic explanatory style results in helplessness, and suggest a path by which problematic gambling may develop. PMID:2076090

  3. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8–24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12–24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  4. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Nørhave, Nils Jakob; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8-24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12-24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  5. Optimistic explanatory style and the perception of health problems.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C; De Avila, M E

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-six adults completed questionnaires that measure explanatory style and perception of health problems. Subjects on the average saw themselves as below average in risk for a variety of health problems. Those subjects with an optimistic explanatory style, who explained bad events with external, unstable, and specific causes, in particular saw themselves as less at risk (r = .30, p < .01). They also believed that they were more able to prevent these health problems. Partialling out perceived preventability reduced to nonsignificance the correlation between explanatory style and perceived risk, which suggests that perceived preventability may mediate this link. PMID:7782467

  6. CAVEing the MMPI for an Optimism-Pessimism Scale: Seligman's attributional model and the assessment of explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Colligan, R C; Offord, K P; Malinchoc, M; Schulman, P; Seligman, M E

    1994-01-01

    Research based on Seligman's model indicates that a pessimistic explanatory style predicts increased frequency of depression, poorer physical health, and lower levels of achievement. The data show that persons who have a pessimistic outlook on life are more frequent users of the medical and mental health care delivery systems. This paper describes the development of a bipolar MMPI Optimism-Pessimism (PSM) scale that is based on the results of a technique--Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanation (CAVE)--applied to the MMPI. Reliability and validity indices show that the PSM scale is highly accurate and consistent with Seligman's theory. Identification of the patient's explanatory style may lead to improved management because intervention measures can be directed more accurately according to the patient's personality style. The new scale also will allow researchers to use existing MMPI data to explore relationships between explanatory style and various outcome variables and behavioral correlates. PMID:8150997

  7. The Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2002 Tropical Ozone Climatology. 3; Instrumentation and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacqueline C.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has collected more than 2000 ozone profiles from a dozen tropical and subtropical sites using balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. The data (with accompanying pressure-temperature-humidity soundings) are archived. Analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset revealed that variations in ozonesonde technique could lead to station-to-station biases in the measurements. In this paper imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. When SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release), discrepancies between sonde and satellite datasets decline 1-2 percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS. Variability among stations is evaluated using total ozone normalized to TOMS and results of laboratory tests on ozonesondes (JOSE-2O00, Julich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment). Ozone deviations from a standard instrument in the JOSE flight simulation chamber resemble those of SHADOZ station data relative to a SHADOZ-defined climatological reference. Certain systematic variations in SHADOZ ozone profiles are accounted for by differences in solution composition, data processing and instrument (manufacturer). Instrument bias leads to a greater ozone measurement above 25 km over Nairobi and to lower total column ozone at three Pacific sites compared to other SHADOZ stations at 0-20 deg.S.

  8. Relation of irrational thinking and the Pessimistic Explanatory Style.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, D J; Hawley, J L

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between Ellis's construct of irrational thinking and Seligman's construct of explanatory style, with a view toward possibly strengthening the personality theory underlying Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in particular and cognitive-behavior therapies more generally. In this investigation 180 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Attributional Style Questionnaire to measure irrational thinking and explanatory style, respectively. Students who scored higher on Pessimistic Explanatory Style also scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and on Low Frustration Tolerance than did those who were categorized as having an Optimistic Explanatory Style. This indicates support for Ellis's developing personality theory, especially his theoretical account of depression. PMID:11351894

  9. Studying the explanatory capacity of artificial neural networks for understanding environmental chemical quantitative structure-activity relationship models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Peng; Jiang, Yilin; Chen, Jian

    2005-01-01

    Although artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been shown to exhibit superior predictive power in the study of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), they have also been labeled a "black box" because they provide little explanatory insight into the relative influence of the independent variables in the predictive process so that little information on how and why compounds work can be obtained. Here, we have turned our interests to their explanatory capacities; therefore, a method was proposed for assessing the relative importance of variables indicating molecular structure, on the basis of axon connection weights and partial derivatives of the ANN output with respect to its input, which can identify variables that significantly contribute to network predictions, and providing a variable selection method for ANNs. We show that, by extending this approach to ANNs, the "black box" mechanics of ANNs can be greatly illuminated, thereby making it very useful in understanding environmental chemical QSAR models. PMID:16309287

  10. Risk factors for postpartum problems in dairy cows: explanatory and predictive modeling.

    PubMed

    Vergara, C F; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2014-07-01

    The postpartum period is associated with a high incidence of most dairy cattle diseases and a high risk of removal from the herd. Postpartum diseases often share risk factors, and these factors may trigger a cascade of other diseases. The objective of this cohort study was to derive explanatory and predictive models for treatment or removal from the herd within the first 30 d in milk (TXR30). The TXR30 outcome was specifically defined as ≥1 treatment for ≥1 occurrence of milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, or pneumonia; removal from the herd (sold or died); or both treatment and later herd removal. The study population consisted of 765 multiparous and 544 primiparous cows (predominantly Holstein) from 4 large commercial freestall-housed dairy herds. Treatment or removal from the herd was recorded as a binary outcome for each cow. Potential explanatory and predictive variables were limited to routine cow data that could be collected either before or within 24 h of calving. Models for multiparous and primiparous cows were developed separately because previous lactation variables are available only for multiparous cows. Adjusted odds ratios for TXR30 in the explanatory model for the multiparous cohort were 2.1 for lactation 3 compared with lactation 2, and 2.3 for lactation 4 or greater compared with lactation 2; 2.3 for locomotion score 3 or 4 compared with score 1; 3.3 for an abnormality at calving compared with no calving abnormality; 1.8 for each 1-standard deviation increase in previous lactation length; and 0.4 for each 5,000-kg increment in previous lactation milk yield in cows with longer previous lactation length. The final predictive model for TXR30 in multiparous cows included predictors similar but not identical to those included in the explanatory model. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve from the final predictive model for the multiparous cohort was 0.70, with 60

  11. Explanatory and illustrative visualization of special and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Daniel; Borchers, Marc; Ertl, Thomas; Falk, Martin; Fechtig, Oliver; Frank, Regine; Grave, Frank; King, Andreas; Kraus, Ute; Müller, Thomas; Nollert, Hans-Peter; Rica Mendez, Isabel; Ruder, Hanns; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Schär, Sonja; Zahn, Corvin; Zatloukal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes methods for explanatory and illustrative visualizations used to communicate aspects of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, their geometric structure, and of the related fields of cosmology and astrophysics. Our illustrations target a general audience of laypersons interested in relativity. We discuss visualization strategies, motivated by physics education and the didactics of mathematics, and describe what kind of visualization methods have proven to be useful for different types of media, such as still images in popular science magazines, film contributions to TV shows, oral presentations, or interactive museum installations. Our primary approach is to adopt an egocentric point of view: The recipients of a visualization participate in a visually enriched thought experiment that allows them to experience or explore a relativistic scenario. In addition, we often combine egocentric visualizations with more abstract illustrations based on an outside view in order to provide several presentations of the same phenomenon. Although our visualization tools often build upon existing methods and implementations, the underlying techniques have been improved by several novel technical contributions like image-based special relativistic rendering on GPUs, special relativistic 4D ray tracing for accelerating scene objects, an extension of general relativistic ray tracing to manifolds described by multiple charts, GPU-based interactive visualization of gravitational light deflection, as well as planetary terrain rendering. The usefulness and effectiveness of our visualizations are demonstrated by reporting on experiences with, and feedback from, recipients of visualizations and collaborators. PMID:16805261

  12. Explanatory style differences in health literacy: a survey among young adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li; Lee, Yun-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Explanatory styles are related to individuals' positive health management. Everyone interprets and thinks about issues differently; therefore, medical information is understood in different ways. This study explored the relationship of optimistic and positive views on health literacy. A survey method was used to collect information from 342 university students. This study used PLS2.0 and SPSS 18.0 for data analysis. The results indicated that optimists had more accurate self-reported health status and medication-taking and nutritional knowledge than pessimists did. Females had higher scores on health knowledge and medication-taking and nutritional knowledge than males. In addition, female optimists had better performance on self-reported health status and health and medication-taking knowledge than female pessimists did. The major contribution of this study is the confirmation of the effect of explanatory style on health literacy. PMID:25532063

  13. Explanation in Biology: Reduction, Pluralism, and Explanatory Aims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This essay analyzes and develops recent views about explanation in biology. Philosophers of biology have parted with the received deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation primarily by attempting to capture actual biological theorizing and practice. This includes an endorsement of different kinds of explanation (e.g., mathematical and causal-mechanistic), a joint study of discovery and explanation, and an abandonment of models of theory reduction in favor of accounts of explanatory reduction. Of particular current interest are philosophical accounts of complex explanations that appeal to different levels of organismal organization and use contributions from different biological disciplines. The essay lays out one model that views explanatory integration across different disciplines as being structured by scientific problems. I emphasize the philosophical need to take the explanatory aims pursued by different groups of scientists into account, as explanatory aims determine whether different explanations are competing or complementary and govern the dynamics of scientific practice, including interdisciplinary research. I distinguish different kinds of pluralism that philosophers have endorsed in the context of explanation in biology, and draw several implications for science education, especially the need to teach science as an interdisciplinary and dynamic practice guided by scientific problems and explanatory aims.

  14. The effects of explanatory style on concussion outcomes in sport.

    PubMed

    Shapcott, Erin J B; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Loughead, Todd M; Delaney, J Scott

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with an optimistic explanatory style have generally been linked with improved mental and physical health across a variety of chronic and serious conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of explanatory style on recovery time and number of sport-related concussions suffered in the last 12 months. University varsity athletes (n=170) suffering from at least one concussion over the last 12 months from six contact or collision team sports completed both the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Sport History Questionnaire. The results indicated that athletes with an optimistic explanatory style took longer to recover than athletes with a pessimistic or average explanatory style. More specifically, optimistic athletes who suffered a complex concussion (requiring more than 7 days to recover) took significantly longer to return to play. However, the results showed that explanatory style did not influence whether an athlete suffered subsequent concussions. Overall, the current results can be used to better understand the psychology of concussions, as well as concussion prevention efforts and management strategies. PMID:17917166

  15. Preschoolers' Search for Explanatory Information Within Adult-Child Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined children's questions and the reactions to the answers they receive, in conversations with adults. If children actively seek explanatory knowledge, they should react differently depending on whether they receive a causal explanation. Study 1 examined conversations following 6 preschoolers' (ages 2-4 years) causal questions in naturalistic situations (using the CHILDES database). Children more often agreed and asked follow-up questions following adult explanations and, conversely, more often re-asked their original question and provided their own explanation following non-explanations. Study 2 replicated these patterns within an experimental task in 42 children ages 3-5 years. Children's reactions following explanatory versus non-explanatory information confirm that young children are motivated to seek causal information actively and use specific conversational strategies to obtain it. PMID:19930340

  16. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed. PMID:8955430

  17. Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Explanatory Coexistence.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Busch, Justin T A; Legare, Cristine H

    2015-10-01

    Natural and supernatural explanations are used to interpret the same events in a number of predictable and universal ways. Yet little is known about how variation in diverse cultural ecologies influences how people integrate natural and supernatural explanations. Here, we examine explanatory coexistence in three existentially arousing domains of human thought: illness, death, and human origins using qualitative data from interviews conducted in Tanna, Vanuatu. Vanuatu, a Melanesian archipelago, provides a cultural context ideal for examining variation in explanatory coexistence due to the lack of industrialization and the relatively recent introduction of Christianity and Western education. We argue for the integration of interdisciplinary methodologies from cognitive science and anthropology to inform research on explanatory coexistence. PMID:26350158

  18. Additional photoelectric observations and analysis of the variability of the beta Cephei stars 12 and 16 Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzebowski, T.; Jerzykiewicz, M.; Rios Herrera, M.; Rios Berumen, M.

    1980-04-01

    We present photoelectric observations of two Cephei variables - 12 and 16 Lacertae- made in 1977 in the Observatory of Zacatecas. The results of a frequency analysis made with these data and with the data obtained in the same year at the San Pedro Martir, Chiran and Bialkow Observatories are also given.

  19. Inaccuracy of Self-Evaluation as Additional Variable for Prediction of Students at Risk of Failing First-Year Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Ackermann, Mia; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2010-01-01

    Early identification of students at risk of failing first-year chemistry allows timely intervention. Cognitive factors alone are insufficient predictors for success; however, non cognitive factors are usually difficult to measure. We have explored the use of demographic and performance variables, as well as the accuracy of self-evaluation as an…

  20. Explanatory style change in supportive-expressive dynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jacques P; Abrams, Michael J; Connolly-Gibbons, Mary Beth; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Barrett, Marna S; Rynn, Moira; Siqueland, Lynne

    2005-03-01

    Change in explanatory style (measured by the Attributional Style Questionnaire [ASQ]) has often been considered specific to cognitive therapy (CT). We used data from 59 patients who had received supportive-expressive (SE) dynamic therapy after meeting DSM-III-R criteria for a depressive spectrum disorder and who had completed the ASQ at intake and termination of treatment. We found that depressive symptoms decreased significantly and that explanatory style became more optimistic over the course of treatment. Furthermore, change in ASQ correlated with change in depression. There was some evidence suggesting that ASQ at termination predicted level of depression at follow-up. PMID:15625679

  1. Explanatory Variance in Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Robert McComb, Jacalyn J.; Roh, Daesung; Williams, James S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction equation that could be used to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from a submaximal water running protocol. Thirty-two volunteers (n =19 males, n = 13 females), ages 18 - 24 years, underwent the following testing procedures: (a) a 7-site skin fold assessment; (b) a land VO2max running treadmill test; and (c) a 6 min water running test. For the water running submaximal protocol, the participants were fitted with an Aqua Jogger Classic Uni-Sex Belt and a Polar Heart Rate Monitor; the participants’ head, shoulders, hips and feet were vertically aligned, using a modified running/bicycle motion. A regression model was used to predict VO2max. The criterion variable, VO2max, was measured using open-circuit calorimetry utilizing the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Predictor variables included in the model were percent body fat (% BF), height, weight, gender, and heart rate following a 6 min water running protocol. Percent body fat accounted for 76% (r = -0.87, SEE = 3.27) of the variance in VO2max. No other variables significantly contributed to the explained variance in VO2max. The equation for the estimation of VO2max is as follows: VO2max ml.kg-1·min-1 = 56.14 - 0.92 (% BF). Key Points Body Fat is an important predictor of VO2 max. Individuals with low skill level in water running may shorten their stride length to avoid the onset of fatigue at higher work-loads, therefore, the net oxygen cost of the exercise cannot be controlled in inexperienced individuals in water running at fatiguing workloads. Experiments using water running protocols to predict VO2max should use individuals trained in the mechanics of water running. A submaximal water running protocol is needed in the research literature for individuals trained in the mechanics of water running, given the popularity of water running rehabilitative exercise programs and training programs. PMID:24260003

  2. Explanatory Style and College Students with ADHD and LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmulsky, Solvegi; Gobbo, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ) to measure the causal thinking of 42 college students with diagnosed language-based learning disabilities (LD), ADHD, or co-occurring ADHD and LD. Attribution style, or explanatory style, is a term used to describe the tendencies of individuals to think that the causes of…

  3. Categorization and Analysis of Explanatory Writing in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to…

  4. The Use of Representations and Argumentative and Explanatory Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Daniela Kênia B. S.; Justi, Rosária; Mendonça, Paula Cristina Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of non-verbal representations in a modelling-based science teaching context, in which argumentative and explanatory situations occur. More specifically, we analyse how the students and teacher use representations in their discourse in modelling activities, and we discuss the relationships between the functions of these…

  5. 29 CFR 780.401 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.401 Section 780.401 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL...

  6. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  7. Explanatory Model for Sound Amplification in a Stethoscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with…

  8. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  9. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  11. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  12. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  13. Meaning Frameworks, Explanatory Modes, and the Teaching of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Menahem

    1977-01-01

    With observed physical phenomena, scientific inquiry, magic, or religious explanatory modes can be used. The educated world has chosen scientific inquiry. Within this mode, the author points out, are fruitful and also non-promising prescriptive conclusions regarding the teaching of science. (CP)

  14. Attributional (Explanatory) Thinking about Failure in New Achievement Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.

    2008-01-01

    Attributional (explanatory) thinking involves the appraisal of factors that contribute to performance and is instrumental to motivation and goal striving. Little is understood, however, concerning attributional thinking when multiple causes are involved in the transition to new achievement settings. Our study examined such complex attributional…

  15. Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP): The Relationship between Resilience and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Óscar Sánchez; Méndez, Francisco Xavier; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to describe and analyze a new test and construct, Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP), defined as the ability to observe adverse situations from various points of view. At the theoretical level, it is a bridge between the reformulated model of learned helplessness (as a resilience model), and creative…

  16. An explanatory framework for adaptive personality differences

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Max; Weissing, Franz J.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework for the understanding of animal personalities in terms of adaptive evolution. We focus on two basic questions. First, why do behavioural types exhibit limited behavioural plasticity, that is, behavioural correlations both across contexts and over time? Second, how can multiple behavioural types coexist within a single population? We emphasize differences in ‘state’ among individuals in combination with state-dependent behaviour. Some states are inherently stable and individual differences in such states can explain stable differences in suites of behaviour if it is adaptive to make behaviour in various contexts dependent on such states. Behavioural stability and cross-context correlations in behaviour are more difficult to explain if individual states are potentially more variable. In such cases stable personalities can result from state-dependent behaviour if state and behaviour mutually reinforce each other by feedback mechanisms. We discuss various evolutionary mechanisms for the maintenance of variation (in states and/or behaviour), including frequency-dependent selection, spatial variation with incomplete matching between habitat and phenotype, bet-hedging in a temporally fluctuating environment, and non-equilibrium dynamics. Although state differences are important, we also discuss how social conventions and social signalling can give rise to adaptive personality differences in the absence of state differences. PMID:21078648

  17. Seed dormancy distribution: explanatory ecological factors

    PubMed Central

    Wagmann, Kristen; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Piquot, Yves; Meunier, Cécile; Schmitt, S. Eric; Van Dijk, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Knowledge of those traits that vary with latitude should be helpful in predicting how they may evolve locally under climate change. In the sea beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, seed dormancy largely controls the timing of germination, is highly heritable and varies geographically; it is therefore thought to be selected by climate. The aim here was to characterize the variation in seed dormancy among sea beet populations across the French distribution area, as well as the ecological factors in situ that are correlated with and that could therefore select for seed dormancy. The relative importance of genetic inheritance vs. non-genetic variation is also evaluated. Methods The proportions of dormant seeds from 85 natural populations encompassing different climates over the whole French distribution area were measured under controlled conditions. Germination phenology was observed in a common garden experiment. Dormancy variation of seeds collected in situ was compared with that of seeds collected on plants grown in the greenhouse. Key Results The proportions of dormant seeds in the greenhouse were highly variable, covering almost the entire range from 0 to 1, and followed a geographical pattern from lower dormancy at high latitudes to high dormancy at low latitudes. The distribution of dormancy was positively correlated with yearly temperatures, especially summer temperatures. Minimum temperatures in winter did not significantly explain the trait variation. The genetic component of the total variation was significant and is probably completed by an important adjustment to the local conditions brought about by maternal adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Conclusions Dormancy in sea beet could be interpreted as a way to limit summer germination and spread germination over the first autumn and spring or following autumns. This highly heritable trait has the potential to evolve in the relatively near future because of climate change. PMID:22952378

  18. Examining the Correlates of Women's Use of Sexual Coercion: Proposing an Explanatory Model.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Bouffard, Leana A; Miller, Holly A

    2016-08-01

    Research in the last few years has begun to examine the prevalence of female sexual offending as well as attempting to understand the predictors of sexually coercive behavior among women. Although women engage in sexual coercion significantly less often than men, more research on female sexual coercion is warranted. The current study provides an exploratory examination of the relationship between several attitudinal, experiential, and situational factors, and the use of various sexual coercion tactics among a sample of 582 sexually active, female undergraduate students, as well as proposing an explanatory model of female sexual coercion. Results indicate that several variables that are significant predictors of sexual aggression for men are also predictive for women. However, these variables seem to work differently in predicting sexually coercive behavior for women. Implications for theory and further study are discussed. PMID:25810091

  19. Cultural identity, explanatory style, and depression in Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci R; Wadsworth, Martha E; Deyhle, Donna

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the interrelationships among cultural identity, explanatory style, and depression in Navajo adolescents. A total of 332 (197 female, 135 male) Navajo adolescents completed 7 self-report measures. These data were used to create, via structural equation modeling, a series of factor models and full structural models. Analyses indicated that current factor structures for explanatory style and depression are adequate for use with Navajo adolescents. Increased control and predictability and limited duration of stressful encounters were both predictive of decreased symptoms of depression. Higher levels of Navajo cultural identity had a modest effect in terms of reducing depression. Other factors, such as perceived discrimination and urban/reservation domicile, are important to study to provide an increased understanding of depression among Navajo adolescents. PMID:15554799

  20. Explanatory model for sound amplification in a stethoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with opportunities to not only better understand the amplification mechanism of a stethoscope, but also to strengthen their understanding of sound, pressure, waves, resonance modes, etc.

  1. Trusting explanatory and exploratory models in computational geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Wiel, Marco; Desjardins, Eric; Rousseau, Yannick; Martel, Tristan; Ashmore, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Computer simulations have become an increasingly important part of geomorphological investigation in the last decades. Simulations can be used not only to make specific predictions of the evolution of a geomorphic system (predictive modelling), but also to test theories and learn about geomorphic form and process in a timely and non destructive way (explanatory and exploratory modelling). The latter modes of modelling can be very useful for discovering spatial and temporal patterns, developing insights in the relation between form and process, and for understanding the causal structure of the physical landscape. But before we can have any hope that these type of simulations can effectively accomplish these tasks, simulationists must make the case that their computer modelling goes beyond mere numerical computation of theoretical idealization; that geomorphic investigation through computer modelling can play a similar role as field observation or laboratory experiment. Many of these explanatory and exploratory models are reduced-complexity models which exhibit a high degree of idealization and simplification. Moreover, they are often uncalibrated and untested on real geomorphic systems. Indeed, they are often used on idealized hypothetical landscapes, and sometimes are acknowledged not to be suitable for simulation of real systems. Does it make sense then to conceive of this type of computer modelling as a form of investigation capable of providing reliable knowledge about actual geomorphological phenomena? In this analysis it is argued that the traditional notion of establishing reliability or trustworthiness of models, i.e. a confirmation of predictive ability with regards to observed data, is not applicable to explanatory or exploratory modelling. Instead, trustworthiness of these models is established through broad qualitative conformity with known system dynamics, followed by a posteriori field and laboratory testing of hypotheses generated from the modelling

  2. Pessimism in the profile: estimating explanatory style from the MMPI.

    PubMed

    Malinchoc, M; Offord, K P; Colligan, R C

    1998-02-01

    Regression equations are presented for converting the non-K-corrected raw scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) basic scales to an estimated optimism-pessimism score. This score describes an individual's explanatory style on a continuum from optimistic to pessimistic. These equations will enable clinicians and researchers to estimate an optimism-pessimism score if the MMPI item responses are not accessible or if computer scoring facilities for individual items are unavailable. PMID:9467761

  3. Racialized customer service in restaurants: a quantitative assessment of the statistical discrimination explanatory framework.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Zachary W

    2012-01-01

    Despite popular claims that racism and discrimination are no longer salient issues in contemporary society, racial minorities continue to experience disparate treatment in everyday public interactions. The context of full-service restaurants is one such public setting wherein racial minority patrons, African Americans in particular, encounter racial prejudices and discriminate treatment. To further understand the causes of such discriminate treatment within the restaurant context, this article analyzes primary survey data derived from a community sample of servers (N = 200) to assess the explanatory power of one posited explanation—statistical discrimination. Taken as a whole, findings suggest that while a statistical discrimination framework toward understanding variability in servers’ discriminatory behaviors should not be disregarded, the framework’s explanatory utility is limited. Servers’ inferences about the potential profitability of waiting on customers across racial groups explain little of the overall variation in subjects’ self-reported discriminatory behaviors, thus suggesting that other factors not explored in this research are clearly operating and should be the focus of future inquires. PMID:22379609

  4. The Use of Representations and Argumentative and Explanatory Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Daniela Kênia B. S.; Justi, Rosária; Cardoso Mendonça, Paula Cristina

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of non-verbal representations in a modelling-based science teaching context, in which argumentative and explanatory situations occur. More specifically, we analyse how the students and teacher use representations in their discourse in modelling activities, and we discuss the relationships between the functions of these representations and the demands of the explanatory and argumentative situations that exist in that classroom. The data were collected by video recording all the classes in which a teaching sequence about intermolecular interactions was used-a topic which the students had not previously studied. In the activities, the students had to create, express, test, and discuss models in order to understand the difference between intermolecular and interatomic interactions, as well as their influences on the properties of substances. Initially, we selected excerpts of the recorded classes in which a non-verbal representation was used. Then, we used criteria to identify the argumentative and explanatory situations (previously defined), and we created categories for the functions of the representations that were used in order to analyse all the identified situations. The analysis supports conclusions indicating the relevance of the use of non-verbal representations in the construction, use, and defence of explanations. As the defence of explanations was the main context in which argumentative situations occurred in this study, our conclusions also indicate the contribution that representations make towards changing the status of the students' explanations.

  5. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous explanatory randomized trials support the efficacy of chronic disease interventions, including smoking cessation treatments. However, there is often inadequate adoption of these interventions for various reasons, one being the limitation of generalizability of the explanatory studies in real-world settings. Randomized controlled trials can be rated as more explanatory versus pragmatic along 10 dimensions. Pragmatic randomized clinical trials generate more realistic estimates of effectiveness with greater relevance to clinical practice and for health resource allocation decisions. However, there is no clear method to scale each dimension during the trial design phase to ensure that the design matches the intended purpose of the study. Methods We designed a pragmatic, randomized, controlled study to maximize external validity by addressing several barriers to smoking cessation therapy in ambulatory care. We analyzed our design and methods using the recently published ‘Pragmatic–Explanatory Continuum Indicatory Summary (PRECIS)’ tool, a qualitative method to assess trial design across 10 domains. We added a 20-point numerical rating scale and a modified Delphi process to improve consensus in rating these domains. Results After two rounds of review, there was consensus on all 10 domains of study design. No single domain was scored as either fully pragmatic or fully explanatory; but overall, the study scored high on pragmatism. Conclusions This addition to the PRECIS tool may assist other trial designers working with interdisciplinary co-investigators to rate their study design while building consensus. PMID:22824225

  6. Coping with Stress and Types of Burnout: Explanatory Power of Different Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Prado-Abril, Javier; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Gascon, Santiago; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of ‘overload’, ‘lack of development’ and ‘neglect’, belonging to the ‘frenetic’, ‘under-challenged’ and ‘worn-out’ subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429). Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the ‘Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire’, with its three dimensions –overload, lack of development and neglect– as dependent variables, and the ‘Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences’, with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. Results The ‘Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences’ subscales together explained 15% of the ‘overload’ (p<0.001), 9% of the ‘lack of development’ (p<0.001), and 21% of the ‘neglect’ (p<0.001). ‘Overload’ was mainly explained by ‘venting of emotions’ (Beta = 0.34; p<0.001); ‘lack of development’ by ‘cognitive avoidance’ (Beta = 0.21; p<0.001); and ‘neglect’ by ‘behavioural disengagement’ (Beta = 0.40; p<0.001). Other interesting associations were observed. Conclusions These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace. PMID:24551223

  7. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  8. Explanatory Models and Illness Experience of People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Laws, M Barton

    2016-09-01

    Research into explanatory models of disease and illness typically explores people's conceptual understanding, and emphasizes differences between patient and provider models. However, the explanatory models framework of etiology, time and mode of onset of symptoms, pathophysiology, course of sickness, and treatment is built on categories characteristic of biomedical understanding. It is unclear how well these map onto people's lived experience of illness, and to the extent they do, how they translate. Scholars have previously studied the experience of people living with HIV through the lenses of stigma and identity theory. Here, through in-depth qualitative interviews with 32 people living with HIV in the northeast United States, we explored the experience and meanings of living with HIV more broadly using the explanatory models framework. We found that identity reformation is a major challenge for most people following the HIV diagnosis, and can be understood as a central component of the concept of course of illness. Salient etiological explanations are not biological, but rather social, such as betrayal, or living in a specific cultural milieu, and often self-evaluative. Given that symptoms can now largely be avoided through adherence to treatment, they are most frequently described in terms of observation of others who have not been adherent, or the resolution of symptoms following treatment. The category of pathophysiology is not ordinarily very relevant to the illness experience, as few respondents have any understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis in HIV, nor much interest in it. Treatment has various personal meanings, both positive and negative, often profound. For people to engage successfully in treatment and live successfully with HIV, mechanistic explanation is of little significance. Rather, positive psychological integration of health promoting behaviors is of central importance. PMID:26971285

  9. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Wittman, M.

    2011-04-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE Preliminary Data Release, conducted on April 14, 2011, incorporates data covering the first ~57% of the sky surveyed that were processed with initial calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 10,464 sets of calibrated, coadded images, depth-of-coverage and uncertainty maps in the four WISE bands, (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for 257 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include an archive of 754,000 sets of calibrated WISE single-exposure images, uncertainty and bit-mask maps, and a database of 2.2 billion source extractions made from the single-exposure images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the WISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Preliminary Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Detailed descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw WISE data to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the Preliminary Release data products. The WISE Preliminary Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current

  10. Post-lumpectomy CT-guided tumor bed delineation for breast boost and partial breast irradiation: Can additional pre- and postoperative imaging reduce interobserver variability?

    PubMed Central

    DEN HARTOGH, MARISKA D.; PHILIPPENS, MARIELLE E.P.; VAN DAM, IRIS E.; KLEYNEN, CATHARINA E.; TERSTEEG, ROBBERT J.H.A.; KOTTE, ALEXIS N.T.J.; VAN VULPEN, MARCO; VAN ASSELEN, BRAM; VAN DEN BONGARD, DESIRÉE H.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    For breast boost radiotherapy or accelerated partial breast irradiation, the tumor bed (TB) is delineated by the radiation oncologist on a planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the interobserver variability (IOV) of the TB delineation is reduced by providing the radiation oncologist with additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scans. A total of 14 T1-T2 breast cancer patients underwent a standard planning CT in the supine treatment position following lumpectomy, as well as additional pre- and postoperative imaging in the same position. Post-lumpectomy TBs were independently delineated by four breast radiation oncologists on standard postoperative CT and on CT registered to an additional imaging modality. The additional imaging modalities used were postoperative MRI, preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE)-CT and preoperative CE-MRI. A cavity visualization score (CVS) was assigned to each standard postoperative CT by each observer. In addition, the conformity index (CI), volume and distance between centers of mass (dCOM) of the TB delineations were calculated. On CT, the median CI was 0.57, with a median volume of 22 cm3 and dCOM of 5.1 mm. The addition of postoperative MRI increased the median TB volume significantly to 28 cm3 (P<0.001), while the CI (P=0.176) and dCOM (P=0.110) were not affected. The addition of preoperative CT or MRI increased the TB volume to 26 and 25 cm3, respectively (both P<0.001), while the CI increased to 0.58 and 0.59 (both P<0.001) and the dCOM decreased to 4.7 mm (P=0.004) and 4.6 mm (P=0.001), respectively. In patients with CVS≤3, the median CI was 0.40 on CT, which was significantly increased by all additional imaging modalities, up to 0.52, and was accompanied by a median volume increase up to 6 cm3. In conclusion, the addition of postoperative MRI, preoperative CE-CT or preoperative CE-MRI did not result in a considerable reduction in the IOV in postoperative CT

  11. Learned helplessness in children: a longitudinal study of depression, achievement, and explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1986-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, the depressive symptoms, life events, and explanatory styles of 168 school children were measured five times during the course of 1 year. Measures of school achievement were obtained once during the year. Depressive symptoms and explanatory styles were found to be quite stable over the year. As predicted by the reformulated learned helplessness theory, explanatory style both correlated with concurrent levels of depression and school achievement and predicted later changes in depression during the year. Depression also predicted later explanatory styles. The implications of these results for intervention with children with depressive symptoms or school achievement problems are discussed. PMID:3746624

  12. Developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers in the USA: a pilot cross-sectional study and preliminary explanatory model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests that low-income preschoolers with developmental delays are at increased risk for dental caries and poor oral health, but there are no published studies based on empirical data. The purpose of this pilot study was two-fold: to examine the relationship between developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers and to present a preliminary explanatory model on the determinants of caries for enrollees in Head Start, a U.S. school readiness program for low-income preschool-aged children. Methods Data were collected on preschoolers ages 3–5 years at two Head Start centers in Washington, USA (N = 115). The predictor variable was developmental delay status (no/yes). The outcome variable was the prevalence of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (dmfs) on primary teeth. We used multiple variable Poisson regression models to test the hypothesis that within a population of low-income preschoolers, those with developmental delays would have increased dmfs prevalence than those without developmental delays. Results Seventeen percent of preschoolers had a developmental delay and 51.3% of preschoolers had ≥1 dmfs. Preschoolers with developmental delays had a dmfs prevalence ratio that was 1.26 times as high as preschoolers without developmental delays (95% CI: 1.01, 1.58; P < .04). Other factors associated with increased dmfs prevalence ratios included: not having a dental home (P = .01); low caregiver education (P < .001); and living in a non-fluoridated community (P < .001). Conclusions Our pilot data suggest that developmental delays among low-income preschoolers are associated with increased primary tooth dmfs. Additional research is needed to further examine this relationship. Future interventions and policies should focus on caries prevention strategies within settings like Head Start classrooms that serve low-income preschool-aged children with additional targeted home- and community

  13. Categorization and analysis of explanatory writing in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Tracy S.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to mathematical problem-solving processes. The rationale for the study was the recognized importance of mathematical problem-solving, the widely acknowledged challenge of teaching problem-solving skills directly and the evidence in the literature that writing in mathematics provides a tool for learning. The study was carried out in a first-year mathematics course at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Students' written submissions were categorized and analysed through use of an adaptation of a journal entry classification scheme. The scheme successfully observed positive changes over the experimental period in students' level of engagement with the mathematical material and with their stance towards knowledge.

  14. Certified Nursing Assistants’ Explanatory Models of Nursing Home Resident Depression

    PubMed Central

    Piven, Mary Lynn; Anderson, Ruth A.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explored how Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) understood resident depression. Interviews with 18 CNAs, working in two nursing homes were guided by Kleinman’s Explanatory Models of Illness framework. Interview data were content analyzed and CNAs’ descriptions of depression were compared to the MDS 2.0 Mood Screen and to DSM-IV-TR Depression Criteria. CNAs identified causes, signs, and symptoms of depression, but they were unsure about the duration and normalcy of depression in residents. Although they had no formal training, CNAs felt responsible for detecting depression and described verbal and non-verbal approaches that they used for emotional care of depressed residents. CNAs hold potential to improve the detection of depression and contribute to the emotional care of residents. Attention to knowledge deficits and facility barriers may enhance this capacity. PMID:18390825

  15. Child maltreatment among Asian Americans: characteristics and explanatory framework.

    PubMed

    Fuhua Zhai; Qin Gao

    2009-05-01

    This article systematically reviews the characteristics of child maltreatment among Asian Americans and provides a theoretical explanatory framework. The reported rate of child maltreatment among Asian Americans is disproportionately low. A high rate of physical abuse and low rates of neglect and sexual abuse are found among Asian American victims. Some protective factors (e.g., the emphasis on family harmony and reputation and the indulgence to infants and toddlers) may lead to low probability of child maltreatment among Asian Americans. Some others (e.g., parental authority and beliefs in physical punishment) may be risk factors of child maltreatment, especially physical abuse. Meanwhile, many other coexisting factors (e.g., children's obedience to parents and families' invisibility to authorities) may prohibit child maltreatment from being disclosed. Therefore, the overall low reported rate of child maltreatment among Asian Americans may be a combination of low incidence and underreporting. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:18971344

  16. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Release Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 20l0,that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et aI. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formals of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  17. Explaining and Selecting Treatments for Autism: Parental Explanatory Models in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Tsai, Jia-Ling; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2010-01-01

    Parental explanatory models about autism influence the type of therapy a child receives, the child's well-being, and the parents' own psychological adaptation. This qualitative study explored explanatory models used by parents of children with autism. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 parents of children with autism from a medical center…

  18. Conceptual Resources in Self-Developed Explanatory Models: The Importance of Integrating Conscious and Intuitive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Brown, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the spontaneous explanatory models children construct, critique, and revise in the context of tasks in which children need to predict, observe, and explain phenomena involving magnetism. It further investigates what conceptual resources students use, and in what ways they use them, to construct explanatory models, and the…

  19. Instructional explanations as an interface—the role of explanatory primitives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapon, Shulamit; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2010-10-01

    What makes an instructional sequence in physics meaningful to students? Why do some explanations seem more plausible than others? Why is it that an explanation can appear plausible to one student but not to another? We present a model that addresses these questions. Elaborating diSessa's (1993) concept of p-prims, we develop a model of explanatory primitives and argue that different individuals have different sets of explanatory primitives, or they assign different priorities to the same explanatory primitives. Individual differences in explanatory primitives can account for differences in reactions to an instructional explanation, and we present empirical data to support this claim. We then use the model to analyze Jim Minsrell's (1982) instructional sequence about normal forces to illustrate how an effective learning sequence addresses differences between individuals by evoking a rich set of explanatory primitives.

  20. Explanatory style across the life span: evidence for stability over 52 years.

    PubMed

    Burns, M O; Seligman, M E

    1989-03-01

    Analyzed explanatory style across the life span. 30 Ss whose average age was 72 responded to questions about their current life and provided diaries or letters written in their youth, an average of 52 years earlier. A blind content analysis of explanatory style derived from these 2 sources revealed that explanatory style for negative events was stable throughout adult life (r = .54, p less than .002). In contrast, there appeared to be no stability of explanatory style for positive events between the same 2 time periods. These results suggest that explanatory style for negative events may persist across the life span and may constitute an enduring risk factor for depression, low achievement, and physical illness. PMID:2926642

  1. Meteorological influences on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence in northwest Nigeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Monaghan, Andrew; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary; Hopson, Thomas; Leckebusch, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    Northwest Nigeria is a region with high risk of bacterial meningitis. Since the first documented epidemic of meningitis in Nigeria in 1905, the disease has been endemic in the northern part of the country, with epidemics occurring regularly. In this study we examine the influence of climate on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence and epidemics. Monthly aggregate counts of clinically confirmed hospital-reported cases of meningitis were collected in northwest Nigeria for the 22-year period spanning 1990-2011. Several generalized linear statistical models were fit to the monthly meningitis counts, including generalized additive models. Explanatory variables included monthly records of temperatures, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, sunshine and dustiness from weather stations nearest to the hospitals, and a time series of polysaccharide vaccination efficacy. The effects of other confounding factors -- i.e., mainly non-climatic factors for which records were not available -- were estimated as a smooth, monthly-varying function of time in the generalized additive models. Results reveal that the most important explanatory climatic variables are mean maximum monthly temperature, relative humidity and dustiness. Accounting for confounding factors (e.g., social processes) in the generalized additive models explains more of the year-to-year variation of meningococcal disease compared to those generalized linear models that do not account for such factors. Promising results from several models that included only explanatory variables that preceded the meningitis case data by 1-month suggest there may be potential for prediction of meningitis in northwest Nigeria to aid decision makers on this time scale.

  2. Structured variable selection with q-values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When some of the regressors can act on both the response and other explanatory variables, the already challenging problem of selecting variables when the number of covariates exceeds the sample size becomes more difficult. A motivating example is a metabolic study in mice that has diet groups and gu...

  3. The Influence of Environmental Variables on the Presence of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at Two Popular Cape Town Bathing Beaches: A Generalized Additive Mixed Model

    PubMed Central

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A.; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14°C and approached a maximum at 18°C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18°C than at 14°C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town. PMID:23874668

  4. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town. PMID:23874668

  5. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  6. Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Mainzer, A.; Conrow, T.; Masci, F.; Bauer, J.; Dailey, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Harbut, M.; Beck, R.; Wittman, M.; Wright, E. L.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Sonnett, S.; Nugent, C.; Kramer, E.; Stevenson, R.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Fabinsky, B.; Tholen, D.; Papin, M.; Fowler, J.; McCallon, H.

    2015-03-01

    's survey observations. The Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the NEOWISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the NEOWISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the NEOWISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Release products. Instructions for accessing the NEOWISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw NEOWISE images to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the NEOWISE Release data products. The NEOWISE Data Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the NEOWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/neowise/expsup/ NEOWISE is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the Planetary Science Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. [Age-prospective memory-paradox: explanatory hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Barbara; Auffray, Caroline; Juhel, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Prospective memory is a complex cognitive function requiring to remember a planned action. For example, this function is particularly important for elderly people to remember taking medication at the appropriate time. The comparison of the performance of old and young peoples on different prospective memory tasks led to two contradictory results, a configuration that has been dubbed "age-prospective memory-paradox". The first set of results of the age-prospective memory-paradox configuration is in keeping with the effects of aging on cognitive functioning, older peoples generally performing less well than younger peoples on laboratory prospective memory tasks. The second set of results is at odds with the first one, as older peoples generally perform better than younger peoples on naturalistic prospective memory tasks. The aim of the present paper is to expose the main explanatory hypotheses of the age related deficit on laboratory prospective memory tasks in one hand and on the age related benefit on naturalistic prospective memory tasks on the other hand. Concerning laboratory prospective memory tasks, the main hypothesis is that the detrimental effect of age would be principally due to negative influence of age on executive control processes and retrospective memory processes involved in this kind of tasks. With respect to naturalistic prospective memory tasks, a higher motivational level and the fact that older people have more frequently recourse to external memory aids and to compensation strategies could explain the better results of older people. PMID:25786425

  8. Effects of additional repeated sprint training during preseason on performance, heart rate variability, and stress symptoms in futsal players: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio F; de Souza, Eberton A; de Freitas, Victor H; de Moraes, Solange M F; Leicht, Anthony S; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing regular preseason futsal training with weekly sessions of repeated sprints (RS) training would have positive effects on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and field test performance. Thirteen players from a professional futsal team (22.6 ± 6.7 years, 72.8 ± 8.7 kg, 173.2 ± 6.2 cm) were divided randomly into 2 groups (AddT: n = 6 and normal training group: n = 7). Both groups performed a RSA test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYo IR1), squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), body composition, and heart rate variability (HRV) measures at rest before and after 4 weeks of preseason training. Athletes weekly stress symptoms were recorded by psychometric responses using the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire and subjective ratings of well-being scale, respectively. The daily training load (arbitrary units) was assessed using the session of rating perceived exertion method. After the preseason training, there were no significant changes for body composition, SJ, CMJ, and RSAbest. The YoYo IR1, RSAmean, RSAworst, and RSAdecreament were significantly improved for both groups (p ≤ 0.05). The HRV parameters improved significantly within both groups (p ≤ 0.05) except for high frequency (HF, absolute and normalized units, [n.u.]), low frequency (LF) (n.u.), and the LF/HF ratio. A moderate effect size for the AddT group was observed for resting heart rate and several HRV measures. Training load and psychometric responses were similar between both groups. Additional RS training resulted in slightly greater positive changes for vagal-related HRV with similar improvements in performance and training stress during the preseason training in futsal players. PMID:24662230

  9. Explanatory characteristics for nutrient concentrations and loads in the Sava River Catchment and cross-regionally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, L.; Cvetkovic, V.; Destouni, G.

    2015-12-01

    This study compiles estimates of waterborne nutrient concentrations and loads in the Sava River Catchment (SRC). Based on this compilation, we investigate hotspots of nutrient inputs and retention along the river, as well as concentration and load correlations with river discharge and various human drivers of excess nutrient inputs to the SRC. For cross-regional assessment and possible generalization, we also compare corresponding results between the SRC and the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB). In the SRC, one small incremental subcatchment, which is located just downstream of Zagreb and has the highest population density among the SRC subcatchments, is identified as a major hotspot for net loading (input minus retention) of both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) to the river and through it to downstream areas of the SRC. The other SRC subcatchments exhibit relatively similar characteristics with smaller net nutrient loading. The annual loads of both TN and TP along the Sava River exhibit dominant temporal variability with considerably higher correlation with annual river discharge (R2 = 0.51 and 0.28, respectively) than that of annual average nutrient concentrations (R2 = 0.0 versus discharge for both TN and TP). Nutrient concentrations exhibit instead dominant spatial variability with relatively high correlation with population density among the SRC subcatchments (R2=0.43-0.64). These SRC correlation characteristics compare well with corresponding ones for the BSDB, even though the two regions are quite different in their hydroclimatic, agricultural and wastewater treatment conditions. Such cross-regional consistency in dominant variability type and explanatory catchment characteristics may be a useful generalization basis, worthy of further investigation, for at least first-order estimation of nutrient concentration and load conditions in less data-rich regions.

  10. Work reinforcers and explanatory style for women aged 40 to 75 years.

    PubMed

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-07-01

    We examined the relationship between explanatory style and work reinforcers, that is, specific sources in the work environment that appear to promote job satisfaction. Our subjects were 135 employed women aged 40 to 75 years who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). Using Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis, weak but significant relationships were found between explanatory style and the work reinforcers of ability utilization, activity, and creativity. Individuals with a depressive explanatory style experienced less job satisfaction in areas related to these reinforcers. PMID:7932292

  11. The relationship between explanatory style and posttraumatic growth after bereavement in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Chu, Kwung Wing; Yiu, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between explanatory style and self-perceived posttraumatic growth was examined among 105 undergraduates in Hong Kong who had experienced bereavement in the past 6 years. Individuals who tended to attribute positive events to internal, global, and stable factors reported more posttraumatic growth than individuals who tended to attribute positive events to external, specific, and unstable factors. The explanatory style for positive events might affect later cognitive processing, such as meaning making after bereavement, which will affect self-perceived posttraumatic growth. One's explanatory style for negative events is not related to posttraumatic growth after bereavement. Directions for future study are described. PMID:18767238

  12. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R2 = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = −131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  13. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R(2) = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = -131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  14. Family relationships as an explanatory variable in childhood dental caries: a systematic review of measures.

    PubMed

    Duijster, D; O'Malley, L; Elison, S; Van Loveren, C; Marcenes, W; Adair, P M; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that parental beliefs (self-efficacy) about oral health and parental oral health-related behaviours play a fundamental role in the establishment of preventative behaviours that will mitigate against the development of childhood dental caries. However, little attention has been given to the wider perspective of family functioning and family relationships on child oral health. For oral health researchers, exploration of this association requires the use of reliable, valid and appropriate assessment tools to measure family relationships. In order to promote methodologically sound research in oral health, this systematic review aims to provide a guide on self-report psychometric measures of family functioning that may be suitable to utilize when exploring childhood dental caries. This systematic review has identified 29 self-report measures of family functioning and evaluated them in terms of their psychometric support, constructs measured and potential utility for oral health research. The majority of the measures reported adequate levels of reliability and construct validity. Construct evaluation of the measures identified five core domains of family functioning, namely 'communication', 'cohesion/engagement', 'control', 'involvement' and 'authoritative/rigid parenting style'. The constructs were subsequently evaluated with respect to their potential relevance to child oral health. Herewith this review provides a framework to guide future research to explore family functioning in furthering our understanding of the development of childhood dental caries. PMID:24107605

  15. Relational Expectancy Fulfillment as an Explanatory Variable for Distinguishing Couple Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the differences in marital satisfaction across couple type. Indicates that traditional couple types generally reported more expectancy fulfillment and relational satisfaction than did other couple types. Suggests that "separates" experienced more negative violations than did other couple types. (CR)

  16. Emerging Adult versus Adult Status among College Students: Examination of Explanatory Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Jonkman, Jeffrey N.; Smith, G. Rush

    2008-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to report how many college students, 18 to 25 years of age, are classified as "emerging adults," "undecideds" or "adults." The second purpose was to determine the relationships between emerging adults versus adults and (a) background characteristics, (b) risk-taking behaviors; (c) sensation-seeking scores, and…

  17. Mothers' explanatory models of lack of child growth.

    PubMed

    Reifsnider, E; Allan, J; Percy, M

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study elicited the explanatory models (EMs) of child growth held by mothers of growth-deficient children. EMs are culturally constructed explanations for a specific illness and its treatment (Kleinman, 1980). The EM concept was adapted for this study to focus on a child health condition instead of an illness. The sample comprised 22 mothers of growth deficient children who were interviewed 2 years after the conclusion of an intervention study to promote child growth. Growth deficiency was defined as below the 10th percentile for weight, height, or weight for height on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth grids (Hamill, Drzid, Johnson, Reed, & Roche, 1976). Three major domains were identified in the EMs of growth held by mothers: (1) illness or heredity (etiology); (2) keeping track of growth (course); and (3) helping my child grow (treatment). The mothers in this study were concerned about their children's size and growth patterns and they monitored their children's growth with the methods available to them. They identified illnesses and allergies as environmental factors that negatively impact their children's growth. All mothers viewed size as a function of heredity. The findings from this study suggest that an emphasis on size will not encourage mothers to focus on their children's growth. The EMs for growth and size were different. Health care providers may be more effective in enhancing children's growth by teaching parents how to deal with the day-to-day problems of children who are picky eaters, stretching limited food money, creating mealtime schedules, and dealing with illnesses before they become severe. PMID:11115141

  18. In Search of Explanatory Frameworks: An Analysis of Richard Feynman's Lecture "Atoms in Motion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Harrison, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the various aspects of explanations that make up an explanatory framework and the notion of pedagogical content knowledge. Analyzes an exemplary set of physics explanations to identify the individual and holistic characteristics of an effective explanation. (Author/SAH)

  19. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092

  20. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming – activating supportive representations of attachment security – on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092

  1. The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of explanatory depth

    PubMed Central

    Rozenblit, Leonid; Keil, Frank

    2011-01-01

    People feel they understand complex phenomena with far greater precision, coherence, and depth than they really do; they are subject to an illusion—an illusion of explanatory depth. The illusion is far stronger for explanatory knowledge than many other kinds of knowledge, such as that for facts, procedures or narratives. The illusion for explanatory knowledge is most robust where the environment supports real-time explanations with visible mechanisms. We demonstrate the illusion of depth with explanatory knowledge in Studies 1–6. Then we show differences in overconfidence about knowledge across different knowledge domains in Studies 7–10. Finally, we explore the mechanisms behind the initial confidence and behind overconfidence in Studies 11 and 12. Implications for the roles of intuitive theories in models of concepts and cognition are discussed. PMID:21442007

  2. Assessing explanatory style: the content analysis of verbatim explanations and the Attributional Style Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Schulman, P; Castellon, C; Seligman, M E

    1989-01-01

    We compare two methods of assessing explanatory style--the content analysis of verbatim explanations (CAVE) and the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The CAVE technique is a method that allows the researcher to analyze any naturally occurring verbatim materials for explanatory style. This technique permits the measurement of various populations that are unwilling or unable to take the ASQ. We administered the ASQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to 169 undergraduates and content analyzed the written causes on the ASQ for explanatory style by the CAVE technique. The CAVE technique correlated 0.71 with the ASQ (P less than 0.0001, n = 159) and -0.36 with BDI (P less than 0.0001, n = 159). The ASQ correlated -0.51 with the BDI (P less than 0.0001, n = 160). Both the CAVE technique and the ASQ seem to be valid devices for assessing explanatory style. PMID:2818415

  3. Explanatory style and its functional relationship to job satisfaction for employed women age forty and over.

    PubMed

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-06-01

    An assessment of the relationship between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction is presented for 135 employed women age 40 and over who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Although a forced-order multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant correlation between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction, several interesting factors emerged. PMID:8058876

  4. Sexual Victimization and Physical Health: An Examination of Explanatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Kathleen M.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of research illustrating a significant relationship between a history of sexual victimization and the development of physical health problems; however, few researchers have examined variables that mediate this relationship. The present study examined two potential mediating variables: experiential avoidance and current…

  5. Relationships between explanatory style, posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among Chinese breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Chan, Michelle W Y; Yau, T K; Yeung, Rebecca M W

    2011-03-01

    Many existing models posit that cognitive processing style is an important factor affecting self-perceived positive changes. In this study, the effects of explanatory style (the manner in which people cognitively process and explain why they experience good and bad events) on both posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined among 90 Chinese women with breast cancer. It was found that explanatory style for good events, but not for bad events, was significantly associated with self-reported PTG. Women who attributed the causes of positive events to internal, global and stable factors tended to report more posttraumatic growth. In contrast, explanatory style for bad events, as opposed to good events, was significantly and positively correlated with PTSD symptoms. Among the three dimensions of explanatory style (internal, stable and global), the tendency to globalise the causes of good and bad events were the most important predictors of self-reported PTG and PTSD symptoms, respectively. While enhancing an optimistic explanatory style for bad events might reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms, cultivating an optimistic explanatory style for good events is likely to increase self-perceived positive changes after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20204977

  6. DIRECT Distances to Nearby Galaxies Using Detached Eclipsing Binaries and Cepheids. VII. Additional Variables in the Field M33A Discovered with Image Subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochejska, B. J.; Kaluzny, J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Sasselov, D. D.; Szentgyorgyi, A. H.

    2001-04-01

    DIRECT is a project to directly obtain the distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, which occupy a crucial position near the bottom of the cosmological distance ladder. As the first step of the DIRECT project, we have searched for detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs) and new Cepheids in the M31 and M33 galaxies with 1 m class telescopes. In this paper, we present a catalog of variable stars discovered in the data from the follow-up observations of the DEB system D33J013346.2+304439.9 in field M33A (α=23.55d, δ=30.72d J2000.0), collected with the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 2.1 m telescope. In our search covering an area of 108 arcmin2, we have found 434 variable stars: 63 eclipsing binaries, 305 Cepheids, and 66 other periodic, possible long-period, or nonperiodic variables. Of these variables, 280 are newly discovered, mainly short-period and/or faint Cepheids. Their light curves were extracted using the ISIS image subtraction package. For 85% of the variables, we present light curves in standard V and B magnitudes, with the remaining 15% expressed in units of differential flux. We have discovered a population of first-overtone Cepheid candidates, and for eight of them we present strong arguments in favor of this interpretation. We also report on the detection of a nonlinearity in the KPNO T2KA and T1KA cameras. The catalog of variables, as well as their photometry (~7.8×104 BV measurements) and finding charts, is available electronically via anonymous ftp and the World Wide Web. The complete set of the CCD frames is available upon request. Based on observations obtained with the 2.1 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory.

  7. DIRECT Distances to Nearby Galaxies Using Detached Eclipsing Binaries and Cepheids. VIII. Additional Variables in the Field M33B Discovered with Image Subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochejska, B. J.; Kaluzny, J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Sasselov, D. D.; Szentgyorgyi, A. H.

    2001-11-01

    DIRECT is a project to obtain directly the distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, which occupy a crucial position near the bottom of the cosmological distance ladder. As the first step of the DIRECT project we have searched for detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs) and new Cepheids in the M31 and M33 galaxies with 1 m class telescopes. In this eighth paper we present a catalog of variable stars discovered in the data from the follow-up observations of DEB system D33J013337.0+303032.8 in field M33B [(α,δ)=(23.48d,30.57d), J2000.0], collected with the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1 m telescope. In our search covering an area of 108 arcmin2 we have found 895 variable stars: 96 eclipsing binaries, 349 Cepheids, and 450 other periodic, possibly long-period or nonperiodic variables. Of these variables 612 are newly discovered. Their light curves were extracted using the ISIS image subtraction package. For 77% of the variables we present light curves in standard V and B magnitudes, with the remaining 23% expressed in units of differential flux. We have discovered a population of first-overtone Cepheid candidates, and for six of them we present strong arguments in favor of this interpretation. The catalog of variables, as well as their photometry (about 9.2×104 BV measurements) and finding charts, is available electronically via anonymous ftp and the World Wide Web. The complete set of the CCD frames is available upon request. Based on observations obtained with the 2.1 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  8. Understanding burnout according to individual differences: ongoing explanatory power evaluation of two models for measuring burnout types

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The classic determination of burnout is by means of the dimensions exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy. A new definition of the syndrome is based on clinical subtypes, consisting of “frenetic” (involved, ambitious, overloaded), “underchallenged” (indifferent, bored, with lack of personal development) and “worn-out” (neglectful, unacknowledged, with little control). The dimensions of overload, lack of development and neglect form a shortened version of this perspective. The aims of this study were to estimate and to compare the explanatory power of both typological models, short and long, with the standard measurement. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey with a randomly sample of university employees (n=409). Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the “Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey” (MBI-GS) dimensions, as dependent variables, and the “Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire” (BCSQ-36 and BCSQ-12) dimensions, as independent variables. Results The BCSQ-36 subscales together explained 53% of ‘exhaustion’ (p<0.001), 59% of ‘cynicism’ (p<0.001) and 37% of ‘efficacy’ (p<0.001), while BCSQ-12 subscales explained 44% of ‘exhaustion’ (p<0.001), 44% of ‘cynicism’ (p<0.001), and 30% of ‘efficacy’ (p<0.001). The difference in the explanatory power of both models was significant for ‘exhaustion’ (p<0.001), and for ‘cynicism’ (p<0.001) and ‘efficacy (p<0.001). Conclusions Both BCSQ-36 and BCSQ-12 demonstrate great explanatory power over the standard MBI-GS, while offering a useful characterization of the syndrome for the evaluation and design of interventions tailored to the characteristics of each individual. The BCSQ-36 may be very useful in mental health services, given that it provides a good deal of information, while the BCSQ-12 could be used as a screening measure in primary care consultations owing to its simplicity and functional nature. PMID:23110723

  9. A potential impact of computer technology on students' alternative conceptions and explanatory style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Ralph E.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact a computer simulation may have on the process of altering learners' conceptions and explanatory styles in a specific science learning situation. For the investigation of the conceptualization process, it is assumed that children come to understand science through a process in which they question and modify their own alternative conceptions. Further, since science frequently depends on conceptions that cannot be derived from direct observation, successful teaching strategies frequently utilize activities and tools that facilitate constructions of conceptions that are more abstract than those previously relied upon by students prior to their school experience. A computer simulation may provide a unique learning tool for this purpose by bridging a gap between abstract conception and direct experience in situations where laboratory reconstructions are not possible or feasible. For the investigation of explanatory style, it is assumed that students who tend to attribute success and failure in learning to themselves also tend to be interested in learning. Students who are inclined to see themselves as responsible for their own success or failure have an optimistic explanatory style. Students inclined to see external factors as responsible have a helpless explanatory style. Conceptualization, specifically, conceptualization of friction and gravity, is assessed by a variation of the Interview-about-Instances technique. Explanatory style is measured by Crandall's Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale for Conceptualization of Friction and Gravity. The study targets fifth and sixth grade students in a suburban setting. Quantitative Analysis indicates that the effective utilization of the software Sir Isaac Newton's Games improves student conceptualization of friction and gravity, and prevents drops toward a less optimistic explanatory style. Also shown is a

  10. Suicidal ideation in adolescents: an explanatory model using LISREL.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Han, Kuemsun; Kwon, Jung Hye; Kim, Han Kyeom; Kang, Hyun Cheol; Yoon, Ji-Won; Cheon, Suk-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2010-03-01

    Suicidal ideation has been reported to be a major factor in attempted and completed suicides. The purpose of this study is to test a structural model to explain adolescent suicidal ideation. Specifically tested is the relationship between the predictor variables of trait anger, anger suppression, entrapment, psychosomatic symptoms, depression, and resilience and the dependent variable of suicidal ideation. Data are collected from a convenience sample of 11,393 students from 36 middle schools and 23 high schools in Korea. Trait anger, entrapment, psychosomatic symptoms, depression, and resilience have a direct effect on suicidal ideation whereas anger suppression shows a significant indirect effect on adolescent suicidal ideation. The predictor variables account for 39% of the variance in suicidal ideation. The study findings suggest that future programs for prevention or alleviation of adolescents' suicidal ideation need to use interventions that facilitate their resilience and reduce their anger, entrapment feeling, psychosomatic symptoms, and depression. PMID:20040734

  11. Joint perceptual decision-making: a case study in explanatory pluralism

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Dale, Rick; Yoshimi, Jeff; Kello, Chris T.; Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally different approaches to the study of cognition have been viewed as competing explanatory frameworks. An alternative view, explanatory pluralism, regards different approaches to the study of cognition as complementary ways of studying the same phenomenon, at specific temporal and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision-making task (Bahrami et al., 2010), where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically assess and complement approaches. PMID:24795679

  12. Explanatory models in patients with first episode depression: a study from north India.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Kumar, Vineet; Chakrabarti, Subho; Hollikatti, Prabhakar; Singh, Pritpal; Tyagi, Shikha; Kulhara, Parmanand; Avasthi, Ajit

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the explanatory models of patients with first episode depression presenting to a tertiary care hospital located in North-western India. One hundred sixty four consecutive patients with diagnosis of first episode depression (except severe depression with psychotic symptoms) according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) and ≥18 years of age were evaluated for their explanatory models using the causal models section of Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). The most common explanations given were categorized into Karma-deed-heredity category (77.4%), followed by psychological explanations (62.2%), weakness (50%) and social causes (40.2%). Among the various specific causes the commonly reported explanations by at least one-fourth of the sample in decreasing order were: will of god (51.2%), fate/chance (40.9%), weakness of nerves (37.8%), general weakness (34.7%), bad deeds (26.2%), evil eye (24.4%) and family problems (21.9%). There was some influence of sociodemographic features on the explanations given by the patients. From the study, it can be concluded that patients with first episode depression have multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression which are slightly different than those reported in previous studies done from other parts of India. Understanding the multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression can have important treatment implications. PMID:22981054

  13. Joint perceptual decision-making: a case study in explanatory pluralism.

    PubMed

    Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Yoshimi, Jeff; Kello, Chris T; Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally different approaches to the study of cognition have been viewed as competing explanatory frameworks. An alternative view, explanatory pluralism, regards different approaches to the study of cognition as complementary ways of studying the same phenomenon, at specific temporal and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision-making task (Bahrami et al., 2010), where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically assess and complement approaches. PMID:24795679

  14. Extreme urban-rural temperatures in the coastal city of Turku, Finland: Quantification and visualization based on a generalized additive model.

    PubMed

    Hjort, Jan; Suomi, Juuso; Käyhkö, Jukka

    2016-11-01

    Fundamental knowledge on the determinants of air temperatures across spatial and temporal scales is essential in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Spatial-based statistical modelling provides an efficient approach for the analysis and prediction of air temperatures in human-modified environments at high spatial accuracy. The aim of the study was firstly, to analyse the environmental factors affecting extreme air temperature conditions in a coastal high-latitude city and secondly, to explore the applicability of generalized additive model (GAM) in the study of urban-rural temperatures. We utilized air temperature data from 50 permanent temperature logger stations and extensive geospatial environmental data on different scales from Turku, SW Finland. We selected five temperature situations (cases) and altogether 12 urban and natural explanatory variables for the analyses. The results displayed that (i) water bodies and topographical conditions were often more important than urban variables in controlling the spatial variability of extreme air temperatures, (ii) case specificity of the explanatory variables and their scales should be considered in the analyses and (iii) GAM was highly suitable in quantifying and visualizing the relations between urban-rural temperatures and environmental determinants at local scales. The results promote the use of GAMs in spatial-based statistical modelling of air temperature in future. PMID:27362632

  15. Over-Reporting in Handwashing Self-Reports: Potential Explanatory Factors and Alternative Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Contzen, Nadja; De Pasquale, Sandra; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Handwashing interventions are a priority in development and emergency aid programs. Evaluation of these interventions is essential to assess the effectiveness of programs; however, measuring handwashing is quite difficult. Although observations are considered valid, they are time-consuming and cost-ineffective; self-reports are highly efficient but considered invalid because desirable behaviour tends to be over-reported. Socially desirable responding has been claimed to be the main cause of inflated self-reports, but its underlying factors and mechanisms are understudied. The present study investigated socially desirable responding and additional potential explanatory factors for over-reported handwashing to identify indications for measures which mitigate over-reporting. Additionally, a script-based covert recall, an alternative interview question intended to mitigate recall errors and socially desirable responding, was developed and tested. Cross-sectional data collection was conducted in the Borena Zone, Ethiopia, through 2.5-hour observations and 1-hour interviews with the primary caregivers in households. A total sample of N = 554 was surveyed. Data were analysed with correlation and multiple regression analyses and dependent t-tests. Over-reporting of handwashing was associated with factors assumed to be involved in (1) socially desirable responding, (2) encoding and recall of information, and (3) dissonance processes. The latter two factor groups explained over-reported handwashing beyond socially desirable responding. The alternative interview question—script-based covert recall—reduced over-reporting compared to conventional self-reports. Although the difficulties involved in measuring handwashing by self-reports and observations are widely known, the present study is the first to investigate the factors which explain over-reporting of handwashing. This research contributes to the limited evidence base on a highly important subject: how to evaluate

  16. Assessing explanatory style in teenagers: adolescent norms for the MMPI Optimism-Pessimism Scale.

    PubMed

    Malinchoc, M; Colligan, R C; Offord, K P

    1996-05-01

    This article reports adolescent norms for the Optimism-Pessimism (PSM) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The PSM scale measures explanatory style on a continuum from optimistic to pessimistic by using 298 MMPI items. It is based on Seligman's theory of explanatory style and was constructed by applying the Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE) technique to the MMPI item pool. The normative equations are based on a random sample of 624 normal boys and 691 normal girls ages 13 through 17 years. Reliability estimates of .94 demonstrate that the PSM scale can accurately assess explanatory style in adolescents. These norms may identify a personality factor associated with poorer physical and mental health and lower levels of achievement. PMID:8835690

  17. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23398892

  18. Impact hypothesis for offshore wind farms: Explanatory models for species distribution at extremely exposed rocky areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Šaškov, Aleksej; Dahlgren, Thomas G.

    2014-07-01

    The increasing need for renewable and clean energy production is likely to result in a diversification of locations for the implementation of offshore wind farms which have been so far predominantly sited on soft substrata. In contrast, offshore wind turbines placed on rocky reefs in highly exposed areas are much less common and the impacts on local flora and fauna can only be hypothesized. On the Western coast of Norway, a rocky reef with a highly complex topography has been chosen to be the first full-scale offshore wind farm in the country. Underwater video analyses and multibeam bathymetry data with a generalized linear model were used opportunistically to investigate the influence of geomorphic explanatory variables on the occurrence of selected taxa (algae, sea urchins and sea stars) identified in the study area. Combining video observations and multibeam bathymetry in a generalized linear model revealed that the geomorphic descriptors: aspect, slope, rugosity, and benthic position indexes (BPI), were of significance for algae, sea urchins and sea stars at Havsul and served in showing their habitat preferences. Kelp occurred in areas of high rugosity, on gentle slopes, at elevated areas with a southerly orientation and on the sheltered side of rock or bedrock. Thus, construction disturbance that modify those variables may lead to a change in the area preferred by kelp. Turbines that shade southerly aspects may affect small kelp plants in reducing their available habitat. Sea urchins were more abundant on steep slopes and both sea stars and sea urchins showed a preference for a complex local relief (high rugosity) and heterogeneity in fine and broad elevation (shown by BPI). Thus, foundations and cable route preparation may significantly change the slope, rugosity of BPI broad, which will change the basis for sea urchin populations. It may likewise significantly change the rugosity or BPI (fine or broad), which may change the distribution of sea stars. The

  19. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Ozonesonde Precision, Accuracy and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, Anne M.; McPeters, R. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the SAFARI-2000 campaign, additional launches of ozonesondes were made at Irene, South Africa and at Lusaka, Zambia. These represent campaign augmentations to the SHADOZ database described in this paper. This network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 profiles from ozonesondes and radiosondes during the period 1998-2000. (Since that time, two more stations, one in southern Africa, have joined SHADOZ). Archived data are available at: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/shadoz>. Uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in stratospheric ozone profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite and ground-based instruments; (3) possible biases from station-to-station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%; (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are in good agreement (2-10%) with independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and with overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in groundbased-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  20. General Education in Health Science-Focused Institutions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of general education curricula at baccalaureate colleges of health science in relationship to Bergquist's Career-Based Model of curriculum. Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach, the model was tested by examining whether the curricula were both prescriptive and specific.…

  1. Accentuate the Positive: The Relationship between Positive Explanatory Style and Academic Achievement of Prospective Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    This research examines 480 current event-explanation units using the CAVE technique (Schulman, Castellon, & Seligman, 1989) to note the relationship between positive and negative explanatory style and achievement of prospective early childhood and upper elementary female teachers. This study found a significant positive relationship between…

  2. Constructing and De-Constructing Cultural Values: An Explanatory Model of Teaching Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boufoy-Bastick, Beatrice

    This paper presents an explanatory model of cultural behaviors, which resulted from a 4-year ethnographic study of the different academic attainments in English of indigenous Fijians and the Indo-Fijians in the Fiji Islands. Fiji is a natural laboratory for investigating differential cultural behaviors because of these two culturally distinct main…

  3. The Role of Scientific Modeling Criteria in Advancing Students' Explanatory Ideas of Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Brown, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Student construction of models is a strong focus of current research and practice in science education. In order to study in detail the interactions between students' model generation and evaluation and their development of explanatory ideas to account for magnetic phenomena, a multi-session teaching experiment was conducted with a small number of…

  4. Explanatory and pragmatic perspectives regarding idiopathic physical symptoms and related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Engel, Charles C

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, research-methods literature mainly addressing controlled clinical trials has arisen regarding explanatory and pragmatic treatment trials. Explanatory trials tend to examine causal mechanisms and questions of efficacy and value internal validity (creating optimal study conditions) over generalizability (using study results to understand treatment effects in real-life patient populations). In contrast, pragmatic trials value "external relevance" (generalizability) of study results over "internal elegance" so that clinicians and health policymakers can better understand how treatments might impact their patients and policies. This review draws inspiration from these contrasting explanatory and pragmatic perspectives and develops them for clinical and research pertaining to idiopathic physical symptoms and related syndromes (eg, somatization disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities, irritable bowel syndrome). Explanatory and pragmatic perspectives are used to examine these idiopathies with regard to causation, case definition, labels, and treatment. It is concluded that idiopathic symptom syndromes are fundamentally pragmatic clinical and research challenges. For epidemiologic and methodologic reasons, the complex explanations for these syndromes remain largely elusive. Even so, scientific and clinical pragmatism offers the opportunity to reduce disagreement between competing medical disciplines and between clinicians and affected patients with regard to irreconcilable etiologic questions and to remain evidence-based in the care of patients. PMID:16575379

  5. A Mixed Methods Explanatory Study of Intermediate School Collaboration and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods explanatory study addressed the problem of continuing disparity in achievement between students with special needs and their peers in the educational setting, despite mandates requiring schools to educate these students in the least restrictive environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the types and extent of…

  6. Explanatory Models of Illness: A Study of Within-Culture Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Medin, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The current studies explore causal models of heart attack and depression generated from American healers whom use distinct explanatory frameworks. Causal chains leading to two illnesses, heart attack and depression, were elicited from participant groups: registered nurses (RNs), energy healers, RN energy healers, and undergraduates. The…

  7. Self-Explanation and Explanatory Feedback in Games: Individual Differences, Gameplay, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Stephen S.; Clark, Douglas B.; Adams, Deanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory…

  8. Why Do Adolescents Use Drugs? A Common Sense Explanatory Model from the Social Actor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia; Rodriguez-Cerda, Oscar; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Analysis was made of the common sense explanations of 60 Mexican teenage illicit drug users in rehabilitation to determine their drug use debut. The explanatory model was separated into three blocks, two of which contained common sense aspects: interaction between subject's plane and the collectivity; and relationship between subject's interior…

  9. Examining Explanatory Biases in Young Children's Biological Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the well-established literature on explanation in early childhood, little is known about what constrains children's explanations. State change and negative outcomes were examined as potential explanatory biases in the domain of naïve biology, extending upon previous work in the domain of naïve physics. In two studies, preschool…

  10. Making Sense of a Globalizing World: Adolescents' Explanatory Frameworks for Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Poverty, like other persistent social problems, has taken on new dimensions and scale due to globalization. This research examined 20 adolescents' explanatory frameworks for global poverty during their participation in an international studies program. International development theories were employed to analyze the range of their responses. The…

  11. Effects of Pessimism and Explanatory Style on Development of Anger in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Peter; Smith, Douglas C.; Curtis, David

    2003-01-01

    Assesses high school students' levels of dispositional optimism and pessimism, explanatory style and anger in relation to the school setting. Results suggest that anger management programs focusing on cognitive restructuring and related strategies can be a powerful means for reducing aggressive behaviors at school. (Contains 38 references.) (GCP)

  12. Learned Social Hopelessness: The Role of Explanatory Style in Predicting Social Support during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Almost no research has examined the impact of explanatory style on social adjustment. We hypothesised that adolescents with a pessimistic style would be less likely to develop and maintain social support networks. Methods: Seven hundred and nineteen students (351 males and 366 females; 2 unknown; M[subscript AGE] = 12.28, SD = 0.49)…

  13. Using Explanatory Item Response Models to Analyze Group Differences in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of an explanatory item response modeling (EIRM) approach in the context of measuring group differences in science achievement. The distinction between item response models and EIRMs, recently elaborated by De Boeck and Wilson (2004), is presented within the statistical framework of generalized linear mixed models.…

  14. Perceptions of Parent-Child Attachments: Relationships with Explanatory Style and Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David R.

    This study investigated the theoretical concept of attachments to parents as having pervasive influence on psychological adaptation into young adulthood. Specifically, traditional-age college students' perceptions of separate attachments to their mothers and fathers were related to students' elf-reported explanatory style and empathy. Using a…

  15. The Relationship between Explanatory Style and Posttraumatic Growth after Bereavement in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Chu, Kwung Wing; Yiu, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between explanatory style and self-perceived posttraumatic growth was examined among 105 undergraduates in Hong Kong who had experienced bereavement in the past 6 years. Individuals who tended to attribute positive events to internal, global, and stable factors reported more posttraumatic growth than individuals who tended to…

  16. The Influence of Overt Practice, Achievement Level, and Explanatory Style on Calibration Accuracy and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Hacker, Douglas J.; O'Shea, Patrick; Allen, Dwight

    2005-01-01

    The authors measured the influence of overt calibration practice, achievement level, and explanatory style on calibration accuracy and exam performance. Students (N = 356) were randomly assigned to either an overt practice or no-practice condition. Students in the overt practice condition made predictions and postdictions about their performance…

  17. The Effects of Gender and Years of Teaching Experience on Explanatory Style of Secondary Vocational Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bettye P.; Hall, Helen C.; Woolcock-Henry, Constance

    2000-01-01

    Secondary vocational teachers in Georgia (n=219) completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire. Both males and females had predominantly optimistic explanatory styles. Teachers with 11-20 years of experience were more optimistic overall and regarding negative events than were those who had taught for over 20 years. (SK)

  18. An explanatory model of nurse practitioner job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Koelbel, P W; Fuller, S G; Misener, T R

    1991-01-01

    Job satisfaction influences employee retention, worker productivity, and performance quality. To retain qualified nurse practitioners (NPs), health administrators must identify sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Herzberg's dual-factor theory of job satisfaction addresses extrinsic and intrinsic work-related factors. Expansion of the model to include global job satisfaction and individual differences provided a broad framework for the assessment of nurse practitioner job satisfaction. The expanded model was used to analyze the job satisfaction of 132 NPs registered with the South Carolina State Board of Nursing in 1988 (final response rate = 90%). Participants completed the Index of Job Satisfaction (IJS), the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (MSQ-SF), and the Personal and Work Background Questionnaire (PWBQ). Although the NPs were moderately satisfied with their overall jobs, extrinsic factors were found to be major sources of dissatisfaction. The optimal combination of variables predicted by regression analysis to influence global job satisfaction were age, number of children, urban locations, achievement, company policies and practices, creativity, independence, and compensation. Implications for health administrators to improve the work environments of NPs are discussed. PMID:2007057

  19. Avoiding and Correcting Bias in Score-Based Latent Variable Regression with Discrete Manifest Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Irene R. R.; Thomas, D. Roland

    2008-01-01

    This article considers models involving a single structural equation with latent explanatory and/or latent dependent variables where discrete items are used to measure the latent variables. Our primary focus is the use of scores as proxies for the latent variables and carrying out ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on such scores to estimate…

  20. Experimental reconstruction of monsoon drought variability for Australasia using tree rings and corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Baker, Patrick; Palmer, Jonathan; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Cook, Garry

    2008-06-01

    An experimental reconstruction uses three well-dated, annually-resolved proxies from Australasia (0-40°S, 95-155°E) to provide large-scale information on Sep-Jan Australasian monsoon variability based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for 1787-2002. The proxies are: (1) a ring width chronology of Callitris intratropica for northern Australia (1847-2006) (2) a tree-ring and coral-based reconstruction of the Oct-Nov PDSI (1787-2003) for Java, Indonesia; and (3) a rainfall reconstruction for northeastern Australia (1631-2002) based on Great Barrier Reef coral luminescence. All three proxies show considerable explanatory value for reconstructing monsoon rainfall variability over much of Australia and environs, which will improve as additional records become available. The success of this ``proof of concept'' experiment largely reflects the highly significant, spatially-coherent correlations between austral spring and summer PDSI, Australasian climate and ENSO.

  1. Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: a thirty-five-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C; Seligman, M E; Vaillant, G E

    1988-07-01

    Explanatory style, the habitual ways in which individuals explain bad events, was extracted from open-ended questionnaires filled out by 99 graduates of the Harvard University classes of 1942-1944 at age 25. Physical health from ages 30 to 60 as measured by physician examination was related to earlier explanatory style. Pessimistic explanatory style (the belief that bad events are caused by stable, global, and internal factors) predicted poor health at ages 45 through 60, even when physical and mental health at age 25 were controlled. Pessimism in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for poor health in middle and late adulthood. PMID:3418489

  2. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  3. Using explanatory crop models to develop simple tools for Advanced Life Support system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavazzoni, J.

    2004-01-01

    System-level analyses for Advanced Life Support require mathematical models for various processes, such as for biomass production and waste management, which would ideally be integrated into overall system models. Explanatory models (also referred to as mechanistic or process models) would provide the basis for a more robust system model, as these would be based on an understanding of specific processes. However, implementing such models at the system level may not always be practicable because of their complexity. For the area of biomass production, explanatory models were used to generate parameters and multivariable polynomial equations for basic models that are suitable for estimating the direction and magnitude of daily changes in canopy gas-exchange, harvest index, and production scheduling for both nominal and off-nominal growing conditions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M.; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics. PMID:27134568

  5. Towards a computational(ist) neurobiology of language: Correlational, integrated, and explanatory neurolinguistics*

    PubMed Central

    Poeppel, David

    2014-01-01

    We outline what an integrated approach to language research that connects experimental, theoretical, and neurobiological domains of inquiry would look like, and ask to what extent unification is possible across domains. At the center of the program is the idea that computational/representational (CR) theories of language must be used to investigate its neurobiological (NB) foundations. We consider different ways in which CR and NB might be connected. These are (1) A Correlational way, in which NB computation is correlated with the CR theory; (2) An Integrated way, in which NB data provide crucial evidence for choosing among CR theories; and (3) an Explanatory way, in which properties of NB explain why a CR theory is the way it is. We examine various questions concerning the prospects for Explanatory connections in particular, including to what extent it makes sense to say that NB could be specialized for particular computations. PMID:25914888

  6. Explanatory style and cell-mediated immunity in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Kamen-Siegel, L; Rodin, J; Seligman, M E; Dwyer, J

    1991-01-01

    Correlated pessimistic explanatory style--the belief that negative events are caused by internal, stable, and global factors--with lowered immunocompetence in a sample of 26 older adults. Two measures of cell-mediated immunity--T-helper cell/T-suppressor cell ratio and T-lymphocyte response to mitogen challenge--were lower in individuals with a pessimistic style, controlling for the influence of current health, depression, medication, recent weight change, sleep, and alcohol use. A relative increase in the percentage of T-suppressor cells seemed to underlie this immunosuppression. Although the mechanism by which explanatory style might influence immune function remains unknown, we speculate that a pessimistic style might be an important psychological risk factor--at least among older people--in the early course of certain immune-mediated diseases. PMID:1915208

  7. The specificity of cognitive vulnerabilities to emotional disorders: anxiety sensitivity, looming vulnerability and explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Reardon, John M; Williams, Nathan L

    2007-01-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders share considerable phenomenological and diagnostic overlap. Several models have advanced the understanding of the phenomenological overlap of anxiety and depression; however, identification of disorder-specific etiological mechanisms remains elusive. Recently, research has advanced several cognitive vulnerability-stress models proposing that one's characteristic way of attending to, interpreting, and remembering negative events contributes vulnerability to psychopathology. These cognitive vulnerabilities may elucidate specific etiological mechanisms that distinguish mood and anxiety pathology. The present study examines the specificity of three cognitive vulnerability constructs, the looming cognitive style, anxiety sensitivity, and explanatory style, in the prediction of latent anxiety disorder symptoms and latent depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the looming cognitive style demonstrated specificity predicting only anxiety disorder symptoms whereas anxiety sensitivity and a pessimistic explanatory style predicted both anxiety disorder and mood disorder symptoms. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17070666

  8. A Pessimistic Explanatory Style is Prognostic for Poor Lung Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Paul; Colligan, Robert C.; Szydlo, Daniel W.; Clark, Matthew M.; Rausch, Sarah; Wampfler, Jason; Sloan, Jeff A.; Yang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the importance of personality constructs on health behaviors and health status. Having a pessimistic outlook has been related to negative health behaviors and higher mortality. However, the construct has not been well explored in cancer populations. Methods Survival time of 534 adults, who were diagnosed with lung cancer and had a pessimistic explanatory style, was examined. The patients had completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) approximately 18.2 years prior to receiving their lung cancer diagnosis. MMPI Optimism-Pessimism (PSM) scores were divided into high (60 or more) and low scores (less than 60), and log-rank tests and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine survival differences. Multivariate Cox models were used for assessing prognostic values of pessimism along with other known predictors for lung cancer survival outcome. Booting strapping of the survival models was used as a sensitivity analysis. Results At the time of lung cancer diagnosis, patients were on average 67 years old; 48% were female; 85% had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); 15% had small cell lung cancer (SCLC); 30% were stage I; 4% were stage II; 31% were stage III/limited; and 35% were stage IV/extensive. Patients who exhibited a non-pessimistic explanatory style survived approximately six months longer than patients classified as having a pessimistic explanatory style. Conclusion Among lung cancer patients, those having a pessimistic explanatory style experienced less favorable survival outcome, which may be related to cancer treatment decisions. Further research in this area is warranted. PMID:20139778

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Participants’ Explanatory Model of Being Overweight and Their Experiences of 2 Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Amy L.; Boyland, Emma J.; Jebb, Susan A.; Cohn, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE We explored participants’ accounts of weight loss interventions to illuminate the reasons behind the greater weight loss observed among those attending a commercial program compared with those receiving standard care in a recent large-scale trial. We further wanted to examine how participants’ general explanatory model of being overweight related to the 2 different interventions. METHODS Our study was based on thematic analysis of semistructured telephone interviews with a purposeful sample of 16 female participants from the UK center of a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in primary care. RESULTS The commercial provider delivered weight management in a nonmedical context, which mirrors how participants regard being overweight. Participants felt they needed support and motivation rather than education, and valued the ease of access and frequent contact the commercial provider offered. Some participants preferred individual level support with their primary care clinician, and all were positive about the opportunity to access support through the primary care setting. CONCLUSIONS Primary care referral to a commercial weight loss program for people who do not require specific clinical care appears to be in accord with their general explanatory model about being overweight, offering motivation and support to lose weight outside a strictly medical context. This approach may not be effective or acceptable for everyone, however, and there are likely to be considerable variations in the explanatory models held. Findings support the argument that a range of evidence-based options for weight management should be available in primary care. PMID:23690325

  11. Toxin or medicine? Explanatory models of radon in Montana health mines.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Barbra E

    2007-03-01

    Environmental protection and public health agencies in the United States and elsewhere label radioactive radon gas a toxic environmental hazard and a major cause of lung cancer. Paradoxically, in Europe and Japan radon gas is also used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory, as one choice in the spectrum of conventional medical care. Although it is possible to find radon therapy in the United States, it exists only as an unconventional practice in Montana "radon health mines." In this article, I examine the use of radon therapy by Americans despite intensive public health education media campaigns. Using the notion of explanatory models as an analytical framework, I argue that American health mine clients adjust or replace "toxic models" of radon with new kinds of explanatory models that allow radon to be redefined as a healing substance. The manner of this adjustment varies according to peoples' individual needs, their own preexisting cultural models and experiences, and their individual personalities; the source of authoritative knowledge accepted by each person is a strong influence. Through these altered explanatory models, mine clients are able to view their use of radon therapy as a rational course of action. PMID:17405695

  12. Preliminary Evolutionary Explanations: A Basic Framework for Conceptual Change and Explanatory Coherence in Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; Zogza, Vasso

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to explore secondary students’ explanations of evolutionary processes, and to determine how consistent these were, after a specific evolution instruction. In a previous study it was found that before instruction students provided different explanations for similar processes to tasks with different content. Hence, it seemed that the structure and the content of the task may have had an effect on students’ explanations. The tasks given to students demanded evolutionary explanations, in particular explanations for the origin of homologies and adaptations. Based on the conclusions from the previous study, we developed a teaching sequence in order to overcome students’ preconceptions, as well as to achieve conceptual change and explanatory coherence. Students were taught about fundamental biological concepts and the several levels of biological organization, as well as about the mechanisms of heredity and of the origin of genetic variation. Then, all these concepts were used to teach about evolution, by relating micro-concepts (e.g. genotypes) to macro-concepts (e.g. phenotypes). Moreover, during instruction students were brought to a conceptual conflict situation, where their intuitive explanations were challenged as emphasis was put on two concepts entirely opposed to their preconceptions: chance and unpredictability. From the explanations that students provided in the post-test it is concluded that conceptual change and explanatory coherence in evolution can be achieved to a certain degree by lower secondary school students through the suggested teaching sequence and the explanatory framework, which may form a basis for teaching further about evolution.

  13. Land use as an explanatory factor for potential phosphorus loss risk, assessed by P indices and their governing parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Vogt, Rolf D; Lu, Xueqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lü, Changwei; Mohr, Christian W; Zhu, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The total level of phosphorus (P) and the distribution of P pools in the topsoil are significantly affected by the excessive application of mineral and organic fertilizers connected with intensive agriculture. This leads to an increased potential risk for P loss, and then contributes to freshwater eutrophication. Soil test P (STP), P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) are commonly applied as proxies for assessing the risk of P loss. Although conceptually based, the empirical relationships between these operationally defined proxies and the actual P flux exhibit large spatial variations. Herein, a comprehensive synoptic study and monitoring of soil has been conducted in a watershed in north-eastern China. A set of conventional indicators for soil P loss risk were measured along with the main P pools, P sorption indices, texture, organic matter, as well as Fe and Al oxides and other mineral compositions. Moreover, detailed soil P speciation was conducted using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, phosphatase activities in the soils were determined for each land use soil category. The results reflected that the soil content of total P, total inorganic P and STP increased significantly following the order of increasing management intensity. STP, being strongly coupled to the application of P fertilizers, was a strong explanatory factor for the spatial differences in DPS - both between and within different land uses. The dominant inorganic and organic P species in the soils were orthophosphate and monoester-P, respectively. Their contents were oppositely correlated with the degree of management influence, with the amount of orthophosphate positively related. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP) represented the highest activities among the four representative phosphatases, i.e. enzymes that hydrolyze organic P - releasing labile orthophosphate. Orchard soils were found to contain the highest levels of monoester P

  14. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  15. Pedestrian Road-Crossing Behaviours: A Protocol for an Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hashemiparast, Mina; Montazeri, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Negarandeh, Reza; Sadeghi, Roya; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pedestrian crossing is an important traffic safety concern. The aim of this paper is to report the protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study that set out to determine the pedestrians’ traffic behaviors, the associated factors and exploring the perception of young people about the traffic risky behaviors in crossing the road. The ultimate purpose of the study is to design a preventive and cultural based strategy to promote young people’s health. Methods: This is a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. The study has two sequential phases. During the first phase, a population-based cross-sectional survey of a sample of young people will be conducted using the proportional random multistage cluster sampling method, in Tehran, Iran. Data will be collected by a questionnaire including items on socio-demographic information, items on measuring social conformity tendency, and questions on subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control based on the Theory of Planned behavior. In the second phase, a qualitative study will be conducted. A purposeful sampling strategy will be used and participants who can help to explain the quantitative findings will be selected. Data collection in qualitative phase will be predominately by individual in-depth interviews. A qualitative content analysis approach will be undertaken to develop a detailed understanding of the traffic risky behaviors among young pedestrians. Conclusion: The findings of this explanatory mixed methods study will provide information on traffic risky behaviors in young pedestrians. The findings will be implemented to design a cultural based strategy and intervention programs. PMID:26652086

  16. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  17. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  18. An early-emerging explanatory heuristic promotes support for the status quo.

    PubMed

    Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    People often view their sociopolitical systems as fair and natural despite indisputable biases in their structure. Current theories of this phenomenon trace its roots to a motivation to alleviate anxiety and uncertainty. Here, we propose a complementary cognitive pathway for these system-endorsing attitudes. Specifically, we propose that the fundamental mechanisms through which people explain the world around them may also be a source of such attitudes. These explanatory processes are inadvertently biased to yield inherent or internal facts as explanations for a wide variety of social and natural phenomena, including sociopolitical patterns (e.g., Why are some people rich? Because they are really smart). In turn, this bias toward inherent attributions makes it seem that the observations being explained (such as the societal status quo) are legitimate and thus worthy of support. Four studies with participants as young as 4 years of age provided correlational and experimental evidence for the hypothesized link between explanatory processes and support for the status quo. These findings suggest that the tendency to endorse existing sociopolitical arrangements emerges partly on a foundation laid early in life by a basic component of human cognition. PMID:26348600

  19. Azúcar y nervios: explanatory models and treatment experiences of Hispanics with diabetes and depression.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Hansen, Marissa C; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Ell, Kathleen

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the explanatory models of depression, perceived relationships between diabetes and depression, and depression treatment experiences of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Hispanics with diabetes and depression. A purposive sample (n=19) was selected from participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Los Angeles, California (United States) testing the effectiveness of a health services quality improvement intervention. Four focus groups followed by 10 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using the methodology of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, an analytical strategy rooted in grounded theory. Depression was perceived as a serious condition linked to the accumulation of social stressors. Somatic and anxiety-like symptoms and the cultural idiom of nervios were central themes in low-income Hispanics' explanatory models of depression. The perceived reciprocal relationships between diabetes and depression highlighted the multiple pathways by which these two illnesses impact each other and support the integration of diabetes and depression treatments. Concerns about depression treatments included fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. This study provides important insights about the cultural and social dynamics that shape low-income Hispanics' illness and treatment experiences and support the use of patient-centered approaches to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and depression. PMID:18339466

  20. Effects of executive impairments on maladaptive explanatory styles in substance abusers: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    García, Antonio Verdejo; Torrecillas, Francisca López; de Arcos, Francisco Aguilar; García, Miguel Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Our study examined the relation between neuropsychological impairment of executive functions and explanatory styles, according to the Abramson model of learned helplessness in humans, in a sample of substance abusers. Thirty-eight polysubstance abusers were assessed during an abstinence period using a selective neuropsychological battery for the evaluation of the executive functions, as well as the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) for the assessment of the three dimensions of explanatory style: Internality-Externality, Stability-Instability and Globality-Specificity. Multiple regression analyses showed significant relationships among performance on different neuropsychological tasks sensitive to executive functions and characteristic cognitive styles. The results showed the performance on cognitive flexibility and response inhibition tasks is directly related to making more internal attributions for positive situations, and inversely related to the appearance of more stable attributions for negative events. Likewise, adequate performance on working memory tasks was related to development of more global attributions for failures. These results are partially congruent with the learned helplessness model and particularly relevant for the clinical management of substance abusers and the success on the treatment and rehabilitation of these subjects. PMID:15620814

  1. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if

  2. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  3. Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved. PMID:12075364

  4. Strategy Levels for Guiding Discussion to Promote Explanatory Model Construction in Circuit Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. Grant; Clement, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A framework for describing and tracking the whole-class discussion-based teaching strategies used by a teacher to support students' construction and development of explanatory models for concepts in circuit electricity is described. A new type of diagram developed to portray teacher-student discourse patterns facilitated the identification of two distinct types, or levels, of teaching strategies: 1) those that support dialogical or conversational elements of classroom interaction; and 2) those that support cognitive model construction processes. The latter include the higher-level goals of promoting a cycle of Observation, model Generation, model Evaluation, and model Modification. While previous studies have focused primarily on the dialogical strategies that are essential for fostering communication as an enabling condition, the cognitive strategies identified herein are aimed at fostering conceptual model construction.

  5. An explanatory heuristic gives rise to the belief that words are well suited for their referents.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    The mappings between the words of a language and their meanings are arbitrary. There is, for example, nothing inherently dog-like about the word dog. And yet, building on prior evidence (e.g., Brook, 1970; Piaget, 1967), the six studies reported here (N=1062) suggest that both children and (at least to some extent) adults see a special "fit" between objects and their names, as if names were particularly suitable or appropriate for the objects they denote. These studies also provide evidence for a novel proposal concerning the source of these nominal fit beliefs. Specifically, beliefs about nominal fit may be a byproduct of the heuristic processes that people use to make sense of the world more generally (Cimpian & Salomon, 2014a). In sum, the present studies provide new insights into how people conceive of language and demonstrate that these conceptions are rooted in the processes that underlie broader explanatory reasoning. PMID:26226428

  6. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2012-03-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 2010, that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single-images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formats of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  7. Obligatory Effort [Hishtadlut] as an Explanatory Model: A Critique of Reproductive Choice and Control.

    PubMed

    Teman, Elly; Ivry, Tsipy; Goren, Heela

    2016-06-01

    Studies on reproductive technologies often examine women's reproductive lives in terms of choice and control. Drawing on 48 accounts of procreative experiences of religiously devout Jewish women in Israel and the US, we examine their attitudes, understandings and experiences of pregnancy, reproductive technologies and prenatal testing. We suggest that the concept of hishtadlut-"obligatory effort"-works as an explanatory model that organizes Haredi women's reproductive careers and their negotiations of reproductive technologies. As an elastic category with negotiable and dynamic boundaries, hishtadlut gives ultra-orthodox Jewish women room for effort without the assumption of control; it allows them to exercise discretion in relation to medical issues without framing their efforts in terms of individual choice. Haredi women hold themselves responsible for making their obligatory effort and not for pregnancy outcomes. We suggest that an alternative paradigm to autonomous choice and control emerges from cosmological orders where reproductive duties constitute "obligatory choices." PMID:26906343

  8. Psychological type and explanatory style of nursing students and clinical faculty.

    PubMed

    Allchin, Lynn; Dzurec, Laura Cox; Engler, Arthur J

    2009-04-01

    Health care providers' collaboration and effective teamwork are essential to patient safety and quality care. Part of an ongoing project, this study focused on nursing faculty-student communication characteristics, specifically examining psychological type (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and explanatory style (Attributional Style Questionnaire) of participating first-year baccalaureate nursing students (n = 286) and clinical nursing faculty (n = 59) from both 2-year and 4-year nursing programs. Modal student psychological type was ESFJ, and modal faculty psychological type was ISTJ. The two groups demonstrated significant differences in information processing styles and in making decisions and judgments. Students demonstrated slightly more optimistic outlooks than did faculty. Psychological type and level of optimism did not appear to correlate. Data from this study provide an initial framework on which to base research to examine quality of teamwork among health care providers and, consequently, the quality of patient care. PMID:19441635

  9. An explanatory model of peer education within a complex medicines information exchange setting.

    PubMed

    Klein, Linda A; Ritchie, Jan E; Nathan, Sally; Wutzke, Sonia

    2014-06-01

    Studies of the effectiveness and value of peer education abound, yet there is little theoretical understanding of what lay educators actually do to help their peers. Although different theories have been proposed to explain components of peer education, a more complete explanatory model has not been established empirically that encompasses the many aspects of peer education and how these may operate together. The Australian Seniors Quality Use of Medicines Peer Education Program was developed, in conjunction with community partners, to improve understanding and management of medicines among older people - an Australian and international priority. This research investigated how peer educators facilitated learning about quality use of medicines among older Australians. Participatory action research was undertaken with volunteer peer educators, using a multi-site case study design within eight geographically-defined locations. Qualitative data from 27 participatory meetings with peer educators included transcribed audio recordings and detailed observational and interpretive notes, which were analysed using a grounded theory approach. An explanatory model arising from the data grouped facilitation of peer learning into four broad mechanisms: using educator skills; offering a safe place to learn; pushing for change; and reflecting on self. Peer educators' life experience as older people who have taken medicines was identified as an overarching contributor to peer learning. As lay persons, peer educators understood the potential disempowerment felt when seeking medicines information from health professionals and so were able to provide unique learning experiences that encouraged others to be 'active partners' in their own medicines management. These timely findings are linked to existing education and behaviour change theories, but move beyond these by demonstrating how the different elements of what peer educators do fit together. In-depth examination of peer educators

  10. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports

    PubMed Central

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized. PMID:26356371

  11. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    PubMed

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized. PMID:26356371

  12. Influence of Additive and Multiplicative Structure and Direction of Comparison on the Reversal Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Calero, José Antonio; Arnau, David; Laserna-Belenguer, Belén

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of word order matching and static comparison as explanatory models of reversal error. Data was collected from 214 undergraduate students who translated a set of additive and multiplicative comparisons expressed in Spanish into algebraic language. In these multiplicative comparisons…

  13. Appreciative Accreditation: A Mixed Methods Explanatory Study of Appreciative Inquiry-Based Institutional Effectiveness Results in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using Appreciative Inquiry in accreditation and related institutional effectiveness activities within higher education. Using an explanatory participant-selection mixed methods approach, qualitative data from a series of interviews were used to explain the experiences of individuals identified from quantitative…

  14. Investigating the Impact of Interactive Applets on Students' Understanding of Parameter Changes to Parent Functions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClaran, Robin Rudd

    2013-01-01

    The technology principle in the "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (NCTM, 2000) states that technology plays an important role in how teachers teach mathematics and in how students learn mathematics. The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the impact of interactive applets on students'…

  15. Interparental Conflict and Children's School Adjustment: The Explanatory Role of Children's Internal Representations of Interparental and Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Winter, Marcia A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how children's insecure internal representations of interparental and parent-child relationships served as explanatory mechanisms in multiple pathways linking interparental conflict and parent emotional unavailability with the emotional and classroom engagement difficulties the children had in their adjustment to school. With…

  16. CAVEing the MMPI for an Optimism-Pessimism Scale: Seligman's Attributional Model and the Assessment of Explanatory Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colligan, Robert C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Developed bipolar Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Optimism-Pessimism (PSM) scale based on results on Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanation applied to MMPI. Reliability and validity indices show that PSM scale is highly accurate and consistent with Seligman's theory that pessimistic explanatory style predicts increased…

  17. ASPECT-R—A Tool to Rate the Pragmatic and Explanatory Characteristics of a Clinical Trial Design

    PubMed Central

    Bossie, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Clinical and observational trials can be broadly categorized into having explanatory or pragmatic approaches with specific trial designs located somewhere along this spectrum. Two 10-domain instruments, the PRECIS and Pragmascope, have been developed to facilitate clinical trial design within a framework that is either more explanatory or pragmatic. Design: We have adapted the PRECIS and Pragmascope instruments to permit both design support and post-hoc evaluation of clinical trials and to improve consistency of use and interpretation across raters. This adapted instrument, A Study Pragmatic-Explanatory Characterization Tool-Rating—or ASPECT-R—is described. Results: Adaption of the PRECIS and Pragmascope instruments included reducing the 10 original domains to six. Each of the six ASPECT-R domains has a definition of domain terminology and detailed descriptive anchors. The domains are rated from 0 to 6, where 0 is considered extremely explanatory and 6 extremely pragmatic. Using an Excel®-based file with cover page cells for entry of the study objective(s) and study population of interest, the ASPECT-R instrument has individual domain-related worksheets where the user rates each of the six domains. Each of the six domain worksheets has a section provided for the user to summarize and record the rationale for their domain scoring. Each domain worksheet page also contains a radar graph that auto-populates each of the domain ratings as the user completes these ratings. Conclusion: This new tool, ASPECT-R, should provide a reliable, objective way to rate studies along the explanatory-pragmatic spectrum that will better support trial design and facilitate interpretation of completed trials. The complete ASPECT-R tool and guide materials can be accessed online by clicking or visiting this link: http://innovationscns.com/aspect-r-tool-and-training-materials/.

  18. Explanatory Models of Genetics and Genetic Risk among a Selected Group of Students.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Bergman, Margo; Goodson, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focuses on how college students conceptualize genetics and genetic risk, concepts essential for genetic literacy (GL) and genetic numeracy (GN), components of overall health literacy (HL). HL is dependent on both the background knowledge and culture of a patient, and lower HL is linked to increased morbidity and mortality for a number of chronic health conditions (e.g., diabetes and cancer). A purposive sample of 86 students from three Southwestern universities participated in eight focus groups. The sample ranged in age from 18 to 54 years, and comprised primarily of female (67.4%), single (74.4%), and non-White (57%) participants, none of whom were genetics/biology majors. A holistic-content approach revealed broad categories concerning participants' explanatory models (EMs) of genetics and genetic risk. Participants' EMs were grounded in highly contextualized narratives that only partially overlapped with biomedical models. While higher education levels should be associated with predominately knowledge-based EM of genetic risk, this study shows that even in well-educated populations cultural factors can dominate. Study findings reveal gaps in how this sample of young adults obtains, processes, and understands genetic/genomic concepts. Future studies should assess how individuals with low GL and GN obtain and process genetics and genetic risk information and incorporate this information into health decision making. Future work should also address the interaction of communication between health educators, providers, and genetic counselors, to increase patient understanding of genetic risk. PMID:27376052

  19. Reflecting on explanatory ability: A mechanism for detecting gaps in causal knowledge.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dan R; Murphy, Meredith P; Messer, Riley M

    2016-05-01

    People frequently overestimate their understanding-with a particularly large blind-spot for gaps in their causal knowledge. We introduce a metacognitive approach to reducing overestimation, termed reflecting on explanatory ability (REA), which is briefly thinking about how well one could explain something in a mechanistic, step-by-step, causally connected manner. Nine experiments demonstrated that engaging in REA just before estimating one's understanding substantially reduced overestimation. Moreover, REA reduced overestimation with nearly the same potency as generating full explanations, but did so 20 times faster (although only for high complexity objects). REA substantially reduced overestimation by inducing participants to quickly evaluate an object's inherent causal complexity (Experiments 4-7). REA reduced overestimation by also fostering step-by-step, causally connected processing (Experiments 2 and 3). Alternative explanations for REA's effects were ruled out including a general conservatism account (Experiments 4 and 5) and a covert explanation account (Experiment 8). REA's overestimation-reduction effect generalized beyond objects (Experiments 1-8) to sociopolitical policies (Experiment 9). REA efficiently detects gaps in our causal knowledge with implications for improving self-directed learning, enhancing self-insight into vocational and academic abilities, and even reducing extremist attitudes. PMID:26999047

  20. From built environment to health inequalities: An explanatory framework based on evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gelormino, Elena; Melis, Giulia; Marietta, Cristina; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Health in All Policies strategy aims to engage every policy domain in health promotion. The more socially disadvantaged groups are usually more affected by potential negative impacts of policies if they are not health oriented. The built environment represents an important policy domain and, apart from its housing component, its impact on health inequalities is seldom assessed. Methods: A scoping review of evidence on the built environment and its health equity impact was carried out, searching both urban and medical literature since 2000 analysing socio-economic inequalities in relation to different components of the built environment. Results: The proposed explanatory framework assumes that key features of built environment (identified as density, functional mix and public spaces and services), may influence individual health through their impact on both natural environment and social context, as well as behaviours, and that these effects may be unequally distributed according to the social position of individuals. Conclusion: In general, the expected links proposed by the framework are well documented in the literature; however, evidence of their impact on health inequalities remains uncertain due to confounding factors, heterogeneity in study design, and difficulty to generalize evidence that is still very embedded to local contexts. PMID:26844145

  1. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care. PMID:26432176

  2. How Can Peer Group Influence the Behavior of Adolescents: Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomé, Gina; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Camacho, Inês; AlvesDiniz, José

    2012-01-01

    The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM)was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents’ risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours. PMID:22980148

  3. The explanatory models and coping strategies for alcohol use disorders: An exploratory qualitative study from India☆

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Dabholkar, Hamid; McCambridge, Jim; Bhat, Bhargav; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Murthy, Pratima; Patel, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The explanatory models (EM) and coping strategies for mental health problems influence treatment seeking and the subsequent patient journey. The goal of this study was to explore the EMs and coping strategies for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods We conducted semi structured interviews with 29 men with AUD and 10 significant others (SO) in two sites in India. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. Results The former were predominantly married, literate and employed; the latter were predominantly wives, literate and employed. Alcohol consumption and AUDs are seen to be mainly associated with psychosocial stress, with other factors being peer influences, availability of disposable income and drinking for pleasure. They are perceived to result in a range of adverse impacts on social life, family life, personal health and family finances. Various coping strategies were deployed by men with AUD and their significant others, for example avoidance, substitution, distraction, religious activities, support from AA/friends/family, restricting means to buy alcohol and anger management. Reduction/cessation in drinking, improved family relationships, improved emotional/physical wellbeing and better occupational functioning were the most desired treatment outcomes. Conclusion There are considerable similarities, as well as some key differences, observed between the EMs for AUD in India and those reported from other cultures which have implications for the global applicability and contextual adaptations of evidence based interventions for AUD. PMID:24309865

  4. An Explanatory Model of Poverty from the Perspective of Social Psychology and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Muñoz, Alfonso; Chacón, Fernando; Martínez Arias, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is a social problem, entailing not only an economical perspective but above all a human and social issue. Poverty is promoted, justified and maintained by unique individuals and groups by means of our own attitudes, interests and behavior, as well as with our social structures and social relationships. From this interactive, psychosocial and sociostructural perspective, and also considering poverty as a denial of basic human rights (UNDP, 1998), we carried out a study with the primary objective to design and verify an Explanatory Model of Poverty. This research may helps to increase the validity of diagnostics and the effectiveness of interventions. Most of the hypotheses were accepted during the analysis and verification of the Model (p < .001), with data fitting the Model (CFI: 1 RMSEA: .025: LO90: 0 - HI90: .061. RMR: .008). These results, if replicated in new investigations, could have the following implications: (a) the need for a broad and comprehensive definition of poverty including its effects, processes and causes; (b) the need for everybody to accept the social responsibility in the prevention and solution to poverty; and PMID:26646620

  5. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information. PMID:25296933

  6. Explaining Participation: An Explanatory History of Select Gender Patterns in Undergraduate STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Michael Pasquale

    This explanatory study examines three focal periods in undergraduate STEM as related to the gender gap. Social, economic, and more general historical data are used to develop a clear and powerful explanation of baccalaureate trends in biology and engineering. Specifically, historical accounts are offered for 1) a ten-year period in undergraduate biology in which the number of baccalaureates awarded to men decreased 44 percent, while the number of baccalaureates awarded to women decreased one percent; 2) the start of a twenty-year period in which the number of bachelor's degrees awarded in the biological sciences increased 150 percent---from 36,068 degrees in 1989, to 90,003 bachelor's degrees in 2011; and 3) a ten year period in undergraduate engineering where female graduation rates septupled---this ten-year time period is the only instance of meaningful and noteworthy growth for women in undergraduate engineering over the past half century. Findings from each history reveal a common narrative underlying baccalaureate trends. Implications for undergraduate STEM are discussed.

  7. Explanatory Models of Genetics and Genetic Risk among a Selected Group of Students

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Bergman, Margo; Goodson, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focuses on how college students conceptualize genetics and genetic risk, concepts essential for genetic literacy (GL) and genetic numeracy (GN), components of overall health literacy (HL). HL is dependent on both the background knowledge and culture of a patient, and lower HL is linked to increased morbidity and mortality for a number of chronic health conditions (e.g., diabetes and cancer). A purposive sample of 86 students from three Southwestern universities participated in eight focus groups. The sample ranged in age from 18 to 54 years, and comprised primarily of female (67.4%), single (74.4%), and non-White (57%) participants, none of whom were genetics/biology majors. A holistic-content approach revealed broad categories concerning participants’ explanatory models (EMs) of genetics and genetic risk. Participants’ EMs were grounded in highly contextualized narratives that only partially overlapped with biomedical models. While higher education levels should be associated with predominately knowledge-based EM of genetic risk, this study shows that even in well-educated populations cultural factors can dominate. Study findings reveal gaps in how this sample of young adults obtains, processes, and understands genetic/genomic concepts. Future studies should assess how individuals with low GL and GN obtain and process genetics and genetic risk information and incorporate this information into health decision making. Future work should also address the interaction of communication between health educators, providers, and genetic counselors, to increase patient understanding of genetic risk. PMID:27376052

  8. Causal thinking after a tsunami wave: karma beliefs, pessimistic explanatory style and health among Sri Lankan survivors.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Slade, Martin D; Ranasinghe, Padmini

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded led to a tsunami devastating two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline. We examined whether certain causal beliefs (attributional style and karma, a Buddhist concept used to explain bad events) are associated with tsunami survivors experiencing PTSD and poor health about six months later. Previous studies of causal beliefs associated with illness following the same traumatic event have focused on Western countries and none have considered the role of karma. We interviewed 264 Sri Lankan tsunami survivors. As predicted, we found that belief in karma and a pessimistic explanatory style are independently associated with poor health and a pessimistic explanatory style is associated with PTSD, after adjusting for relevant factors. Thus, both universal and more culturally specific beliefs may contribute to coping following a natural disaster. PMID:19229624

  9. Are differences between patient and provider explanatory models of diabetes associated with patient self-management and glycemic control?

    PubMed

    Weller, Susan C; Baer, Roberta D; de Alba Garcia, Javier Garcia; Salcedo Rocha, Ana L

    2013-11-01

    In this study we test whether differences between patient and provider explanatory models of diabetes affect self-management and glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetic patients (n=60) and family practice physicians (n=39) in Guadalajara, Mexico, responded to a structured explanatory model interview (130 questions on causes, symptoms, and treatments). A cultural consensus analysis indicated a widely shared model among physicians and provided a single shared set of answers to the questions. Patient-provider congruence in beliefs was assessed by comparing each patient's responses with the physician answer set. Congruence in beliefs predicted self-management behaviors (r=0.27, p=.03), more than educational level (r=0.16, p=.23), but was not predictive of A1C (r=0.12, p=.40). Differences between patient and physician explanatory models can adversely affect patient-directed activities and may indirectly affect glycemic control by affecting self-management. These differences may be due to low patient educational level and resulting problems in understanding biomedical approaches to diabetes. PMID:24185147

  10. Stuck in the past: negative bias, explanatory style, temporal order, and evaluative perspectives in life narratives of clinically depressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ott, Lisa-M; Schubert, Merve; Schneider, Beatrix; Pate, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to replicate negative bias and depressive explanatory style in depression using life narratives. The two central aspects of narrative, temporal succession and evaluation, were also explored. These aspects were tested for the first time using entire life narratives of 17 depressed inpatients and non-depressed controls matched for sex and educational level. Negative bias and depressive explanatory style were replicated as typical for the depressed group. Life narratives of depressed patients also deviated more from a linear temporal order and compared less frequently the past with the present. Contrary to expectations, the depressed did not differ in the overall frequency of evaluations. However, they used more past than present evaluations and more experience-near evaluations than cognitive evaluations, suggesting that they are more immersed in past experiences. It is concluded that negative bias and depressive explanatory style can be found also in a naturalistic narrative measure, and that depression affects the two major aspects of narrative. It is argued that life narratives, as measures close to everyday clinical practice and as the most encompassing form of self-representation, should complement more experimental procedures in the study of cognitive and communicative processes in psychopathology. PMID:17957809

  11. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified. PMID:27014099

  12. The Association between Sleep Disturbances and Depression among Firefighters: Emotion Dysregulation as an Explanatory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Melanie A.; Stanley, Ian H.; Rogers, Megan L.; Tzoneva, Mirela; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate emotion regulation difficulties in association with self-reported insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and depression symptoms in a sample of current and retired firefighters. Methods: A total of 880 current and retired United States firefighters completed a web-based survey of firefighter behavioral health. Self-report measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, PTSD Checklist, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results: A notable portion of participants reported clinically significant depression symptoms (39.6%) and insomnia symptoms (52.7%), as well as nightmare problems (19.2%), each of which demonstrated a strong association with emotion regulation difficulties (rs = 0.56–0.80). Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that the indirect effects of overall emotion regulation difficulties were significant both for the relationship between insomnia and depression (95% CI: 0.385–0.566) and nightmares and depression (95% CI: 1.445–2.365). Limited access to emotion regulation strategies emerged as the strongest, significant indirect effect for both relationships (insomnia 95% CI: 0.136–0.335; nightmares 95% CI: 0.887–1.931). Conclusions: Findings extend previous affective neuroscience research by providing evidence that insomnia and nightmares may influence depression symptoms specifically through the pathway of explicit emotion regulation difficulties. Sleep disturbances may impair the ability to access and leverage emotion regulation strategies effectively, thus conferring risk for negative affect and depression. Citation: Hom MA, Stanley IH, Rogers ML, Tzoneva M, Bernert RA, Joiner TE. The association between sleep disturbances and depression among firefighters: emotion dysregulation as an explanatory factor. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):235–245. PMID:26350604

  13. Factors that promote or inhibit the implementation of e-health systems: an explanatory systematic review

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl; O’Donnell, Catherine; Finch, Tracy; Sullivan, Frank; Murray, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To systematically review the literature on the implementation of e-health to identify: (i) barriers and facilitators to e-health implementation, and (ii) outstanding gaps in research on the subject. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PSYCINFO and the Cochrane Library were searched for reviews published between 1 January 1995 and 17 March 2009. Studies had to be systematic reviews, narrative reviews, qualitative metasyntheses or meta-ethnographies of e-health implementation. Abstracts and papers were double screened and data were extracted on country of origin; e-health domain; publication date; aims and methods; databases searched; inclusion and exclusion criteria and number of papers included. Data were analysed qualitatively using normalization process theory as an explanatory coding framework. Findings Inclusion criteria were met by 37 papers; 20 had been published between 1995 and 2007 and 17 between 2008 and 2009. Methodological quality was poor: 19 papers did not specify the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 13 did not indicate the precise number of articles screened. The use of normalization process theory as a conceptual framework revealed that relatively little attention was paid to: (i) work directed at making sense of e-health systems, specifying their purposes and benefits, establishing their value to users and planning their implementation; (ii) factors promoting or inhibiting engagement and participation; (iii) effects on roles and responsibilities; (iv) risk management, and (v) ways in which implementation processes might be reconfigured by user-produced knowledge. Conclusion The published literature focused on organizational issues, neglecting the wider social framework that must be considered when introducing new technologies. PMID:22589569

  14. Learning genetic inquiry through the use, revision, and justification of explanatory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, Jennifer Lorraine

    Central to the process of inquiry in science is the construction and assessment of models that can be used to explain (and in some cases, predict) natural phenomena. This dissertation is a qualitative study of student learning in a high school biology course that was designed to give students opportunities to learn about genetic inquiry in part by providing them with authentic experiences doing inquiry in the discipline. With the aid of a computer program that generates populations of "fruit flies", the students in this class worked in groups structured like scientific communities to build, revise, and defend explanatory models for various inheritance phenomena. Analysis of the ways in which the first cohort of students assessed their inheritance models revealed that all students assessed models based upon empirical fit (data/model match). However, in contrast to the practice of scientists and despite explicit instruction, students did not consistently apply conceptual assessment criteria to their models. That is, they didn't seek consistency between underlying concepts or processes in their models and those of other important genetic models, such as meiosis. This is perhaps in part because they lacked an understanding of models as conceptual rather than physical entities. Subsequently, the genetics curriculum was altered in order to create more opportunities for students to address epistemological issues associated with model assessment throughout the course. The second cohort of students' understanding of models changed over the nine-week period: initially the majority of students equated scientific models with "proof" (generally physical) of "theories"; at the end of the course, most students demonstrated understanding of the conceptual nature of scientific models and the need to justify such knowledge according to both its empirical utility and conceptual consistency. Through model construction and assessment (i.e. scientific inquiry), students were able to

  15. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified. PMID:27014099

  16. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... separate and apart from any other descriptive or explanatory matters. (3) If not separate and apart from other descriptive or explanatory matter printed on the label, the statement declaring the presence of... “imitation” are also stated in the English language. (d) Location of label. Labels shall not...

  17. Frequency-specific coupling between trial-to-trial fluctuations of neural responses and response-time variability.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Nicoletta; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker, Regina; Laucht, Manfred; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We assessed intra-individual variability of response times (RT) and single-trial P3 amplitudes following targets in healthy adults during a Flanker/NO-GO task. RT variability and variability of the neural responses coupled at the faster frequencies examined (0.07-0.17 Hz) at Pz, the target-P3 maxima, despite non-significant associations for overall variability (standard deviation, SD). Frequency-specific patterns of variability in the single-trial P3 may help to understand the neurophysiology of RT variability and its explanatory models of attention allocation deficits beyond intra-individual variability summary indices such as SD. PMID:25724293

  18. Exploratory case study of students' main explanatory approaches to science concepts and their states of mental engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicdao-Quita, Maria Isabel T.

    This study explored students' dominant ways of operating in science; the types of structuring that is evident, not in terms of ideas, but in terms of how the students think about, imagine, and relate to the physical processes. As the study progressed, the investigation of the students' ideas went beyond their prior knowledge; other significant dimensions emerged as these students interacted with the heating process. The students demonstrated rich and dynamic pictures of the heating process, and from these images, a larger picture of the mental entities and processes dominant in their understanding of the physical phenomenon. Four Filipino students studying in the United States were individually observed in their science classes, were visited at home, and were interviewed about water being heated. The analysis of each student's data led to the two constructs, the main explanatory approach and the students' states of mental engagement (SOME), while the student was cognitively and affectively connected with the phenomenon. The features of the main explanatory approach include an explanatory element and an affective element that pervade the students' thinking about the phenomenon. It is common to and dominant in students' thinking across time. It is the approach of the student taken as a holistic organization within the student when he or she starts dealing with the phenomenon. One of the assumptions behind dealing with the main explanatory approach is that it is much more connected with what kind of person the student is and with the state of mental engagement (SOME) the student is in. SOME refers to the personal energy of a student as he or she relates to and becomes involved with the physical process--there is absorption into the object of study. SOME is related to energizing the main explanatory approach. The interconnectedness of these two constructs can be viewed as a different level of abstraction or interpretation of the students' ways of thinking about the

  19. The role of explanatory style and negative life events in depression: a cross-sectional study with youth from a North American plains reservation.

    PubMed

    Mileviciute, Inga; Trujillo, John; Gray, Matthew; Scott, Walter D

    2013-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the role of explanatory styles and negative life events in the depressive experiences of AI youth. Ninetythree AI youth (49% female, ages 11-14 years) completed surveys assessing for explanatory style, negative life events, and depressive symptoms. Path analyses indicated that both the occurrence of negative life events within the past 6 months and a pessimistic explanatory style predicted more depressive symptoms. However, a moderation path model provided a superior fit to the data, indicating that the occurrence of negative life events was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms for those AI youth with a more pessimistic explanatory style. Findings are discussed in terms of potential interventions that can promote the well-being of this understudied and underserved population. PMID:24352819

  20. Design of an impact evaluation using a mixed methods model – an explanatory assessment of the effects of results-based financing mechanisms on maternal healthcare services in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    quantitative and qualitative elements. Discussion Combining a traditional quasi-experimental controlled pre- and post-test design with an explanatory mixed methods model permits an additional assessment of organizational and behavioral changes affecting complex processes. Through this impact evaluation approach, our design will not only create robust evidence measures for the outcome of interest, but also generate insights on how and why the investigated interventions produce certain intended and unintended effects and allows for a more in-depth evaluation approach. PMID:24751213

  1. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  2. Long-term variability of aerosol optical thickness in Eastern Europe over 2001-2014 according to the measurements at the Moscow MSU MO AERONET site with additional cloud and NO2 correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, N. Y.; Poliukhov, A. A.; Gorlova, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    The aerosol properties of the atmosphere were obtained within the framework of the AERONET program at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (Moscow MSU MO) over 2001-2014 period. The quality data control has revealed the necessity of their additional cloud and NO2 correction. The application of cloud correction according to hourly visual cloud observations provides a decrease in average aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm of up to 0.03 compared with the standard dataset. We also show that the additional NO2 correction of the AERONET data is needed in large megalopolis, like Moscow, with 12 million residents and the NOx emission rates of about 100 kt yr-1. According to the developed method we estimated monthly mean NO2 content, which provides an additional decrease of 0.01 for AOT at 340 nm, and of about 0.015 - for AOT at 380 and 440 nm. The ratios of NO2 optical thickness to AOT at 380 and 440 nm are about 5-6 % in summer and reach 15-20 % in winter when both factors have similar effects on UV irradiance. Seasonal cycle of AOT at 500 nm is characterized by a noticeable summer and spring maxima, and minimum in winter conditions, changing from 0.08 in December and January up to 0.3 in August. The application of the additional cloud correction removes a local AOT maximum in February, and lowered the December artificial high AOT values. The pronounced negative AOT trends of about -1-5 % yr-1 have been obtained for most months, which could be attributed to the negative trends in emissions (E) of different aerosol precursors of about 116 Gg yr-2 in ESOx, 78 Gg yr-2 in ENMVOC, and 272 Gg yr-2 in ECO over European territory of Russia. No influence of natural factors on temporal AOT variations has been revealed.

  3. Long-term variability of aerosol optical thickness in Eastern Europe over 2001-2014 according to the measurements at the Moscow MSU MO AERONET site with additional cloud and NO2 correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, N. Y.; Poliukhov, A. A.; Gorlova, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    The atmospheric aerosol properties were obtained within the framework of the AERONET program at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (Moscow MSU MO) over the 2001-2014 period. The quality data control has revealed the necessity of additional cloud screening and NO2 correction. The application of additional cloud screening according to hourly visual cloud observations provides a decrease in monthly average aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm of up to 0.03 compared with the standard data set. We also show that the additional NO2 correction of the AERONET version 2 data is needed in large megalopolis, like Moscow, with 12 million residents and NOx emission rates of about 100 kt yr-1. According to the developed method, we estimated monthly mean NO2 content, which provides an additional decrease of 0.01 for AOT at 340 nm, and of about 0.015 - for AOT at 380 and 440 nm. The ratios of NO2 optical thickness to AOT at 380 and 440 nm are about 5-6 % in summer and reach 15-20 % in winter when both factors have similar effects on UV irradiance. Seasonal cycle of AOT at 500 nm is characterized by a noticeable summer and spring maxima, and a minimum in winter conditions, changing from 0.08 in December and January up to 0.3 in August. The application of the additional cloud screening removes a local AOT maximum in February. Statistically significant negative trends in annual AOT for UV and mid-visible spectral range have been obtained both for average and 50 % quantile values. The pronounced negative changes were observed in most months with the rate of about -1-5 % yr-1 and could be attributed to the negative trends in emissions (E) of different aerosol precursors of about 135 Gg yr-2 in ESOx, 54 Gg yr-2 in ENMVOC, and slight negative changes in NOx over the European part of Russia. No significant influence of natural factors on temporal AOT variations has been revealed.

  4. Using a generalized additive model with autoregressive terms to study the effects of daily temperature on mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalized Additive Model (GAM) provides a flexible and effective technique for modelling nonlinear time-series in studies of the health effects of environmental factors. However, GAM assumes that errors are mutually independent, while time series can be correlated in adjacent time points. Here, a GAM with Autoregressive terms (GAMAR) is introduced to fill this gap. Methods Parameters in GAMAR are estimated by maximum partial likelihood using modified Newton’s method, and the difference between GAM and GAMAR is demonstrated using two simulation studies and a real data example. GAMM is also compared to GAMAR in simulation study 1. Results In the simulation studies, the bias of the mean estimates from GAM and GAMAR are similar but GAMAR has better coverage and smaller relative error. While the results from GAMM are similar to GAMAR, the estimation procedure of GAMM is much slower than GAMAR. In the case study, the Pearson residuals from the GAM are correlated, while those from GAMAR are quite close to white noise. In addition, the estimates of the temperature effects are different between GAM and GAMAR. Conclusions GAMAR incorporates both explanatory variables and AR terms so it can quantify the nonlinear impact of environmental factors on health outcome as well as the serial correlation between the observations. It can be a useful tool in environmental epidemiological studies. PMID:23110601

  5. Long-acting injectable versus daily oral antipsychotic treatment trials in schizophrenia: pragmatic versus explanatory study designs

    PubMed Central

    Alphs, Larry D.; Correll, Christoph U.

    2015-01-01

    Trial design characteristics related to the explanatory : pragmatic spectrum may contribute toward the inconsistent results reported in studies comparing long-acting injectable (LAI) versus daily oral antipsychotic (AP) treatments in schizophrenia. A novel approach examined the hypothesis that a more pragmatic design is important to show the advantages of LAI versus oral APs. A literature search identified comparative studies assessing the clinical efficacy/effectiveness of LAI versus oral APs in more than 100 schizophrenia patients, with 6-month or more duration/follow-up, and published between January 1993 and December 2013 (n=11). Each study’s design was rated using the six-domain ASPECT-R (A Study Pragmatic : Explanatory Characterization Tool-Rating). Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared ratings of studies supporting (n=7) and not supporting (n=4) a LAI advantage. ASPECT-R total and domain scores were significantly higher (more pragmatic) in studies finding a LAI versus oral AP treatment advantage than those that did not. The rank order of this significance among domains was as follows: ‘participant compliance assessment’ (P=0.005), ‘medical practice setting/practitioner expertise’ (P=0.006), ‘intervention flexibility’ (P=0.007), ‘follow-up intensity/duration’ (P=0.009), ‘primary trial outcomes’ (P=0.012), and ‘participant eligibility’ (P=0.015). Findings support that more pragmatic, less explanatory design features are important to show advantages for LAI treatment. Explanatory studies may introduce features that obscure advantages related to adherence. PMID:26049673

  6. Long-acting injectable versus daily oral antipsychotic treatment trials in schizophrenia: pragmatic versus explanatory study designs.

    PubMed

    Bossie, Cynthia A; Alphs, Larry D; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-09-01

    Trial design characteristics related to the explanatory : pragmatic spectrum may contribute toward the inconsistent results reported in studies comparing long-acting injectable (LAI) versus daily oral antipsychotic (AP) treatments in schizophrenia. A novel approach examined the hypothesis that a more pragmatic design is important to show the advantages of LAI versus oral APs. A literature search identified comparative studies assessing the clinical efficacy/effectiveness of LAI versus oral APs in more than 100 schizophrenia patients, with 6-month or more duration/follow-up, and published between January 1993 and December 2013 (n=11). Each study's design was rated using the six-domain ASPECT-R (A Study Pragmatic : Explanatory Characterization Tool-Rating). Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared ratings of studies supporting (n=7) and not supporting (n=4) a LAI advantage. ASPECT-R total and domain scores were significantly higher (more pragmatic) in studies finding a LAI versus oral AP treatment advantage than those that did not. The rank order of this significance among domains was as follows: 'participant compliance assessment' (P=0.005), 'medical practice setting/practitioner expertise' (P=0.006), 'intervention flexibility' (P=0.007), 'follow-up intensity/duration' (P=0.009), 'primary trial outcomes' (P=0.012), and 'participant eligibility' (P=0.015). Findings support that more pragmatic, less explanatory design features are important to show advantages for LAI treatment. Explanatory studies may introduce features that obscure advantages related to adherence. PMID:26049673

  7. Virtual Experiments Enable Exploring and Challenging Explanatory Mechanisms of Immune-Mediated P450 Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Brenden K.; Ropella, Glen E. P.; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 levels are down-regulated during inflammatory disease states, which can cause changes in downstream drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Long-term, we seek sufficient new insight into P450-regulating mechanisms to correctly anticipate how an individual’s P450 expressions will respond when health and/or therapeutic interventions change. To date, improving explanatory mechanistic insight relies on knowledge gleaned from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experiments augmented by case reports. We are working to improve that reality by developing means to undertake scientifically useful virtual experiments. So doing requires translating an accepted theory of immune system influence on P450 regulation into a computational model, and then challenging the model via in silico experiments. We build upon two existing agent-based models—an in silico hepatocyte culture and an in silico liver—capable of exploring and challenging concrete mechanistic hypotheses. We instantiate an in silico version of this hypothesis: in response to lipopolysaccharide, Kupffer cells down-regulate hepatic P450 levels via inflammatory cytokines, thus leading to a reduction in metabolic capacity. We achieve multiple in vitro and in vivo validation targets gathered from five wet-lab experiments, including a lipopolysaccharide-cytokine dose-response curve, time-course P450 down-regulation, and changes in several different measures of drug clearance spanning three drugs: acetaminophen, antipyrine, and chlorzoxazone. Along the way to achieving validation targets, various aspects of each model are falsified and subsequently refined. This iterative process of falsification-refinement-validation leads to biomimetic yet parsimonious mechanisms, which can provide explanatory insight into how, where, and when various features are generated. We argue that as models such as these are incrementally improved through multiple rounds of mechanistic falsification and validation, we will

  8. Virtual Experiments Enable Exploring and Challenging Explanatory Mechanisms of Immune-Mediated P450 Down-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Brenden K; Ropella, Glen E P; Hunt, C Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 levels are down-regulated during inflammatory disease states, which can cause changes in downstream drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Long-term, we seek sufficient new insight into P450-regulating mechanisms to correctly anticipate how an individual's P450 expressions will respond when health and/or therapeutic interventions change. To date, improving explanatory mechanistic insight relies on knowledge gleaned from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experiments augmented by case reports. We are working to improve that reality by developing means to undertake scientifically useful virtual experiments. So doing requires translating an accepted theory of immune system influence on P450 regulation into a computational model, and then challenging the model via in silico experiments. We build upon two existing agent-based models-an in silico hepatocyte culture and an in silico liver-capable of exploring and challenging concrete mechanistic hypotheses. We instantiate an in silico version of this hypothesis: in response to lipopolysaccharide, Kupffer cells down-regulate hepatic P450 levels via inflammatory cytokines, thus leading to a reduction in metabolic capacity. We achieve multiple in vitro and in vivo validation targets gathered from five wet-lab experiments, including a lipopolysaccharide-cytokine dose-response curve, time-course P450 down-regulation, and changes in several different measures of drug clearance spanning three drugs: acetaminophen, antipyrine, and chlorzoxazone. Along the way to achieving validation targets, various aspects of each model are falsified and subsequently refined. This iterative process of falsification-refinement-validation leads to biomimetic yet parsimonious mechanisms, which can provide explanatory insight into how, where, and when various features are generated. We argue that as models such as these are incrementally improved through multiple rounds of mechanistic falsification and validation, we will generate

  9. Pessimistic explanatory style: a psychological risk factor for poor pain and functional outcomes two years after knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Singh, J A; O'Byrne, M M; Colligan, R C; Lewallen, D G

    2010-06-01

    Seligman's theory of causal attribution predicts that patients with a pessimistic explanatory style will have less favourable health outcomes. We identified 702 patients who had undergone 894 primary total knee replacements between 1993 and 2005, who responded to follow-up surveys at two (n = 783 knee replacements) and/or five years (n = 443 knee replacements) and had also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory long before the joint replacement (median = 16.6 and 14.5 years for two- and five-year cohorts, respectively). Scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Optimism-Pessimism scale were used to categorise patients as pessimistic (t-score > 60) or non-pessimistic (t-score < or = 60). Multivariate logistic regression models assessing the effect of pessimistic explanatory style on pain or improvement in knee function were adjusted for gender, age, distance from the place of treatment and depression score. Pessimists reported (a) significantly more moderate or severe pain at two years with odds ratio 2.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 4.35; p = 0.02), but not at five years when the odds ratio was 1.21 (95% CI 0.51 to 2.83; p = 0.67); and (b) less improvement in knee function at two years when the odds ratio was 0.53 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.96; p = 0.04), but not at five years when the odds ratio was 1.26 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.77; p = 0.57). No significant associations with moderate or severe limitation of activity were seen at two or five years. We conclude that a pessimistic explanatory style is associated with worse pain and functional outcomes two years after total knee replacement. PMID:20513876

  10. Metabolic Field (Schrodinger); an explanatory platform for biology: Based on lecture at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, July 18, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bortz, Walter M

    2015-12-01

    Metabolism represents the nexus of fundamental physical forces, which while present in all structure and function require new explanatory emergent principles, which, so far, cannot be predicted or derived solely from description of chemistry and physics. Metabolism is essentially concerned with the transduction of energy flows with respect to time, space, and matter. Language models and metaphors contribute to construction of scientific explanation within biology. The concept of a metabolic field yields a deeper, broader, more quantitative integrated theoretical framework leading to novel predictive models of systems biology. PMID:26404869

  11. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-07-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  12. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  13. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: Assessing Moderators of Basic Social-Cognitive Phenomena Including Spontaneous Trait Inference, the Fundamental Attribution Error, and Moral Blame

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michael J.; Andreychik, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions—social explanations—have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1–3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4–6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles—perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ—will be

  14. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: assessing moderators of basic social-cognitive phenomena including spontaneous trait inference, the fundamental attribution error, and moral blame.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michael J; Andreychik, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ--will be

  15. Conveyor belt biomantles: Centripetal bioturbation coupled with erosional downwasting -- an explanatory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Science advances on the strength of clarifying and unifying concepts, models, and methodologies that enhance and expand our explanatory paradigms. If valid, such structures allow us to accurately understand and appreciate how the world works. To aid in this task, new term-concepts must sometimes be coined and formalized. To understand certain ubiquitously occurring -- though as yet un-conceptualized -- surface processes that operate non-stop, and assessing their efficacies, is a desirable goal in landscape evolution studies. All near-surface processes are, of course, biological, chemical, and or physical in nature, and many if not most operate in combination. But of this triumvirate, biological processes, both biochemical and biomechanical (bioturbations), are perhaps least understood. Combinations of ubiquitously and semi-continuously occurring poorly understood processes that are both obscure and yet obvious have collectively produced Earth's biomantle. The biomantle occupies the uppermost Pedosphere, is a planet-wide layer, and unique to Earth. It thus functions as the biogenically habitable interface between the Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere. The biomantle is defined as the organic-bearing bioturbated upper part of soil, including the topsoil, and of subaqueous substrates (lake, stream, ocean floor sediments) where most biota live, operate, move, wriggle, rest, sleep, estivate, seek food, eat, compete, fight, hide, reproduce, die, and assimilate. Its position and function in the uppermost soil layer of the Critical Zone must modulate and mediate much or most of what takes place above and below in ways yet to be established. In an attempt to increase understanding of this complicated biodynamic pedomembrane, and to identify the main processes that produce it, we present an iterative process model that pits ongoing cyclic bioturbation driven constructional processes against ongoing cyclic physically driven destructional processes. More

  16. Realist explanatory theory building method for social epidemiology: a protocol for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    A recent criticism of social epidemiological studies, and multi-level studies in particular has been a paucity of theory. We will present here the protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of the social epidemiology of maternal depression. We use a critical realist approach which is trans-disciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative traditions, and that assumes both ontological and hierarchical stratification of reality. We describe a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: 1) emergent phase, 2) construction phase, and 3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design is described. The Emergent Phase uses: interviews, focus groups, exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, and multilevel Bayesian spatial data analysis to detect and describe phenomena. Abductive and retroductive reasoning will be applied to: categorical principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, coding of concepts and categories, constant comparative analysis, drawing of conceptual networks, and situational analysis to generate theoretical concepts. The Theory Construction Phase will include: 1) defining stratified levels; 2) analytic resolution; 3) abductive reasoning; 4) comparative analysis (triangulation); 5) retroduction; 6) postulate and proposition development; 7) comparison and assessment of theories; and 8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The strength of the critical realist methodology described is the extent to which this paradigm is able to support the epistemological, ontological, axiological, methodological and rhetorical positions of both quantitative and qualitative research in the field of social epidemiology. The extensive multilevel Bayesian studies, intensive qualitative studies, latent variable theory, abductive triangulation, and Inference to Best Explanation provide a strong foundation for Theory

  17. “Azúcar y Nervios: Explanatory Models and Treatment Experiences of Hispanics with Diabetes and Depression”

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marissa C; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Ell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the explanatory models of depression, perceived relationships between diabetes and depression, and depression treatment experiences of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Hispanics with diabetes and depression. A purposive sample (n =19) was selected from participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Los Angeles, California (US) testing the effectiveness of a health services quality improvement intervention. Four focus groups followed by 10 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using the methodology of coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison, an analytical strategy rooted in grounded theory. Depression was perceived as a serious condition linked to the accumulation of social stressors. Somatic and anxiety-like symptoms and the cultural idiom of nervios were central themes in low-income Hispanics’ explanatory models of depression. The perceived reciprocal relationships between diabetes and depression highlighted the multiple pathways by which these two illnesses impact each other and support the integration of diabetes and depression treatments. Concerns about depression treatments included fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications. This study provides important insights about the cultural and social dynamics that shape low-income Hispanics’ illness and treatment experiences and support the use of patient-centered approaches to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and depression. PMID:18339466

  18. Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proposed contribution of glucose variability to the development of the complications of diabetes beyond that of glycemic exposure is supported by reports that oxidative stress, the putative mediator of such complications, is greater for intermittent as opposed to sustained hyperglycemia. Variability of glycemia in ambulatory conditions defined as the deviation from steady state is a phenomenon of normal physiology. Comprehensive recording of glycemia is required for the generation of any measurement of glucose variability. To avoid distortion of variability to that of glycemic exposure, its calculation should be devoid of a time component. PMID:23613565

  19. Six-Minute Walk Test for Persons with Mild or Moderate Disability from Multiple Sclerosis: Performance and Explanatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Donna K.; Pfalzer, Lucinda A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which health factors, functional measures, and pulmonary impairment explain performance on 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Another purpose was to determine the effect of disability and age on 6MWT performance and explanatory factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate factors that explain performance on the 6MWT in 64 community-dwelling persons with MS-related disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] 3.8±1.6). Of the 64 participants, 43 (67.2%) exhibited mild disability (EDSS <4.0) and 21 (32.8%) had moderate disability (EDSS 4.0–6.5). A regression analysis compared 6MWT performance to measures of health factors (EDSS, number of medications, number of comorbidities, resting HR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure [BP]); physical performance (functional stair test [FST], sit-to-stand test [SST], static standing balance [BAL], Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS], Activities-specific Balance Confidence [ABC] Scale); and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], maximal voluntary ventilation [MVV], maximal inspiratory pressure [MIP], maximal expiratory pressure [MEP]). Results: EDSS, ABC, FST, SST, BAL, MVV, MIP, and MEP were significantly associated with 6MWT distance after adjusting for age. Multiple step-wise linear regression analysis revealed that ABC, FST, and BAL were significant and independent explanatory factors of 6MWT distance. ABC and FST explained 75% of the variance in 6MWT performance (R2=0.75). Curvilinear regression analysis revealed that the FST is the most significant explanatory factor for 6MWT distance, explaining 79% of the variance (R2=0.79). Conclusions: 6MWT performance in persons with MS was explained by balance confidence (ABC) and stair-climbing ability (FST). The ABC and FST may be practical clinical measures for

  20. An instrumental variable random-coefficients model for binary outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chesher, Andrew; Rosen, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a random-coefficients model for a binary outcome. We allow for the possibility that some or even all of the explanatory variables are arbitrarily correlated with the random coefficients, thus permitting endogeneity. We assume the existence of observed instrumental variables Z that are jointly independent with the random coefficients, although we place no structure on the joint determination of the endogenous variable X and instruments Z, as would be required for a control function approach. The model fits within the spectrum of generalized instrumental variable models, and we thus apply identification results from our previous studies of such models to the present context, demonstrating their use. Specifically, we characterize the identified set for the distribution of random coefficients in the binary response model with endogeneity via a collection of conditional moment inequalities, and we investigate the structure of these sets by way of numerical illustration. PMID:25798048

  1. FARMS: A New Algorithm for Variable Selection

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Gómez, Guadalupe; Brander, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Large datasets including an extensive number of covariates are generated these days in many different situations, for instance, in detailed genetic studies of outbreed human populations or in complex analyses of immune responses to different infections. Aiming at informing clinical interventions or vaccine design, methods for variable selection identifying those variables with the optimal prediction performance for a specific outcome are crucial. However, testing for all potential subsets of variables is not feasible and alternatives to existing methods are needed. Here, we describe a new method to handle such complex datasets, referred to as FARMS, that combines forward and all subsets regression for model selection. We apply FARMS to a host genetic and immunological dataset of over 800 individuals from Lima (Peru) and Durban (South Africa) who were HIV infected and tested for antiviral immune responses. This dataset includes more than 500 explanatory variables: around 400 variables with information on HIV immune reactivity and around 100 individual genetic characteristics. We have implemented FARMS in R statistical language and we showed that FARMS is fast and outcompetes other comparable commonly used approaches, thus providing a new tool for the thorough analysis of complex datasets without the need for massive computational infrastructure. PMID:26273608

  2. A motivation-based explanatory model of street drinking among young people.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Fernández-Monroy, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This social marketing study focuses on street drinking behavior among young people. The objective is to divide the market of young people who engage in this activity into segments according to their motivations. For the three segments identified, a behavior model is created using the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and social belonging of young people who engage in street drinking. The methodology used individual questionnaires filled in by a representative sample of young people. The results show that the behavior model follows the sequence of attitudes-beliefs-behavior and that social belonging influences these three variables. Similarly, differences are observed in the behavior model depending on the segment individuals belong to. PMID:25068605

  3. Parental Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Adjustment: A Prospective Test of an Explanatory Model for the Role of Marital Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Koss, Kalsea; Davies, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite calls for process-oriented models for child maladjustment due to heightened marital conflict in the context of parental depressive symptoms, few longitudinal tests of the mechanisms underlying these relations have been conducted. Addressing this gap, the present study examined multiple factors longitudinally that link parental depressive symptoms to adolescent adjustment problems, building on a conceptual model informed by emotional security theory (EST). Participants were 320 families (158 boys, 162 girls), including mothers and fathers, who took part when their children were in kindergarten (T1), second (T2), seventh (T3), eighth (T4) and ninth (T5) grades. Parental depressive symptoms (T1) were related to changes in adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms (T5), as mediated by parents’ negative emotional expressiveness (T2), marital conflict (T3), and emotional insecurity (T4). Evidence was thus advanced for emotional insecurity as an explanatory process in the context of parental depressive symptoms. PMID:24652484

  4. "Maybe at birth there was an injury": drivers and implications of caretaker explanatory models of autistic characteristics in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sarrett, Jennifer C

    2015-03-01

    Explanatory models (EMs) are the way people explain the presence and meaning of an illness or disability and are reliant on and reflective of culturally specific values of normalcy, disability, health, and illness. EMs about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are particularly revealing because there is no known cause, and so people can explain this disability in ways more appropriate for and useful to them. This article presents caretaker EMs about children with autistic characteristics in Kerala, India. I argue that the reliance on biological, but not genetic, causal models is reflective of the state's high access to biomedical heath care. These EMs are used to deflect the stigma of 'bad blood' and reflect a nuanced relationship between stigma and biological EMs. Understanding how caretakers talk about ASD and related conditions is critical for anyone interested in engaging in crosscultural or international autism-related work. PMID:25739530

  5. Insight in Psychosis: An Indicator of Severity of Psychosis, an Explanatory Model of Illness, and a Coping Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies related to insight, explanatory models (EMs) of illness and their relationship to outcome of psychosis are reviewed. The traditional argument that insight predicts outcome in psychosis is not supported by recent longitudinal data, which has been analyzed using multivariable statistics that adjust for severity and quality of illness. While all cognition will have a neurobiological representation, if “insight” is related to the primary psychotic process, then insight cannot be seen as an independent predictor of outcome but a part of the progression of illness. The evidence suggests insight, like all EMs, is belief which interacts with the trajectory of the person's illness and the local culture to produce a unique understanding of the illness for the particular individual and his/her family. PMID:27335513

  6. Unravelling the spirits' message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda.

    PubMed

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Kleijn, Wim; de Jong, Joop

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries. PMID:24940355

  7. Unravelling the spirits’ message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries. PMID:24940355

  8. Antarctic Meteorite Location and Mapping Project (AMLAMP): Antarctic meteorite location map series explanatory text and user's guide to AMLAMP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.; Fessler, B.; Cassidy, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    This technical report is an update to LPI Technical Report 89-02, which contained data and information that was current to May 1987. Since that time approximately 4000 new meteorites have been collected, mapped, and characterized, mainly from the numerous ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region, from the Pecora Escarpment and Moulton Escarpment in the Thiel Mountains-Patuxent region, the Wisconsin Range region, and from the Beardmore region. Meteorite location maps for ice fields from these regions have been produced and are available. This report includes explanatory texts for the maps of new areas and provides information on updates of maps of the areas covered in LPI Technical Report 89-02. Sketch maps and description of locales that have been searched and have yielded single or few meteorites are also included. The meteorite listings for all the ice fields have been updated to include any classification changes and new meteorites recovered from ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region since 1987. The text has been reorganized and minor errors in the original report have been corrected. Computing capabilities have improved immensely since the early days of this project. Current software and hardware allow easy access to data over computer networks. With various commercial software packages, the data can be used many different ways, including database creation, statistics, and mapping. The databases, explanatory texts, and the plotter files used to produce the meteorite location maps are available through a computer network. Information on how to access AMLAMP data, its formats, and ways it can be used are given in the User's Guide to AMLAMP Data section. Meteorite location maps and thematic maps may be ordered from the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Ordering information is given in Appendix A.

  9. Phenology Analysis of Forest Vegetation to Environmental Variables during - and Post-Monsoon Seasons in Western Himalayan Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, S.; Latifi, H.; Ghosh, K.

    2016-06-01

    To assess the phenological changes in Moist Deciduous Forest (MDF) of western Himalayan region of India, we carried out NDVI time series analysis from 2013 to 2015 using Landsat 8 OLI data. We used the vegetation index differencing method to calculate the change in NDVI (NDVIchange) during pre and post monsoon seasons and these changes were used to assess the phenological behaviour of MDF by taking the effect of a set of environmental variables into account. To understand the effect of environmental variables on change in phenology, we designed a linear regression analysis with sample-based NDVIchange values as the response variable and elevation aspect, and Land Surface Temperature (LST) as explanatory variables. The Landsat-8 derived phenology transition stages were validated by calculating the phenology variation from Nov 2008 to April 2009 using Landsat-7 which has the same spatial resolution as Landsat-8. The Landsat-7 derived NDVI trajectories were plotted in accordance with MODIS derived phenology stages (from Nov 2008 to April 2009) of MDF. Results indicate that the Landsat -8 derived NDVI trajectories describing the phenology variation of MDF during spring, monsoon autumn and winter seasons agreed closely with Landsat-7 and MODIS derived phenology transition from Nov 2008 to April 2009. Furthermore, statistical analysis showed statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) amongst the environmental variables and the NDVIchange between full greenness and maximum frequency stage of Onset of Greenness (OG) activity.. The major change in NDVI was observed in medium (600 to 650 m) and maximum (650 to 750 m) elevation areas. The change in LST showed also to be highly influential. The results of this study can be used for large scale monitoring of difficult-to-reach mountainous forests, with additional implications in biodiversity assessment. By means of a sufficient amount of available cloud-free imagery, detailed phenological trends across mountainous

  10. Interparental Conflict in Kindergarten and Adolescent Adjustment: Prospective Investigation of Emotional Security as an Explanatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children’s functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children’s emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample of 235 mothers, fathers and children (M = 6.00, 8.02, 12.62 years), and multi-method and multi-reporter assessments, structural equation model (SEM) tests provided support for emotional insecurity in early childhood as an intervening process related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems, even with stringent auto-regressive controls over prior levels of functioning for both mediating and outcome variables. Discussion considers implications for understanding pathways between interparental conflict, emotional insecurity and adjustment in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22694264

  11. An Explanatory Mixed-Methods Approach to Tracing "Career Pathways" Policy in Virginia: How School Counselors and Student Demographics Influence Implementation Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsmith, Michael Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This explanatory mixed-methods policy analysis describes how school counselors' thoughts and attitudes contribute to the implementation fidelity of the Academic and Career Plan (ACP) policy in a suburban Virginia school division. A quantitative survey investigated counselor thoughts about the policy, implementation behaviors, and counselor ideas…

  12. Robust efficiency and actuator saturation explain healthy heart rate control and variability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Cruz, Jerry; Chien, Chenghao Simon; Sojoudi, Somayeh; Recht, Benjamin; Stone, David; Csete, Marie; Bahmiller, Daniel; Doyle, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of healthy states with heart rate variability (HRV) using time series analyses is well documented. Whereas these studies note the accepted proximal role of autonomic nervous system balance in HRV patterns, the responsible deeper physiological, clinically relevant mechanisms have not been fully explained. Using mathematical tools from control theory, we combine mechanistic models of basic physiology with experimental exercise data from healthy human subjects to explain causal relationships among states of stress vs. health, HR control, and HRV, and more importantly, the physiologic requirements and constraints underlying these relationships. Nonlinear dynamics play an important explanatory role––most fundamentally in the actuator saturations arising from unavoidable tradeoffs in robust homeostasis and metabolic efficiency. These results are grounded in domain-specific mechanisms, tradeoffs, and constraints, but they also illustrate important, universal properties of complex systems. We show that the study of complex biological phenomena like HRV requires a framework which facilitates inclusion of diverse domain specifics (e.g., due to physiology, evolution, and measurement technology) in addition to general theories of efficiency, robustness, feedback, dynamics, and supporting mathematical tools. PMID:25092335

  13. Explanatory risk factors in the relations between schizotypy and indicators of suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2016-04-30

    Schizotypy has been linked to suicide risk, but it is not known whether established suicide-related risk factors mediate this relation. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-esteem, and intimate disclosure in peer relationships in the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. This aim was tested in 590 young adults using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. After inclusion of the mediators, interpersonal schizotypy was no longer directly associated with either suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Depression and self-esteem mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation. No variables mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and lifetime suicide attempts, and there were no significant direct relations when mediators were included. Schizotypy appears to be a distal risk factor for suicidal behavior; assessing depressive symptoms and self-esteem may provide more proximal information about suicide risk, and may be targets for mitigating suicide risk in individuals with schizotypy. PMID:27086213

  14. Brooding and reflection as explanatory of depressive symptoms in adolescents experiencing stressful life events.

    PubMed

    Young, Cara Calloway; Dietrich, Mary S; Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2014-03-01

    Delineating etiologic mechanisms of adolescent-onset depressive disorders has implications for advances in depression recognition and prevention. Two cognitive processes, namely brooding and reflection, may be instrumental in the development of depressive symptoms. Study aims were to (1) examine the relationships among brooding, reflection, dysfunctional attitudes, negative inferential style, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms and (2) determine the unique contributions of brooding and reflection to depressive symptoms in adolescents who are experiencing stressful life events. A secondary data analysis was conducted using cross-sectional data gathered via a web-based survey (N = 111) of 12-15 year olds. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and hierarchical linear regression modeling were used to evaluate study aims. The final regression model explained approximately 73% of the variance in depressive symptoms (Multiple R = 0.85, p < .001). After controlling for each of the study variables, both brooding (beta = .48, p < .001) and reflection (beta = .33, p < .001) demonstrated unique contributions to the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that brooding and reflection are significant contributors to depressive symptoms in young adolescents experiencing stressful life events. With this knowledge, nurses are better equipped to identify adolescents at high risk for depressive symptoms and implement appropriate levels of intervention. PMID:24597582

  15. What Comes After /f/? Prediction in Speech Derives From Data-Explanatory Processes.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob; Jongman, Allard

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic cues are short-lived and highly variable, which makes speech perception a difficult problem. However, most listeners solve this problem effortlessly. In the present experiment, we demonstrated that part of the solution lies in predicting upcoming speech sounds and that predictions are modulated by high-level expectations about the current sound. Participants heard isolated fricatives (e.g., "s," "sh") and predicted the upcoming vowel. Accuracy was above chance, which suggests that fine-grained detail in the signal can be used for prediction. A second group performed the same task but also saw a still face and a letter corresponding to the fricative. This group performed markedly better, which suggests that high-level knowledge modulates prediction by helping listeners form expectations about what the fricative should have sounded like. This suggests a form of data explanation operating in speech perception: Listeners account for variance due to their knowledge of the talker and current phoneme, and they use what is left over to make more accurate predictions about the next sound. PMID:26581947

  16. Variable selection with stepwise and best subset approaches

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While purposeful selection is performed partly by software and partly by hand, the stepwise and best subset approaches are automatically performed by software. Two R functions stepAIC() and bestglm() are well designed for stepwise and best subset regression, respectively. The stepAIC() function begins with a full or null model, and methods for stepwise regression can be specified in the direction argument with character values “forward”, “backward” and “both”. The bestglm() function begins with a data frame containing explanatory variables and response variables. The response variable should be in the last column. Varieties of goodness-of-fit criteria can be specified in the IC argument. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) usually results in more parsimonious model than the Akaike information criterion. PMID:27162786

  17. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; González, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD) category. Objective We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%). However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out. PMID:26345330

  18. Associations between Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Housing- and Individual-Related Variables in Dairy Cows Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bakony, Mikolt; Hufnágel, Levente; Tőzsér, János; Jurkovich, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations between heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and some housing- and individual-related variables using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCOA) method in lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. We collected a total of 5200 5-min interbeat interval (IBI) samples from 260 animals on five commercial dairy farms [smaller-scale farms with 70 (Farm 1, n = 50) and 80 cows per farm (Farm 2, n = 40), and larger-scale farms with 850 (Farm 3, n = 66), 1900 (Farm 4, n = 60) and 1200 (Farm 5, n = 45) cows. Dependent variables included HRV parameters, which reflect the activity of the autonomic nervous system: heart rate (HR), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in IBIs, the standard deviation 1 (SD1), the high frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and the HF parameter (LF/HF). Explanatory variables were group size, space allowance, milking frequency, parity, daily milk yield, body condition score, locomotion score, farm, season and physical activity (lying, lying and rumination, standing, standing and rumination and feeding). Physical activity involved in standing, feeding and in rumination was associated with HRV parameters, indicating a decreasing sympathetic and an increasing vagal tone in the following order: feeding, standing, standing and rumination, lying and rumination, lying. Objects representing summer positioned close to HR and LF and far from SD1, RMSSD and HF indicate a higher sympathetic and a lower vagal activity. Objects representing autumn, spring and winter associated with increasing vagal activity, in this order. Time-domain measures of HRV were associated with most of the housing- and individual-related explanatory variables. Higher HR and lower RMSSD and SD1 were associated with higher group size, milking frequency, parity and milk yield, and low space allowance. Higher parity and milk yield were associated with higher sympathetic activity as well (higher LF

  19. A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators to improving asthma management in South Asian children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions and more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children. South Asians were defined as individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. Methods Data Sources - Medline, HMIC, EMBASE, ASSIA, Web of Science, BNI, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, CRD, Scopus, NHS Evidence, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, RCPCH, ATS, ERS, Asthma UK, Google Scholar & Asthma Guidelines (BTS, GINA, ATS, Monash, NAEPP, Singapore & New Zealand) to August 2013. Inclusion Criteria – Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research with primary focus on identifying explanations for barriers and/or facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children aged 0–18 years with diagnosed/suspected asthma and/or carers and/or healthcare professionals. Data Extraction – Three authors independently reviewed, selected & extracted eligible articles with disagreements resolved by research team discussion. Results 15 studies encompassing 25,755 children, 18,483 parents/carers and 239 healthcare professionals were included. Barriers and explanatory factors identified were: 1. Lack of asthma knowledge in families and healthcare professionals. 2. Under-use of preventer medications. 3. Non-acceptance/denial of asthma. 4. Over-reliance on Emergency Department management. 5. Communication problems. 6. Non-adherence to medication. 7. Use of complementary therapies. Little facilitators regarding asthma management were identified. Conclusions Several key issues were identified as likely to be ethnic-specific to South Asian families, rather than a reflection of minority status: impact of parental and professional knowledge and beliefs

  20. Quantitative geophysics in permafrost rock walls and their explanatory power for geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; Dräbing, D.; Funk, D.; Kemna, A.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of rock falls has been reported for permafrost-affected rockwalls in the last two decades. The anticipation of the hazard induced by permafrost rock slope failure requires monitoring of thermal and hydrological regimes and geomechanical properties inside the rock mass and quantitative geophysics could provide certain information on all of them. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in frozen rock walls could become a key method for such investigations since freezing and sub-freezing temperature changes induce significant and recognizable changes in resistivity. Testing temperature-resistivity T-ρ relationships from a double-digit number of low-porosity sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks from Alpine and Arctic permafrost rockwalls in the laboratory, we found evidence that exponential T-ρ paths developed by McGinnis et al. (1973) do not describe the resistivity behaviour of hard rocks undergoing freezing or melting correctly, as freezing occurs in confined space. We provide evidence that bilinear functions of unfrozen and frozen T-ρ paths offer a better approximation. Inferring reliable thermal state variables from ERT images requires a quantitative approach involving calibrated (T-ρ) relationships and an adequate resistance error description in the ERT inversion process, where the correct description of data errors and the right degree of data fitting are crucial issues. We also provide evidence that seismic refraction tomography is technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity bedrock that constitutes steep rock walls. We have tested temperature - P-wave velocity functions of 22 decimeter-large metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary low-porosity rock samples with a natural texture of numerous micro-fissures from alpine and arctic rock walls. The results show the significance of the ice-pressure-induced matrix velocity increase in low-porosity rocks while the velocity increase of the pore infill is negligible. Hence, the

  1. Cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szkody, Paula; Cropper, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Recent observations of cataclysmic variables (CVs) at different wavelengths are reviewed, with a focus on their implications for theoretical models. Consideration is given to disk CVs (the flux distribution of the disk and changes during dwarf-nova outbursts), magnetic CVs (flux distributions and components), and the underlying stars. Typical data are presented in graphs, tables, and sample spectra, and it is concluded that more detailed multiwavelength observations are needed to improve models of radiative transfer and viscosity effects in accretion disks.

  2. Deconstructed transverse mass variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Virzi, Joseph S.; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2015-04-01

    Traditional searches for R-parity conserving natural supersymmetry (SUSY) require large transverse mass and missing energy cuts to separate the signal from large backgrounds. SUSY models with compressed spectra inherently produce signal events with small amounts of missing energy that are hard to explore. We use this difficulty to motivate the construction of "deconstructed" transverse mass variables which are designed preserve information on both the norm and direction of the missing momentum. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these variables in searches for the pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners which subsequently decay into a final state with an isolated lepton, jets and missing energy. We show that the use of deconstructed transverse mass variables extends the accessible compressed spectra parameter space beyond the region probed by traditional methods. The parameter space can further be expanded to neutralino masses that are larger than the difference between the stop and top masses. In addition, we also discuss how these variables allow for novel searches of single stop production, in order to directly probe unconstrained stealth stops in the small stop- and neutralino-mass regime. We also demonstrate the utility of these variables for generic gluino and stop searches in all-hadronic final states. Overall, we demonstrate that deconstructed transverse variables are essential to any search wanting to maximize signal separation from the background when the signal has undetected particles in the final state.

  3. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  4. Understanding the link between large-scale climate variability and regional hydrologic variability using weather patterns as intermediate variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Benjamin; Lall, Upmanu

    2013-04-01

    Climate naturally follows specific modes of variability, quantified by some climate indices (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation NAO, Southern Oscillation Index SOI, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation AMO, etc.). These modes of variability are due to large-scale climatic processes affecting large areas, and whose temporal scales range from a few months to a few decades. The temporal variability of hydrological regimes depends on such modes of variability, as has been reported in several regions worldwide. However, this relationship is more difficult to observe in some other regions, for several possible reasons: (i) the large natural variability of hydrological regimes, especially in the extreme domain, might strongly restrict the ability to detect weak or moderate relationships; (ii) Standard modes of variability like the NAO, SOI, etc. might not be the most relevant for some regions. This presentation explores an approach which, instead of directly seeking links between large-scale climate variability and regional hydrologic variability, decomposes the problem into two transitive "sub-problems" involving weather patterns as intermediate variables. Weather patterns are used to describe the atmospheric situation over a region as a categorical variable. As region-specific indices, they are potentially more explanatory than larger-scale indices like the NAO or SOI to explain the regional variability of hydrologic regimes. Consequently, two probabilistic models are derived: (1) a model to predict the frequency of weather patterns using large-scale climate indices (NAO, SOI, etc.) as predictors; (2) a model to predict the regional distribution of some hydrologic variable (e.g. number of flood events) using the frequencies of weather patterns as predictors. A case study based on French flood data is used to illustrate the application of this approach. It shows that each sub-model has some predictive ability: for instance, the annual number of flood events can be predicted

  5. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  7. [Stress as an explanatory model for spontaneous abortions and recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    PubMed

    Läpple, M

    1988-01-01

    In this reviews uterine article stress shall be outlined as a possible psychobiological model for interpretation of spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions by emphasis on physiological explanation theories. Results refer to the fact that stress can cause via neuro-endocrinologic processes in the uteroplacental area a rejection of the fetus. The role of neurotransmitters adrenaline, noradrenaline and acetylcholine on uterine vascularization and contractility and fetal oxygenation and the influence of progesterone, glucocorticoids and other hormones have been discussed. Stress induces in loading situations a changing action of elevated stress hormones adrenaline, noradrenalin++ and cortisol on the metabolism of other hormones, e.g. a decrease of serum progesterone and an increase of estrogen and thyroxine-level. Therefore the physiological balance of the organism is disturbed. Because informations of the nervous system are transmitted to the utero-placental unit in this way there are disturbances e.g. reduction of fetal oxygenation, advancement of uterine contractility and possible stimulation of labor. Troubles of the immunologic protection of pregnancy by stress have been considered. Nevertheless the question for the reason of elevated abortion tendency caused by stress is still open. Constitutional factors as motility and other uterine and feto-placental factors may be explanations for interindividual differences in this area. Additionally stress modulation factors like efficient stress coping and social support are able to reduce stress effects. PMID:3291490

  8. The Facilitators and Barriers to Nurses’ Participation in Continuing Education Programs: A Mixed Method Explanatory Sequential Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since several factors affect nurses’ participation in Continuing Education, and that nurses’ Continuing Education affects patients’ and community health status, it is essential to know facilitators and barriers of participation in Continuing Education programs and plan accordingly. This mixed approach study aimed to investigate the facilitators and barriers of nurses’ participation, to explore nurses’ perception of the most common facilitators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory sequential mixed methods design with follow up explanations variant were used, and it involved collecting quantitative data (361 nurses) first and then explaining the quantitative results with in-depth interviews during a qualitative study. Results: The results showed that the mean score of facilitators to nurses’ participation in Continuing Education was significantly higher than the mean score of barriers (61.99±10.85 versus 51.17±12.83; p<0.001, t=12.23). The highest mean score of facilitators of nurses’ participation in Continuing Education was related to “Update my knowledge”. By reviewing the handwritings in qualitative phase, two main levels of updating information and professional skills were extracted as the most common facilitators and lack of support as the most common barrier to nurses’ participation in continuing education program. Conclusion: According to important role Continuing Education on professional skills, nurse managers should facilitate the nurse’ participation in the Continues Education. PMID:25948439

  9. Applying the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary Model in a Primary Care-Based Lifestyle Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Lv, Nan; Azar, Kristen; Xiao, Lan; Yank, Veronica; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The majority of adults in the U.S. can be classified as overweight or obese (68%), putting them at risk for Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other adverse health outcomes. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that providers offer or refer obese adults to intensive, multicomponent lifestyle interventions. However, there is a critical need for interventions that have been shown to be pragmatic and effective among diverse populations, scalable across different clinical settings and systems, and sustainable over time. The Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) tool can be used to assess the degree to which trials of behavioral lifestyle interventions provide evidence to support this need. We used our recently completed trial, Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care (E-LITE), as a case study and assessed the domains of PRECIS to explore the degree to which we felt it achieved its intended pragmatic design (completed in December 2014). Overall, the systematic assessment using the PRECIS tool revealed that the E-LITE trial design was very pragmatic in nature. Its results and the subsequent adoption of the intervention into actual practice also suggest high potential for implementation of primary care interventions. PMID:26296556

  10. Racial disparities in self-rated health: Trends, explanatory factors, and the changing role of socio-demographics

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Hummer, Robert A.; Masters, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (N = 1,513,097) to describe and explain temporal patterns in black-white health disparities with models that simultaneously consider the unique effects of age, period, and cohort. First, we employ cross-classified random effects age–period–cohort (APC) models to document black-white disparities in self-rated health across temporal dimensions. Second, we use decomposition techniques to shed light on the extent to which socio-economic shifts in cohort composition explain the age and period adjusted racial health disparities across successive birth cohorts. Third, we examine the extent to which exogenous conditions at the time of birth help explain the racial disparities across successive cohorts. Results show that black-white disparities are wider among the pre-1935 cohorts for women, falling thereafter; disparities for men exhibit a similar pattern but exhibit narrowing among cohorts born earlier in the century. Differences in socioeconomic composition consistently contribute to racial health disparities across cohorts; notably, marital status differences by race emerge as an increasingly important explanatory factor in more recent cohorts for women whereas employment differences by race emerge as increasingly salient in more recent cohorts for men. Finally, our cohort characteristics models suggest that cohort economic conditions at the time of birth (percent large family, farm or Southern birth) help explain racial disparities in health for both men and women. PMID:24581075

  11. Decision-making and evaluation of science causal claims: Effects of goals on uses of evidence and explanatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jacqueline Yin Sang

    2015-10-01

    Evidence and explanatory mechanism are central to scientific practices. Using such information could also inform decisions about issues in which science can play some role, from policy issues like climate change to personal issues like vaccination. While research suggests that people tend to focus on non-science considerations when making science-related decisions, there is also evidence that people can reason very productively with evidence and mechanism. This study examines how the goals participants pursue when reading a science report influences how they attend to information about causal mechanism and evidence. Two hundred and seventeen high school students were asked either to evaluate the truth of a scientific claim, to make a personal decision based on the claim, or to make a social policy decision based on the claim using an online task-based survey. All three groups of participants attended to evidence and mechanism, but participants with different goals requested different types of information and were influenced by evidence and mechanism for different reasons. The findings suggest that goals influence how participants use evidence and mechanism.

  12. Coping resources as explanatory factors of stress reactions during missile attacks: comparing Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore coping resources as explanatory factors in reducing emotional distress of adolescents in an acute stress situation. We compared two ethnic groups-Jewish and Arab-Bedouin Israelis-during intensive missile attacks in January 2009. Data were gathered from 138 Israeli-Jews and 84 Israeli-Arab Bedouins, 12-18 years old, who filled out self reported questionnaires among which state anxiety, state anger, and psychological distress (SPD) were measures of emotional distress, and sense of coherence (SOC) and hope index served as measures of coping resources. Findings indicated no differences between the two groups on state anxiety, SPD and hope levels. Arab Bedouins reported higher levels of state anger and lower levels of sense of coherence. The coping resources, however, explained the stress reactions differently among the two groups. While SOC made a major contribution in explaining stress reactions among Jewish adolescents, hope index explained stress reactions only for the Arab group. The findings are discussed against the background of the salutogenic theory and the cultural differences between the two ethnic groups. PMID:20458538

  13. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  14. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  15. The impact of flood variables on riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzubakova, Katarina; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    the most significant variables impacting vegetation response. Generally, maximal flood attributes had more significant impacts than integrated attributes over the flood duration. Additional explanatory variables in the model should account for vegetation heterogeneity, groundwater conditions and different effects of lateral and surface erosion.

  16. Locating the Social Origins of Mental Illness: The Explanatory Models of Mental Illness Among Clergy from Different Ethnic and Faith Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Leavey, Gerard; Loewenthal, Kate; King, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds. This paper presents findings related to clergy explanatory models of mental illness and, in particular, how the social factors involved in causation are tinged with spiritual influences and implications, and how the meanings of mental distress assume a social and moral significance in distinctive localised matters. PMID:26874526

  17. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Andrea F. P.; Cey, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  18. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrea F P; Cey, Edwin E

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted. PMID:26348834

  19. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  20. Interaction: Additivity plus Nonlinearity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, T. P.

    2004-01-01

    Whether or not there is an interaction between two factors in their effects on a dependent variable is often a central question. This paper proposes a general mechanism by which an interaction may arise: (a) the two factors are the same thing--or, at least, have a dimension in common--in the sense that it is meaningful to add (or subtract) them;…

  1. Improving Space Project Cost Estimating with Engineering Management Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current space project cost models attempt to predict space flight project cost via regression equations, which relate the cost of projects to technical performance metrics (e.g. weight, thrust, power, pointing accuracy, etc.). This paper examines the introduction of engineering management parameters to the set of explanatory variables. A number of specific engineering management variables are considered and exploratory regression analysis is performed to determine if there is statistical evidence for cost effects apart from technical aspects of the projects. It is concluded that there are other non-technical effects at work and that further research is warranted to determine if it can be shown that these cost effects are definitely related to engineering management.

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  4. Developing and Validating a Tablet Version of an Illness Explanatory Model Interview for a Public Health Survey in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Giduthuri, Joseph G.; Maire, Nicolas; Joseph, Saju; Kudale, Abhay; Schaetti, Christian; Sundaram, Neisha; Schindler, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile electronic devices are replacing paper-based instruments and questionnaires for epidemiological and public health research. The elimination of a data-entry step after an interview is a notable advantage over paper, saving investigator time, decreasing the time lags in managing and analyzing data, and potentially improving the data quality by removing the error-prone data-entry step. Research has not yet provided adequate evidence, however, to substantiate the claim of fewer errors for computerized interviews. Methodology We developed an Android-based illness explanatory interview for influenza vaccine acceptance and tested the instrument in a field study in Pune, India, for feasibility and acceptability. Error rates for tablet and paper were compared with reference to the voice recording of the interview as gold standard to assess discrepancies. We also examined the preference of interviewers for the classical paper-based or the electronic version of the interview and compared the costs of research with both data collection devices. Results In 95 interviews with household respondents, total error rates with paper and tablet devices were nearly the same (2.01% and 1.99% respectively). Most interviewers indicated no preference for a particular device; but those with a preference opted for tablets. The initial investment in tablet-based interviews was higher compared to paper, while the recurring costs per interview were lower with the use of tablets. Conclusion An Android-based tablet version of a complex interview was developed and successfully validated. Advantages were not compromised by increased errors, and field research assistants with a preference preferred the Android device. Use of tablets may be more costly than paper for small samples and less costly for large studies. PMID:25233212

  5. An explanatory randomised placebo controlled trial of levothyroxine supplementation for babies born <28 weeks’ gestation: results of the TIPIT trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Babies born before 28 weeks’ gestation have lower plasma thyroid hormone concentrations than more mature infants. This may contribute to their risk of poor developmental outcome. Previous studies have suggested that thyroxine supplementation for extremely preterm neonates may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of administration of supplemental thyroxine to very premature babies on brain size and somatic growth at 36 weeks’ corrected gestational age (CGA). Methods In this explanatory multicentre double blind randomised placebo controlled trial, 153 infants born below 28 weeks’ gestation were randomised to levothyroxine (LT4) supplementation or placebo until 32 weeks’ CGA. The primary outcome was brain size assessed by the width of the subarachnoid space measured by cranial ultrasound at 36 weeks’ CGA. Lower leg length was measured by knemometry. Results Babies in the LT4-supplemented and placebo groups had similar baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences between infants given LT4 (n=78) or placebo (n=75) for width of the subarachnoid space, head circumference at 36 weeks’ CGA, body weight at 36 weeks’ CGA or mortality. Infants who received LT4 had significantly shorter leg lengths at 36 weeks’ CGA although adjusted analysis for baseline length did not find a statistical difference. There was a significant correlation between low FT4 and wider subarachnoid space. No unexpected serious adverse events were noted and incidence of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion This is the only randomised controlled trial of thyroxine supplementation targeting extremely premature infants. Supplementing all babies below 28 weeks’ gestation with LT4 had no apparent effect on brain size. These results do not support routine supplementation with LT4 for all babies born below 28 weeks’ gestation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89493983 EUDRACT number

  6. Comprehensive View of the Human Mating Process Among Young Couples in Isfahan-Iran: An Explanatory Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Merghati Khoei, Effat; Ziaei, Tayebe; Salehi, Mehrdad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Heterosexual relationship is the main component of mate selection. Regardless of the importance of mate favorites, little is known about exact valued criteria in potential mates. Objectives: This study was designed to comprehensively explain the theoretical view of the human mating process. Materials and Methods: This was as an explanatory mixed–method study. The first phase was a cross-sectional quantitative study with two Farsi-modified versions of instruments: preferences concerning potential mates and factors of choosing a mate; content analysis was the second phase. The quantitative phase of this study consisted of 202 dating couples, decided to get married. The qualitative phase consisted of 28 participants who acquired the extreme scores (highest and lowest) in the first phase. Results: Average age of marriage for women and men was 23.04 and 26.41 respectively; the actual age difference was 3.37 years (women younger than men). The results of this study in support of evolution-based theory explained that, age is a preference and choosing an older husband and a younger wife is due to having reproductive capacity. Also, they mentioned that appearance is necessary for men because of sexual attraction, not as a prediction for the next generation appearance. In both phases of this study, both genders had a strong emphasis on “chastity” in a potential mate. Results showed that, men preferred a mate who was a good housewife, capable of cooking, and women preferred a mate with “Good earning capacity”, “Good financial prospect” “university education”, “Favorable social status” and “Industriousness”. Conclusions: The results confirmed that for a comprehensive view in human mating process, we need a combined theoretical approach as well as qualitative and quantitative study to explore the real meaning of each preference in a mate. PMID:24693380

  7. Barriers to Advance Care Planning at the End of Life: An Explanatory Systematic Review of Implementation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Susi; Richardson, Alison; May, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Context Advance Care Plans (ACPs) enable patients to discuss and negotiate their preferences for the future including treatment options at the end of life. Their implementation poses significant challenges. Objective To investigate barriers and facilitators to the implementation of ACPs, focusing on their workability and integration in clinical practice. Design An explanatory systematic review of qualitative implementation studies. Data sources Empirical studies that reported interventions designed to support ACP in healthcare. Web of Knowledge, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index and PubMed databases were searched. Methods Direct content analysis, using Normalization Process Theory, to identify and characterise relevant components of implementation processes. Results 13 papers identified from 166 abstracts were included in the review. Key factors facilitating implementation were: specially prepared staff utilizing a structured approach to interactions around ACPs. Barriers to implementation were competing demands of other work, the emotional and interactional nature of patient-professional interactions around ACPs, problems in sharing decisions and preferences within and between healthcare organizations. Conclusions This review demonstrates that doing more of the things that facilitate delivery of ACPs will not reduce the effects of those things that undermine them. Structured tools are only likely to be partially effective and the creation of a specialist cadre of ACP facilitators is unlikely to be a sustainable solution. The findings underscore both the challenge and need to find ways to routinely incorporate ACPs in clinical settings where multiple and competing demands impact on practice. Interventions most likely to meet with success are those that make elements of Advance Care Planning workable within complex and time pressured clinical workflows. PMID:25679395

  8. Interpretation of tropospheric ozone variability in data with different vertical and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Disterhoft, P.; Johnson, B. J.; Rieder, H. E.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W.

    2012-12-01

    This work attributes tropospheric ozone variability derived from the ground-based Dobson and Brewer Umkehr measurements and from ozone sonde data to local sources and transport. It assesses capability and limitations in both types of measurements that are often used to analyze long- and short-term variability in tropospheric ozone time series. We will address the natural and instrument-related contribution to the variability found in both Umkehr and sonde data. Validation of Umkehr methods is often done by intercomparisons against independent ozone measuring techniques such as ozone sounding. We will use ozone-sounding in its original and AK-smoothed vertical profiles for assessment of ozone inter-annual variability over Boulder, CO. We will discuss possible reasons for differences between different ozone measuring techniques and its effects on the derived ozone trends. Next to standard evaluation techniques we utilize a STL-decomposition method to address temporal variability and trends in the Boulder Umkehr data. Further, we apply a statistical modeling approach to the ozone data set to attribute ozone variability to individual driving forces associated with natural and anthropogenic causes. To this aim we follow earlier work applying a backward selection method (i.e., a stepwise elimination procedure out of a set of total 44 explanatory variables) to determine those explanatory variables which contribute most significantly to the observed variability. We will present also some results associated with completeness (sampling rate) of the existing data sets. We will also use MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) re-analysis results selected for Boulder location as a transfer function in understanding of the effects that the temporal sampling and vertical resolution bring into trend and ozone variability analysis. Analyzing intra-annual variability in ozone measurements over Boulder, CO, in relation to the upper tropospheric

  9. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  12. A tree-based statistical classification algorithm (CHAID) for identifying variables responsible for the occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria during waterworks operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Neumaier, Arnold; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-11-01

    Microbial contamination of groundwater used for drinking water can affect public health and is of major concern to local water authorities and water suppliers. Potential hazards need to be identified in order to protect raw water resources. We propose a non-parametric data mining technique for exploring the presence of total coliforms (TC) in a groundwater abstraction well and its relationship to readily available, continuous time series of hydrometric monitoring parameters (seven year records of precipitation, river water levels, and groundwater heads). The original monitoring parameters were used to create an extensive generic dataset of explanatory variables by considering different accumulation or averaging periods, as well as temporal offsets of the explanatory variables. A classification tree based on the Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) recursive partitioning algorithm revealed statistically significant relationships between precipitation and the presence of TC in both a production well and a nearby monitoring well. Different secondary explanatory variables were identified for the two wells. Elevated water levels and short-term water table fluctuations in the nearby river were found to be associated with TC in the observation well. The presence of TC in the production well was found to relate to elevated groundwater heads and fluctuations in groundwater levels. The generic variables created proved useful for increasing significance levels. The tree-based model was used to predict the occurrence of TC on the basis of hydrometric variables.

  13. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  14. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  15. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  16. Political determinants of variable aetiology resonance: explaining the African AIDS epidemics.

    PubMed

    Hunsmann, M

    2009-12-01

    Notwithstanding the massive social and economic disruptions caused by HIV/AIDS in many sub-Saharan countries, the epidemic does not pose a serious political threat to African governments. Based on an analysis of today's dominant aetiologic framing of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper argues that the behaviour-centred explanatory approach contributes to the political domestication of the epidemic. The behavioural aetiology suffers from a double reductionism: It concentrates on sexual transmission only and, within sexual transmission, it focuses exclusively on the immediate cause of transmission (unprotected sex), omitting that biological co-factors increase populations' vulnerability to infection. By overlooking these non-behaviour-related determinants of sexual HIV transmission, this explanatory approach implicitly blames individual behaviours for the spread of the virus. Conversely, the likely underestimation (if not the outright denial) of iatrogenic HIV transmission exonerates governments and donor agencies. The variable political resonance of different explanatory approaches is not random and the translation of the available bio-medical and epidemiological evidence into prevention measures is politically mediated. PMID:19948897

  17. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  18. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  19. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  20. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  1. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  3. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  4. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  5. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  6. Monotonic Weighted Power Transformations to Additivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, J. O.

    1977-01-01

    A class of monotonic transformations which generalize the power transformation is fit to the independent and dependent variables in multiple regression so that the resulting additive relationship is optimized. Examples of analysis of real and artificial data are presented. (Author/JKS)

  7. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  8. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  9. Selection of relevant input variables in storm water quality modeling by multiobjective evolutionary polynomial regression paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creaco, E.; Berardi, L.; Sun, Siao; Giustolisi, O.; Savic, D.

    2016-04-01

    The growing availability of field data, from information and communication technologies (ICTs) in "smart" urban infrastructures, allows data modeling to understand complex phenomena and to support management decisions. Among the analyzed phenomena, those related to storm water quality modeling have recently been gaining interest in the scientific literature. Nonetheless, the large amount of available data poses the problem of selecting relevant variables to describe a phenomenon and enable robust data modeling. This paper presents a procedure for the selection of relevant input variables using the multiobjective evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR-MOGA) paradigm. The procedure is based on scrutinizing the explanatory variables that appear inside the set of EPR-MOGA symbolic model expressions of increasing complexity and goodness of fit to target output. The strategy also enables the selection to be validated by engineering judgement. In such context, the multiple case study extension of EPR-MOGA, called MCS-EPR-MOGA, is adopted. The application of the proposed procedure to modeling storm water quality parameters in two French catchments shows that it was able to significantly reduce the number of explanatory variables for successive analyses. Finally, the EPR-MOGA models obtained after the input selection are compared with those obtained by using the same technique without benefitting from input selection and with those obtained in previous works where other data-modeling techniques were used on the same data. The comparison highlights the effectiveness of both EPR-MOGA and the input selection procedure.

  10. Young adults' knowledge of politics: evaluating the role of socio-cognitive variables using structural equations.

    PubMed

    Brussino, Silvina; Medrano, Leonardo; Sorribas, Patricia; Rabbia, Hugo H

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to create an explanatory model that allows analyzing the predictive power of a set of variables related to political knowledge; more specifically, to analyze the relationship between the education level of young adults and the variables, interest in politics and internal political efficacy. We also analyzed the combined relationship between these variables, together with age, and political knowledge. We worked with a sample group of 280 young adults between the ages of 18-30 from the city of Córdoba (Argentina). The data was subjected to a structural equation modelling SEM analysis, which allowed for the corroboration of the following hypotheses: the higher the education level, the more the interest in politics; the higher the education level, the better the perception of internal political efficacy; the higher the education level, the more the political knowledge; the more the interest in politics, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more interest in politics. Moreover, the following hypotheses could not be verified: the older an individual, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more the political knowledge. The model obtained allows for discussion of the explanatory value of these socio-cognitive variables. PMID:21568176

  11. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  12. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  13. Statistical modeling of the small-scale spatial variability of snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Schirmer, M.; Lehning, M.

    2012-04-01

    The spatial distribution of the mountain snow cover is of high importance for many tasks in the fields of hydrology (e.g. water supply, flooding), natural hazards (e.g. snow avalanches) or mountain ecology. The snow distribution is typically characterized by a strong heterogeneity, which is the result of different processes interacting with the local topography. Characterizing this spatial heterogeneity is a challenging task. Recent studies showed that the prediction of the spatial structure of the snow cover applying simple terrain parameters has only minor explanatory power. Furthermore, most of these studies were limited either because they are restricted to a single region or due to a lack of snow depth data in reasonable quality and spatial resolution. For this study we were able to collect a large set of high resolution snow depth data from different regions in the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Rocky Mountains. The snow depth data were generated using airborne Lidar technology and have a horizontal resolution of 1 m and a vertical accuracy between 0.1 and 0.3 m. The size of the different domains is between 1 and 25 km2 and the data set cover different topographic and climatic regimes. We present a multivariate linear regression model which combines terrain variables such as elevation, slope and northing (deviation of the aspect from North) with the fractal roughness parameters D and γ in order to predict the relative snow depth of small subareas within the mountain catchments. Two methods were applied to select the subareas: on the one hand small control units were defined manually by clustering areas of similar surface characteristics. On the other hand the regions were automatically divided into quadratic subareas (400 m edge length). The model output is the relative snow amount for each subarea relative to the mean for the whole catchment. For each region the model was calculated separately and the best two-parameter model was chosen. In addition, combining

  14. Discrimination between mountain stream channel types using independent control variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.; Merritt, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    We use a large and diverse dataset from mountain streams around the world to explore our ability to classify reach-scale channel morphology using easily measurable control variables. The dataset includes 136 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 93 pool-riffle reaches from streams in the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We used stepwise discriminant analysis to select the most parsimonious subset of variables for classifying channel type. A 3-variable discriminant function using slope, D84, and channel width produced a classification error rate of 24% (103 reaches correctly classified). Seventy percent of plane-bed reaches were correctly classified (16% incorrectly classified as pool-riffle, 14% incorrectly classified as step-pool). Sixty-seven percent of pool-riffle channels were correctly classified (31% incorrectly classified as plane-bed, 2% as step-pool). Eighty-nine percent of step-pool reaches were correctly classified (9% incorrectly classified as plane-bed, 2% as pool-riffle). The partial R2-values indicate that slope is by far the most significant single explanatory variable. The ability to accurately classify channel type in other regions using the elegant 3-variable discriminant function developed from the entire dataset has important implications for water-resources management and for understanding relationships between process and form in mountain streams.

  15. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  16. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  19. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  20. Examining spatial and temporal variability in snow water equivalent using a 27 year reanalysis: Kern River watershed, Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girotto, M.; Cortés, G.; Margulis, S. A.; Durand, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    This work used a data assimilation framework to estimate spatially and temporally continuous snow water equivalent (SWE) from a 27 year reanalysis (from water year 1985 to 2011) of the Landsat-5 record for the Kern River watershed in the Sierra Nevada, California. The data assimilation approach explicitly treats sources of uncertainty from model parameters, meteorological inputs, and observations. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model (LSM) and snow depletion curve (SDC) model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and fractional snow cover area (FSCA) for a given set of prior (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a retrospective reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the observed fractional snow cover time series. The final posterior SWE estimate is generated from the LSM-SDC using the posterior estimation variables consistently with all postulated sources of uncertainty in the model, inputs, and observations. A reasonable agreement was found between the SWE reanalysis and in situ SWE observations and streamflow data. The data set was studied to evaluate factors controlling SWE spatial and temporal variability. Elevation was found to be the primary control on spatial patterns of peak-SWE and day-of-peak. The easting coordinate had additional explanatory power, which is hypothesized to be related to rain shadow effects due to the prevailing storm track directions. The spatial patterns were found to be interannually inconsistent. However, drier years and lower elevations were found more variable than wetter years and higher elevations, respectively. Only a very small percentage of the Kern River watershed had a significant trend in peak-SWE and day-of-peak. Trends deemed to be significant were found to be positive (peak-SWE is increasing and day-of-peak occurs later) at higher elevations, but negative (peak-SWE is decreasing and day-of-peak occurs earlier) at lower elevations

  1. Examining spatial and temporal variability in snow water equivalent using a 27 year reanalysis: Kern River watershed, Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girotto, Manuela; Cortés, Gonzalo; Margulis, Steven A.; Durand, Michael

    2014-08-01

    This paper used a data assimilation framework to estimate spatially and temporally continuous snow water equivalent (SWE) from a 27 year reanalysis (from water year 1985 to 2011) of the Landsat-5 record for the Kern River watershed in the Sierra Nevada, California. The data assimilation approach explicitly treats sources of uncertainty from model parameters, meteorological inputs, and observations. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model (LSM) and snow depletion curve (SDC) model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and fractional snow cover area (FSCA) for a given set of prior (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a retrospective reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the observed fractional snow cover time series. The final posterior SWE estimate is generated from the LSM-SDC using the posterior estimation variables consistently with all postulated sources of uncertainty in the model, inputs, and observations. A reasonable agreement was found between the SWE reanalysis and in situ SWE observations and streamflow data. The data set was studied to evaluate factors controlling SWE spatial and temporal variability. Elevation was found to be the primary control on spatial patterns of peak-SWE and day-of-peak. The easting coordinate had additional explanatory power, which is hypothesized to be related to rain shadow effects due to the prevailing storm track directions. The spatial patterns were found to be interannually inconsistent. However, drier years and lower elevations were found more variable than wetter years and higher elevations, respectively. Only a very small percentage of the Kern River watershed had a significant trend in peak-SWE and day-of-peak. Trends deemed to be significant were found to be positive (peak-SWE is increasing and day-of-peak occurs later) at higher elevations, but negative (peak-SWE is decreasing and day-of-peak occurs earlier) at lower elevations

  2. Variables affecting learning in a simulation experience: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Beischel, Kelly P

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model describing the direct effects of learning variables on anxiety and cognitive learning outcomes in a high-fidelity simulation (HFS) experience. The secondary purpose was to explain and explore student perceptions concerning the qualities and context of HFS affecting anxiety and learning. This study used a mixed methods quantitative-dominant explanatory design with concurrent qualitative data collection to examine variables affecting learning in undergraduate, beginning nursing students (N = 124). Being ready to learn, having a strong auditory-verbal learning style, and being prepared for simulation directly affected anxiety, whereas learning outcomes were directly affected by having strong auditory-verbal and hands-on learning styles. Anxiety did not quantitatively mediate cognitive learning outcomes as theorized, although students qualitatively reported debilitating levels of anxiety. This study advances nursing education science by providing evidence concerning variables affecting learning outcomes in HFS. PMID:21593285

  3. Fitting response models of benthic community structure to abiotic variables in a polluted estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Oreja, José Antonio; Saiz-Salinas, José Ignacio

    1999-07-01

    Models of the macrozoobenthic community responses to abiotic variables measured in the polluted Bilbao estuary were obtained by multiple linear regression analyses. Total, Oligochaeta and Nematoda abundance and biomass were considered as dependent variables. Intertidal level, dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the water column (DOXB) and organic content of the sediment were selected by the analyses as the three principal explanatory variables. Goodness-of-fit of the models was high ( overlinex=71.3% ). Total abundance and biomass increased as a linear function of DOXB. The principal outcome of the vast sewage scheme currently in progress in the study area is an important contributor of increasing DOXB levels. The models exposed in this paper will serve as a tool to evaluate the expected changes in the near future.

  4. Determining the Environmental Factors Underlying the Spatial Variability of Insect Appearance Phenology for the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera, and the Small White, Pieris rapae

    PubMed Central

    Gordo, Oscar; Sanz, Juan José; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial patterns of the variability of the appearance dates of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidea) and the small white Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) were investigated in Spain. A database of more than 7,000 records of the dates of the first spring sightings of each species in more than 700 localities from 1952–2004 was used. Phenological data were related to spatial, topographical, climate, land use, and vegetation productivity explanatory variables by means of multiple regression models in order to search for the environmental mechanisms underlying the observable phenological variability. Temperature and altitudinal spatial gradients accounted for most of the spatial variability in the phenology of the studied species, while vegetation productivity and land use had low relevance. In both species, the first individuals were recorded at those sites with warmer springs and dry summers, at low altitudes, and not covered with dry farming (i.e., cereal crops). The identity and magnitude of the effect of the variables were almost identical for both species and closely mirrored spatial temperature gradients. The best explanatory models accounted for up to half of the variability of appearance dates. Residuals did not show a spatial autocorrelation, meaning that no other spatially structured variable at our working resolution could have improved the results. Differences in the spatial patterns of phenology with regard to other taxa, such as arrival dates of migratory birds, suggest that spatial constraints may play an essential role in the phenological matching between trophic levels. PMID:20578955

  5. Latent Variable Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny

    2008-01-01

    This paper formulates a metatheoretical framework for latent variable modeling. It does so by spelling out the difference between observed and latent variables. This difference is argued to be purely epistemic in nature: We treat a variable as "observed" when the inference from data structure to variable structure can be made with certainty and as…

  6. Variable conductance heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.; Edwards, D. K.; Anderson, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and development programs in variable conductance heat pipe technology were conducted. The treatment has been comprehensive, involving theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, heat transfer into and out of the pipe, fluid selection, and materials compatibility, in addition to the principal subject of variable conductance control techniques. Efforts were not limited to analytical work and laboratory experimentation, but extended to the development, fabrication and test of spacecraft hardware, culminating in the successful flight of the Ames Heat Pipe Experiment on the OAO-C spacecraft.

  7. The Nature of Shared Cortical Variability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Chun; Okun, Michael; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neuronal responses of sensory cortex are highly variable, and this variability is correlated across neurons. To assess how variability reflects factors shared across a neuronal population, we analyzed the activity of many simultaneously recorded neurons in visual cortex. We developed a simple model that comprises two sources of shared variability: a multiplicative gain, which uniformly scales each neuron’s sensory drive, and an additive offset, which affects different neurons to different degrees. This model captured the variability of spike counts and reproduced the dependence of pairwise correlations on neuronal tuning and stimulus orientation. The relative contributions of the additive and multiplicative fluctuations could vary over time and had marked impact on population coding. These observations indicate that shared variability of neuronal populations in sensory cortex can be largely explained by two factors that modulate the whole population. PMID:26212710

  8. Current Climate Variability & Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  9. Social Cohesion as a Real-Life Phenomenon: Assessing the Explanatory Power of the Universalist and Particularist Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike most studies on social cohesion, this study explores the concept as a real-life macro-level phenomenon. It assesses to what extent the conceptions of social cohesion suggested by several macro-level approaches represent coherent empirically observable forms of social cohesion. Additionally it discusses two perspectives on social…

  10. Effect of inversion polymorphism on the neutral nucleotide variability of linked chromosomal regions in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, A; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    2000-01-01

    Recombination is a main factor determining nucleotide variability in different regions of the genome. Chromosomal inversions, which are ubiquitous in the genus Drosophila, are known to reduce and redistribute recombination, and thus their specific effect on nucleotide variation may be of major importance as an explanatory factor for levels of DNA variation. Here, we use the coalescent approach to study this effect. First, we develop analytical expressions to predict nucleotide variability in old inversion polymorphisms that have reached mutation-drift-flux equilibrium. The effects on nucleotide variability of a new arrangement appearing in the population and reaching a stable polymorphism are then studied by computer simulation. We show that inversions modulate nucleotide variability in a complex way. The establishment of an inversion polymorphism involves a partial selective sweep that eliminates part of the variability in the population. This is followed by a slow convergence to the equilibrium values. During this convergence, regions close to the breakpoints exhibit much lower variability than central regions. However, at equilibrium, regions close to the breakpoints have higher levels of variability and differentiation between arrangements than regions in the middle of the inverted segment. The implications of these findings for overall variability levels during the evolution of Drosophila species are discussed. PMID:10835391

  11. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to describe synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean and the systems leading to this variability; implement satellite analysis procedures in support of this effort, and to incorporate additional satellite information into operational analysis forecast systems at the National Meteorological Center (NMC). Composite satellite radiance patterns describe features detectable well before the development of synoptic scale tropical plumes. These typical features were extracted from historical files of Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiance observations for a pair of tropical plumes which developed during January 1989. Signals were inserted into the NMC operational medium range forecast model and a suite of model integrations were conducted. Many of the 48 h model errors of the historical forecasts were eliminated by the inclusion of more complete satellite observations. Three studies in satellite radiance analysis progressed. An analysis which blended TOVS moisture channels, OLR observations and European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model analysis to generate fields of total precipitable water comparable to those estimated from Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) mu-wave observations. This study demonstrated that a 10 y climatology of precipitable water over the oceans is feasible, using available infrared observations (OLR and TOVS) and model analysis (ECMWF, NMC or similar quality). The estimates are sensitive to model quality and the estimating model must be updated with operational model changes. Coe developed a set of tropical plume and ITCZ composites from TOVS observations, and from NMC and ECMWF analyses which had been passed through a radiative transfer model to simulate TOVS radiances. The composites have been completed as well as many statistical diagnostics of individual TOVS channels. Analysis of the computations is commencing. Chung has initiated a study of the

  12. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the

  13. Do physicochemical sediment variables and their soft sediment macrofauna differ among microsize coastal lagoons with forested and urbanised catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikac, K. M.; Maher, W. A.; Jones, A. R.

    2007-03-01

    Microsize intermittently open and closed coastal lagoons are a common feature of the coast of southern New South Wales, in southeast Australia. Many of these lagoons are undergoing development and urbanisation of their catchments, leading to concern about their ecological health. Consequently, it was hypothesised that lagoons with urbanised catchments should hav e finer, more contaminated sediments and fewer macrofaunal taxa (represented by opportunistic taxa) than lagoons that have undeveloped, forested catchments. To test these hypotheses, five lagoons with catchments dominated by either native forest or urban development were compared with respect to their sediment composition (i.e. sediment grain size, trace metal concentrations, organic carbon and nutrients) and soft sediment macrofaunal assemblages in the Batemans Bay region of southeast Australia. Using a nested design without temporal replication, replicate core samples were taken from sampling stations nested within lagoons that were nested within catchment type. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for significant differences and dissimilarities between catchment types and among lagoons. Of all the abiotic and biotic variables measured, only total nitrogen showed a difference between the two catchment types. Thus providing support to refute the explanatory model that urbanisation had negatively affected the sedimentary environment and macrofaunal composition of these microsize coastal lagoons. In contrast, differences among lagoons were usually significant with differences between the two forested lagoons, North Head and Acheron lagoon, being particularly large for assemblage composition and the abundance of some taxa; this variation may, potentially, obscure any effects of urbanisation. In addition, the information collected in this study provides a basic understanding of the physicochemical and biological aspects of microsize coastal lagoons in southeast Australia. Such

  14. Stratospheric ozone interannual variability (1995-2011) as observed by lidar and satellite at Mauna Loa Observatory, HI and Table Mountain Facility, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirgis, G.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Walsh, T. D.

    2013-05-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidars, at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (MLO, 19.5° N, 155.6° W) and the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF, California, 34.5° N, 117.7° W), have been measuring vertical profiles of stratospheric ozone routinely since the early 1990's and late-1980s respectively. Interannual variability of ozone above these two sites was investigated using a multi-linear regression analysis on the deseasonalised monthly mean lidar and satellite time-series at 1 km intervals between 20 and 45 km from January 1995 to April 2011, a period of low volcanic aerosol loading. Explanatory variables representing the 11 yr solar cycle, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, the Eliassen-Palm flux, and horizontal and vertical transport were used. A new proxy, the mid-latitude Ozone Depleting Gas Index, which shows a decrease with time as an outcome of the Montreal Protocol, was introduced and compared to the more commonly used linear trend method. The analysis also compares the lidar time-series and a merged time-series obtained from the space-borne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and Aura-Microwave Limb Sounder instruments. The results from both lidar and satellite measurements are consistent with recent model simulations which propose changes in tropical upwelling. Additionally, at TMF the Ozone Depleting Gas Index explains as much variance as the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in the upper stratosphere. Over the past 17 yr a diminishing downward trend in ozone was observed before 2000 and a net increase, and sign of ozone recovery, is observed after 2005. Our results which include dynamical proxies suggest possible coupling between horizontal transport and the 11 yr solar cycle response, although a dataset spanning a period longer than one solar cycle is needed to confirm this result.

  15. Associations between mortality and meteorological and pollutant variables during the cool season in two Asian cities with sub-tropical climates: Hong Kong and Taipei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have found associations between extreme temperatures and human mortality but relatively few studies have been done in sub-tropical and tropical cities, especially in Asia. In this study we examine the impact of cold temperatures, cold waves and other meteorological and environmental variables on cool season mortality in 2 subtropical Asian cities. Methods Separate analysis of daily mortality time-series from Hong Kong and Taipei using Generalized Additive Models with natural mortality as the outcome daily mean temperature as the main explanatory variable and relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), respirable suspended particulates (PM10), ozone (O3), seasonality and day of the week controlled as potential confounders. Lags up to 35 days were considered for temperature, and distributed lag models were used to determine the number of lags for final models. Subgroup analyses were also done by gender, age group, cause of death and geographical area of residence. Results Cold temperatures were strongly associated with higher mortality with lagged effects persisting up to 3 weeks in Hong Kong and 2 weeks in Taipei. Cold effects were much stronger for deaths among older people and non-cancer deaths. Prolonged cold spells modestly but significantly raised mortality after accounting for the effects of individual cold days. Higher daily ozone levels were also strongly associated with higher short-term mortality in Taipei and Hong Kong, while relative humidity and solar radiation were weakly and inconsistently associated with mortality. Conclusions Cold temperatures and cold spells substantially increase short-term mortality in sub-tropical Asian cities particularly among the elderly. Greater attention needs to be paid to the adverse health effects of cold temperatures. Interventions including provisions of shelters, cold weather warnings and education about the possible health

  16. Variability as an Operant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments on operant variability by Neuringer and colleagues (e.g., Neuringer, 1986, 2002; Page & Neuringer, 1985) have been repeatedly cited as showing that behavioral variability can be reinforced by making reinforcement contingent on it. They showed that the degree of variability in pigeons' eight-peck sequences, as measured by U…

  17. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigation of additive drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibulkin, Merwin

    1954-01-01

    The significance of additive drag is discussed and equations for determining its approximate value are derived for annular and open-nose inlets. Charts are presented giving values of additive drag coefficient over a range of free-stream Mach numbers for open and for annular-nose inlets with conical flow at the inlet. The effects on additive drag of variable inlet-total-pressure recovery and static pressures on the centerbody are investigated and an analytical method of predicting the variation of pressure on the centerbody with mass-flow ratio is given. Experimental additive-drag values are presented for a series of 20 degree and 25 degree cone half-angle inlets and one open-nose inlet operating at free-stream Mach numbers of 1.8 and 1.6. A comparison with the theoretical values of additive drag shows excellent agreement for the open-nose inlet and moderately good agreement for the annular inlets. (author)

  19. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  20. Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions

    PubMed Central

    Eilbeck, J. Chris; England, Matthew; Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus. PMID:25383018

  1. Titan's Variable Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini observations have found that the plasma and magnetic field conditions upstream of Titan are far more complex than they were thought to be after the Voyager encounter. Rymer et al., (2009) used the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) electron observations to classify the plasma conditions along Titan's orbit into 5 types (Plasma Sheet, Lobe, Mixed, Magnetosheath and Misc.). Nemeth et al., (2011) found that the CAPS ion observations could also be separated into the same plasma regions as defined by Rymer et al. Additionally the T-96 encounter found Titan in the solar wind adding a sixth classification. Understanding the effects of the variable upstream plasma conditions on Titan's plasma interaction and the evolution of Titan's ionosphere/atmosphere is one of the main objectives of the Cassini mission. To compliment the mission we perform hybrid simulations of Titan's plasma interaction to examine the effects of the incident plasma distribution function and the flow velocity. We closely examine the results on Titan's induced magnetosphere and the resulting pickup ion properties.

  2. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed. PMID:26868026

  3. Nova-like variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    On grounds of different observable characteristics five classes of nova-like objects are distinguished: the UX Ursae Majoris stars, the antidwarf novae, the DQ Herculis stars, the AM Herculis stars, and the AM Canum Venaticorum stars. Some objects have not been classified specifically. Nova-like stars share most observable features with dwarf novae, except for the outburst behavior. The understanding is that dwarf novae, UX Ursae Majoris stars, and anti-dwarf novae are basically the same sort of objects. The difference between them is that in UX Ursae Majoris stars the mass transfer through the accretion disc always is high so the disc is stationary all the time; in anti-dwarf novae for some reason the mass transfer occasionally drops considerably for some time, and in dwarf novae it is low enough for the disc to undergo semiperiodic changes between high and low accretion events. DQ Herculis stars are believed to possess weakly magnetic white dwarfs which disrupt the inner disc at some distance from the central star; the rotation of the white dwarf can be seen as an additional photometric period. In AM Herculis stars, a strongly magnetic white dwarf entirely prevents the formation of an accretion disk and at the same time locks the rotation of the white dwarf to the binary orbit. Finally, AM Canum Venaticorum stars are believed to be cataclysmic variables that consist of two white dwarf components.

  4. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean): an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Babin, M.; Stemmann, L.; Picheral, M.; Sampei, M.; Fortier, L.; Gratton, Y.; Bélanger, S.; Devred, E.; Sahlin, J.; Doxaran, D.; Joux, F.; Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Jeffrey, W. H.; Martín, J.; Gasser, B.; Miquel, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here, we combine mooring times-series, ship-based measurements and remote-sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their biophysical determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size-distributions (17 classes from 0.08-4.2 mm) measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. Redundancy analyses and forward selection of abiotic/biotic parameters, linear trends, and spatial structures (i.e. principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM), were conducted to partition the variation of POC flux size-classes. Flux variability was explained at 69.5 % by the addition of a linear temporal trend, 7 significant PCNM and 9 biophysical variables. The interaction of all these factors explained 27.8 % of the variability. The first PCNM canonical axis (44.4 % of spatial variance) reflected a shelf-basin gradient controlled by bottom depth and ice concentration (p < 0.01), but a complex assemblage of fine-to-broad scale patterns was also identified. Among biophysical parameters, bacterial production and northeasterly wind (upwelling-favorable) were the two strongest explanatory variables (r2 cum. = 0.37), suggesting that bacteria were associated with sinking material, which was itself partly linked to upwelling-induced productivity. The second most important spatial structure corresponded actually to the two areas where shelf break upwelling is known to occur under easterlies. Copepod biomass was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans played a significant role in the regulation of export fluxes. The low fractal dimension of settling particles (1

  5. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  6. Critical Reflections on Evolutionary Psychology and Sexual Selection Theory as Explanatory Account of Emergence of Sex Differences in Psychopathology: Comment on Martel (2013)

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a meta-theory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. This Comment first enumerates several strengths and then offers two primary critiques about Martel’s proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures that hold promise to enhance understanding of such sex differences. At the same time, I raise critical questions regarding EP generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, as the meta-theoretical framework chosen to bind together these different influences and mechanisms as drivers of the sex difference in different psychopathologies. Indeed, it is not clear that EP is necessary—nor does it provide unique explanatory power—to explicate the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing disorders among youth. Moreover, Martel’s EP-based proposal pertains to adolescent-onset depression and social phobia but does not provide an explanation for known sex differences in other common childhood-onset and early adult-onset anxiety disorders. PMID:24188421

  7. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: an application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Kristi L.; Kulesz, Paulina A.; Khalaf, Shiva; Francis, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students’ ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a 3-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read. PMID:25717311

  8. The role of mass media in adolescents' sexual behaviors: exploring the explanatory value of the three-step self-objectification process.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study (N = 730) explored whether the three-step process of self-objectification (internalization of appearance ideals, valuing appearance over competence, and body surveillance) could explain the influence of sexual media messages on adolescents' sexual behaviors. A structural equation model showed that reading sexualizing magazines (Time 1) was related to the internalization of appearance ideals and valuing appearance over competence (Time 2). In turn, the internalization of appearance ideals was positively associated with body surveillance and valuing appearance over competence (all at Time 2). Valuing appearance over competence was also positively associated with body surveillance (all at Time 2). Lastly, body surveillance (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of French kissing (Time 3) whereas valuing appearance over competence (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of sexual intercourse (Time 3). No significant relationship was observed for intimate touching. The discussion focused on the explanatory role of self-objectification in media effects on adolescents' sexual behaviors. PMID:24789048

  9. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: an application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2.

    PubMed

    Santi, Kristi L; Kulesz, Paulina A; Khalaf, Shiva; Francis, David J

    2015-01-01

    Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students' ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a 3-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read. PMID:25717311

  10. Atrazine and metolachlor occurrence in shallow ground water of the United States, 1993 to 1995: Relations to explanatory factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Barbash, J.E.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the quality of the Nation's water resources. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of why pesticides are found in shallow ground water on a national scale, a set of factors likely to affect the fate and transport of two herbicides in the subsurface were examined. Atrazine and metolachlor were selected for this discussion because they were among the most frequently detected pesticides in ground water during the first phase of the NAWQA Program (1993 to 1995), and each was the most frequently detected compound in its chemical class (triazines and acetanilides, respectively). The factors that most strongly correlated with the frequencies of atrazine detection in shallow ground-water networks were those that provided either: (1) an indication of the potential susceptibility of ground water to atrazine contamination, or (2) an indication of relative ground-water age. The factors most closely related to the frequencies of metolachlor detection in ground water, however, were those that estimated or indicated the intensity of the agricultural use of metolachlor. This difference is probably the result of detailed use estimates for these compounds being available only for agricultural settings. While atrazine use is relatively extensive in nonagricultural settings, in addition to its widespread agricultural use, metolachlor is used almost exclusively for agricultural purposes. As a result, estimates of agricultural applications provide a less reliable indication of total chemical use for atrazine than for metolachlor. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors of interest explained about 50 percent of the variance in atrazine and metolachlor detection frequencies among the NAWQA land-use studies examined. The inclusion of other factors related to pesticide fate and transport in ground water, or improvements in the quality and

  11. The North Texas aerospace manufacturing and aviation industries: An explanatory case study of school-to-work collaborative networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Cynthia Ann

    The purpose of this study is to explore how educators, business partners and facilitators developed ties or networks to initiate a school-to-work collaboration to prepare students for jobs and careers in the aerospace manufacturing and aviation industries. There is growing concern about preparing a future workforce supply in these industries in North Texas. Workforce projections call for 8000 additional jobs between 2010 and 2020 (North Central Texas Council of Governments, 2013). Collaboration is recognized as a valuable asset to connect disjointed segments within the K-16 trajectory. This study explores the contradiction between the stated need for collaborative strategies and the inability of stakeholders attempting to collaborate across organizational and institutional boundaries to sustain these connections. Through the lens of networking theory, the roles of facilitators and the operation of networks and ties between and among partners are investigated. Ten participants in a high school curriculum development project were interviewed, representing a business, community college, and K-12 education. Data analysis revealed findings associated with three major themes: facilitation, project activity and relationships. Nine individuals were identified as facilitators, and facilitators were perceived as helping the project move forward. Project activity benefited from the structured curriculum development process. Although relationships characterized by strong ties helped start the project, weak ties predominated among project participants. Implications for theory include the need for more knowledge about facilitator roles and group dynamics. Further research about the functioning of weak and strong ties and facilitator skill sets relating to collaborative leadership would be valuable. Implications for practice include capturing lessons learned to apply to other industries, and overtly acknowledging the existence and importance of facilitators.

  12. The changing roles of temperature and precipitation on snowpack variability in Switzerland as a function of altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MoráN-Tejeda, Enrique; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Beniston, Martin

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we assess the role of altitude in determining the relative performance of temperature and precipitation as predictors of snowpack variability in Switzerland. The results indicate a linear relationship between altitude and the correlation of temperature (precipitation) with snowpack depth and duration. We identify a threshold altitude of approximately 1400 m a.s.l. (± 200 m, depending on the snow index considered), below which temperature is the main explanatory variable and above which precipitation is a better predictor of snowpack variability. The results also highlight that as climate warms, the altitude at which temperature is the main constraint on snow accumulation increases. This has important implications for the future viability of snow-dependent economic sectors in Switzerland, where projections indicate a continuous warming during the course of the 21st century.

  13. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  14. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  15. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  16. Midsession shifts in reward probability and the control of behavioral variability.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, W David; Leising, Kenneth J

    2016-09-01

    Extensive research has shown that the variability of organismal behavior is great when contingent reinforcement is delayed, small, or improbable. This research has generally employed stable response-reinforcer relationships, and therefore is limited in its explanatory scope with respect to a dynamic environment. We conducted two experiments to investigate whether pigeons' conditioned pecking behavior shows anticipatory or perseverative patterns of behavioral variability when the reinforcement probability reliably changes within experimental sessions. In Experiment 1, three pigeons received alternating sessions in which the reinforcement probability (35% or 4.2%) was shifted at the midpoint of each session in the presence of the same discrete cue. Experiment 2 featured a similar design, but with the inclusion of a discrete visual cue that changed at the session midpoint, and thus unambiguously indicated reinforcement probability. Local reinforcement rates only reliably controlled response variability when a discrete visual cue was available. Without this, pigeons did not discriminate between trial types in the first halves of sessions, and showed evidence of perseveration of response variability following a within-session shift. Critically, this is the first experimental demonstration that the relationship between reinforcement probability and behavioral variability is moderated by another factor (i.e., trial position within a session). This study thus expands our understanding of the control of behavioral variability as a function of experiential factors. PMID:26895979

  17. Problem of hidden variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Emilio

    1992-10-01

    The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics is formalized as follows. A general or contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables theory is defined as a mapping f: Q×M → C (f: Q→C) where Q is the set of projection operators in the appropriate (quantum) Hilbert space, M is the set of maximal Boolean subalgebras of Q and C is a (classical) Boolean algebra. It is shown that contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables always exist (do not exist).

  18. The ROSAT variable sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; White, N. E.

    1996-01-01

    The spectral and timing characteristics from a sample, of 91 objects, of the variable sources obtained using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test technique are presented. The data were extracted from the catalog constructed by White, Giommi and Angelini, the WGACAT, based on the pointed observations from the Rosat missions. The application of the test revealed more than 2400 individual variable candidates, with 'sq chi' greater than 12. The sample of these variable sources, mostly unidentified, probably contains many flare stars, a few cataclysmic variables and a possible transient source.

  19. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  20. Use of the Soil Management Assessment Framework in Spatially Variable Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management is typically applied to tracts of land exhibiting spatial variability. Intensive soil sampling to quantify this variability is labor intensive and expensive. Additional approaches are needed to assess soil management within spatially variable fields. Apparent electrical conductivity ...

  1. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  2. A novel variable selection approach that iteratively optimizes variable space using weighted binary matrix sampling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bai-chuan; Yun, Yong-huan; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yi, Lun-zhao

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a new optimization algorithm called the Variable Iterative Space Shrinkage Approach (VISSA) that is based on the idea of model population analysis (MPA) is proposed for variable selection. Unlike most of the existing optimization methods for variable selection, VISSA statistically evaluates the performance of variable space in each step of optimization. Weighted binary matrix sampling (WBMS) is proposed to generate sub-models that span the variable subspace. Two rules are highlighted during the optimization procedure. First, the variable space shrinks in each step. Second, the new variable space outperforms the previous one. The second rule, which is rarely satisfied in most of the existing methods, is the core of the VISSA strategy. Compared with some promising variable selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), VISSA showed better prediction ability for the calibration of NIR data. In addition, VISSA is user-friendly; only a few insensitive parameters are needed, and the program terminates automatically without any additional conditions. The Matlab codes for implementing VISSA are freely available on the website: https://sourceforge.net/projects/multivariateanalysis/files/VISSA/. PMID:25083512

  3. The WFCAM multiwavelength Variable Star Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Dékány, I.; Catelan, M.; Cross, N. J. G.; Angeloni, R.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stellar variability in the near-infrared (NIR) remains largely unexplored. The exploitation of public science archives with data-mining methods offers a perspective for a time-domain exploration of the NIR sky. Aims: We perform a comprehensive search for stellar variability using the optical-NIR multiband photometric data in the public Calibration Database of the WFCAM Science Archive (WSA), with the aim of contributing to the general census of variable stars and of extending the current scarce inventory of accurate NIR light curves for a number of variable star classes. Methods: Standard data-mining methods were applied to extract and fine-tune time-series data from the WSA. We introduced new variability indices designed for multiband data with correlated sampling, and applied them for preselecting variable star candidates, i.e., light curves that are dominated by correlated variations, from noise-dominated ones. Preselection criteria were established by robust numerical tests for evaluating the response of variability indices to the colored noise characteristic of the data. We performed a period search using the string-length minimization method on an initial catalog of 6551 variable star candidates preselected by variability indices. Further frequency analysis was performed on positive candidates using three additional methods in combination, in order to cope with aliasing. Results: We find 275 periodic variable stars and an additional 44 objects with suspected variability with uncertain periods or apparently aperiodic variation. Only 44 of these objects had been previously known, including 11 RR Lyrae stars on the outskirts of the globular cluster M 3 (NGC 5272). We provide a preliminary classification of the new variable stars that have well-measured light curves, but the variability types of a large number of objects remain ambiguous. We classify most of the new variables as contact binary stars, but we also find several pulsating stars, among which

  4. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  5. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  6. Variable Density Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Variable Density Tunnel in operation. Man at far right is probably Harold J. 'Cannonball' Tuner, longtime safety officer, who started with Curtiss in the teens. This view of the Variable Density Tunnel clearly shows the layout of the Tunnel's surroundings, as well as the plumbing and power needs of the this innovative research tool.

  7. Microinertia and internal variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovski, Arkadi; Ván, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The description of microinertia in micromorphic continua is discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In the framework of dual internal variables, the microinertia stems from a thermodynamic equation of state related to the internal variable, which has the properties similar to mechanical momentum.

  8. Variable Synthetic Capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.

  9. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  10. Latent Variable Interaction Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacker, Randall E.

    2002-01-01

    Used simulation to study two different approaches to latent variable interaction modeling with continuous observed variables: (1) a LISREL 8.30 program and (2) data analysis through PRELIS2 and SIMPLIS programs. Results show that parameter estimation was similar but standard errors were different. Discusses differences in ease of implementation.…

  11. Variable speed drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A variable speed drive wherein a first embodiment is comprised of a pivotally mounted prime mover coupled to a rotary fluid output device, such as a fan or pump, through a variable and fixed pulley drive arrangement is described. The pivotal position of the prime mover and accordingly the pitch diameter of variable pulley means is controlled in accordance with fluid motor means coupled to the prime mover. This is actuated in response to a fluid feedback control signal derived from a sensed output of the rotary fluid output device. The pivotal motion of the prime mover imparts an arcuate motion to the variable pulley means which effects a speed variation of the rotary fluid output device in accordance with the variation of the pitch diameter ratio of opposing variable and fixed pulley means.

  12. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  13. Bayesian variable selection for binary outcomes in high-dimensional genomic studies using non-local priors

    PubMed Central

    Nikooienejad, Amir; Wang, Wenyi; Johnson, Valen E.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The advent of new genomic technologies has resulted in the production of massive data sets. Analyses of these data require new statistical and computational methods. In this article, we propose one such method that is useful in selecting explanatory variables for prediction of a binary response. Although this problem has recently been addressed using penalized likelihood methods, we adopt a Bayesian approach that utilizes a mixture of non-local prior densities and point masses on the binary regression coefficient vectors. Results: The resulting method, which we call iMOMLogit, provides improved performance in identifying true models and reducing estimation and prediction error in a number of simulation studies. More importantly, its application to several genomic datasets produces predictions that have high accuracy using far fewer explanatory variables than competing methods. We also describe a novel approach for setting prior hyperparameters by examining the total variation distance between the prior distributions on the regression parameters and the distribution of the maximum likelihood estimator under the null distribution. Finally, we describe a computational algorithm that can be used to implement iMOMLogit in ultrahigh-dimensional settings (p>>n) and provide diagnostics to assess the probability that this algorithm has identified the highest posterior probability model. Availability and implementation: Software to implement this method can be downloaded at: http://www.stat.tamu.edu/∼amir/code.html. Contact: wwang7@mdanderson.org or vjohnson@stat.tamu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26740524

  14. The Influences of Canopy Species and Topographic Variables on Understory Species Diversity and Composition in Coniferous Forests

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Hong; Feng, Qi; Su, Yong-hong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the distribution of understory vegetation is important for biological conservation and forest management. We compared understory species composition by multi-response permutation procedure and indicator species analysis between plots dominated by Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) and Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) in coniferous forests of the Qilian Mountains, northwestern China. Understory species composition differed markedly between the forest types. Many heliophilous species were significantly associated with juniper forest, while only one species was indicative of spruce forest. Using constrained ordination and the variation partitioning model, we quantitatively assessed the relative effects of two sets of explanatory variables on understory species composition. The results showed that topographic variables had higher explanatory power than did site conditions for understory plant distributions. However, a large amount of the variation in understory species composition remained unexplained. Forward selection revealed that understory species distributions were primarily affected by elevation and aspect. Juniper forest had higher species richness and α-diversity and lower β-diversity in the herb layer of the understory plant community than spruce forest, suggesting that the former may be more important in maintaining understory biodiversity and community stability in alpine coniferous forest ecosystems. PMID:25097871

  15. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  16. Explanatory Meetings on Thyroid Examination for the "Fukushima Health Management Survey" after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Reduction of Anxiety and Improvement of Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yuko; Murakami, Michio; Midorikawa, Sanae; Ohtsuru, Akira; Suzuki, Shinichi; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Ohira, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in 2011 and thyroid examinations of children in Fukushima, the Radiation Medical Science Center began "Explanatory meetings on thyroid examination" as a method of communication with residents such as the subjects themselves and their guardians. Through questionnaires, we examined the relationship between anxiety (regarding the effects of radiation on the thyroid) before the meetings and individual attributes including attitudes on radiation, and then verified the effects of the meetings using measures of anxiety, comprehension, and satisfaction, as the outcomes. Of the meetings in 2014-2015, 799 people attended 30 sessions in Kenchu, Kenpoku, Iwaki, Soso, and outside of Fukushima Prefecture, and 594 people responded the questionnaires before and after the meetings on the same day. Level of anxiety before the meetings varied depending on individual attributes (including attitudes regarding collection information on radiation, advisors on radiation, and levels of subjective understanding), highlighting the importance of presenting information about radiation in a manner that is easy to understand, as well as providing opportunities for the exchange of opinions. Participation in meetings reduced anxiety. This was largely attributed to explanations about general characteristics of cancer and objective facts, including doses; status of the Chernobyl accident; and comparison in results of thyroid examinations with other prefectures in Japan. An opportunity for a question-and-answer session also contributed to increased overall satisfaction. The lower number of meeting participants was associated with anxiety reduction and higher subjective comprehension. The present findings obtained will be useful to facilitate evidence-based risk communication. PMID:27535010

  17. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  19. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  1. Ionospheric variability over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Mosert, M.; Corbella, R.; Erazu, M.; de La Zerda, L.

    The understanding of ionospheric variability is important for the user of ionospheric models. A satellite designer or operator needs to know not only monthly average conditions but also the expected deviations from these mean values. In order to contribute to the studies on ionospheric variability, in this paper values of critical frequencies of F2, F1 and E regions and M(3000)F2 factor measured at 4 Japanese stations are used. Data correspond to equinoxes, solstices, high and low solar activity. Quartiles and median values are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results are similar for the considered stations and show that the highest variability correspond to foF2. For March high solar activity the variability of fof2 decreases during hours of maximum ionisation. The M3000F2 factor, in general, shown low variability. Akita (39.72° N, 140.13° E) showed the highest variability for the three frequencies. Moreover, it can be seen that quartiles are not equidistant from the median value.

  2. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  3. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  4. Complex, dynamic combination of physical, chemical and nutritional variables controls spatio-temporal variation of sandy beach community structure.

    PubMed

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  5. Complex, Dynamic Combination of Physical, Chemical and Nutritional Variables Controls Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sandy Beach Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J.; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  6. Body size variability of Varroa destructor and its role in acaricide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Peralta, Luciano; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Fuselli, S; Eguaras, Martín

    2012-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been defined as the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes when exposed to distinct environments throughout its ontogeny. Morphological variability of individuals is an example of this plasticity. Taking into account that several studies have reported a wide morphological variability in Varroa destructor populations, we evaluated if the body size plasticity of the parasite constituted a key factor able to modulate mites survival when they were exposed to a drug bioassays. Drug bioassays against mites were conducted using three different Syzygium aromaticum essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5 μl/capsule) and controls. After 4 h of exposition, mite mortality was registered. The width (WS) and length (LS) of the dorsal shield were measured in dead mites. General lineal models were carried to determine if V. destructor survival to acaricides was related to the explanatory variables. Data modelling confirmed that WS and LS variables, together with time interaction, were significantly related to V. destructor survival when the parasites were exposed to acaricides. The models proposed demonstrated that for the smaller S. aromaticum essential oil concentration, the larger the parasite body, the greater the probability that it remains alive at the end of the bioassay. Such relationship was inverse for the other two concentrations tested. Possible causes explaining the body size variability in V. destructor individuals were discussed. PMID:22190127

  7. Weather Variability, Tides, and Barmah Forest Virus Disease in the Gladstone Region, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S.; McMichael, Anthony J.; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (β = 0.15, p-value < 0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (β = −1.03, p-value = 0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention. PMID:16675420

  8. Bouts of Responding: The Relation between Bout Rate and the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Grimes, Julie A.; Bennett, J. Adam

    2004-01-01

    By nose poking a lighted key, rats obtained food pellets on either a variable- interval schedule of reinforcement or a schedule that required an average of four additional responses after the end of the variable-interval component (a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio 4 schedule). With both schedule types, the mean variable interval was…

  9. Variability study for saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Hansen, E. K.; Williams, V. J.

    2005-10-01

    This report is a summary of the bench-scale experimental studies performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to establish the viability of a grout-based variability study. In order for a variability study to be useful, the property measurements of the fresh and cured Saltstone must be reproducible with an inherent variation that is small compared to the changes in the properties measured over the expected range of variability for a Salt Batch. This scoping task addressed the issue of reproducibility for Saltstone.

  10. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  11. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H2O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold, heat, light, lightning, magnetism, salt, star, thunder, and water. This examination yields surprising conclusions about the nature of justification, explanation, and conceptual change.

  12. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H[subscript 2]O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold,…

  13. Improving Explanatory Inferences from Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakow, Ronli Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation comprises three papers that propose, discuss, and illustrate models to make improved inferences about research questions regarding student achievement in education. Addressing the types of questions common in educational research today requires three different "extensions" to traditional educational assessment: (1)…

  14. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  15. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  16. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  17. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  18. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  19. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  20. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  1. Reanalyses and Essential Climate Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Reanalyses are a potentially powerful climate data collection driven by observations but also subjected to model bias. Additionally, reanalyses can produce and use essential climate variables in a consistent method. For example, snow cover and soil moisture (among other variables) will eventually be assimilated into the reanalyses, but also provide crucial validation data. Sea surface temperature can be prescribed or assimilated in a coupled reanalysis. The strength of reanalysis lies in the ancillary data that is produced from the modeling components but not routinely observed thereby providing more complete Earth system information. The weakness in this concept is that the model derived data can be affected by model bias and may also change relative to the available observing system. Here, we will review the status of existing reanalyses and the ECVs being considered for the workshop. Purpose of Michael Bosilovich's contribution to the workshop: Michael Bosilovich will represent US reanalysis community in this international discussion of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) and the relative nature of reanalyses to ECVs.

  2. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  4. Finding New Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) Initial findings are presented for several new variable stars that have been identified using CCD photometry done with the 0.9-meter telescope located at the BYU West Mountain Observatory.

  5. INTEGRAL and Cataclysmic Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Blazek, M.; Galis, R.; Kocka, M.

    2010-07-15

    The results of investigations of cataclysmic variables (CVs) with the ESA INTEGRAL satellite are briefly presented and discussed. It is evident that the satellite serves as an efficient tool to study some of these objects.

  6. Discovery of variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurochkin, N. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Instrumented methods of discovering variable stars are reviewed, specifically the blink comparator, color contrast method, positive-negative method, and television method. Among the empirical methods discussed, the Van Gent method is the most important.

  7. Variable star data online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, Roger; Wilson, Andy; Poyner, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Roger Pickard, Andy Wilson and Gary Poyner describe the online database of the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section, a treasure trove of observations stretching back nearly 125 years.

  8. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  9. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  10. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    DOEpatents

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  11. Variable contour securing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebus, P. P.; Packer, P. N.; Haynie, C. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A variable contour securing system has a retaining structure for a member whose surface contains a variable contour. The retaining mechanism includes a spaced array of adjustable spindles mounted on a housing. Each spindle has a base member support cup at one end. A vacuum source is applied to the cups for seating the member adjacent to the cups. A locking mechanism sets the spindles in a predetermined position once the member has been secured to the spindle support cups.

  12. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest on a decadal time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, B.; Corre, M. D.; Veldkamp, E.; Sueta, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux to long-term experimental N addition (125 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in mature lowland and montane forests in Panama. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1) explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2) determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger in the lowland (15.44 ± 1.02 Mg C ha-1) than in the montane forest (9.37 ± 0.28 Mg C ha-1). In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9-11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance on a decadal time scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2nd and 3rd year N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots in which stem diameter growth was promoted.

  13. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest in decadal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, B.; Corre, M. D.; Veldkamp, E.; Sueta, J. P.

    2009-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide CO2 efflux to long-term experimental N-addition (125 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in mature lowland and montane forests in Panamá. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1) explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2) determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger from the lowland (15.20±1.25 Mg C ha-1) than the montane forest (9.36±0.29 Mg C ha-1). In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9-11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance in decadal scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2- and 3 yr N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots where stem diameter growth was promoted.

  14. The EPICS process variable gateway -- Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    The EPICS Process Variable Gateway is both a Channel Access Server and Channel Access Client that provides a means for many clients, typically on different subnets, to access a process variable while making only one connection to the server that owns the process variable. It also provides additional access security beyond that implemented on the server. It thus protects critical servers while providing suitably restricted access to needed process variables. The original version of the Gateway worked with EPICS Base 3.13 but required a special version, since the changes necessary for its operation were never incorporated into EPICS Base. Version 2 works with any standard EPICS Base 3.14.6 or later and has many improvements in both performance and features over the older version. The Gateway is now used at many institutions and has become a stable, high-performance application. It is capable of handling tens of thousands of process variables with hundreds of thousands of events per second. It has run for over three months in a production environment without having to be restarted. It has many internal process variables that can be used to monitor its state using standard EPICS client tools, such as MEDM and StripTool. Other internal process variables can be used to stop the Gateway, make several kinds of reports, or change the access security without stopping the Gateway. It can even be started on remote workstations from MEDM by using a Secure Shell script. This paper will describe the new Gateway and how it is used. The Gateway is both a server (like an EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC)) and a client (like the EPICS Motif Editor and Display Manager (MEDM), StripTool, and others). Clients connect to the server side, and the client side connects to IOCs and other servers, possibly other Gateways. See Fig. 1. There are perhaps three principal reasons for using the Gateway: (1) it allows many clients to access a process variable while making only one connection to

  15. Phytoplankton community structure defined by key environmental variables in Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Brogueira, Maria José; Oliveira, Maria do Rosário; Cabeçadas, Graça

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we analyze environmental (physical and chemical) and biological (phytoplankton) data obtained along Tagus estuary during three surveys, carried out in productive period (May/June/July) at ebb tide. The main objective of this study was to identify the key environmental factors affecting phytoplankton structure in the estuary. BIOENV analysis revealed that, in study period, temperature, salinity, silicate and total phosphorus were the variables that best explained the phytoplankton spatial pattern in the estuary (Spearman correlation, rho=0.803). A generalized linear model (GLM) also identified salinity, silicate and phosphate as having a high explanatory power (63%) of phytoplankton abundance. These selected nutrients appear to be consistent with the requirements of the dominant phytoplankton group, Baccilariophyceae. Apparently, phytoplankton community is adapted to fluctuations in light intensity, as suspended particulate matter did not come out as a key factor in shaping phytoplankton structure along Tagus estuary. PMID:17884159

  16. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  17. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  18. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  19. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  20. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  1. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  2. Understanding the explanatory model of the patient on their medically unexplained symptoms and its implication on treatment development research: a Sri Lanka Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Hewege, Suwin; Sumathipala, Kethaki; Prince, Martin; Mann, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are often distressed, disabled and dissatisfied with the care they receive. Illness beliefs held by patients have a major influence on the decision to consult, persistence of symptoms and the degree of disability. Illness perception models consist of frameworks to organise information from multiple sources into distinct but interrelated dimensions: identity (the illness label), cause, consequences, emotional representations perceived control and timeline. Our aim was to elicit the illness perceptions of patients with MUS in Sri Lankan primary care to modify and improve a CBT intervention. Method An intervention study was conducted in a hospital primary care clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka using CBT for MUS. As a part of the baseline assessment, qualitative data was collected using; the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI), from 68 patients (16–65 years) with MUS. We categorised the qualitative data in to key components of the illness perception model, to refine CBT intervention for a subsequent larger trial study. Results The cohort was chronically ill and 87% of the patients were ill for more than six months (range six months to 20 years) with 5 or more symptoms and 6 or more visits over preceding six months. A majority were unable to offer an explanation on identity (59%) or the cause (56%), but in the consequence domain 95% expressed significant illness worries; 37% believed their symptoms indicated moderately serious illness and 58% very serious illness. Reflecting emotional representation, 33% reported fear of death, 20% fear of paralysis, 13% fear of developing cancer and the rest unspecified incurable illness. Consequence and emotional domains were significant determinants of distress and consultations. Their repeated visits were to seek help to alleviate symptoms. Only a minority expected investigations (8.8 %) or diagnosis (8.8%). However, the doctors who had previously treated them allegedly

  3. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  4. Neuroanatomical variability of religiosity.

    PubMed

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Barbey, Aron K; Su, Michael; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that religiosity, a set of traits variably expressed in the population, is modulated by neuroanatomical variability. We tested this idea by determining whether aspects of religiosity were predicted by variability in regional cortical volume. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in 40 healthy adult participants who reported different degrees and patterns of religiosity on a survey. We identified four Principal Components of religiosity by Factor Analysis of the survey items and associated them with regional cortical volumes measured by voxel-based morphometry. Experiencing an intimate relationship with God and engaging in religious behavior was associated with increased volume of R middle temporal cortex, BA 21. Experiencing fear of God was associated with decreased volume of L precuneus and L orbitofrontal cortex BA 11. A cluster of traits related with pragmatism and doubting God's existence was associated with increased volume of the R precuneus. Variability in religiosity of upbringing was not associated with variability in cortical volume of any region. Therefore, key aspects of religiosity are associated with cortical volume differences. This conclusion complements our prior functional neuroimaging findings in elucidating the proximate causes of religion in the brain. PMID:19784372

  5. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  6. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  7. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  8. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  9. Variables Separation in Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Valery

    2004-12-01

    To solve the problem of exact integration of the field equations or equations of motion of matter in curved spacetimes one can use a class of Riemannian metrics for which the simplest equations of motion can be integrated by the complete separation of variables method. Here, we consider the particular case of the class of Stäckel metrics. These metrics admit integration of the Hamilton Jacobi equation for test particle by the complete separation of variables method. It appears that the other important equations of motion (Klein Gordon Fock, Dirac,Weyl) in curved spacetimes can be integrated by complete separation of variables method only for the metrics, belonging to the class of Stäckel spaces.

  10. Variable stator radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  11. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  12. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  13. Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.

    1986-10-01

    Ten male patients with parkinsonism secondary to Parkinson's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy had clinical neurological, speech, and acoustical speech evaluations. In addition, seven of the patients were evaluated by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Extensive variability of speech features, both clinical and acoustical, were found and seemed to be independent of the severity of any parkinsonian sign, CT, or FDG PET. In addition, little relationship existed between the variability across each measured speech feature. What appeared to be important for the appearance of abnormal acoustic measures was the degree of overall severity of the dysarthria. These observations suggest that a better understanding of hypokinetic dysarthria may result from more extensive examination of the variability between patients. Emphasizing a specific feature such as rapid speaking rate in characterizing hypokinetic dysarthria focuses on a single and inconstant finding in a complex speech pattern.

  14. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  15. Programmable variable stiffness 2D surface design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabia, Sarah; Hwang, Taeseon; Yim, Woosoon

    2014-03-01

    Variable stiffness features can contribute to many engineering applications ranging from robotic joints to shock and vibration mitigation. In addition, variable stiffness can be used in the tactile feedback to provide the sense of touch to the user. A key component in the proposed device is the Biased Magnetorheological Elastomer (B-MRE) where iron particles within the elastomer compound develop a dipole interaction energy. A novel feature of this device is to introduce a field induced shear modulus bias via a permanent magnet which provides an offset with a current input to the electromagnetic control coil to change the compliance or modulus of a base elastomer in both directions (softer or harder). The B-MRE units can lead to the design of a variable stiffness surface. In this preliminary work, both computational and experimental results of the B-MRE are presented along with a preliminary design of the programmable variable stiffness surface design.

  16. New additive retards coke formation in ethylene furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    Adding relatively small amounts of a new additive to the feed stream of a steam cracker can inhibit coke formation on the metal surfaces of processing equipment and increase furnace run time. The additive comprises a variable mixture of four to six inorganic salts in aqueous solution. The components of the additive mixture can be varied, as needed, for processing heavy feed materials such as heavy naphtha and gas oil. The process was first tested at a Korean petrochemical plant and is now operating successfully at a commercial facility in Russia. The results of the Korean trial are presented here.

  17. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  18. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  19. Endogenising demographic variables in demo-economic models: the Bachue experience.

    PubMed

    Wery, R; Rodgers, G

    1980-01-01

    The attempt is made in this discussion to describe and draw lessons from the treatment of behavioral demographic variables in the Bachue demo-economic models constructed for the Philippines, Kenya, Brazil and Yugoslavia. Focus is on certain theoretical, technical and practical problems encountered in inserting demographic variables in the system as a whole; how they have been measured in the various applications of the Bachue models, how they are behaviorally explained and linked to the other elements in the system, the data sources used, and some issues of econometric estimates and modelling. 8 issues are dealt with: population accounting and lag structure; fertility; mortality; migration; nuptiality; household formation; schooling; and labor force participation. In each case model structure, dependent and explanatory variables, and empirical strategy are discussed. Summary tables compare the approaches of the different models. The specifics of each country situation rule out the identification of the best solution. Some suggestions regarding more promising approaches are included with respect to choice of variables and the estimation of behavioral models. The endogenous nature of certain demographic elements of a demo-economic model are clear, but construction of the Bachue models has shown that there are no exact rules valid for all cases. There is considerable variety in the way characteristics of the population have been represented in the various applications. PMID:12262480

  20. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  1. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  2. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  3. Neuronal variability of MSTd neurons changes differentially with eye movement and visually related variables.

    PubMed

    Brostek, Lukas; Büttner, Ulrich; Mustari, Michael J; Glasauer, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Neurons in macaque cortical area MSTd are driven by visual motion and eye movement related signals. This multimodal characteristic makes MSTd an ideal system for studying the dependence of neuronal activity on different variables. Here, we analyzed the temporal structure of spiking patterns during visual motion stimulation using 2 distinct behavioral paradigms: fixation (FIX) and optokinetic response. For the FIX condition, inter- and intra-trial variability of spiking activity decreased with increasing stimulus strength, complying with a recent neurophysiological study reporting stimulus-related decline of neuronal variability. In contrast, for the optokinetic condition variability increased together with increasing eye velocity while retinal image velocity remained low. Analysis of stimulus signal variability revealed a correlation between the normalized variance of image velocity and neuronal variability, but no correlation with normalized eye velocity variance. We further show that the observed difference in neuronal variability allows classifying spike trains according to the paradigm used, even when mean firing rates (FRs) were similar. The stimulus-dependence of neuronal variability may result from the local network structure and/or the variability characteristics of the input signals, but may also reflect additional timing-based mechanisms independent of the neuron's mean FR and related to the modality driving the neuron. PMID:22772648

  4. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  5. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  6. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  7. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  8. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  9. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  10. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  11. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  12. Soil variability in engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Finite Element Method (RFEM). This method has been used to investigate the random behavior of soils in the context of a variety of classical geotechnical problems. Afterward, some following studies collected the worldwide variability values of many technical parameters of soils (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999a) and their spatial correlation functions (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999b). In Italy, Cherubini et al. (2007) calculated the spatial variability structure of sandy and clayey soils from the standard cone penetration test readings. The large extent of the worldwide measured spatial variability of soils and rocks heavily affects the reliability of geotechnical designing as well as other uncertainties introduced by testing devices and engineering models. So far, several methods have been provided to deal with the preceding sources of uncertainties in engineering designing models (e.g. First Order Reliability Method, Second Order Reliability Method, Response Surface Method, High Dimensional Model Representation, etc.). Nowadays, the efforts in this field have been focusing on (1) measuring spatial variability of different rocks and soils and (2) developing numerical models that take into account the spatial variability as additional physical variable. References Cherubini C., Vessia G. and Pula W. 2007. Statistical soil characterization of Italian sites for reliability analyses. Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop. on Characterization and Engineering Properties of Natural Soils, 3-4: 2681-2706. Griffiths D.V. and Fenton G.A. 1993. Seepage beneath water retaining structures founded on spatially random soil, Géotechnique, 43(6): 577-587. Mandelbrot B.B. 1983. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W H Freeman. Matheron G. 1962. Traité de Géostatistique appliquée. Tome 1, Editions Technip, Paris, 334 p. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999a. Characterization of geotechnical variability. Can Geotech J, 36(4): 612-624. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999b. Evaluation of geotechnical property

  13. Variable polarity arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  14. BISAC Variable Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology and Libraries, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents revision of Book Industry Systems Advisory Committee (BISAC) format designed specifically for electronic transmission of purchase orders for monograph or series titles combining fixed and variable length data fields which was approved in January 1983. Special characters, sample address descriptions, summary of fixed records, glossary, and…

  15. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  16. Variable gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.

  17. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  18. Variable camber rotor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L.; Cowan, J.; Mchugh, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Deployment of variable camber concepts on helicopter rotors was analytically assessed. It was determined that variable camber extended the operating range of helicopters provided that the correct compromise can be obtained between performance/loads gains and mechanical complexity. A number of variable camber concepts were reviewed on a two dimensional basis to determine the usefulness of leading edge, trailing edge and overall camber variation schemes. The most powerful method to vary camber was through the trailing edge flaps undergoing relatively small motions (-5 deg to +15 deg). The aerodynamic characteristics of the NASA/Ames A-1 airfoil with 35% and 50% plain trailing edge flaps were determined by means of current subcritical and transonic airfoil design methods and used by rotor performance and loads analysis codes. The most promising variable camber schedule reviewed was a configuration with a 35% plain flap deployment in an on/off mode near the tip of a blade. Preliminary results show approximately 11% reduction in power is possible at 192 knots and a rotor thrust coefficient of 0.09. The potential demonstrated indicates a significant potential for expanding the operating envelope of the helicopter. Further investigation into improving the power saving and defining the improvement in the operational envelope of the helicopter is recommended.

  19. Slotted variable camber flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Variable camber actuator assemblies broaden the range of speeds at which lift to drag performance is maximized for slotted flap wings. Lift is improved over a broader range of cruising speeds by varying wing camber with rotational flap movements that do not introduce wing slots and induced drag. Forward flaps are secured to forward flange links which extended from, and are a part of forward flap linkage assemblies. The forward flaps rotate about flap pivots with their rotational displacement controlled by variable camber actuator assemblies located between the forward flaps and the forward flange links. Rear flaps are held relative to the forward flaps by rear flap linkage assemblies which may act independently from the forward flap linkage assemblies and the variable camber actuator assemblies. Wing camber is varied by rotating the flaps with the variable camber actuator assemblies while the flaps are in a deployed or tucked position. Rotating the flaps in a tucked position does not introduce significant wing surface discontinuities, and reduces aircraft fuel consumption on most flight profiles.

  20. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...