Science.gov

Sample records for additional explanatory variables

  1. Predicting conditional means of explanatory variables for energy-demand forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Parti, M.; Parti, C.B.; Gould, D.M.; Parris, K.M.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of the research was to explore the feasibility of an economic and statistical approach to the problem of forecasting the conditional means of variables used to predict appliance-specific energy demand. The technique recognizes the necessity of using conditional means of explanatory variables, and it takes into account the changing distributions of these variables over time. Statistical relationships are used to derive the probability distribution of the explanatory variables, given ownership of an appliance such as a pool heater. The conditional means of the explanatory variables can then be calculated on the basis of this conditional probability distribution. The present research has found sizable differences in forecasts of appliance-specific energy demand generated from the conditional means approach and the non-specific approach.

  2. Self-Consciousness and Assertiveness as Explanatory Variables of L2 Oral Ability: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on current theories in personality, second-language (L2) oral ability, and psychometrics, this study investigates the extent to which self-consciousness and assertiveness are explanatory variables of L2 oral ability. Three hundred sixty first-year Japanese university students who were studying English as a foreign language participated in…

  3. A case study of alternative site response explanatory variables in Parkfield, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Morgan, E.C.; Kaklamanos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of densely-spaced strong-motion stations in Parkfield, California, and spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) profiles provides an ideal dataset for assessing the accuracy of different site response explanatory variables. We judge accuracy in terms of spatial coverage and correlation with observations. The performance of the alternative models is period-dependent, but generally we observe that: (1) where a profile is available, the square-root-of-impedance method outperforms VS30 (average S-wave velocity to 30 m depth), and (2) where a profile is unavailable, the topographic-slope method outperforms surficial geology. The fundamental site frequency is a valuable site response explanatory variable, though less valuable than VS30. However, given the expense and difficulty of obtaining reliable estimates of VS30 and the relative ease with which the fundamental site frequency can be computed, the fundamental site frequency may prove to be a valuable site response explanatory variable for many applications. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  4. Detection of outliers in the response and explanatory variables of the simple circular regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Ehab A.; Rana, Sohel; Hussin, Abdul Ghapor; Midi, Habshah

    2016-06-01

    The circular regression model may contain one or more data points which appear to be peculiar or inconsistent with the main part of the model. This may be occur due to recording errors, sudden short events, sampling under abnormal conditions etc. The existence of these data points "outliers" in the data set cause lot of problems in the research results and the conclusions. Therefore, we should identify them before applying statistical analysis. In this article, we aim to propose a statistic to identify outliers in the both of the response and explanatory variables of the simple circular regression model. Our proposed statistic is robust circular distance RCDxy and it is justified by the three robust measurements such as proportion of detection outliers, masking and swamping rates.

  5. Remotely sensed vegetation moisture as explanatory variable of Lyme borreliosis incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, J. M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Maes, P.; Clement, J.; Aerts, J. M.; Farifteh, J.; Lagrou, K.; Van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

    2012-08-01

    The strong correlation between environmental conditions and abundance and spatial spread of the tick Ixodes ricinus is widely documented. I. ricinus is in Europe the main vector of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen causing Lyme borreliosis (LB). Humidity in vegetated systems is a major factor in tick ecology and its effects might translate into disease incidence in humans. Time series of two remotely sensed indices with sensitivity to vegetation greenness and moisture were tested as explanatory variables of LB incidence. Wavelet-based multiresolution analysis allowed the examination of these signals at different temporal scales in study sites in Belgium, where increases in LB incidence were reported in recent years. The analysis showed the potential of the tested indices for disease monitoring, the usefulness of analyzing the signal in different time frames and the importance of local characteristics of the study area for the selection of the vegetation index.

  6. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  7. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students' level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students' performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain.

  8. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A.; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students’ level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students’ performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain. PMID:26441739

  9. Density as an explanatory variable of movements and calf survival in savanna elephants across southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Young, K D; Van Aarde, R J

    2010-05-01

    1. Southern Africa's 'elephant problem' is often attributed to an overabundance of elephants (Loxodonta africana) in conservation areas. Paradoxically, the African elephant is listed as 'vulnerable' (IUCN Redlist) despite occupying a large geographical range and numbering about 600 000. How densities influence elephant populations is therefore important for conservation management decisions, particularly because a move towards non-equilibrium management of savannas implies a need for elephant populations to fluctuate in response to variation in intrinsic (demographic) and extrinsic (resource) factors. 2. A study on one of the world's largest elephant populations demonstrated that population regulation is driven by a spatial response to water availability, environmental stochasticity and density. The challenge remains to identify the demographic and behavioural variables that drive density dependence. 3. We evaluated whether the movements of elephant family groups from 13 populations across a wide resource gradient were explained by variability in primary productivity, rainfall and population density. We then assessed whether density-related movements explained variability in juvenile survival, hence inferring a spatially driven behavioural mechanism that may explain density-dependent population growth. We also analysed whether management actions modified this mechanism. 4. In the dry season, daily-displacement distances (DDDs) increased non-linearly with density, and declined with increased vegetation productivity and previous wet season rainfall. In the wet season, DDDs were primarily explained by vegetation productivity. 5. The survival of weaned calves (4-7 years) decreased with increasing dry season DDDs, but this did not hold for suckling calves (1-3 years) or sub-adults (8-11 years). 6. Fences and supplementary water modified the shape and strength of relationships between DDDs and densities, vegetation productivity and rainfall and negated the relationships

  10. How well can body size represent effects of the environment on demographic rates? Disentangling correlated explanatory variables.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Mollie E; Mugabo, Marianne; Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Benton, Timothy G; Ozgul, Arpat

    2016-03-01

    Demographic rates are shaped by the interaction of past and current environments that individuals in a population experience. Past environments shape individual states via selection and plasticity, and fitness-related traits (e.g. individual size) are commonly used in demographic analyses to represent the effect of past environments on demographic rates. We quantified how well the size of individuals captures the effects of a population's past and current environments on demographic rates in a well-studied experimental system of soil mites. We decomposed these interrelated sources of variation with a novel method of multiple regression that is useful for understanding nonlinear relationships between responses and multicollinear explanatory variables. We graphically present the results using area-proportional Venn diagrams. Our novel method was developed by combining existing methods and expanding upon them. We showed that the strength of size as a proxy for the past environment varied widely among vital rates. For instance, in this organism with an income breeding life history, the environment had more effect on reproduction than individual size, but with substantial overlap indicating that size encompassed some of the effects of the past environment on fecundity. This demonstrates that the strength of size as a proxy for the past environment can vary widely among life-history processes within a species, and this variation should be taken into consideration in trait-based demographic or individual-based approaches that focus on phenotypic traits as state variables. Furthermore, the strength of a proxy will depend on what state variable(s) and what demographic rate is being examined; that is, different measures of body size (e.g. length, volume, mass, fat stores) will be better or worse proxies for various life-history processes.

  11. Influence of explanatory and confounding variables on HRQoL after controlling for measurement bias and response shift in measurement.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Pranav K; Ried, L Douglas; Kimberlin, Carole L; Kauf, Teresa L; Huang, I-Chan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of explanatory and confounding variables on health-related quality of life after accounting for response shift, measurement bias and response shift in measurement using structural equation modeling. Hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease randomized to anti-hypertensive treatment, completed the ShortForm-36 questionnaire at both baseline and 1 year (n = 788). Three measurement biases were found and all three were considered as response shift in measurement. Older patients reported worse scores for both physical functioning (PF) and role-physical at baseline and 1 year later compared to younger patients; and males reported better PF than females after conditioning on the latent trait of general physical health. Before controlling for response shift, patients' PF scores were not statistically different over time; however, PF scores significantly improved (p < 0.01) after controlling for recalibration response shift. Assessment of how patients perceive their change in health-related quality of life over time is warranted.

  12. Information Sources as Explanatory Variables for the Belgian Health-Related Risk Perception of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Bart; Perko, Tanja; Van Gorp, Baldwin

    2016-06-20

    The media play an important role in risk communication, providing information about accidents, both nearby and far away. Each media source has its own presentation style, which could influence how the audience perceives the presented risk. This study investigates the explanatory power of 12 information sources (traditional media, new media, social media, and interpersonal communication) for the perceived risk posed by radiation released from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant on respondents' own health and that of the population in general. The analysis controlled for attitude toward nuclear energy, gender, education, satisfaction with the media coverage, and duration of attention paid to the coverage. The study uses a large empirical data set from a public opinion survey, which is representative for the Belgian population with respect to six sociodemographic variables. Results show that three information sources are significant regressors of perceived health-related risk of the nuclear accident: television, interpersonal communication, and the category of miscellaneous online sources. More favorable attitudes toward nuclear power, longer attention to the coverage, and higher satisfaction with the provided information lead to lower risk perception. Taken together, the results suggest that the media can indeed have a modest influence on how the audience perceives a risk.

  13. The relationship of explanatory flexibility to explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M

    2007-12-01

    Traditional cognitive vulnerability-stress models regarding the etiology of depression emphasize the content of the depressed individual's thoughts. One important cognitive content index, explanatory style, represents the habitual way that individuals assign causes to events that occur in their lives. A more contemporary model, however, emphasizes the cognitive process by which these attributions are made and to what extent the individual can make different attributions depending on the particular context of the event. This process is referred to as explanatory flexibility. Given that both indices of causal explanation are derived from the same assessment instrument, the Attributional Style Questionnaire, the current investigation sought to examine the extent to which the two variables can be differentiated from one another. Results indicated that explanatory style (a measure of cognitive content) and explanatory flexibility (a cognitive process measure) are empirically related, but distinct, constructs.

  14. Additional security features for optically variable foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Allan C.; Russo, Frank

    1998-04-01

    For thousands of years, man has exploited the attraction and radiance of pure gold to adorn articles of great significance. Today, designers decorate packaging with metallic gold foils to maintain the prestige of luxury items such as perfumes, chocolates, wine and whisky, and to add visible appeal and value to wide range of products. However, today's products do not call for the hand beaten gold leaf of the Ancient Egyptians, instead a rapid production technology exists which makes use of accurately coated thin polymer films and vacuum deposited metallic layers. Stamping Foils Technology is highly versatile since several different layers may be combined into one product, each providing a different function. Not only can a foil bring visual appeal to an article, it can provide physical and chemical resistance properties and also protect an article from human forms of interference, such as counterfeiting, copying or tampering. Stamping foils have proved to be a highly effective vehicle for applying optical devices to items requiring this type of protection. Credit cards, bank notes, personal identification documents and more recently high value packaged items such as software and perfumes are protected by optically variable devices applied using stamping foil technology.

  15. Explanatory Models for Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    How can we best develop explanatory models for psychiatric disorders? Because causal factors have an impact on psychiatric illness both at micro levels and macro levels, both within and outside of the individual, and involving processes best understood from biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives, traditional models of science that strive for single broadly applicable explanatory laws are ill suited for our field. Such models are based on the incorrect assumption that psychiatric illnesses can be understood from a single perspective. A more appropriate scientific model for psychiatry emphasizes the understanding of mechanisms, an approach that fits naturally with a multicausal framework and provides a realistic paradigm for scientific progress, that is, understanding mechanisms through decomposition and reassembly. Simple subunits of complicated mechanisms can be usefully studied in isolation. Reassembling these constituent parts into a functioning whole, which is straightforward for simple additive mechanisms, will be far more challenging in psychiatry where causal networks contain multiple nonlinear interactions and causal loops. Our field has long struggled with the interrelationship between biological and psychological explanatory perspectives. Building from the seminal work of the neuronal modeler and philosopher David Marr, the author suggests that biology will implement but not replace psychology within our explanatory systems. The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes. PMID:18483135

  16. Decreasing Cloudiness Over China: An Updated Analysis Examining Additional Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, D.P.

    2000-01-14

    As preparation of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report takes place, one of the many observed climate variables of key interest is cloud amount. For several nations of the world, there exist records of surface-observed cloud amount dating back to the middle of the 20th Century or earlier, offering valuable information on variations and trends. Studies using such databases include Sun and Groisman (1999) and Kaiser and Razuvaev (1995) for the former Soviet Union, Angel1 et al. (1984) for the United States, Henderson-Sellers (1986) for Europe, Jones and Henderson-Sellers (1992) for Australia, and Kaiser (1998) for China. The findings of Kaiser (1998) differ from the other studies in that much of China appears to have experienced decreased cloudiness over recent decades (1954-1994), whereas the other land regions for the most part show evidence of increasing cloud cover. This paper expands on Kaiser (1998) by analyzing trends in additional meteorological variables for Chi na [station pressure (p), water vapor pressure (e), and relative humidity (rh)] and extending the total cloud amount (N) analysis an additional two years (through 1996).

  17. Intra-Site Variability in the Still Bay Fauna at Blombos Cave: Implications for Explanatory Models of the Middle Stone Age Cultural and Technological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    To explain cultural and technological innovations in the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, scholars invoke several factors. A major question in this research theme is whether MSA technocomplexes are adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions and subsistence strategies or, on the contrary, to a wide range of different foraging behaviours. While faunal studies provide key information for addressing these factors, most analyses do not assess intra-technocomplex variability of faunal exploitation (i.e. variability within MSA phases). In this study, we assess the spatial variability of the Still Bay fauna in one phase (M1) of the Blombos Cave sequence. Analyses of taxonomic composition, taphonomic alterations and combustion patterns reveal important faunal variability both across space (lateral variation in the post-depositional history of the deposits, spatial organisation of combustion features) and over time (fine-scale diachronic changes throughout a single phase). Our results show how grouping material prior to zooarchaeological interpretations (e.g. by layer or phase) can induce a loss of information. Finally, we discuss how multiple independent subdivisions of archaeological sequences can improve our understanding of both the timing of different changes (for example in technology, culture, subsistence, environment) and how they may be inter-related. PMID:26658195

  18. The Variable Transition State in Polar Additions to Pi Bonds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2010-01-01

    A vast majority of polar additions of Bronsted acids to alkynes involve a termolecular transition state. With strong acids, considerable positive charge is developed on carbon and Markovnikov addition predominates. In less acidic solutions, however, the reaction is much slower and the transition state more closely resembles the olefinic product.…

  19. The Relationship of Explanatory Flexibility to Explanatory Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michael T.; Fresco, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional cognitive vulnerability-stress models regarding the etiology of depression emphasize the content of the depressed individual's thoughts. One important cognitive content index, explanatory style, represents the habitual way that individuals assign causes to events that occur in their lives. A more contemporary model, however, emphasizes…

  20. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  1. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; Mccallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-01-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  2. 29 CFR 780.401 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(b)(12) § 780.401 General explanatory statement. (a) Section 13(b)(12) of the Act contains the same... amendments. (b) In addition to exempting employees engaged in agriculture, section 13(b)(12) also exempts... effect of the 1997 amendment to section 13(b)(12) is to expand the overtime exemption for any...

  3. 29 CFR 780.401 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(b)(12) § 780.401 General explanatory statement. (a) Section 13(b)(12) of the Act contains the same... section 13(a)(6) (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E) of the 1966 amendments. (b) In addition to exempting employees employed in agriculture, section 13(b)(12) also exempts from the overtime provisions of the...

  4. 29 CFR 780.401 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(b)(12) § 780.401 General explanatory statement. (a) Section 13(b)(12) of the Act contains the same... amendments. (b) In addition to exempting employees engaged in agriculture, section 13(b)(12) also exempts... effect of the 1997 amendment to section 13(b)(12) is to expand the overtime exemption for any...

  5. 29 CFR 780.401 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...(b)(12) § 780.401 General explanatory statement. (a) Section 13(b)(12) of the Act contains the same... amendments. (b) In addition to exempting employees engaged in agriculture, section 13(b)(12) also exempts... effect of the 1997 amendment to section 13(b)(12) is to expand the overtime exemption for any...

  6. 29 CFR 780.401 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(b)(12) § 780.401 General explanatory statement. (a) Section 13(b)(12) of the Act contains the same... amendments. (b) In addition to exempting employees engaged in agriculture, section 13(b)(12) also exempts... effect of the 1997 amendment to section 13(b)(12) is to expand the overtime exemption for any...

  7. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  8. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  9. Increased rainfall variability and N addition accelerate litter decomposition in a restored prairie.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition and projected increases in rainfall variability (the frequency of drought and heavy rainfall events) are expected to strongly influence ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition. However, how these two global change factors interact to influence litter decomposition is largely unknown. I examined how increased rainfall variability and nitrogen addition affected mass and nitrogen loss of litter from two tallgrass prairie species, Schizachyrium scoparium and Solidago canadensis, and isolated the effects of each during plant growth and during litter decomposition. I increased rainfall variability by consolidating ambient rainfall into larger events and simulated chronic nitrogen deposition using a slow-release urea fertilizer. S. scoparium litter decay was more strongly regulated by the treatments applied during plant growth than by those applied during decomposition. During plant growth, increased rainfall variability resulted in S. scoparium litter that subsequently decomposed more slowly and immobilized more nitrogen than litter grown under ambient conditions, whereas nitrogen addition during plant growth accelerated subsequent mass loss of S. scoparium litter. In contrast, S. canadensis litter mass and N losses were enhanced under either N addition or increased rainfall variability both during plant growth and during decomposition. These results suggest that ongoing changes in rainfall variability and nitrogen availability are accelerating nutrient cycling in tallgrass prairies through their combined effects on litter quality, environmental conditions, and plant community composition.

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. Explanatory flexibility and explanatory style in treatment-seeking clients with Axis I psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Ryan J; Moore, Michael T; Minerovic, Julia; Fresco, David M

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive diathesis stress models of depression emphasize individual styles of attributing causal explanations to negative and positive events in life. The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) has traditionally been used to measure explanatory style, defined as an individual's habitual way of assigning causes to negative events. Explanatory flexibility, rather than focusing on the content of one's thoughts, emphasizes the extent to which individuals are able to make different attributions depending on the particular context of each event. The underlying notion is that individuals who are better able to adapt to the cues and demands of a stressful situation may be able to respond more effectively and are thereby less vulnerable to depression. Despite evidence attesting to its relevance to depression and anxiety disorders, explanatory flexibility has yet to be examined in a purely treatment-seeking sample of patients clinically diagnosed with Axis I psychopathology. The current study examined baseline levels of explanatory flexibility, along with explanatory style, in a sample of 171 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with either major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or at least one other Axis I disorder. Overall, the results replicate and extend past results indicating a distinction between explanatory flexibility and explanatory style. Furthermore, patients with MDD and GAD demonstrated lower levels of explanatory flexibility relative to patients with other Axis I disorders. Thus, explanatory flexibility may assist in our understanding of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of emotional disorders, with particular relevance to MDD and GAD.

  12. Examining punishment at different explanatory levels.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel; Wedekind, Claus

    2012-02-01

    Experimental studies on punishment have sometimes been over-interpreted not only for the reasons Guala lists, but also because of a frequent conflation of proximate and ultimate explanatory levels that Guala's review perpetuates. Moreover, for future analyses we may need a clearer classification of different kinds of punishment.

  13. Pathological Left-Handedness: An Explanatory Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Paul

    Reported was an explanatory conceptual model for pathological left-handedness (PLH) and related hypotheses, some of which could not be tested empirically due to lack of information. The model was reported to provide an explanation for the relationship between handedness and specific learning disability, and handedness and cerebral dominance for…

  14. Older Men's Explanatory Model for Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solimeo, Samantha L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Gold, Deborah T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the nature of men's experiences of osteoporosis by developing an understanding of men's explanatory models. Design and Methods: This descriptive study invited community-residing male osteoporosis patients aged 50+ to participate in interviews about osteoporosis. Participants were recruited from a hospital-affiliated bone…

  15. 7 CFR 28.522 - Explanatory terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explanatory terms. 28.522 Section 28.522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON...

  16. Use of generalised additive models to categorise continuous variables in clinical prediction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In medical practice many, essentially continuous, clinical parameters tend to be categorised by physicians for ease of decision-making. Indeed, categorisation is a common practice both in medical research and in the development of clinical prediction rules, particularly where the ensuing models are to be applied in daily clinical practice to support clinicians in the decision-making process. Since the number of categories into which a continuous predictor must be categorised depends partly on the relationship between the predictor and the outcome, the need for more than two categories must be borne in mind. Methods We propose a categorisation methodology for clinical-prediction models, using Generalised Additive Models (GAMs) with P-spline smoothers to determine the relationship between the continuous predictor and the outcome. The proposed method consists of creating at least one average-risk category along with high- and low-risk categories based on the GAM smooth function. We applied this methodology to a prospective cohort of patients with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The predictors selected were respiratory rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood (PCO2), and the response variable was poor evolution. An additive logistic regression model was used to show the relationship between the covariates and the dichotomous response variable. The proposed categorisation was compared to the continuous predictor as the best option, using the AIC and AUC evaluation parameters. The sample was divided into a derivation (60%) and validation (40%) samples. The first was used to obtain the cut points while the second was used to validate the proposed methodology. Results The three-category proposal for the respiratory rate was ≤ 20;(20,24];> 24, for which the following values were obtained: AIC=314.5 and AUC=0.638. The respective values for the continuous predictor were AIC=317.1 and AUC=0.634, with no statistically

  17. Causal explanatory pluralism and medically unexplained physical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cournoyea, Michael; Kennedy, Ashley Graham

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a methodology for investigating medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPSs). These symptoms are common in both primary and specialist medical practices, but are poorly understood. Currently, MUPSs are diagnosed via non-explanatory labels. However, we show that explanatory diagnoses are preferable to non-explanatory syndromic diagnoses because they bring both epistemic and therapeutic benefits to patients and their providers. Thus, we advocate a methodology of causal explanatory pluralism in the diagnostic workup and clinical management of MUPSs.

  18. Additional Navigational Strategies Can Augment Odor-Gated Rheotaxis for Navigation under Conditions of Variable Flow.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Gabrielle; Lukeman, Ryan; Wyeth, Russell C

    2015-09-01

    The navigation strategies animals use to find sources of odor depend on the olfactory stimuli, the properties of flowing fluids, and the locomotory capabilities of the animal. In high Reynolds number environments, animals typically use odor-gated rheotaxis to find the source of turbulent odor plumes. This strategy succeeds because, although turbulence creates an intermittent chemical cue, the animal follows the (continuous) directional cue created by the flow that is transporting the chemical. However, in nature, animals may lose all contact with an odor plume as variations in the direction of bulk flow cause the plume to be rotated away before the animal reaches the source of the odor. Our goal was to use a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that strategies that augment odor-gated rheotaxis would be beneficial for finding the source of an odor plume in such variable flow. The model links a stochastic variable-direction odor plume with a turbulence-based intermittent chemical signal and four different movement strategies, including: odor-gated rheotaxis alone (as a control), odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by further rheotaxis in the absence of odor, odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by a random walk, and odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by movement actively guided by the heading of the flow when the odor was still present. We found that any of the three augmented strategies could improve on strict odor-gated rheotaxis. Moreover, variations in performance caused the best strategy to depend on the speed of movement of the animal and the magnitude of the variation in flow, and more subtly on the duration over which the augmented strategy was performed. For most combinations of parameters in the model, either augmenting with a random walk or following the last-known heading were the best-performing strategies. Overall, our results suggest that marine animals that rely on odor cues to navigate in turbulent environments may augment odor-gated rheotaxis with additional

  19. The effect of a negative mood priming challenge on dysfunctional attitudes, explanatory style, and explanatory flexibility.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramowitz, Adrienne; Bertram, Tara L

    2006-06-01

    Ninety-seven undergraduates, 48 of whom had a history of self-reported major depression, completed measures of mood and cognitive style (e.g. explanatory style, explanatory flexibility, dysfunctional attitudes) prior to and directly after a negative mood priming challenge that consisted of listening to sad music and thinking about an upsetting past event. Eighteen of the previously depressed participants endorsed baseline levels of depression, explanatory style for negative events, and dysfunctional attitudes higher than levels reported by never depressed participants or euthymic participants with a history of depression. All three groups (never depressed participants, dysphoric participants with a history of depression, euthymic participants with a history of depression) demonstrated increases in dysphoria and dysfunctional attitudes in response to the negative mood priming challenge. Dysphoric participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced modest increases in explanatory style following the negative mood priming challenge. Finally, euthymic participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced drops in explanatory flexibility. Findings from the present study suggest that the cognitive theories of depression may benefit from examining both cognitive content and cognitive flexibility when assessing risk for depression.

  20. Children with autism spectrum disorder have an exceptional explanatory drive.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M D; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-08-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated problem-solving and explanation-seeking responses. In the physical context (but not the social context), the children with autism spectrum disorder showed a stronger explanatory drive than controls. Importantly, the number of explanatory behaviors made by children with autism spectrum disorder in the social context was independent of social and communicative impairments. Children with autism spectrum disorder did not show an exceptional explanatory drive in the social domain. These results suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder have an explanatory drive and that the explanatory drive may be domain specific.

  1. Explanatory Models and Medication Adherence in Patients with Depression in South India

    PubMed Central

    Siddappa, Adarsh Lakkur; Raman, Rajesh; Hattur, Basavana Gowdappa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Conceptualization of depression may have bearing on treatment seeking. It may affect adherence behaviour of the patients. Aim To find out the explanatory models and their relationship with socio-demographic variables and medication adherence in patients with depression. Materials and Methods Fifty-eight consecutive patients with depression in remission were recruited as per selection criteria. Socio-demographic details were collected. Patients were assessed using Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire (MDEMQ) and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Results Significant scores were observed in all dimensions of explanatory models. In the Mann-Whitney U test the patient’s marital status (MU=113.500, p=0.05, sig≤0.05, 2-tailed), and family history of mental illness (MU=165.5, p=0.03, sig≤0.05, 2-tailed) had a statistically significant group difference in the score of MDEMQ. In linear regression analysis, four predictors (MDEMQ subscales Stress, Western physiology, Non-Western physiology and Supernatural) had significantly predicted the value of MMAS (R2=0.937, f=153.558, p<0.001). Conclusion Findings of this study suggested that patients with depression harbor multidimensional explanatory model. The levels of explanatory models are inversely associated with levels of medication adherence. PMID:28274025

  2. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  3. An Explanatory Model of Self-Service on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Dave; Livermore, Celia Romm; Farag, Neveen Awad

    This chapter describes research that identifies and classifies the dimensions of self-service activity enabled through the Internet. Self-service is effected by organizations providing ways and means whereby customers perform tasks related to the procurement of goods and services. We describe how an instrument used to measure Internet-based self-service was developed, validated and applied. The results from applying the instrument to a large number of Web sites, covering a range of industries, countries and cultures, are analyzed and discussed. The study presents a model in which type of industry, level of technological development, income and cultural factors are proposed as explanatory variables for Web-based self-service. We conclude with an assessment of this program of research’s achievements so far.

  4. Exploring the explaining quality of physics online explanatory videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Peters, Cord H.

    2016-11-01

    Explaining skills are among the most important skills educators possess. Those skills have also been researched in recent years. During the same period, another medium has additionally emerged and become a popular source of information for learners: online explanatory videos, chiefly from the online video sharing website YouTube. Their content and explaining quality remain to this day mostly unmonitored, as well is their educational impact in formal contexts such as schools or universities. In this study, a framework for explaining quality, which has emerged from surveying explaining skills in expert-novice face-to-face dialogues, was used to explore the explaining quality of such videos (36 YouTube explanatory videos on Kepler’s laws and 15 videos on Newton’s third law). The framework consists of 45 categories derived from physics education research that deal with explanation techniques. YouTube provides its own ‘quality measures’ based on surface features including ‘likes’, views, and comments for each video. The question is whether or not these measures provide valid information for educators and students if they have to decide which video to use. We compared the explaining quality with those measures. Our results suggest that there is a correlation between explaining quality and only one of these measures: the number of content-related comments.

  5. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  6. Additional SPIRITS Discoveries of Infrared Transients and Variables with Counterparts in Reference Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Adams, S.; Cook, D.; Tinyanont, S.; Kwan, S.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Dyk, S. D. Van; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Cao, Y.; Khan, R.; Levesque, E.; Fox, O.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2017-03-01

    We report the discoveries of mid-infrared transients/eruptive variables found by the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) using Spitzer Early Release Data (ATel #6644, #7929, #8688, #8940, #9434).

  7. Additional SPIRITS Discoveries of Infrared Transients and Variables without Counterparts in Reference Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Adams, S.; Cook, D.; Tinyanont, S.; Kwan, S.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Dyk, S. D. Van; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Cao, Y.; Khan, R.; Levesque, E.; Fox, O.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2017-03-01

    We report the discoveries of mid-infrared transients/eruptive variables found by the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) using Spitzer Early Release Data (ATel #6644, #7929, #8688, #8940, #9434).

  8. [Brua as an explanatory model for diseases].

    PubMed

    Minkenberg, E H M; Blom, J D

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman from the island of Aruba who had been living in the Netherlands for ten years felt she was misunderstood by the various health professionals she had consulted because of her fear that she was being poisoned and would soon die. Due to her background en her belief in brua, she attributed her symptoms and her illness to 'voodoo', allegedly practiced by members of her husband's family in connection with relationship problems. A culture-sensitive approach to the patient, along with thorough psychiatric and neurological tests, yielded a surprising result. Our findings emphasise how important it is for us as health professionals to acquaint ourselves with explanatory models of the diseases of our patients, and how vital it is for us to be aware of a patient's background, particularly if the patient is of foreign descent.

  9. The causal explanatory functions of medical diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Maung, Hane Htut

    2017-02-01

    Diagnoses in medicine are often taken to serve as explanations of patients' symptoms and signs. This article examines how they do so. I begin by arguing that although some instances of diagnostic explanation can be formulated as covering law arguments, they are explanatory neither in virtue of their argumentative structures nor in virtue of general regularities between diagnoses and clinical presentations. I then consider the theory that medical diagnoses explain symptoms and signs by identifying their actual causes in particular cases. While I take this to be largely correct, I argue that for a diagnosis to function as a satisfactory causal explanation of a patient's symptoms and signs, it also needs to be supplemented by understanding the mechanisms by which the identified cause produces the symptoms and signs. This mechanistic understanding comes not from the diagnosis itself, but rather from the theoretical framework within which the physician operates.

  10. Relation of irrational thinking and the Pessimistic Explanatory Style.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, D J; Hawley, J L

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between Ellis's construct of irrational thinking and Seligman's construct of explanatory style, with a view toward possibly strengthening the personality theory underlying Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in particular and cognitive-behavior therapies more generally. In this investigation 180 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Attributional Style Questionnaire to measure irrational thinking and explanatory style, respectively. Students who scored higher on Pessimistic Explanatory Style also scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and on Low Frustration Tolerance than did those who were categorized as having an Optimistic Explanatory Style. This indicates support for Ellis's developing personality theory, especially his theoretical account of depression.

  11. Improving Performance of Power Systems with Large-scale Variable Generation Additions

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Lu, Ning; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Du, Pengwei; Kannberg, Landis D.

    2012-07-22

    A power system with large-scale renewable resources, like wind and solar generation, creates significant challenges to system control performance and reliability characteristics because of intermittency and uncertainties associated with variable generation. It is important to quantify these uncertainties, and then incorporate this information into decision-making processes and power system operations. This paper presents three approaches to evaluate the flexibility needed from conventional generators and other resources in the presence of variable generation as well as provide this flexibility from a non-traditional resource – wide area energy storage system. These approaches provide operators with much-needed information on the likelihood and magnitude of ramping and capacity problems, and the ability to dispatch available resources in response to such problems.

  12. Addition of simultaneous heat and solute transport and variable fluid viscosity to SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, D.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    SEAWAT is a finite-difference computer code designed to simulate coupled variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. This paper describes a new version of SEAWAT that adds the ability to simultaneously model energy and solute transport. This is necessary for simulating the transport of heat and salinity in coastal aquifers for example. This work extends the equation of state for fluid density to vary as a function of temperature and/or solute concentration. The program has also been modified to represent the effects of variable fluid viscosity as a function of temperature and/or concentration. The viscosity mechanism is verified against an analytical solution, and a test of temperature-dependent viscosity is provided. Finally, the classic Henry-Hilleke problem is solved with the new code. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Causes of Job Turnover in the Public School Superintendency: An Explanatory Analysis in the Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melver, Toby A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine the factors that affect public school superintendent turnover in five western states. An explanatory theory was developed to cover all of the possible variables and show the relationship between those variables. The questions that guided this research study were: (1) What environmental…

  14. Modelling Analysis of Students' Processes of Generating Scientific Explanatory Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jongwon

    2006-01-01

    It has recently been determined that generating an explanatory hypothesis to explain a discrepant event is important for students' conceptual change. The purpose of this study is to investigate how students' generate new explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this goal, questions are used to identify students prior ideas related to electromagnetic…

  15. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  16. Examining Explanatory Style's Relationship to Efficacy and Burnout in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineburg, Amy Cheek

    2010-01-01

    Explanatory style, the ways in which people explain both good and bad events (Seligman, 1998), shares theoretical components with teachers' sense of efficacy (Tshannon-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001), which is how capable teachers feel about teaching. According to Bandura (1994), efficacy informs explanatory style, but this assertion does not…

  17. Explaining Variability in Retrieval Times for Addition Produced by Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sarah L.; Lawson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of retrieval times produced by students having difficulty developing a reliance on retrieval for simple addition were discovered. The findings support the notion that separate limitations operate in working memory when retrieval occurs and call into question the use of the term "retrieval deficit" to explain difficulties…

  18. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  19. Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Fowler, J. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H. L.; Wheelock, S. L.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Yan, L.; Benford, D.; Harbut, M.; Jarrett, T.; Lake, S.; Leisawitz, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Stanford, S. A.; Tsai, C. W.; Liu, F.; Helou, G.; Mainzer, A.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Hoffman, D.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beck, R. P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2013-11-01

    The AllWISE program builds upon the successful Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) mission by combining data from all WISE and NEOWISE (Mainzer et al. 2011) survey phases to form the most comprehensive view of the mid-infrared sky currently available. By combining the data from two complete sky coverage epochs in an advanced data processing system, AllWISE has generated new products that have enhanced photometric sensitivity and accuracy, and improved astrometric precision compared with the earlier WISE All-Sky Data Release. Exploiting the 6 month baseline between the WISE sky coverage epochs enables AllWISE to measure source motions for the first time, and to compute improved flux variability statistics. AllWISE data release products include: a Source Catalog that contains 4-band fluxes, positions, apparent motion measurements, and flux variability statistics for over 747 million objects detected at SNR>5 in the combined exposures; a Multiepoch Photometry Database containing over 42 billion time-tagged, single-exposure fluxes for each object detected on the combined exposures; and an Image Atlas of 18,240 4-band calibrated FITS images, depth-of-coverage and noise maps that cover the sky produced by coadding nearly 7.9 million single-exposure images from the cryogenic and post-cryogenic survey phases. The Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the AllWISE data. The Supplement contains detailed descriptions of the format and characteristics of the AllWISE data products, as well as a summary of cautionary notes that describe known limitations. The Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the AllWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/allwise/expsup/index.html AllWISE makes use of data from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of

  20. Numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations using density gradients as additional dependent variables. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solution of two dimensional, time dependent, compressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations about arbitrary bodies was treated using density gradients as additional dependent variables. Thus, six dependent variables were computed with the SOR iteration method. Besides formulation for pressure gradient terms, a formulation for computing the body density was presented. To approximate the governing equations, an implicit finite difference method was employed. In computing the solution for the flow about a circular cylinder, a problem arose near the wall at both stagnation points. Thus, computations with various conditions were tried to examine the problem. Also, computations with and without formulations are compared. The flow variables were computed on 37 by 40 field first, then on an 81 by 40 field.

  1. ADPROCLUS: a graphical user interface for fitting additive profile clustering models to object by variable data matrices.

    PubMed

    Wilderjans, Tom F; Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven; Depril, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    In many areas of psychology, one is interested in disclosing the underlying structural mechanisms that generated an object by variable data set. Often, based on theoretical or empirical arguments, it may be expected that these underlying mechanisms imply that the objects are grouped into clusters that are allowed to overlap (i.e., an object may belong to more than one cluster). In such cases, analyzing the data with Mirkin's additive profile clustering model may be appropriate. In this model: (1) each object may belong to no, one or several clusters, (2) there is a specific variable profile associated with each cluster, and (3) the scores of the objects on the variables can be reconstructed by adding the cluster-specific variable profiles of the clusters the object in question belongs to. Until now, however, no software program has been publicly available to perform an additive profile clustering analysis. For this purpose, in this article, the ADPROCLUS program, steered by a graphical user interface, is presented. We further illustrate its use by means of the analysis of a patient by symptom data matrix.

  2. Unpredicted ovulations and conceptions during early pregnancy: an explanatory mechanism of human superfetation.

    PubMed

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Cano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this bioessay, a literature review on human superfetation was performed in order to find epidemiological variables associated with this phenomenon. Thereafter, an explanatory mechanism of superfetation compatible with the endocrinological, histological and physiological changes undergone by women during early pregnancy is proposed. Superfetation can be defined as the ovulation, fertilisation and implantation of a second or additional embryo(s) during pregnancy. The literature review evidences a small discordance in gestational age between dizygotic twins in humans (range: 2-4 weeks; mean ± s.e.m.: 3.3 ± 0.3 weeks). This difference is compatible with a luteal out-of-phase (LOOP; i.e. atypical increase in E2 levels in the mid-luteal phase)-like event occurring between 1 and 3 weeks after the ovulation that allowed the first pregnancy to take place. The LOOP-like event may allow passive sperm transport from the vaginal fornix to the Fallopian tube ipsilateral to the ovulatory ovary and trigger a LH peak and ovulation. Furthermore, during very early pregnancy, the decidual reaction is not yet completed and at least one proximal Fallopian ostium may be opened, allowing the passage of the spermatozoa ascending to the fertilisation site and the extra embryo(s) descending to the implantation site(s).

  3. Multivariate explanatory model for sporadic carcinoma of the colon in Dukes' stages I and IIa

    PubMed Central

    Villadiego-Sánchez, J.M.; Ortega-Calvo, M.; Pino-Mejías, R.; Cayuela, A.; Iglesias-Bonilla, P.; la Corte, F. García-de; Santos-Lozano, J.M.; Lapetra-Peralta, José

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We obtained before an explanatory model with six dependant variables: age of the patient, total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-C), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and the CA 19.9 tumour marker. Our objective in this study was to validate the model by means of the acquisition of new records for an additional analysis. Design: Non-paired case control study. Setting: Urban and rural hospitals and primary health facilities in Western Andalusia and Extremadura (Spain). Patients: At both the primary care facilities and hospital level, controls were gathered in a prospective manner (n= 275). Cases were prospective and retrospective manner collected on (n=126). Main outcome measures: Descriptive statistics, logistic regression and bootstrap analysis. Results: The AGE (odds ratio 1.02; 95% CI 1.003-1.037) (p= 0.01), the TC (odds ratio 0.986; 95% C.I. 0.980-0.992) (p< 0.001) and the CA 19.9 (odds ratio 1.023; 95% C.I. 1.012- 1.034) (p<0.001) were the variables that showed significant values at logistic regression analysis and bootstrap. Berkson's bias was statistically assessed. Conclusions: The model, validated by means of logistic regression and bootstrap analysis, contains the variables AGE, TC, and CA 19.9 (three of the original six) and has a level 4 over 5 according to the criteria of Justice et al. (multiple independent validations) [Ann. Intern. Med.1999; 130: 515]. PMID:19214243

  4. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mortality and Repeated Measurement of Explanatory Risk Factors in a 25 Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Skalická, Věra; Ringdal, Kristen; Witvliet, Margot I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality can be explained by different groups of risk factors. However, little is known whether repeated measurement of risk factors can provide better explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Our study examines the extent to which relative educational and income inequalities in mortality might be explained by explanatory risk factors (behavioral, psychosocial, biomedical risk factors and employment) measured at two points in time, as compared to one measurement at baseline. Methods and Findings From the Norwegian total county population-based HUNT Study (years 1984–86 and 1995–1997, respectively) 61 513 men and women aged 25–80 (82.5% of all enrolled) were followed-up for mortality in 25 years until 2009, employing a discrete time survival analysis. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were observed. As compared to their highest socioeconomic counterparts, the lowest educated men had an OR (odds ratio) of 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55) and for the lowest income quartile OR = 1.59 (1.48–1.571), for women OR = 1.35 (1.17–1.55), and OR = 1.40 (1.28–1.52), respectively. Baseline explanatory variables attenuated the association between education and income with mortality by 54% and 54% in men, respectively, and by 69% and 18% in women. After entering time-varying variables, this attainment increased to 63% and 59% in men, respectively, and to 25% (income) in women, with no improvement in regard to education in women. Change in biomedical factors and employment did not amend the explanation. Conclusions Addition of a second measurement for risk factors provided only a modest improvement in explaining educational and income inequalities in mortality in Norwegian men and women. Accounting for change in behavior provided the largest improvement in explained inequalities in mortality for both men and women, as compared to measurement at baseline. Psychosocial factors explained the largest share of income

  5. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  6. Explanatory and illustrative visualization of special and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Daniel; Borchers, Marc; Ertl, Thomas; Falk, Martin; Fechtig, Oliver; Frank, Regine; Grave, Frank; King, Andreas; Kraus, Ute; Müller, Thomas; Nollert, Hans-Peter; Rica Mendez, Isabel; Ruder, Hanns; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Schär, Sonja; Zahn, Corvin; Zatloukal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes methods for explanatory and illustrative visualizations used to communicate aspects of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, their geometric structure, and of the related fields of cosmology and astrophysics. Our illustrations target a general audience of laypersons interested in relativity. We discuss visualization strategies, motivated by physics education and the didactics of mathematics, and describe what kind of visualization methods have proven to be useful for different types of media, such as still images in popular science magazines, film contributions to TV shows, oral presentations, or interactive museum installations. Our primary approach is to adopt an egocentric point of view: The recipients of a visualization participate in a visually enriched thought experiment that allows them to experience or explore a relativistic scenario. In addition, we often combine egocentric visualizations with more abstract illustrations based on an outside view in order to provide several presentations of the same phenomenon. Although our visualization tools often build upon existing methods and implementations, the underlying techniques have been improved by several novel technical contributions like image-based special relativistic rendering on GPUs, special relativistic 4D ray tracing for accelerating scene objects, an extension of general relativistic ray tracing to manifolds described by multiple charts, GPU-based interactive visualization of gravitational light deflection, as well as planetary terrain rendering. The usefulness and effectiveness of our visualizations are demonstrated by reporting on experiences with, and feedback from, recipients of visualizations and collaborators.

  7. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Réunion Island.

  8. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  9. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-02-07

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  10. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  11. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian entangled states generated via multiple-photon subtraction and addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Hou, Li-Li; Chen, Xian-Feng; Xu, Xue-Fen

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically analyze the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation, the quadrature squeezing, and the continuous-variable quantum teleportation when considering non-Gaussian entangled states generated by applying multiple-photon subtraction and multiple-photon addition to a two-mode squeezed vacuum state (TMSVs). Our results indicate that in the case of the multiple-photon-subtracted TMSVs with symmetric operations, the corresponding EPR correlation, the two-mode squeezing degree, the sum squeezing, and the fidelity of teleporting a coherent state or a squeezed vacuum state can be enhanced for any squeezing parameter r and these enhancements increase with the number of subtracted photons in the low-squeezing regime, while asymmetric multiple-photon subtractions will generally reduce these quantities. For the multiple-photon-added TMSVs, although it holds stronger entanglement, its EPR correlation, two-mode squeezing, sum squeezing, and the fidelity of a coherent state are always smaller than that of the TMSVs. Only when considering the case of teleporting a squeezed vacuum state does the symmetric photon addition make somewhat of an improvement in the fidelity for large-squeezing parameters. In addition, we analytically prove that a one-mode multiple-photon-subtracted TMSVs is equivalent to that of the one-mode multiple-photon-added one. And one-mode multiple-photon operations will diminish the above four quantities for any squeezing parameter r .

  12. THE GJ1214 SUPER-EARTH SYSTEM: STELLAR VARIABILITY, NEW TRANSITS, AND A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Bean, Jacob; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Nutzman, Philip; Falco, Emilio E.

    2011-07-20

    The super-Earth GJ1214b transits a nearby M dwarf that exhibits a 1% intrinsic variability in the near-infrared. Here, we analyze new observations to refine the physical properties of both the star and planet. We present three years of out-of-transit photometric monitoring of the stellar host GJ1214 from the MEarth Observatory and find the rotation period to be long, most likely an integer multiple of 53 days, suggesting low levels of magnetic activity and an old age for the system. We show that such variability will not pose significant problems to ongoing studies of the planet's atmosphere with transmission spectroscopy. We analyze two high-precision transit light curves from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) along with seven others from the MEarth and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.2 m telescopes, finding physical parameters for the planet that are consistent with previous work. The VLT light curves show tentative evidence for spot occultations during transit. Using two years of MEarth light curves, we place limits on additional transiting planets around GJ1214 with periods out to the habitable zone of the system. We also improve upon the previous photographic V-band estimate for the star, finding V = 14.71 {+-} 0.03.

  13. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed.

  14. Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Explanatory Coexistence.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Busch, Justin T A; Legare, Cristine H

    2015-10-01

    Natural and supernatural explanations are used to interpret the same events in a number of predictable and universal ways. Yet little is known about how variation in diverse cultural ecologies influences how people integrate natural and supernatural explanations. Here, we examine explanatory coexistence in three existentially arousing domains of human thought: illness, death, and human origins using qualitative data from interviews conducted in Tanna, Vanuatu. Vanuatu, a Melanesian archipelago, provides a cultural context ideal for examining variation in explanatory coexistence due to the lack of industrialization and the relatively recent introduction of Christianity and Western education. We argue for the integration of interdisciplinary methodologies from cognitive science and anthropology to inform research on explanatory coexistence.

  15. Variable Temperature Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by temperature, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant temperatures (8–24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant temperature from 12–24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with temperature driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the Temperature Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean temperature of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant temperatures. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate temperatures (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. Temperature variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under variable conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined variable temperature effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to temperature fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453

  16. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  17. Preschoolers' Search for Explanatory Information within Adult-Child Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined children's questions and the reactions to the answers they receive in conversations with adults. If children actively seek explanatory knowledge, they should react differently depending on whether they receive a causal explanation. Study 1 examined conversations following 6 preschoolers' (ages 2-4 years) causal questions in…

  18. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  19. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  20. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  1. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  2. 29 CFR 780.1001 - General explanatory statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment of Home- workers in Making Wreaths; Exemption From Minimum Wage, Overtime Compensation, and Child... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General explanatory statement. 780.1001 Section 780.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  3. Categorization and Analysis of Explanatory Writing in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to…

  4. XS-O: A Self-Explanatory School Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievergelt, J.; And Others

    XS-O is a low-cost interactive system that serves as a self-explanatory school computer. The machine dialog is easy to follow for the inexperienced user. The system includes a course on computer programming, a programming system for writing, editing, executing, and debugging programs interactively, and a filing system containing private and public…

  5. The Use of Representations and Argumentative and Explanatory Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Daniela Kênia B. S.; Justi, Rosária; Mendonça, Paula Cristina Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of non-verbal representations in a modelling-based science teaching context, in which argumentative and explanatory situations occur. More specifically, we analyse how the students and teacher use representations in their discourse in modelling activities, and we discuss the relationships between the functions of these…

  6. Examining Explanatory Biases in Young Children's Biological Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the well-established literature on explanation in early childhood, little is known about what constrains children's explanations. State change and negative outcomes were examined as potential explanatory biases in the domain of naïve biology, extending upon previous work in the domain of naïve physics. In two studies, preschool children…

  7. Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP): The Relationship between Resilience and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Óscar Sánchez; Méndez, Francisco Xavier; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to describe and analyze a new test and construct, Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP), defined as the ability to observe adverse situations from various points of view. At the theoretical level, it is a bridge between the reformulated model of learned helplessness (as a resilience model), and creative…

  8. Explanatory Model for Sound Amplification in a Stethoscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with…

  9. The Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2002 Tropical Ozone Climatology. 3; Instrumentation and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacqueline C.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has collected more than 2000 ozone profiles from a dozen tropical and subtropical sites using balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. The data (with accompanying pressure-temperature-humidity soundings) are archived. Analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset revealed that variations in ozonesonde technique could lead to station-to-station biases in the measurements. In this paper imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. When SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release), discrepancies between sonde and satellite datasets decline 1-2 percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS. Variability among stations is evaluated using total ozone normalized to TOMS and results of laboratory tests on ozonesondes (JOSE-2O00, Julich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment). Ozone deviations from a standard instrument in the JOSE flight simulation chamber resemble those of SHADOZ station data relative to a SHADOZ-defined climatological reference. Certain systematic variations in SHADOZ ozone profiles are accounted for by differences in solution composition, data processing and instrument (manufacturer). Instrument bias leads to a greater ozone measurement above 25 km over Nairobi and to lower total column ozone at three Pacific sites compared to other SHADOZ stations at 0-20 deg.S.

  10. Explanatory model for sound amplification in a stethoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with opportunities to not only better understand the amplification mechanism of a stethoscope, but also to strengthen their understanding of sound, pressure, waves, resonance modes, etc.

  11. The Use of Representations and Argumentative and Explanatory Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Daniela Kênia B. S.; Justi, Rosária; Cardoso Mendonça, Paula Cristina

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of non-verbal representations in a modelling-based science teaching context, in which argumentative and explanatory situations occur. More specifically, we analyse how the students and teacher use representations in their discourse in modelling activities, and we discuss the relationships between the functions of these representations and the demands of the explanatory and argumentative situations that exist in that classroom. The data were collected by video recording all the classes in which a teaching sequence about intermolecular interactions was used-a topic which the students had not previously studied. In the activities, the students had to create, express, test, and discuss models in order to understand the difference between intermolecular and interatomic interactions, as well as their influences on the properties of substances. Initially, we selected excerpts of the recorded classes in which a non-verbal representation was used. Then, we used criteria to identify the argumentative and explanatory situations (previously defined), and we created categories for the functions of the representations that were used in order to analyse all the identified situations. The analysis supports conclusions indicating the relevance of the use of non-verbal representations in the construction, use, and defence of explanations. As the defence of explanations was the main context in which argumentative situations occurred in this study, our conclusions also indicate the contribution that representations make towards changing the status of the students' explanations.

  12. Racialized customer service in restaurants: a quantitative assessment of the statistical discrimination explanatory framework.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Zachary W

    2012-01-01

    Despite popular claims that racism and discrimination are no longer salient issues in contemporary society, racial minorities continue to experience disparate treatment in everyday public interactions. The context of full-service restaurants is one such public setting wherein racial minority patrons, African Americans in particular, encounter racial prejudices and discriminate treatment. To further understand the causes of such discriminate treatment within the restaurant context, this article analyzes primary survey data derived from a community sample of servers (N = 200) to assess the explanatory power of one posited explanation—statistical discrimination. Taken as a whole, findings suggest that while a statistical discrimination framework toward understanding variability in servers’ discriminatory behaviors should not be disregarded, the framework’s explanatory utility is limited. Servers’ inferences about the potential profitability of waiting on customers across racial groups explain little of the overall variation in subjects’ self-reported discriminatory behaviors, thus suggesting that other factors not explored in this research are clearly operating and should be the focus of future inquires.

  13. An explanatory model of physics faculty conceptions about the problem-solving process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hsia-Po Vincent

    One commonly stated instructor goal for an introductory calculus-based physics course is to improve students' problem-solving skills. There is, however, a growing body of research evidence to suggest that this goal is not frequently accomplished in a typical college or university physics course. In response to this evidence, researchers and curriculum developers have developed a wide variety of curricular materials and instructional strategies that have been shown to be more effective in improving student problem solving performance. In spite of the availability of these materials and strategies, relatively few physics instructors have chosen to use them. One likely reason is that these materials and strategies are not consistent with the ways that physics instructors think about the teaching and learning of problem solving. This has led the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota to undertake a multistage research program to understand physics instructors' conceptions about the teaching and learning of problem solving. In the first stage, semi-structured interviews with higher education physics instructors in Minnesota were conducted. Based on an in-depth analysis of interview transcripts with six research university physics instructors, an initial explanatory model was developed that described the range and nature of conceptions for these instructors. Part of this initial model identified these instructors' conceptions of the problem-solving process. Around the same time, interviews were also conducted with 24 additional instructors from other types of higher education institutions in Minnesota. The current study is the second stage of that research program. The goal of this study is to modify and refine the part of the initial explanatory model dealing with instructor conceptions about the problem-solving process using the 24 additional interviews. With the expanded sample, this current study seeks to converge on a more viable explanatory

  14. Inaccuracy of Self-Evaluation as Additional Variable for Prediction of Students at Risk of Failing First-Year Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Marietjie; Ackermann, Mia; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2010-01-01

    Early identification of students at risk of failing first-year chemistry allows timely intervention. Cognitive factors alone are insufficient predictors for success; however, non cognitive factors are usually difficult to measure. We have explored the use of demographic and performance variables, as well as the accuracy of self-evaluation as an…

  15. Explanatory Models and Illness Experience of People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research into explanatory models of disease and illness typically explores people’s conceptual understanding, and emphasizes differences between patient and provider models. However, the explanatory models framework of etiology, time and mode of onset of symptoms, pathophysiology, course of sickness, and treatment is built on categories characteristic of biomedical understanding. It is unclear how well these map onto people’s lived experience of illness, and to the extent they do, how they translate. Scholars have previously studied the experience of people living with HIV through the lenses of stigma and identity theory. Here, through in-depth qualitative interviews with 32 people living with HIV in the northeast United States, we explored the experience and meanings of living with HIV more broadly using the explanatory models framework. We found that identity reformation is a major challenge for most people following the HIV diagnosis, and can be understood as a central component of the concept of course of illness. Salient etiological explanations are not biological, but rather social, such as betrayal, or living in a specific cultural milieu, and often self-evaluative. Given that symptoms can now largely be avoided through adherence to treatment, they are most frequently described in terms of observation of others who have not been adherent, or the resolution of symptoms following treatment. The category of pathophysiology is not ordinarily very relevant to the illness experience, as few respondents have any understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis in HIV, nor much interest in it. Treatment has various personal meanings, both positive and negative, often profound. For people to engage successfully in treatment and live successfully with HIV, mechanistic explanation is of little significance. Rather, positive psychological integration of health promoting behaviors is of central importance. PMID:26971285

  16. Mexican immigrants' explanatory model of latent tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Marylyn M

    2005-10-01

    This article reveals how the multiple and disparate explanations of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from the U.S. and Mexico professional health sectors and the popular sector are used to inform the explanatory model (EM) of LTBI for Mexican immigrants residing in the U.S.-Mexico border region. Fourteen immigrants, nine diagnosed with LTBI (n = 9) and their spouses (n = 5) participated in this critical ethnographic study. Because care seeking and treatment decisions are influenced by EMs, the results indicate that it is imperative that interventions for Mexican immigrants with LTBI are built on an understanding of their illness experience and are contextually meaningful.

  17. Perspectives about depression: explanatory models among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta; Killian, Priscilla

    2009-08-01

    Depression is a costly illness, with broad social, economic and personal consequences. It affects many black women, yet only 7% of them receive traditional treatment. Given the chronic nature of depression and its broad impact on women's wellness, there is a need for more research examining both the conceptualization and the interpretation of depression within a socio-cultural context. This qualitative descriptive study used Kleinman's explanatory framework to capture focus group data from 14 African-American women recruited from a primary care center. Data was organized and managed with Atlas/ti 5.12, while content analysis was used to disclose the relevant themes presented in the paper.

  18. Coping with Stress and Types of Burnout: Explanatory Power of Different Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Prado-Abril, Javier; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Gascon, Santiago; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of ‘overload’, ‘lack of development’ and ‘neglect’, belonging to the ‘frenetic’, ‘under-challenged’ and ‘worn-out’ subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429). Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the ‘Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire’, with its three dimensions –overload, lack of development and neglect– as dependent variables, and the ‘Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences’, with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. Results The ‘Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences’ subscales together explained 15% of the ‘overload’ (p<0.001), 9% of the ‘lack of development’ (p<0.001), and 21% of the ‘neglect’ (p<0.001). ‘Overload’ was mainly explained by ‘venting of emotions’ (Beta = 0.34; p<0.001); ‘lack of development’ by ‘cognitive avoidance’ (Beta = 0.21; p<0.001); and ‘neglect’ by ‘behavioural disengagement’ (Beta = 0.40; p<0.001). Other interesting associations were observed. Conclusions These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace. PMID:24551223

  19. Additional variability at the D12S391 STR locus in an Austrian population sample: sequencing data and allele distribution.

    PubMed

    Glock, B; Dauber, E M; Schwartz, D W; Mayr, W R

    1997-12-01

    The highly polymorphic STR locus D12S391 was investigated in an Austrian population sample (N = 150) by PCR-amplification, comparative detection on native and denaturing polyacrylamide gels and solid phase single stranded sequencing of three size variant alleles and several additional alleles. A total of 15 alleles, distinguishable by size under denaturing conditions, could be detected. No deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in the population investigated (P = 0.52). Sequencing of size variants designated 17.3 and 18.3 showed an incomplete (GAT) repeat unit at position two of the tandem region. Additional new sequence variants due to varying compositions of the number of (AGAT) and (AGAC) repeats could be identified. Due to distinct electrophoretical mobilities of alleles of the same size but different sequence structures, denaturing detection conditions should be employed when the aim is standardization.

  20. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Release Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 20l0,that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et aI. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formals of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  1. The explanatory power of the substance view of persons.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Francis J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to offer support for the substance view of persons, the philosophical anthropology defended by Patrick Lee in his essay. In order to accomplish this the author (1) presents a brief definition of the substance view; (2) argues that the substance view has more explanatory power in accounting for why we believe that human persons are intrinsically valuable even when they are not functioning as such (e.g., when on is temporarily comatose), why human persons remain identical to themselves over time, and why it follows from these points that the unborn are human persons; and (3) responds to two arguments that attempt to establish the claim that the early human being is not a unified substance until at least fourteen days after conception.

  2. Categorization and analysis of explanatory writing in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Tracy S.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to mathematical problem-solving processes. The rationale for the study was the recognized importance of mathematical problem-solving, the widely acknowledged challenge of teaching problem-solving skills directly and the evidence in the literature that writing in mathematics provides a tool for learning. The study was carried out in a first-year mathematics course at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Students' written submissions were categorized and analysed through use of an adaptation of a journal entry classification scheme. The scheme successfully observed positive changes over the experimental period in students' level of engagement with the mathematical material and with their stance towards knowledge.

  3. Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Mainzer, A.; Conrow, T.; Masci, F.; Bauer, J.; Dailey, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Harbut, M.; Beck, R.; Wittman, M.; Wright, E. L.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Sonnett, S.; Nugent, C.; Kramer, E.; Stevenson, R.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Fabinsky, B.; Tholen, D.; Papin, M.; Fowler, J.; McCallon, H.

    2015-03-01

    's survey observations. The Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the NEOWISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the NEOWISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the NEOWISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Release products. Instructions for accessing the NEOWISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw NEOWISE images to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the NEOWISE Release data products. The NEOWISE Data Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the NEOWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/neowise/expsup/ NEOWISE is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the Planetary Science Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Explaining and Selecting Treatments for Autism: Parental Explanatory Models in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Tsai, Jia-Ling; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2010-01-01

    Parental explanatory models about autism influence the type of therapy a child receives, the child's well-being, and the parents' own psychological adaptation. This qualitative study explored explanatory models used by parents of children with autism. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 parents of children with autism from a medical center…

  5. Adapting the Concept of Explanatory Models of Illness to the Study of Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biering, Pall

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of adapting Kleinman's concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence and is conducted within the hermeneutic tradition. Data were collected by interviewing 11 violent adolescents, their parents, and their caregivers. Four types of explanatory models representing the adolescent girls',…

  6. Expertise Reversal Effect in Using Explanatory Notes for Readers of Shakespearean Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oksa, Annishka; Kalyuga, Slava; Chandler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The reported study compared the instructional effectiveness of Modern English explanatory interpretations of Shakespearean play extracts integrated line by line into original Elizabethan English text, with a conventional unguided original text condition. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the explanatory notes group reported a lower cognitive load and…

  7. Computer-mediated communication and interpersonal attraction: an experimental test of two explanatory hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2007-12-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the influence of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on interpersonal attraction and (b) to examine two underlying processes in the CMC-interpersonal attraction relationship. We identified two variables that may mediate the influence of CMC on interpersonal attraction: self-disclosure and direct questioning. Focusing on these potential mediating variables, we tested two explanatory hypotheses: the CMC-induced direct questioning hypothesis and the CMC-induced self-disclosure hypothesis. Eighty-one cross-sex dyads were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: text-only CMC, visual CMC, and face-to-face communication. We did not find a direct effect of CMC on interpersonal attraction. However, we did find two positive indirect effects of text-only CMC on interpersonal attraction: text-only CMC stimulated both self-disclosure and direct questioning, both of which in turn enhanced interpersonal attraction. Results are discussed in light of uncertainty reduction theory and CMC theories.

  8. How Iranian Women Conceptualize Mental Health: An Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    MIRABZADEH, Arash; FOROUZAN, Ameneh Setareh; MOHAMMADI, Farahnaz; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; BARADARAN EFTEKHARI, Monir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In Iran, more than 25% of women suffer from mental disorders. Mental disorders and subclinical problems are associated with socioeconomic problem. At the community level, mental health promotion can reduce social damage. The aim of this study as a part of community based mental health promotion intervention was to explore how mental health in Iranian women is viewed. Methods According to a qualitative method in 2012, participants were selected by purposeful sampling from married women 18 to 65 years who are residents in Tehran. Fifteen in depth individual interviews were conducted with regard to the concept of mental health, causal pathway and help-seeking behavior according to explanatory model. Results Mental health was perceived as the same of emotional well-being. It conceptualized not only lack of mental disorder but also sense of satisfaction and healthy functioning. According to participant's view, the causal pathway of mental health problems were classified to individual, familial and social factors. Physical and behavioral problems were related to individual factor, Lack of marital adjustment was one of the most important issues in familial item and in social factor, cultural context and socio-economic problems were extracted. In help seeking process, all of the participants believed that the religion has important effect in mental health. Conclusion Marital adjustment is an important stage in process of mental health in women. PMID:25988094

  9. The explanatory value of the idea of reincarnation.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, I

    1977-05-01

    The idea of reincarnation is presented as having considerable explanatory value for several features of human personality and biology that currently accepted theories do not adequately clarify. Reincarnation is not offered as a substitute for present knowledge derived from genetics and understanding of environmental influences; it may, however, usefully supplement such knowledge. The present paper does not present evidence from cases suggestive of reincarnation. It does, however, cite cases of subjects who have claimed to remember previous lives, most of whose statements have been verified in the course of detailed investigations. For each case, a reference is provided to a detailed published case report furnishing the evidence in that case. The idea of reincarnation may contribute to an improved understanding of such diverse matters as: phobias and philias of childhood; skills not learned in early life; abnormalities of child-parent relationships; vendettas and bellicose nationalism; childhood sexuality and gender identity confusion; birthmarks, congenital deformities, and internal diseases; differences between members of monozygotic twin pairs; and abnormal appetites during pregnancy. Empirical studies of cases of the reincarnation type have so far not provided any evidence that justifies using reincarnation as an explanation for the occurrence of child prodigies of the large inequities in socioeconomic conditions of humans at birth.

  10. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998 - 200 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Oltmans, S.; Coetzee, G.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3 year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional- OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Crist"bal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week- to- week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April- May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  11. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  12. Posatirelin for the treatment of degenerative and vascular dementia: results of explanatory and pragmatic efficacy analyses.

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, G; Stefanini, G; Addolorato, G; Foschi, F; Ricci, C; Bertolotti, P; Voltolini, G; Bonavita, E; Bertoncelli, R; Renzi, G; Bianchini, G; Bonaiuto, S; Giannandrea, E; Cavassini, G; Mazzini, V; Chioma, V; Marzara, G; D'Addetta, G; Totaro, G; Dalmonte, E; Tassini, D; Giungi, F; De Nitto, C; Di Fazio, G; Tessitore, A; Guadagnino, M; Tessitore, E; Spina, P; Luppi, M; Bignamini, A; Peracino, L; Fiorentino, M; Beun-Garbe, D; Poli, A; Ambrosoli, L; Girardello, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to confirm the efficacy and safety of posatirelin (L-pyro-2-aminoadipyl-L-leucyl-L-prolinamide), a synthetic peptide having cholinergic, catecholaminergic and neurotrophic activities, a multicentre, double-blind, controlled study versus placebo was planned in elderly patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, according to National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) criteria, respectively. The trial consisted of a 2-week run-in phase with placebo administered once a day orally, followed by a double-blind period of 3 months, with posatirelin or placebo administered once a day intramuscularly. Efficacy was assessed using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen (GBS) Rating Scale (primary variable) and the Rey Memory Test (secondary variable). Laboratory tests, vital signs and adverse events were monitored. A total of 360 patients were randomized, the intent-to-treat sample (ITT) being made up of 357 patients and the per protocol sample (PP) of 260 patients. Both pragmatic and explanatory analyses showed significant differences between treatment groups in the GBS Rating Scale and the Rey Memory Test, with no difference in the two types of dementia. No difference between treatments was observed in safety variables, the incidence of adverse events in the posatirelin group being 7.3%. The study confirms previous results showing that treatment with posatirelin can improve cognitive and functional abilities of patients suffering from degenerative or vascular dementia.

  13. Examining the Value of a Scaffolded Critique Framework to Promote Argumentative and Explanatory Writings Within an Argument-Based Inquiry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jeong-yoon; Hand, Brian

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the value of using a scaffolded critique framework to promote two different types of writing—argumentative writing and explanatory writing—with different purposes within an argument-based inquiry approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach. A quasi-experimental design with sixth and seventh grade students taught by two teachers was used. A total of 170 students participated in the study, with 87 in the control group (four classes) and 83 in the treatment group (four classes). All students used the SWH templates as an argumentative writing to guide their written work and completed these templates during the SWH investigations of each unit. After completing the SWH investigations, both groups of students were asked to complete the summary writing task as an explanatory writing at the end of each unit. All students' writing samples were scored using analytical frameworks developed for the study. The results indicated that the treatment group performed significantly better on the explanatory writing task than the control group. In addition, the results of the partial correlation suggested that there is a very strong significantly positive relationship between the argumentative writing and the explanatory writing.

  14. Sexual Victimization and Physical Health: An Examination of Explanatory Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Kathleen M.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of research illustrating a significant relationship between a history of sexual victimization and the development of physical health problems; however, few researchers have examined variables that mediate this relationship. The present study examined two potential mediating variables: experiential avoidance and current…

  15. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R2 = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = −131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  16. In Search of Explanatory Frameworks: An Analysis of Richard Feynman's Lecture "Atoms in Motion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Harrison, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the various aspects of explanations that make up an explanatory framework and the notion of pedagogical content knowledge. Analyzes an exemplary set of physics explanations to identify the individual and holistic characteristics of an effective explanation. (Author/SAH)

  17. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming - activating supportive representations of attachment security - on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed.

  18. Attachment Security Balances Perspectives: Effects of Security Priming on Highly Optimistic and Pessimistic Explanatory Styles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanhe; Yan, Mengge; Chen, Henry; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Xianglong; Liu, Xiangping; Lye, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Highly optimistic explanatory style (HOES) and highly pessimistic explanatory style (HPES) are two maladaptive ways to explain the world and may have roots in attachment insecurity. The current study aims to explore the effects of security priming – activating supportive representations of attachment security – on ameliorating these maladaptive explanatory styles. 57 participants with HOES and 57 participants with HPES were randomized into security priming and control conditions. Their scores of overall optimistic attribution were measured before and after priming. Security priming had a moderating effect: the security primed HOES group exhibited lower optimistic attribution, while the security primed HPES group evinced higher scores of optimistic attribution. Furthermore, the security primed HOES group attributed positive outcomes more externally, while the security primed HPES group attributed successful results more internally. The results support the application of security priming interventions on maladaptive explanatory styles. Its potential mechanism and directions for future study are also discussed. PMID:27610092

  19. The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of explanatory depth

    PubMed Central

    Rozenblit, Leonid; Keil, Frank

    2011-01-01

    People feel they understand complex phenomena with far greater precision, coherence, and depth than they really do; they are subject to an illusion—an illusion of explanatory depth. The illusion is far stronger for explanatory knowledge than many other kinds of knowledge, such as that for facts, procedures or narratives. The illusion for explanatory knowledge is most robust where the environment supports real-time explanations with visible mechanisms. We demonstrate the illusion of depth with explanatory knowledge in Studies 1–6. Then we show differences in overconfidence about knowledge across different knowledge domains in Studies 7–10. Finally, we explore the mechanisms behind the initial confidence and behind overconfidence in Studies 11 and 12. Implications for the roles of intuitive theories in models of concepts and cognition are discussed. PMID:21442007

  20. Understanding burnout according to individual differences: ongoing explanatory power evaluation of two models for measuring burnout types

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The classic determination of burnout is by means of the dimensions exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy. A new definition of the syndrome is based on clinical subtypes, consisting of “frenetic” (involved, ambitious, overloaded), “underchallenged” (indifferent, bored, with lack of personal development) and “worn-out” (neglectful, unacknowledged, with little control). The dimensions of overload, lack of development and neglect form a shortened version of this perspective. The aims of this study were to estimate and to compare the explanatory power of both typological models, short and long, with the standard measurement. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey with a randomly sample of university employees (n=409). Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the “Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey” (MBI-GS) dimensions, as dependent variables, and the “Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire” (BCSQ-36 and BCSQ-12) dimensions, as independent variables. Results The BCSQ-36 subscales together explained 53% of ‘exhaustion’ (p<0.001), 59% of ‘cynicism’ (p<0.001) and 37% of ‘efficacy’ (p<0.001), while BCSQ-12 subscales explained 44% of ‘exhaustion’ (p<0.001), 44% of ‘cynicism’ (p<0.001), and 30% of ‘efficacy’ (p<0.001). The difference in the explanatory power of both models was significant for ‘exhaustion’ (p<0.001), and for ‘cynicism’ (p<0.001) and ‘efficacy (p<0.001). Conclusions Both BCSQ-36 and BCSQ-12 demonstrate great explanatory power over the standard MBI-GS, while offering a useful characterization of the syndrome for the evaluation and design of interventions tailored to the characteristics of each individual. The BCSQ-36 may be very useful in mental health services, given that it provides a good deal of information, while the BCSQ-12 could be used as a screening measure in primary care consultations owing to its simplicity and functional nature. PMID:23110723

  1. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Weltz, Kay; Kock, Alison A; Winker, Henning; Attwood, Colin; Sikweyiya, Monwabisi

    2013-01-01

    Shark attacks on humans are high profile events which can significantly influence policies related to the coastal zone. A shark warning system in South Africa, Shark Spotters, recorded 378 white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) sightings at two popular beaches, Fish Hoek and Muizenberg, during 3690 six-hour long spotting shifts, during the months September to May 2006 to 2011. The probabilities of shark sightings were related to environmental variables using Binomial Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). Sea surface temperature was significant, with the probability of shark sightings increasing rapidly as SST exceeded 14 °C and approached a maximum at 18 °C, whereafter it remains high. An 8 times (Muizenberg) and 5 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of sighting a shark was predicted at 18 °C than at 14 °C. Lunar phase was also significant with a prediction of 1.5 times (Muizenberg) and 4 times (Fish Hoek) greater likelihood of a shark sighting at new moon than at full moon. At Fish Hoek, the probability of sighting a shark was 1.6 times higher during the afternoon shift compared to the morning shift, but no diel effect was found at Muizenberg. A significant increase in the number of shark sightings was identified over the last three years, highlighting the need for ongoing research into shark attack mitigation. These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town.

  2. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  3. Structured variable selection with q-values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When some of the regressors can act on both the response and other explanatory variables, the already challenging problem of selecting variables when the number of covariates exceeds the sample size becomes more difficult. A motivating example is a metabolic study in mice that has diet groups and gu...

  4. Meteorological influences on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence in northwest Nigeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Monaghan, Andrew; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary; Hopson, Thomas; Leckebusch, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    Northwest Nigeria is a region with high risk of bacterial meningitis. Since the first documented epidemic of meningitis in Nigeria in 1905, the disease has been endemic in the northern part of the country, with epidemics occurring regularly. In this study we examine the influence of climate on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence and epidemics. Monthly aggregate counts of clinically confirmed hospital-reported cases of meningitis were collected in northwest Nigeria for the 22-year period spanning 1990-2011. Several generalized linear statistical models were fit to the monthly meningitis counts, including generalized additive models. Explanatory variables included monthly records of temperatures, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, sunshine and dustiness from weather stations nearest to the hospitals, and a time series of polysaccharide vaccination efficacy. The effects of other confounding factors -- i.e., mainly non-climatic factors for which records were not available -- were estimated as a smooth, monthly-varying function of time in the generalized additive models. Results reveal that the most important explanatory climatic variables are mean maximum monthly temperature, relative humidity and dustiness. Accounting for confounding factors (e.g., social processes) in the generalized additive models explains more of the year-to-year variation of meningococcal disease compared to those generalized linear models that do not account for such factors. Promising results from several models that included only explanatory variables that preceded the meningitis case data by 1-month suggest there may be potential for prediction of meningitis in northwest Nigeria to aid decision makers on this time scale.

  5. Joint perceptual decision-making: a case study in explanatory pluralism

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Dale, Rick; Yoshimi, Jeff; Kello, Chris T.; Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally different approaches to the study of cognition have been viewed as competing explanatory frameworks. An alternative view, explanatory pluralism, regards different approaches to the study of cognition as complementary ways of studying the same phenomenon, at specific temporal and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision-making task (Bahrami et al., 2010), where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically assess and complement approaches. PMID:24795679

  6. Over-Reporting in Handwashing Self-Reports: Potential Explanatory Factors and Alternative Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Contzen, Nadja; De Pasquale, Sandra; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Handwashing interventions are a priority in development and emergency aid programs. Evaluation of these interventions is essential to assess the effectiveness of programs; however, measuring handwashing is quite difficult. Although observations are considered valid, they are time-consuming and cost-ineffective; self-reports are highly efficient but considered invalid because desirable behaviour tends to be over-reported. Socially desirable responding has been claimed to be the main cause of inflated self-reports, but its underlying factors and mechanisms are understudied. The present study investigated socially desirable responding and additional potential explanatory factors for over-reported handwashing to identify indications for measures which mitigate over-reporting. Additionally, a script-based covert recall, an alternative interview question intended to mitigate recall errors and socially desirable responding, was developed and tested. Cross-sectional data collection was conducted in the Borena Zone, Ethiopia, through 2.5-hour observations and 1-hour interviews with the primary caregivers in households. A total sample of N = 554 was surveyed. Data were analysed with correlation and multiple regression analyses and dependent t-tests. Over-reporting of handwashing was associated with factors assumed to be involved in (1) socially desirable responding, (2) encoding and recall of information, and (3) dissonance processes. The latter two factor groups explained over-reported handwashing beyond socially desirable responding. The alternative interview question—script-based covert recall—reduced over-reporting compared to conventional self-reports. Although the difficulties involved in measuring handwashing by self-reports and observations are widely known, the present study is the first to investigate the factors which explain over-reporting of handwashing. This research contributes to the limited evidence base on a highly important subject: how to evaluate

  7. Consumer-operated service program members' explanatory models of mental illness and recovery.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Janet M

    2014-10-01

    Incorporating individuals' understandings and explanations of mental illness into service delivery offers benefits relating to increased service relevance and meaning. Existing research delineates explanatory models of mental illness held by individuals in home, outpatient, and hospital-based contexts; research on models held by those in peer-support contexts is notably absent. In this article, I describe themes identified within and across explanatory models of mental illness and recovery held by mental health consumers (N = 24) at one peer center, referred to as a consumer-operated service center (COSP). Participants held explanatory models inclusive of both developmental stressors and biomedical causes, consistent with a stress-diathesis model (although no participant explicitly referenced such). Explicit incorporation of stress-diathesis constructs into programming at this COSP offers the potential of increasing service meaning and relevance. Identifying and incorporating shared meanings across individuals' understandings of mental illness likewise can increase relevance and meaning for particular subgroups of service users.

  8. Do Primary School Science Books for Children Show a Concern for Explanatory Understanding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, L. D.; Newton, D. P.; Blake, A.; Brown, K.

    2002-02-01

    Explanatory understanding is a valued goal in science education and yet research evidence suggests that, for a variety of reasons, it is not always a major concern of primary science teachers. Do primary science books show a concern for explanatory understanding? Using a structured analysis schedule, this study explored the extent to which 76 current primary science textbooks, intended for use with older primary children (7-11 years), showed a concern for explanatory understanding. The results indicated that the majority of the books did not reflect such a concern. Nevertheless, some books did include causal and intentional explanations. These could be a useful resource in that they could help shape both teachers' and children's conceptions of what counts as understanding in science.

  9. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Impact hypothesis for offshore wind farms: Explanatory models for species distribution at extremely exposed rocky areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Šaškov, Aleksej; Dahlgren, Thomas G.

    2014-07-01

    The increasing need for renewable and clean energy production is likely to result in a diversification of locations for the implementation of offshore wind farms which have been so far predominantly sited on soft substrata. In contrast, offshore wind turbines placed on rocky reefs in highly exposed areas are much less common and the impacts on local flora and fauna can only be hypothesized. On the Western coast of Norway, a rocky reef with a highly complex topography has been chosen to be the first full-scale offshore wind farm in the country. Underwater video analyses and multibeam bathymetry data with a generalized linear model were used opportunistically to investigate the influence of geomorphic explanatory variables on the occurrence of selected taxa (algae, sea urchins and sea stars) identified in the study area. Combining video observations and multibeam bathymetry in a generalized linear model revealed that the geomorphic descriptors: aspect, slope, rugosity, and benthic position indexes (BPI), were of significance for algae, sea urchins and sea stars at Havsul and served in showing their habitat preferences. Kelp occurred in areas of high rugosity, on gentle slopes, at elevated areas with a southerly orientation and on the sheltered side of rock or bedrock. Thus, construction disturbance that modify those variables may lead to a change in the area preferred by kelp. Turbines that shade southerly aspects may affect small kelp plants in reducing their available habitat. Sea urchins were more abundant on steep slopes and both sea stars and sea urchins showed a preference for a complex local relief (high rugosity) and heterogeneity in fine and broad elevation (shown by BPI). Thus, foundations and cable route preparation may significantly change the slope, rugosity of BPI broad, which will change the basis for sea urchin populations. It may likewise significantly change the rugosity or BPI (fine or broad), which may change the distribution of sea stars. The

  11. Developing An Explanatory Prediction Model Based On Rainfall Patterns For Cholera Outbreaks In Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Merwe, M. R.; Du Preez, M.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera has become endemic in coastal and inland areas within the tropics as well as areas outside of the tropics in Africa. Climate conditions and weather patterns differ between areas reporting cholera cases in Africa. Some areas experience two rainfall seasons compared to areas with only one rainfall season in a year. Further, climate variability or ENSO events affect local weather conditions differently. La Niña, i.e. cold events lead to higher than normal rainfall in areas in southern Africa compared to areas close to the equator in eastern Africa which report less than normal rainfall. Time series analysis of cholera cases and rainfall data at different spatial resolutions highlight the overlap of the rainfall season with the reporting of cholera cases. Cholera cases are also reported in between rainy seasons in different areas but the incidence is significantly less compared to the rainy season. An increase in the intensity of outbreaks is also noted during the rainy season following a drier than normal 'dry' season. This necessitates the understanding of the reasons for the observed correlation between rainfall season and cholera outbreaks in order to develop a prediction model which can accurately predict the likelihood of an outbreak. Due to the complexities associated with accurately predicting weather data more than seven days ahead of time it is necessary to identify global drivers with a lagged effect on local rainfall patterns. Climate variability, i.e. ENSO is investigated at different temporal scales; spatial locations and time lags. Sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) measured closed to the equator and in the southern parts of the Indian Ocean are more closely associated with rainfall anomalies at specific time lags in equatorial, East African, south East African and central African areas compared to SSTa measured in different regions in the Pacific Ocean. An explanatory prediction model is developed for conditions in Mozambique (coastal

  12. The Health Belief Model as an explanatory framework in communication research: exploring parallel, serial, and moderated mediation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina L; Jensen, Jakob D; Scherr, Courtney L; Brown, Natasha R; Christy, Katheryn; Weaver, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) posits that messages will achieve optimal behavior change if they successfully target perceived barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, and threat. While the model seems to be an ideal explanatory framework for communication research, theoretical limitations have limited its use in the field. Notably, variable ordering is currently undefined in the HBM. Thus, it is unclear whether constructs mediate relationships comparably (parallel mediation), in sequence (serial mediation), or in tandem with a moderator (moderated mediation). To investigate variable ordering, adults (N = 1,377) completed a survey in the aftermath of an 8-month flu vaccine campaign grounded in the HBM. Exposure to the campaign was positively related to vaccination behavior. Statistical evaluation supported a model where the indirect effect of exposure on behavior through perceived barriers and threat was moderated by self-efficacy (moderated mediation). Perceived barriers and benefits also formed a serial mediation chain. The results indicate that variable ordering in the Health Belief Model may be complex, may help to explain conflicting results of the past, and may be a good focus for future research.

  13. How Robust Is Linear Regression with Dummy Variables?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankmeyer, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Researchers in education and the social sciences make extensive use of linear regression models in which the dependent variable is continuous-valued while the explanatory variables are a combination of continuous-valued regressors and dummy variables. The dummies partition the sample into groups, some of which may contain only a few observations.…

  14. Explanatory models and mental health treatment: is vodou an obstacle to psychiatric treatment in rural Haiti?

    PubMed

    Khoury, Nayla M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Keys, Hunter M; Brewster, Aimee-Rika T; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2012-09-01

    Vodou as an explanatory framework for illness has been considered an impediment to biomedical psychiatric treatment in rural Haiti by some scholars and Haitian professionals. According to this perspective, attribution of mental illness to supernatural possession drives individuals to seek care from houngan-s (Vodou priests) and other folk practitioners, rather than physicians, psychologists, or psychiatrists. This study investigates whether explanatory models of mental illness invoking supernatural causation result in care-seeking from folk practitioners and resistance to biomedical treatment. The study comprised 31 semi-structured interviews with community leaders, traditional healers, religious leaders, and biomedical providers, 10 focus group discussions with community members, community health workers, health promoters, community leaders, and church members; and four in-depth case studies of individuals exhibiting mental illness symptoms conducted in Haiti's Central Plateau. Respondents invoked multiple explanatory models for mental illness and expressed willingness to receive treatment from both traditional and biomedical practitioners. Folk practitioners expressed a desire to collaborate with biomedical providers and often referred patients to hospitals. At the same time, respondents perceived the biomedical system as largely ineffective for treating mental health problems. Explanatory models rooted in Vodou ethnopsychology were not primary barriers to pursuing psychiatric treatment. Rather, structural factors including scarcity of treatment resources and lack of psychiatric training among health practitioners created the greatest impediments to biomedical care for mental health concerns in rural Haiti.

  15. Making Sense of a Globalizing World: Adolescents' Explanatory Frameworks for Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Poverty, like other persistent social problems, has taken on new dimensions and scale due to globalization. This research examined 20 adolescents' explanatory frameworks for global poverty during their participation in an international studies program. International development theories were employed to analyze the range of their responses. The…

  16. Parental Explanatory Models of Child's Intellectual Disability: A Q Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Aesha; Montgomery, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study with families caring for an individual with an intellectual disability in a mid-sized Indian city explored the diverse explanatory models that parents constructed of causes, preferred treatment approaches and perceived social effects of their child's intellectual disability. Seventeen mothers and three fathers rank ordered 48 disability…

  17. General Education in Health Science-Focused Institutions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of general education curricula at baccalaureate colleges of health science in relationship to Bergquist's Career-Based Model of curriculum. Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach, the model was tested by examining whether the curricula were both prescriptive and specific.…

  18. Accentuate the Positive: The Relationship between Positive Explanatory Style and Academic Achievement of Prospective Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    This research examines 480 current event-explanation units using the CAVE technique (Schulman, Castellon, & Seligman, 1989) to note the relationship between positive and negative explanatory style and achievement of prospective early childhood and upper elementary female teachers. This study found a significant positive relationship between…

  19. Explanatory and Persuasive Letter Writing: Selected Results from the Second National Assessment of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is an information-gathering project that surveys the educational attainments of 9 year olds, 13 year olds, 17 year olds, and adults (ages 26 to 35) in ten learning areas, one of which is writing. This report focuses on persuasive and explanatory letter writing, representing two basic aims of…

  20. Multivariate Graphical Methods Provide an Insightful Way to Formulate Explanatory Hypotheses from Limited Categorical Data

    PubMed Central

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Araujo, Katy L.B.; Pisani, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Graphical methods for generating explanatory hypotheses from limited categorical data are described and illustrated. Study Design and Setting Univariate, bivariate, multivariate, and multiplicative graphical methods were applied to clinical data regarding very ill older persons. The data to which these methods were applied were limited as to their nature (e.g., nominal categorical data) or quality (e.g., data subject to measurement error and missing values). Such limitations make confirmatory inference problematic but might still allow for meaningful generation of new explanatory hypotheses in some cases. Results A striking feature of the graphical results from this study’s major illustrative application was that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge occurred rarely and nearly always co-occurred with two or more other mental health conditions. These results suggest the explanatory hypothesis that PTSD in this context is less attributable to single traumatic causes than to acute illnesses contributing to a cascade of mental health decrements. Conclusion Illustrative applications of a sequence of graphical procedures yield more informative and less abstract representations of limited data than do descriptive statistics alone, and by doing so, they aid in the formulation of explanatory hypotheses. PMID:21889310

  1. The Explanatory and Predictive Relationship Pattern between University Students' Goal Orientation Behaviours and Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpur, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the explanatory and predictive relationship pattern between university students' goal orientation behaviours and their academic achievement. The study group consisted of 259 university students. A "2x2 Achievement Goal Orientations Scale" was used to determine the students' goal orientation…

  2. Explanatory Models of Illness: A Study of Within-Culture Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Medin, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The current studies explore causal models of heart attack and depression generated from American healers whom use distinct explanatory frameworks. Causal chains leading to two illnesses, heart attack and depression, were elicited from participant groups: registered nurses (RNs), energy healers, RN energy healers, and undergraduates. The…

  3. Technology Adoption in Secondary Mathematics Teaching in Kenya: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau, Leonard Mwathi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the factors related to technology adoption by secondary mathematics teachers in Nyandarua and Nairobi counties in the Republic of Kenya. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach, I collected qualitative data from interviews and classroom observations of six teachers to better understand statistical results from the…

  4. Explanatory and pragmatic clinical trials: a primer and application to a recent asthma trial.

    PubMed

    Sackett, David L

    2011-01-01

    Most clinical trials assessing the role of a specific intervention attempt to answer an explanatory question: under ideal circumstances of risk and responsiveness, can the expert care of individual with a particular condition reduce their risks of a relevant but restricted set of outcomes? Such explanatory trials (also called efficacy trials) are of direct relevance to expert clinicians and their highly compliant patients. Another question, potentially of broader clinical or health care policy relevance is: Does this treatment improve patient-important outcomes when applied by typical clinicians to typical patients? Answering this latter question is the goal of pragmatic trial, also labeled by some as "management" or "effectiveness" trial. The methodological and organizational differences between explanatory and pragmatic trials include, among others, patients eligibility (restricted to highly responsive and compliant patients in explanatory trials vs. everyone with condition of interest in pragmatic trials), experimental and comparator intervention (blinded and inflexible with strict instructions vs. flexible with cross-over permitted and no blinding), types of practitioners (only those with documented high expertise vs. all who usually provide given mode of care), and outcome measurement (often limited to biologic effects vs. broad overall health effects sometimes based on administrative data bases on mortality and utilization). Those aspects of study design and conduct and their role in determining a place of an intervention in clinical practice are reviewed in this paper.

  5. Why Do Adolescents Use Drugs? A Common Sense Explanatory Model from the Social Actor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia; Rodriguez-Cerda, Oscar; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Analysis was made of the common sense explanations of 60 Mexican teenage illicit drug users in rehabilitation to determine their drug use debut. The explanatory model was separated into three blocks, two of which contained common sense aspects: interaction between subject's plane and the collectivity; and relationship between subject's interior…

  6. Parents' and Speech and Language Therapists' Explanatory Models of Language Development, Language Delay and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Phillips, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Parental and speech and language therapist (SLT) explanatory models may affect engagement with speech and language therapy, but there has been dearth of research in this area. This study investigated parents' and SLTs' views about language development, delay and intervention in pre-school children with language delay. Aims: The aims…

  7. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-02

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics.

  8. Using explanatory crop models to develop simple tools for Advanced Life Support system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavazzoni, J.

    2004-01-01

    System-level analyses for Advanced Life Support require mathematical models for various processes, such as for biomass production and waste management, which would ideally be integrated into overall system models. Explanatory models (also referred to as mechanistic or process models) would provide the basis for a more robust system model, as these would be based on an understanding of specific processes. However, implementing such models at the system level may not always be practicable because of their complexity. For the area of biomass production, explanatory models were used to generate parameters and multivariable polynomial equations for basic models that are suitable for estimating the direction and magnitude of daily changes in canopy gas-exchange, harvest index, and production scheduling for both nominal and off-nominal growing conditions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a computational(ist) neurobiology of language: Correlational, integrated, and explanatory neurolinguistics*

    PubMed Central

    Poeppel, David

    2014-01-01

    We outline what an integrated approach to language research that connects experimental, theoretical, and neurobiological domains of inquiry would look like, and ask to what extent unification is possible across domains. At the center of the program is the idea that computational/representational (CR) theories of language must be used to investigate its neurobiological (NB) foundations. We consider different ways in which CR and NB might be connected. These are (1) A Correlational way, in which NB computation is correlated with the CR theory; (2) An Integrated way, in which NB data provide crucial evidence for choosing among CR theories; and (3) an Explanatory way, in which properties of NB explain why a CR theory is the way it is. We examine various questions concerning the prospects for Explanatory connections in particular, including to what extent it makes sense to say that NB could be specialized for particular computations. PMID:25914888

  10. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M.; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics. PMID:27134568

  11. `Quantum Mechanics' and `Scientific Explanation' An Explanatory Strategy Aiming at Providing `Understanding'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzidaki, Pandora

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies persistently indicate that the usual explanatory strategies used in quantum mechanics (QM) instruction fail, in general, to yield understanding. In this study, we propose an instructional intervention, which: (a) incorporates into its subject matter a critical comparison of QM scientific content with the fundamental epistemological and ontological commitments of the prominent philosophical theories of explanation, a weak form of which we meet in QM teaching; (b) illuminates the reasons of their failure in the quantum domain; and (c) implements an explanatory strategy highly inspired by the epistemological pathways through which, during the birth-process of QM, science has gradually reached understanding. This strategy, an inherent element of which is the meta-cognitive and meta-scientific thinking, aims at leading learners not only to an essential understanding of QM worldview, but to a deep insight into the ‘Nature of Science’ as well.

  12. Toxin or medicine? Explanatory models of radon in Montana health mines.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Barbra E

    2007-03-01

    Environmental protection and public health agencies in the United States and elsewhere label radioactive radon gas a toxic environmental hazard and a major cause of lung cancer. Paradoxically, in Europe and Japan radon gas is also used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory, as one choice in the spectrum of conventional medical care. Although it is possible to find radon therapy in the United States, it exists only as an unconventional practice in Montana "radon health mines." In this article, I examine the use of radon therapy by Americans despite intensive public health education media campaigns. Using the notion of explanatory models as an analytical framework, I argue that American health mine clients adjust or replace "toxic models" of radon with new kinds of explanatory models that allow radon to be redefined as a healing substance. The manner of this adjustment varies according to peoples' individual needs, their own preexisting cultural models and experiences, and their individual personalities; the source of authoritative knowledge accepted by each person is a strong influence. Through these altered explanatory models, mine clients are able to view their use of radon therapy as a rational course of action.

  13. 'Hypotheses, everywhere only hypotheses!': on some contexts of Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology.

    PubMed

    Feest, Uljana

    2007-03-01

    In 1894, Wilhelm Dilthey published an article in which he formulated a critique of what he called 'explanatory psychology', contrasting it with his own conception of 'descriptive psychology'. Dilthey's descriptive psychology, in turn, was to provide the basis for Dilthey's specific philosophy of the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In this paper, I contextualize Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology. I show that while this critique comes across as very broad and sweeping, he in fact had specific opponents in mind, namely, scholars who, like him, attempted to theorize about the relationship between the individual and society, between psychology and the other human sciences. Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology is the flipside of his critique of sociology, which he had already formulated. He challenged both because he felt that they gave the wrong kind of answer to the task of overcoming metaphysics within the human sciences. In particular, I identify the founders of Völkerpsychologie, Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and (more importantly) their student, Georg Simmel, as Dilthey's targets. I provide textual and historical evidence for this thesis.

  14. The symmetry rule: a seven-year study of symptoms and explanatory labels among Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Noel T; Hallman, William K; Kipen, Howard M

    2008-12-01

    Noticing medical symptoms can cause one to search for explanatory labels such as "ate bad food" or even "exposed to anthrax," and perhaps these labels may cause new symptom reports. The present study examined whether there is empirical support for this symptom-label "symmetry rule." We interviewed veterans (N= 362) from the Gulf War Registry in 1995 and 2002 about their medical symptoms and about their exposure to war-related hazards and stressors. Health symptom reports were strongly correlated between the two time periods and showed relatively stable mean levels, whereas recall of war-related exposures was notably unstable. Veterans starting with fewer medical symptoms recalled fewer war-related exposures seven years later. Initial recollection of chemical and biological warfare exposure (but not other exposures) longitudinally predicted novel medical symptoms. The findings generally support the symmetry rule hypotheses, although the evidence for the label to symptom link was less strong. The findings account for some variability in symptoms and exposure recall over time, but they do not, on their own, account for the Gulf War veterans' elevated number of unexplained medical symptoms.

  15. Effects of Motivational and Cognitive Variables on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Ana; Tonks, Stephen M.; Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how motivational and cognitive variables predict reading comprehension, and whether each predictor variable adds unique explanatory power when statistically controlling for the others. Fourth-grade students (N = 205) completed measures of reading comprehension in September and December of the same year, and measures of…

  16. Interannual rainfall variability and SOM-based circulation classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolski, Piotr; Jack, Christopher; Tadross, Mark; van Aardenne, Lisa; Lennard, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) based classifications of synoptic circulation patterns are increasingly being used to interpret large-scale drivers of local climate variability, and as part of statistical downscaling methodologies. These applications rely on a basic premise of synoptic climatology, i.e. that local weather is conditioned by the large-scale circulation. While it is clear that this relationship holds in principle, the implications of its implementation through SOM-based classification, particularly at interannual and longer time scales, are not well recognized. Here we use a SOM to understand the interannual synoptic drivers of climate variability at two locations in the winter and summer rainfall regimes of South Africa. We quantify the portion of variance in seasonal rainfall totals that is explained by year to year differences in the synoptic circulation, as schematized by a SOM. We furthermore test how different spatial domain sizes and synoptic variables affect the ability of the SOM to capture the dominant synoptic drivers of interannual rainfall variability. Additionally, we identify systematic synoptic forcing that is not captured by the SOM classification. The results indicate that the frequency of synoptic states, as schematized by a relatively disaggregated SOM (7 × 9) of prognostic atmospheric variables, including specific humidity, air temperature and geostrophic winds, captures only 20-45% of interannual local rainfall variability, and that the residual variance contains a strong systematic component. Utilising a multivariate linear regression framework demonstrates that this residual variance can largely be explained using synoptic variables over a particular location; even though they are used in the development of the SOM their influence, however, diminishes with the size of the SOM spatial domain. The influence of the SOM domain size, the choice of SOM atmospheric variables and grid-point explanatory variables on the levels of explained

  17. Impact of migration on explanatory models of illness and addiction severity in patients with drug dependence in a Paris suburb.

    PubMed

    Taïeb, Olivier; Chevret, Sylvie; Moro, Marie Rose; Weiss, Mitchell G; Biadi-Imhof, Anne; Reyre, Aymeric; Baubet, Thierry

    2012-03-01

    Objectives of this study were to assess explanatory models (considering illness experience and meaning), addiction severity among patients with drug dependence, and the role of migration. Adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue interviews were conducted with 70 outpatients in a Paris suburb. Among them, 42 were either first- or second-generation immigrants, most from North Africa. Explanatory models were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively according to migration status, assessing potential confounders with multivariate linear models. Explanatory models were heterogeneous. Compared with nonmigrants, migrants reported fewer somatic and violence-related symptoms. They attributed the causes of their addiction more frequently to social and magico-religious factors and less to psychological factors. Conversely, no difference in addiction severity was found between migrants and nonmigrants. Considering local patterns of illness experience and meaning of drug dependence is a critical component of culturally sensitive clinical care.

  18. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Ozonesonde Precision, Accuracy and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, Anne M.; McPeters, R. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the SAFARI-2000 campaign, additional launches of ozonesondes were made at Irene, South Africa and at Lusaka, Zambia. These represent campaign augmentations to the SHADOZ database described in this paper. This network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 profiles from ozonesondes and radiosondes during the period 1998-2000. (Since that time, two more stations, one in southern Africa, have joined SHADOZ). Archived data are available at: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/shadoz>. Uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in stratospheric ozone profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite and ground-based instruments; (3) possible biases from station-to-station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%; (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are in good agreement (2-10%) with independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and with overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in groundbased-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  19. Winter respiratory C losses provide explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.; Gessler, A.; Zielis, S.; Bernhofer, C.; Carrara, A.; Grünwald, T.; Havránková, K.; Heinesch, B.; Herbst, M.; Ibrom, A.; Knohl, A.; Lagergren, F.; Law, B. E.; Marek, M.; Matteucci, G.; McCaughey, J. H.; Minerbi, S.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Olejnik, J.; Pavelka, M.; Pilegaard, K.; Pita, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Sanz Sánchez, M. J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Urbaniak, M.; Valentini, R.; Varlagin, A.; Vesala, T.; Vincke, C.; Wu, J.; Buchmann, N.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g., climate and nutrients) are not entirely understood yet, particularly when considering the influence of past periods. Here we explored the explanatory power of the compensation day (cDOY)—defined as the day of year when winter net carbon losses are compensated by spring assimilation—for NEPc in 26 forests in Europe, North America, and Australia, using different NEPc integration methods. We found cDOY to be a particularly powerful predictor for NEPc of temperate evergreen needleleaf forests (R2 = 0.58) and deciduous broadleaf forests (R2 = 0.68). In general, the latest cDOY correlated with the lowest NEPc. The explanatory power of cDOY depended on the integration method for NEPc, forest type, and whether the site had a distinct winter net respiratory carbon loss or not. The integration methods starting in autumn led to better predictions of NEPc from cDOY then the classical calendar method starting 1 January. Limited explanatory power of cDOY for NEPc was found for warmer sites with no distinct winter respiratory loss period. Our findings highlight the importance of the influence of winter processes and the delayed responses of previous seasons' climatic conditions on current year's NEPc. Such carry-over effects may contain information from climatic conditions, carbon storage levels, and hydraulic traits of several years back in time.

  20. Are explanatory trials ethical? Shifting the burden of justification in clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Borgerson, Kirstin

    2013-08-01

    Most phase III clinical trials today are explanatory. Because explanatory, or efficacy, trials test hypotheses under "ideal" conditions, they are not well suited to providing guidance on decisions made in most clinical care contexts. Pragmatic trials, which test hypotheses under "usual" conditions, are often better suited to this task. Yet, pragmatic, or effectiveness, trials are infrequently carried out. This mismatch between the design of clinical trials and the needs of health care professionals is frustrating for everyone involved, and explains some of the challenges inherent in attempts to enhance knowledge translation and encourage evidence-based practice. The situation is more than simply frustrating, however; it is potentially unethical. Clinical trials must be socially valuable in order to (1) warrant the risks they impose on human research subjects and (2) fairly and efficiently assess new clinical interventions. Most bioethicists would agree that trials that have no social value, for instance, because their results do not have the potential to advance clinical care, should not be performed. What is less widely appreciated is that given limited research resources, trials that are more socially valuable should be preferred to trials that are less socially valuable when all else is equal. With respect to clinical trial design, I argue that while explanatory trials often have some social value, many have less social value than their pragmatic counterparts. On the basis of this general ethical assessment, I provide a preliminary defense of the position that clinical researchers should aim to conduct pragmatic trials, that is, that researchers face a burden of justification related to any idealizing elements added to trial designs.

  1. Land use as an explanatory factor for potential phosphorus loss risk, assessed by P indices and their governing parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Vogt, Rolf D; Lu, Xueqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lü, Changwei; Mohr, Christian W; Zhu, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The total level of phosphorus (P) and the distribution of P pools in the topsoil are significantly affected by the excessive application of mineral and organic fertilizers connected with intensive agriculture. This leads to an increased potential risk for P loss, and then contributes to freshwater eutrophication. Soil test P (STP), P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) are commonly applied as proxies for assessing the risk of P loss. Although conceptually based, the empirical relationships between these operationally defined proxies and the actual P flux exhibit large spatial variations. Herein, a comprehensive synoptic study and monitoring of soil has been conducted in a watershed in north-eastern China. A set of conventional indicators for soil P loss risk were measured along with the main P pools, P sorption indices, texture, organic matter, as well as Fe and Al oxides and other mineral compositions. Moreover, detailed soil P speciation was conducted using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, phosphatase activities in the soils were determined for each land use soil category. The results reflected that the soil content of total P, total inorganic P and STP increased significantly following the order of increasing management intensity. STP, being strongly coupled to the application of P fertilizers, was a strong explanatory factor for the spatial differences in DPS - both between and within different land uses. The dominant inorganic and organic P species in the soils were orthophosphate and monoester-P, respectively. Their contents were oppositely correlated with the degree of management influence, with the amount of orthophosphate positively related. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP) represented the highest activities among the four representative phosphatases, i.e. enzymes that hydrolyze organic P - releasing labile orthophosphate. Orchard soils were found to contain the highest levels of monoester P

  2. Regression Analysis of Stage Variability for West-Central Florida Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.; Ellison, Donald L.; Swancar, Amy

    2008-01-01

    The variability in a lake's stage depends upon many factors, including surface-water flows, meteorological conditions, and hydrogeologic characteristics near the lake. An understanding of the factors controlling lake-stage variability for a population of lakes may be helpful to water managers who set regulatory levels for lakes. The goal of this study is to determine whether lake-stage variability can be predicted using multiple linear regression and readily available lake and basin characteristics defined for each lake. Regressions were evaluated for a recent 10-year period (1996-2005) and for a historical 10-year period (1954-63). Ground-water pumping is considered to have affected stage at many of the 98 lakes included in the recent period analysis, and not to have affected stage at the 20 lakes included in the historical period analysis. For the recent period, regression models had coefficients of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.60 to 0.74, and up to five explanatory variables. Standard errors ranged from 21 to 37 percent of the average stage variability. Net leakage was the most important explanatory variable in regressions describing the full range and low range in stage variability for the recent period. The most important explanatory variable in the model predicting the high range in stage variability was the height over median lake stage at which surface-water outflow would occur. Other explanatory variables in final regression models for the recent period included the range in annual rainfall for the period and several variables related to local and regional hydrogeology: (1) ground-water pumping within 1 mile of each lake, (2) the amount of ground-water inflow (by category), (3) the head gradient between the lake and the Upper Floridan aquifer, and (4) the thickness of the intermediate confining unit. Many of the variables in final regression models are related to hydrogeologic characteristics, underscoring the importance of ground

  3. Classification of natural and supernatural causes of mental distress. Development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Eisenbruch, M

    1990-11-01

    This paper describes the background and development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire designed to explore how people from different cultures explain mental distress. A 45-item questionnaire was developed with items derived from the Murdock et al. categories, with additional items covering western notions of physiological causation and stress. The questionnaire was administered to 261 people, mostly college students. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis shows four clusters of mental distress: a) stress; b) western physiological; c) nonwestern physiological; and d) supernatural. These clusters form two dimensions: western physiological vs. supernatural and impersonal vs. personalistic explanations. Natural and stress items are separated from supernatural and nonwestern physiological items along the first dimension. Brain damage, physical illness, and genetic defects have the greatest separation along the first dimension. Being hot, the body being out of balance, and wind currents passing through the body most strongly represent the non-western physiological category. The questionnaire has the potential to be used for community health screening and for monitoring patient care, as well as with students in the health sciences and with health practitioners.

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in prostate cancer survival: A review of the evidence and explanatory factors.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jens; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Although survival rates after prostate cancer diagnosis have improved in the past two decades, survival analyses regarding the socioeconomic status (SES) suggest inequalities indicating worse prognosis for lower SES groups. An overview of the current literature is lacking and moreover, there is an ongoing discussion about the underlying causes but evidence is comparatively sparse. Several patient, disease and health care related factors are discussed to have an important impact on disparities in survival. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to sum up the current evidence of survival inequalities and the contribution of different potential explanatory factors among prostate cancer patients. The PubMed database was screened for relevant articles published between January 2005 and September 2014 revealing 330 potentially eligible publications. After systematic review process, 46 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. About 75% of the studies indicate a significant association between low SES and worse survival among prostate cancer patients in the fully adjusted model. Overall, hazard ratios (low versus high SES) range from 1.02 to 3.57. A decrease of inequalities over the years was not identified. 8 studies examined the impact of explanatory factors on the association between SES and survival by progressive adjustment indicating mediating effects of comorbidity, stage at diagnosis and treatment modalities. Eventually, an apparent majority of the obtained studies indicates lower survival among patients with lower SES. The few studies that intend to explain inequalities found out instructive results regarding different contributing factors but evidence is still insufficient.

  5. Effects of executive impairments on maladaptive explanatory styles in substance abusers: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    García, Antonio Verdejo; Torrecillas, Francisca López; de Arcos, Francisco Aguilar; García, Miguel Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Our study examined the relation between neuropsychological impairment of executive functions and explanatory styles, according to the Abramson model of learned helplessness in humans, in a sample of substance abusers. Thirty-eight polysubstance abusers were assessed during an abstinence period using a selective neuropsychological battery for the evaluation of the executive functions, as well as the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) for the assessment of the three dimensions of explanatory style: Internality-Externality, Stability-Instability and Globality-Specificity. Multiple regression analyses showed significant relationships among performance on different neuropsychological tasks sensitive to executive functions and characteristic cognitive styles. The results showed the performance on cognitive flexibility and response inhibition tasks is directly related to making more internal attributions for positive situations, and inversely related to the appearance of more stable attributions for negative events. Likewise, adequate performance on working memory tasks was related to development of more global attributions for failures. These results are partially congruent with the learned helplessness model and particularly relevant for the clinical management of substance abusers and the success on the treatment and rehabilitation of these subjects.

  6. Experimental reconstruction of monsoon drought variability for Australasia using tree rings and corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Baker, Patrick; Palmer, Jonathan; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Cook, Garry

    2008-06-01

    An experimental reconstruction uses three well-dated, annually-resolved proxies from Australasia (0-40°S, 95-155°E) to provide large-scale information on Sep-Jan Australasian monsoon variability based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for 1787-2002. The proxies are: (1) a ring width chronology of Callitris intratropica for northern Australia (1847-2006) (2) a tree-ring and coral-based reconstruction of the Oct-Nov PDSI (1787-2003) for Java, Indonesia; and (3) a rainfall reconstruction for northeastern Australia (1631-2002) based on Great Barrier Reef coral luminescence. All three proxies show considerable explanatory value for reconstructing monsoon rainfall variability over much of Australia and environs, which will improve as additional records become available. The success of this ``proof of concept'' experiment largely reflects the highly significant, spatially-coherent correlations between austral spring and summer PDSI, Australasian climate and ENSO.

  7. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  8. Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved. PMID:12075364

  9. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  10. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  11. 'Individualism-collectivism' as an explanatory device for mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low.

  12. An explanatory model for state Medicaid per capita prescription drug expenditures.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanjoy; Madhavan, S Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Rising prescription drug expenditure is a growing concern for publicly funded drug benefit programs like Medicaid. To be able to contain drug expenditures in Medicaid, it is important that cause(s) for such increases are identified. This study attempts to establish an explanatory model for Medicaid prescription drugs expenditure based on the impacts of key influencers/predictors identified using a comprehensive framework of drug utilization. A modified Andersen's behavior model of health services utilization is employed to identify potential determinants of pharmaceutical expenditures in state Medicaid programs. Level of federal matching funds, access to primary care, severity of diseases, unemployment, and education levels were found to be key influencers of Medicaid prescription drug expenditure. Increases in all, except education levels, were found to result in increases in drug expenditures. Findings from this study could better inform intervention policies and cost-containment strategies for state Medicaid drug benefit programs.

  13. Minority women and breast cancer screening: the role of cultural explanatory models.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S S; Rashidi, A

    1998-01-01

    Mammography and clinical breast exams are effective secondary prevention techniques for reducing the morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer. Although minority women have higher mortality rates due to breast cancer, they are less likely than white women to use screening procedures. This paper provides a complementary understanding of the use of breast cancer screening among minority women by drawing attention to the role of women's cultural explanatory models (CEMs). CEMs stem from the sociocultural context and involve cultural beliefs and values, personal life experiences, and both biomedical and popular explanations of health and illness. Although women's CEMs may not accord with those of health professionals, they do have an impact on screening behavior. This paper discusses suggestions for addressing these issues in an effort to improve breast cancer screening rates through adopting a cultural relativistic approach.

  14. An explanatory heuristic gives rise to the belief that words are well suited for their referents.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    The mappings between the words of a language and their meanings are arbitrary. There is, for example, nothing inherently dog-like about the word dog. And yet, building on prior evidence (e.g., Brook, 1970; Piaget, 1967), the six studies reported here (N=1062) suggest that both children and (at least to some extent) adults see a special "fit" between objects and their names, as if names were particularly suitable or appropriate for the objects they denote. These studies also provide evidence for a novel proposal concerning the source of these nominal fit beliefs. Specifically, beliefs about nominal fit may be a byproduct of the heuristic processes that people use to make sense of the world more generally (Cimpian & Salomon, 2014a). In sum, the present studies provide new insights into how people conceive of language and demonstrate that these conceptions are rooted in the processes that underlie broader explanatory reasoning.

  15. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    PubMed

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  16. Extending the explanatory utility of the EPPM beyond fear-based persuasion.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    In the 20 years since its inception, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has attracted much empirical support. Currently, and unsurprisingly, given that is a model of fear-based persuasion, the EPPM's explanatory utility has been based only upon fear-based messages. However, an argument is put forth herein that draws upon existing evidence that the EPPM may be an efficacious framework for explaining the persuasive process and outcomes of emotion-based messages more broadly when such messages are addressing serious health topics. For the current study, four different types of emotional appeals were purposefully devised and included a fear-, an annoyance/agitation-, a pride-, and a humor-based message. All messages addressed the serious health issue of road safety, and in particular the risky behavior of speeding. Participants (n = 551) were exposed to only one of the four messages and subsequently provided responses within a survey. A series of 2 (threat: low, high) × 2 (efficacy: low, high) analysis of variance was conducted for each of the appeals based on the EPPM's message outcomes of acceptance and rejection. Support was found for the EPPM with a number of main effects of threat and efficacy emerging, reflecting that, irrespective of emotional appeal type, high levels of threat and efficacy enhanced message outcomes via maximizing acceptance and minimizing rejection. Theoretically, the findings provide support for the explanatory utility of the EPPM for emotion-based health messages more broadly. In an applied sense, the findings highlight the value of adopting the EPPM as a framework when devising and evaluating emotion-based health messages for serious health topics.

  17. Explanatory model of illness of the patients with schizophrenia and the role of educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Awan, Naila Riaz; Jehangir, Syeda Farhana; Irfan, Muhammad; Naeem, Farooq; Farooq, Saeed

    2017-03-10

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Department of Psychiatry, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from February to August 2015 to explore beliefs and concepts of patients with schizophrenia about their illness and to find out the effectiveness of structured educational intervention in changing the explanatory models of illness of the patients and in their symptoms reduction. One hundred and three patients were recruited in the trial who were randomly assigned to two groups i.e., Experimental (n=53) and Control i.e., Treatment As Usual, TAU (n=50). Intervention was applied to experimental group only, once a month for three months. Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Compliance Rating Scale were applied on all patients at baseline and at 3months follow up. Scores on PANSS (Total), BPRS and GAF showed improvement in the experimental group as compared to TAU group, at follow up, with the p values of 0.000, 0.002 and 0.000, respectively. On follow up, 44 (95.6%) patients of experimental group achieved complete compliance as compared to 17 (47.2%) patients of TAU group [p=0.000]. On baseline analysis of SEMI, in the experimental group, only 3.8% (n=2) knew about name of the illness, which increased to 54.3% (n=25) on follow up, while in TAU group it improved to 5.6% (n=2) as compared to 0% at baseline (p=0.000). The result suggest that Structured educational intervention can be effective in modifying the beliefs of the patients regarding their illness.

  18. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports

    PubMed Central

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized. PMID:26356371

  19. An explanatory model of peer education within a complex medicines information exchange setting.

    PubMed

    Klein, Linda A; Ritchie, Jan E; Nathan, Sally; Wutzke, Sonia

    2014-06-01

    Studies of the effectiveness and value of peer education abound, yet there is little theoretical understanding of what lay educators actually do to help their peers. Although different theories have been proposed to explain components of peer education, a more complete explanatory model has not been established empirically that encompasses the many aspects of peer education and how these may operate together. The Australian Seniors Quality Use of Medicines Peer Education Program was developed, in conjunction with community partners, to improve understanding and management of medicines among older people - an Australian and international priority. This research investigated how peer educators facilitated learning about quality use of medicines among older Australians. Participatory action research was undertaken with volunteer peer educators, using a multi-site case study design within eight geographically-defined locations. Qualitative data from 27 participatory meetings with peer educators included transcribed audio recordings and detailed observational and interpretive notes, which were analysed using a grounded theory approach. An explanatory model arising from the data grouped facilitation of peer learning into four broad mechanisms: using educator skills; offering a safe place to learn; pushing for change; and reflecting on self. Peer educators' life experience as older people who have taken medicines was identified as an overarching contributor to peer learning. As lay persons, peer educators understood the potential disempowerment felt when seeking medicines information from health professionals and so were able to provide unique learning experiences that encouraged others to be 'active partners' in their own medicines management. These timely findings are linked to existing education and behaviour change theories, but move beyond these by demonstrating how the different elements of what peer educators do fit together. In-depth examination of peer educators

  20. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  2. Interparental Conflict and Children's School Adjustment: The Explanatory Role of Children's Internal Representations of Interparental and Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Winter, Marcia A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how children's insecure internal representations of interparental and parent-child relationships served as explanatory mechanisms in multiple pathways linking interparental conflict and parent emotional unavailability with the emotional and classroom engagement difficulties the children had in their adjustment to school. With…

  3. Sur la notion d'adequation explicative en phonologie generative (On the Notion of Explanatory Adequacy in Generative Phonology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the notion of explanatory adequacy with reference to a theory of generative phonology. An approach is suggested which defines the notion of possible processes based on natural language rules, rather than one which defines the notion of possible rules based on universal processes. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/AM)

  4. CAVEing the MMPI for an Optimism-Pessimism Scale: Seligman's Attributional Model and the Assessment of Explanatory Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colligan, Robert C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Developed bipolar Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Optimism-Pessimism (PSM) scale based on results on Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanation applied to MMPI. Reliability and validity indices show that PSM scale is highly accurate and consistent with Seligman's theory that pessimistic explanatory style predicts increased…

  5. Appreciative Accreditation: A Mixed Methods Explanatory Study of Appreciative Inquiry-Based Institutional Effectiveness Results in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using Appreciative Inquiry in accreditation and related institutional effectiveness activities within higher education. Using an explanatory participant-selection mixed methods approach, qualitative data from a series of interviews were used to explain the experiences of individuals identified from quantitative…

  6. Examination of the Relation between TEOG Score of Turkish Revolution History and Kemalism Course and Reading Comprehension Skill (An Example of Explanatory Sequential Mixed Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuvaci, Ibrahim; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the relation between reading comprehension skill and TEOG success. In this research, a mixed research method, sequential explanatory mixed design, is utilized to examine the relation between reading comprehension skills and TEOG success of 8th grade students throughly. In explanatory sequential mixed design…

  7. Variable selection in Bayesian generalized linear-mixed models: an illustration using candidate gene case-control association studies.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Miao-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The problem of variable selection in the generalized linear-mixed models (GLMMs) is pervasive in statistical practice. For the purpose of variable selection, many methodologies for determining the best subset of explanatory variables currently exist according to the model complexity and differences between applications. In this paper, we develop a "higher posterior probability model with bootstrap" (HPMB) approach to select explanatory variables without fitting all possible GLMMs involving a small or moderate number of explanatory variables. Furthermore, to save computational load, we propose an efficient approximation approach with Laplace's method and Taylor's expansion to approximate intractable integrals in GLMMs. Simulation studies and an application of HapMap data provide evidence that this selection approach is computationally feasible and reliable for exploring true candidate genes and gene-gene associations, after adjusting for complex structures among clusters.

  8. Diabetes meanings among those without diabetes: explanatory models of immigrant Latinos in rural North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Skelly, Anne H; Gesler, Wilbert M; Dougherty, Molly C

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in the United States, particularly among minority individuals. Primary prevention programs for diabetes must be designed to address the beliefs of the populations they target. Little research has investigated the beliefs of those who do not have diabetes. This analysis uses in-depth interviews collected from Latino immigrants, not diagnosed with diabetes, living in a rural US community. Structured by the explanatory models [EM] of Illness framework, this analysis delineates the EMs of diabetes in this community. A significant number of the participants had little knowledge and few beliefs about diabetes. The EMs of those with knowledge of diabetes were varied, but several beliefs were widely held: (a) diabetes is a serious disease that is based on heredity or is inherent in all persons, (b) diabetes can result from several factors, including strong emotions and lifestyle characteristics (an unhealthy diet, not taking care of oneself), (c) beliefs about strong emotion and the importance of blood are related to diabetes causes, symptoms and treatment, and (d) a major and undesirable outcome of diabetes is weight loss. These results provide information for the design of health programs for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Explaining Participation: An Explanatory History of Select Gender Patterns in Undergraduate STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Michael Pasquale

    This explanatory study examines three focal periods in undergraduate STEM as related to the gender gap. Social, economic, and more general historical data are used to develop a clear and powerful explanation of baccalaureate trends in biology and engineering. Specifically, historical accounts are offered for 1) a ten-year period in undergraduate biology in which the number of baccalaureates awarded to men decreased 44 percent, while the number of baccalaureates awarded to women decreased one percent; 2) the start of a twenty-year period in which the number of bachelor's degrees awarded in the biological sciences increased 150 percent---from 36,068 degrees in 1989, to 90,003 bachelor's degrees in 2011; and 3) a ten year period in undergraduate engineering where female graduation rates septupled---this ten-year time period is the only instance of meaningful and noteworthy growth for women in undergraduate engineering over the past half century. Findings from each history reveal a common narrative underlying baccalaureate trends. Implications for undergraduate STEM are discussed.

  10. An Explanatory Model of Poverty from the Perspective of Social Psychology and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Muñoz, Alfonso; Chacón, Fernando; Martínez Arias, Rosario

    2015-12-09

    Poverty is a social problem, entailing not only an economical perspective but above all a human and social issue. Poverty is promoted, justified and maintained by unique individuals and groups by means of our own attitudes, interests and behavior, as well as with our social structures and social relationships. From this interactive, psychosocial and sociostructural perspective, and also considering poverty as a denial of basic human rights (UNDP, 1998), we carried out a study with the primary objective to design and verify an Explanatory Model of Poverty. This research may helps to increase the validity of diagnostics and the effectiveness of interventions. Most of the hypotheses were accepted during the analysis and verification of the Model (p < .001), with data fitting the Model (CFI: 1 RMSEA: .025: LO90: 0 - HI90: .061. RMR: .008). These results, if replicated in new investigations, could have the following implications: (a) the need for a broad and comprehensive definition of poverty including its effects, processes and causes; (b) the need for everybody to accept the social responsibility in the prevention and solution to poverty; and

  11. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care.

  12. From built environment to health inequalities: An explanatory framework based on evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gelormino, Elena; Melis, Giulia; Marietta, Cristina; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Health in All Policies strategy aims to engage every policy domain in health promotion. The more socially disadvantaged groups are usually more affected by potential negative impacts of policies if they are not health oriented. The built environment represents an important policy domain and, apart from its housing component, its impact on health inequalities is seldom assessed. Methods: A scoping review of evidence on the built environment and its health equity impact was carried out, searching both urban and medical literature since 2000 analysing socio-economic inequalities in relation to different components of the built environment. Results: The proposed explanatory framework assumes that key features of built environment (identified as density, functional mix and public spaces and services), may influence individual health through their impact on both natural environment and social context, as well as behaviours, and that these effects may be unequally distributed according to the social position of individuals. Conclusion: In general, the expected links proposed by the framework are well documented in the literature; however, evidence of their impact on health inequalities remains uncertain due to confounding factors, heterogeneity in study design, and difficulty to generalize evidence that is still very embedded to local contexts. PMID:26844145

  13. How can peer group influence the behavior of adolescents: explanatory model.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Gina; Matos, Margarida; Simões, Celeste; Diniz, José Alves; Camacho, Inês

    2012-02-29

    The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents' risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours.

  14. Explanatory Models of Genetics and Genetic Risk among a Selected Group of Students

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Bergman, Margo; Goodson, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focuses on how college students conceptualize genetics and genetic risk, concepts essential for genetic literacy (GL) and genetic numeracy (GN), components of overall health literacy (HL). HL is dependent on both the background knowledge and culture of a patient, and lower HL is linked to increased morbidity and mortality for a number of chronic health conditions (e.g., diabetes and cancer). A purposive sample of 86 students from three Southwestern universities participated in eight focus groups. The sample ranged in age from 18 to 54 years, and comprised primarily of female (67.4%), single (74.4%), and non-White (57%) participants, none of whom were genetics/biology majors. A holistic-content approach revealed broad categories concerning participants’ explanatory models (EMs) of genetics and genetic risk. Participants’ EMs were grounded in highly contextualized narratives that only partially overlapped with biomedical models. While higher education levels should be associated with predominately knowledge-based EM of genetic risk, this study shows that even in well-educated populations cultural factors can dominate. Study findings reveal gaps in how this sample of young adults obtains, processes, and understands genetic/genomic concepts. Future studies should assess how individuals with low GL and GN obtain and process genetics and genetic risk information and incorporate this information into health decision making. Future work should also address the interaction of communication between health educators, providers, and genetic counselors, to increase patient understanding of genetic risk. PMID:27376052

  15. How Can Peer Group Influence the Behavior of Adolescents: Explanatory Model

    PubMed Central

    Tomé, Gina; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Camacho, Inês; AlvesDiniz, José

    2012-01-01

    The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM)was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents’ risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours. PMID:22980148

  16. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information.

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  19. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified. PMID:27014099

  20. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified.

  1. Height as an Explanatory Factor for Sex Differences in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most cancers occur more frequently in men. Numerous explanations for this excess risk have been proposed, yet no study has quantified the degree to which height explains the sex difference even though greater height has been associated with increased risk for many cancers. Methods During the period from 2000 to 2002, 65308 volunteers aged 50 to 76 years were recruited to the Vitamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study. Cancers of shared anatomic sites (n = 3466) were prospectively identified through 2009 through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Age- and race-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the associations between sex and incident cancers were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, with and without adjustment for height and height squared as measures of body size. Results Men had a 55% increased risk of cancer at shared sites (HR = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.45 to 1.66). When height was accounted for, 33.8% (95% CI = 10.2% to 57.3%) of the excess risk for men was explained by the height differences between sexes. The proportion mediated by height was 90.9%, 57.3%, and 49.6% for kidney, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies, respectively, with little evidence that height mediates the sex difference for gastrointestinal tract, lung, and bladder cancers. For comparison, more than 35 lifestyle and medical risk factors only explained 23.1% of the sex difference in cancer risk at shared sites. Conclusions Height is an important explanatory factor for the excess risk for men for many shared-site cancers. This suggests that some of the excess risk is due to factors associated with height (eg, number of susceptible cells in a specific organ or growth-influencing exposures in childhood). PMID:23708052

  2. Strengthening the implementation of Health in All Policies: a methodology for realist explanatory case studies.

    PubMed

    Shankardass, Ketan; Renahy, Emilie; Muntaner, Carles; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    To address macro-social and economic determinants of health and equity, there has been growing use of intersectoral action by governments around the world. Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiatives are a special case where governments use cross-sectoral structures and relationships to systematically address health in policymaking by targeting broad health determinants rather than health services alone. Although many examples of HiAP have emerged in recent decades, the reasons for their successful implementation--and for implementation failures--have not been systematically studied. Consequently, rigorous evidence based on systematic research of the social mechanisms that have regularly enabled or hindered implementation in different jurisdictions is sparse. We describe a novel methodology for explanatory case studies that use a scientific realist perspective to study the implementation of HiAP. Our methodology begins with the formulation of a conceptual framework to describe contexts, social mechanisms and outcomes of relevance to the sustainable implementation of HiAP. We then describe the process of systematically explaining phenomena of interest using evidence from literature and key informant interviews, and looking for patterns and themes. Finally, we present a comparative example of how Health Impact Assessment tools have been utilized in Sweden and Quebec to illustrate how this methodology uses evidence to first describe successful practices for implementation of HiAP and then refine the initial framework. The methodology that we describe helps researchers to identify and triangulate rich evidence describing social mechanisms and salient contextual factors that characterize successful practices in implementing HiAP in specific jurisdictions. This methodology can be applied to study the implementation of HiAP and other forms of intersectoral action to reduce health inequities involving multiple geographic levels of government in diverse settings.

  3. Learning genetic inquiry through the use, revision, and justification of explanatory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, Jennifer Lorraine

    Central to the process of inquiry in science is the construction and assessment of models that can be used to explain (and in some cases, predict) natural phenomena. This dissertation is a qualitative study of student learning in a high school biology course that was designed to give students opportunities to learn about genetic inquiry in part by providing them with authentic experiences doing inquiry in the discipline. With the aid of a computer program that generates populations of "fruit flies", the students in this class worked in groups structured like scientific communities to build, revise, and defend explanatory models for various inheritance phenomena. Analysis of the ways in which the first cohort of students assessed their inheritance models revealed that all students assessed models based upon empirical fit (data/model match). However, in contrast to the practice of scientists and despite explicit instruction, students did not consistently apply conceptual assessment criteria to their models. That is, they didn't seek consistency between underlying concepts or processes in their models and those of other important genetic models, such as meiosis. This is perhaps in part because they lacked an understanding of models as conceptual rather than physical entities. Subsequently, the genetics curriculum was altered in order to create more opportunities for students to address epistemological issues associated with model assessment throughout the course. The second cohort of students' understanding of models changed over the nine-week period: initially the majority of students equated scientific models with "proof" (generally physical) of "theories"; at the end of the course, most students demonstrated understanding of the conceptual nature of scientific models and the need to justify such knowledge according to both its empirical utility and conceptual consistency. Through model construction and assessment (i.e. scientific inquiry), students were able to

  4. Stuck in the past: negative bias, explanatory style, temporal order, and evaluative perspectives in life narratives of clinically depressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ott, Lisa-M; Schubert, Merve; Schneider, Beatrix; Pate, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to replicate negative bias and depressive explanatory style in depression using life narratives. The two central aspects of narrative, temporal succession and evaluation, were also explored. These aspects were tested for the first time using entire life narratives of 17 depressed inpatients and non-depressed controls matched for sex and educational level. Negative bias and depressive explanatory style were replicated as typical for the depressed group. Life narratives of depressed patients also deviated more from a linear temporal order and compared less frequently the past with the present. Contrary to expectations, the depressed did not differ in the overall frequency of evaluations. However, they used more past than present evaluations and more experience-near evaluations than cognitive evaluations, suggesting that they are more immersed in past experiences. It is concluded that negative bias and depressive explanatory style can be found also in a naturalistic narrative measure, and that depression affects the two major aspects of narrative. It is argued that life narratives, as measures close to everyday clinical practice and as the most encompassing form of self-representation, should complement more experimental procedures in the study of cognitive and communicative processes in psychopathology.

  5. Long-acting injectable versus daily oral antipsychotic treatment trials in schizophrenia: pragmatic versus explanatory study designs.

    PubMed

    Bossie, Cynthia A; Alphs, Larry D; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-09-01

    Trial design characteristics related to the explanatory : pragmatic spectrum may contribute toward the inconsistent results reported in studies comparing long-acting injectable (LAI) versus daily oral antipsychotic (AP) treatments in schizophrenia. A novel approach examined the hypothesis that a more pragmatic design is important to show the advantages of LAI versus oral APs. A literature search identified comparative studies assessing the clinical efficacy/effectiveness of LAI versus oral APs in more than 100 schizophrenia patients, with 6-month or more duration/follow-up, and published between January 1993 and December 2013 (n=11). Each study's design was rated using the six-domain ASPECT-R (A Study Pragmatic : Explanatory Characterization Tool-Rating). Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared ratings of studies supporting (n=7) and not supporting (n=4) a LAI advantage. ASPECT-R total and domain scores were significantly higher (more pragmatic) in studies finding a LAI versus oral AP treatment advantage than those that did not. The rank order of this significance among domains was as follows: 'participant compliance assessment' (P=0.005), 'medical practice setting/practitioner expertise' (P=0.006), 'intervention flexibility' (P=0.007), 'follow-up intensity/duration' (P=0.009), 'primary trial outcomes' (P=0.012), and 'participant eligibility' (P=0.015). Findings support that more pragmatic, less explanatory design features are important to show advantages for LAI treatment. Explanatory studies may introduce features that obscure advantages related to adherence.

  6. Writing Development in Secondary/Post Secondary Language Learning: Integrating Multiple Motivating Factors, Explanatory Feedback, and Explanatory Writing Tools to Increase Competence and Confidence in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Trevina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study discusses data-driven results of newly-developed writing tools that are objective, easy, and less time-consuming than standard classroom writing strategies; additionally, multiple motivation triggers and peer evaluation are evaluated together with these new, modernized writing tools. The results are explained separately and…

  7. Phytoplankton dynamics of a subtropical reservoir controlled by the complex interplay among hydrological, abiotic, and biotic variables.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the key factors related to the spatiotemporal variations in phytoplankton abundance in a subtropical reservoir from 2006 to 2010 and to assist in developing strategies for water quality management. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a dimension-reduction technique, was used to identify interactions between explanatory variables (i.e., environmental variables) and abundance (biovolume) of predominant phytoplankton classes. The optimal DFA model significantly described the dynamic changes in abundances of predominant phytoplankton groups (including dinoflagellates, diatoms, and green algae) at five monitoring sites. Water temperature, electrical conductivity, water level, nutrients (total phosphorus, NO3-N, and NH3-N), macro-zooplankton, and zooplankton were the key factors affecting the dynamics of aforementioned phytoplankton. Therefore, transformations of nutrients and reactions between water quality variables and aforementioned processes altered by hydrological conditions may also control the abundance dynamics of phytoplankton, which may represent common trends in the DFA model. The meandering shape of Shihmen Reservoir and its surrounding rivers caused a complex interplay between hydrological conditions and abiotic and biotic variables, resulting in phytoplankton abundance that could not be estimated using certain variables. Additional water quality and hydrological variables at surrounding rivers and monitoring plans should be executed a few days before and after reservoir operations and heavy storm, which would assist in developing site-specific preventive strategies to control phytoplankton abundance.

  8. Influence of Additive and Multiplicative Structure and Direction of Comparison on the Reversal Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Calero, José Antonio; Arnau, David; Laserna-Belenguer, Belén

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of word order matching and static comparison as explanatory models of reversal error. Data was collected from 214 undergraduate students who translated a set of additive and multiplicative comparisons expressed in Spanish into algebraic language. In these multiplicative comparisons…

  9. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  10. Degree-day accumulation influences annual variability in growth of age-0 walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uphoff, Christopher S.; Schoenebeck, Casey W.; Hoback, W. Wyatt; Koupal, Keith D.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of age-0 fishes influences survival, especially in temperate regions where size-dependent over-winter mortality can be substantial. Additional benefits of earlier maturation and greater fecundity may exist for faster growing individuals. This study correlated prey densities, growing-degree days, water-surface elevation, turbidity, and chlorophyll a with age-0 walleye Sander vitreus growth in a south-central Nebraska irrigation reservoir. Growth of age-0 walleye was variable between 2003 and 2011, with mean lengths ranging from 128 to 231 mm by fall (September 30th–October 15th). A set of a priori candidate models were used to assess the relative support of explanatory variables using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). A temperature model using the growing degree-days metric was the best supported model, describing 65% of the variability in annual mean lengths of age-0 walleye. The second and third best supported models included the variables chlorophyll a (r2 = 0.49) and larval freshwater drum density (r2 = 0.45), respectively. There have been mixed results concerning the importance of temperature effects on growth of age-0 walleye. This study supports the hypothesis that temperature is the most important predictor of age-0 walleye growth near the southwestern limits of its natural range.

  11. Virtual Experiments Enable Exploring and Challenging Explanatory Mechanisms of Immune-Mediated P450 Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Brenden K.; Ropella, Glen E. P.; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 levels are down-regulated during inflammatory disease states, which can cause changes in downstream drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. Long-term, we seek sufficient new insight into P450-regulating mechanisms to correctly anticipate how an individual’s P450 expressions will respond when health and/or therapeutic interventions change. To date, improving explanatory mechanistic insight relies on knowledge gleaned from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experiments augmented by case reports. We are working to improve that reality by developing means to undertake scientifically useful virtual experiments. So doing requires translating an accepted theory of immune system influence on P450 regulation into a computational model, and then challenging the model via in silico experiments. We build upon two existing agent-based models—an in silico hepatocyte culture and an in silico liver—capable of exploring and challenging concrete mechanistic hypotheses. We instantiate an in silico version of this hypothesis: in response to lipopolysaccharide, Kupffer cells down-regulate hepatic P450 levels via inflammatory cytokines, thus leading to a reduction in metabolic capacity. We achieve multiple in vitro and in vivo validation targets gathered from five wet-lab experiments, including a lipopolysaccharide-cytokine dose-response curve, time-course P450 down-regulation, and changes in several different measures of drug clearance spanning three drugs: acetaminophen, antipyrine, and chlorzoxazone. Along the way to achieving validation targets, various aspects of each model are falsified and subsequently refined. This iterative process of falsification-refinement-validation leads to biomimetic yet parsimonious mechanisms, which can provide explanatory insight into how, where, and when various features are generated. We argue that as models such as these are incrementally improved through multiple rounds of mechanistic falsification and validation, we will

  12. Conveyor belt biomantles: Centripetal bioturbation coupled with erosional downwasting -- an explanatory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Science advances on the strength of clarifying and unifying concepts, models, and methodologies that enhance and expand our explanatory paradigms. If valid, such structures allow us to accurately understand and appreciate how the world works. To aid in this task, new term-concepts must sometimes be coined and formalized. To understand certain ubiquitously occurring -- though as yet un-conceptualized -- surface processes that operate non-stop, and assessing their efficacies, is a desirable goal in landscape evolution studies. All near-surface processes are, of course, biological, chemical, and or physical in nature, and many if not most operate in combination. But of this triumvirate, biological processes, both biochemical and biomechanical (bioturbations), are perhaps least understood. Combinations of ubiquitously and semi-continuously occurring poorly understood processes that are both obscure and yet obvious have collectively produced Earth's biomantle. The biomantle occupies the uppermost Pedosphere, is a planet-wide layer, and unique to Earth. It thus functions as the biogenically habitable interface between the Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere. The biomantle is defined as the organic-bearing bioturbated upper part of soil, including the topsoil, and of subaqueous substrates (lake, stream, ocean floor sediments) where most biota live, operate, move, wriggle, rest, sleep, estivate, seek food, eat, compete, fight, hide, reproduce, die, and assimilate. Its position and function in the uppermost soil layer of the Critical Zone must modulate and mediate much or most of what takes place above and below in ways yet to be established. In an attempt to increase understanding of this complicated biodynamic pedomembrane, and to identify the main processes that produce it, we present an iterative process model that pits ongoing cyclic bioturbation driven constructional processes against ongoing cyclic physically driven destructional processes. More

  13. The explanatory role of relationship power and control in domestic violence against women in Nicaragua: a feminist psychology analysis.

    PubMed

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-08-01

    This study offers a feminist psychology analysis of various aspects of relationship power and control and their relative explanatory contribution to understanding physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women. Findings from structured interviews with 345 women from rural Nicaragua (M age = 44) overwhelmingly demonstrate that measures of power and control reflecting interpersonal relationship dynamics have the strongest predictive power for explaining violence when compared in multivariate analyses to several of the more commonly used measures. These findings have implications for future research and the evaluation of interventions designed to decrease levels of violence against women.

  14. Design of an impact evaluation using a mixed methods model – an explanatory assessment of the effects of results-based financing mechanisms on maternal healthcare services in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    quantitative and qualitative elements. Discussion Combining a traditional quasi-experimental controlled pre- and post-test design with an explanatory mixed methods model permits an additional assessment of organizational and behavioral changes affecting complex processes. Through this impact evaluation approach, our design will not only create robust evidence measures for the outcome of interest, but also generate insights on how and why the investigated interventions produce certain intended and unintended effects and allows for a more in-depth evaluation approach. PMID:24751213

  15. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  16. Location and Lifestyle: The Comparative Explanatory Ability of Urbanism and Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, George D.; Peek, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    The article focuses on 2 questions pivotal to the issue of rural-urban differences: 1) "Do attitudinal differences remain among the rural and urban residents independent of differences generated by other potent variables?"; and 2) "Will any increase in the predictive utility of rurality be generated by use of a composite definition (residence plus…

  17. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: Assessing Moderators of Basic Social-Cognitive Phenomena Including Spontaneous Trait Inference, the Fundamental Attribution Error, and Moral Blame

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michael J.; Andreychik, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions—social explanations—have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1–3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4–6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles—perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ—will be

  18. The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: assessing moderators of basic social-cognitive phenomena including spontaneous trait inference, the fundamental attribution error, and moral blame.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michael J; Andreychik, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions--social explanations--have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and validate a measure of individual differences in social explanatory styles. Accordingly, we offer the Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire (SESQ), which measures three independent dimensions of social explanatory style: Dispositionism, historicism, and controllability. Studies 1-3 examine basic psychometric properties of the SESQ and provide positive evidence regarding internal consistency, factor structure, and both convergent and divergent validity. Studies 4-6 examine predictive validity for each subscale: Does each explanatory dimension moderate an important phenomenon of social cognition? Results suggest that they do. In Study 4, we show that SESQ dispositionism moderates the tendency to make spontaneous trait inferences. In Study 5, we show that SESQ historicism moderates the tendency to commit the Fundamental Attribution Error. Finally, in Study 6 we show that SESQ controllability predicts polarization of moral blame judgments: Heightened blaming toward controllable stigmas (assimilation), and attenuated blaming toward uncontrollable stigmas (contrast). Decades of research suggest that explanatory style regarding the self is a powerful predictor of self-functioning. We think it is likely that social explanatory styles--perhaps comprising interactive combinations of the basic dimensions tapped by the SESQ--will be

  19. Realist explanatory theory building method for social epidemiology: a protocol for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    A recent criticism of social epidemiological studies, and multi-level studies in particular has been a paucity of theory. We will present here the protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of the social epidemiology of maternal depression. We use a critical realist approach which is trans-disciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative traditions, and that assumes both ontological and hierarchical stratification of reality. We describe a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: 1) emergent phase, 2) construction phase, and 3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design is described. The Emergent Phase uses: interviews, focus groups, exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, and multilevel Bayesian spatial data analysis to detect and describe phenomena. Abductive and retroductive reasoning will be applied to: categorical principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, coding of concepts and categories, constant comparative analysis, drawing of conceptual networks, and situational analysis to generate theoretical concepts. The Theory Construction Phase will include: 1) defining stratified levels; 2) analytic resolution; 3) abductive reasoning; 4) comparative analysis (triangulation); 5) retroduction; 6) postulate and proposition development; 7) comparison and assessment of theories; and 8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The strength of the critical realist methodology described is the extent to which this paradigm is able to support the epistemological, ontological, axiological, methodological and rhetorical positions of both quantitative and qualitative research in the field of social epidemiology. The extensive multilevel Bayesian studies, intensive qualitative studies, latent variable theory, abductive triangulation, and Inference to Best Explanation provide a strong foundation for Theory

  20. A motivation-based explanatory model of street drinking among young people.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Fernández-Monroy, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This social marketing study focuses on street drinking behavior among young people. The objective is to divide the market of young people who engage in this activity into segments according to their motivations. For the three segments identified, a behavior model is created using the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and social belonging of young people who engage in street drinking. The methodology used individual questionnaires filled in by a representative sample of young people. The results show that the behavior model follows the sequence of attitudes-beliefs-behavior and that social belonging influences these three variables. Similarly, differences are observed in the behavior model depending on the segment individuals belong to.

  1. Six-Minute Walk Test for Persons with Mild or Moderate Disability from Multiple Sclerosis: Performance and Explanatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Donna K.; Pfalzer, Lucinda A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which health factors, functional measures, and pulmonary impairment explain performance on 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Another purpose was to determine the effect of disability and age on 6MWT performance and explanatory factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate factors that explain performance on the 6MWT in 64 community-dwelling persons with MS-related disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] 3.8±1.6). Of the 64 participants, 43 (67.2%) exhibited mild disability (EDSS <4.0) and 21 (32.8%) had moderate disability (EDSS 4.0–6.5). A regression analysis compared 6MWT performance to measures of health factors (EDSS, number of medications, number of comorbidities, resting HR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure [BP]); physical performance (functional stair test [FST], sit-to-stand test [SST], static standing balance [BAL], Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS], Activities-specific Balance Confidence [ABC] Scale); and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], maximal voluntary ventilation [MVV], maximal inspiratory pressure [MIP], maximal expiratory pressure [MEP]). Results: EDSS, ABC, FST, SST, BAL, MVV, MIP, and MEP were significantly associated with 6MWT distance after adjusting for age. Multiple step-wise linear regression analysis revealed that ABC, FST, and BAL were significant and independent explanatory factors of 6MWT distance. ABC and FST explained 75% of the variance in 6MWT performance (R2=0.75). Curvilinear regression analysis revealed that the FST is the most significant explanatory factor for 6MWT distance, explaining 79% of the variance (R2=0.79). Conclusions: 6MWT performance in persons with MS was explained by balance confidence (ABC) and stair-climbing ability (FST). The ABC and FST may be practical clinical measures for

  2. Explanatory Model to Describe School District Prevalence Rates for Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Data reports from South Carolina's 92 independent school districts during 1980-81 were used to calculate prevalence rates of mental retardation and learning disabilities. These prevalence rates were 41.66/1,000 children enrolled for mental retardation and 33.21/1,000 children enrolled for learning disabilities. Additional analysis showed that…

  3. Insight in Psychosis: An Indicator of Severity of Psychosis, an Explanatory Model of Illness, and a Coping Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies related to insight, explanatory models (EMs) of illness and their relationship to outcome of psychosis are reviewed. The traditional argument that insight predicts outcome in psychosis is not supported by recent longitudinal data, which has been analyzed using multivariable statistics that adjust for severity and quality of illness. While all cognition will have a neurobiological representation, if “insight” is related to the primary psychotic process, then insight cannot be seen as an independent predictor of outcome but a part of the progression of illness. The evidence suggests insight, like all EMs, is belief which interacts with the trajectory of the person's illness and the local culture to produce a unique understanding of the illness for the particular individual and his/her family. PMID:27335513

  4. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  5. What comes after [f]? Prediction in speech derives from data explanatory processes

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Jongman, Allard

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception is a difficult problem most listeners solve effortlessly. Acoustic cues are short-lived and highly variable. Here we demonstrate that part of the solution is predictions modulated by high-level expectations. Listeners heard isolated fricatives (e.g., “s”, “sh”) and predicted the upcoming vowel. Accuracy was above chance, suggesting fine-grained detail in the signal can be used for prediction. A second group performed the same task but saw a still face and a letter corresponding to the fricative. This group performed markedly better suggesting that high-level knowledge modulates prediction by helping listeners form expectations about what the fricative should have sounded like. This suggests a form of data explanation operating in speech perception: as listeners account for variance due to their knowledge of the talker and current phoneme, they use what’s left over to make more accurate predictions about the next sound. PMID:26581947

  6. Lay Explanatory Models of Depression and Preferred Coping Strategies among Somali Refugees in Norway. A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Valeria; Sandal, Gro M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Refugees are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services that meet the needs of refugees from different regions, an understanding is required of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. Methods: The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101). Respondents were asked to give advice to the vignette character and complete the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10) were conducted separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and the preferred coping strategies. Results: The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community, rather than by seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists). Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much) and emotion (sadness), but not to biological mechanisms, and they were thought to result from spiritual possession, stress as a result of social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independently of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. Because participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the views of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be “gatekeepers” for access to mental health services. Conclusion: The results highlight that mental

  7. Antarctic Meteorite Location and Mapping Project (AMLAMP): Antarctic meteorite location map series explanatory text and user's guide to AMLAMP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.; Fessler, B.; Cassidy, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    This technical report is an update to LPI Technical Report 89-02, which contained data and information that was current to May 1987. Since that time approximately 4000 new meteorites have been collected, mapped, and characterized, mainly from the numerous ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region, from the Pecora Escarpment and Moulton Escarpment in the Thiel Mountains-Patuxent region, the Wisconsin Range region, and from the Beardmore region. Meteorite location maps for ice fields from these regions have been produced and are available. This report includes explanatory texts for the maps of new areas and provides information on updates of maps of the areas covered in LPI Technical Report 89-02. Sketch maps and description of locales that have been searched and have yielded single or few meteorites are also included. The meteorite listings for all the ice fields have been updated to include any classification changes and new meteorites recovered from ice fields in the Allan Hills-David Glacier region since 1987. The text has been reorganized and minor errors in the original report have been corrected. Computing capabilities have improved immensely since the early days of this project. Current software and hardware allow easy access to data over computer networks. With various commercial software packages, the data can be used many different ways, including database creation, statistics, and mapping. The databases, explanatory texts, and the plotter files used to produce the meteorite location maps are available through a computer network. Information on how to access AMLAMP data, its formats, and ways it can be used are given in the User's Guide to AMLAMP Data section. Meteorite location maps and thematic maps may be ordered from the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Ordering information is given in Appendix A.

  8. Unravelling the spirits’ message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries. PMID:24940355

  9. Unravelling the spirits' message: a study of help-seeking steps and explanatory models among patients suffering from spirit possession in Uganda.

    PubMed

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Kleijn, Wim; de Jong, Joop

    2014-01-01

    As in many cultures, also in Uganda spirit possession is a common idiom of distress associated with traumatic experiences. In the DSM-IV and -5, possession trance disorders can be classified as dissociative disorders. Dissociation in Western countries is associated with complicated, time-consuming and costly therapies. Patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda, however, often report partial or full recovery after treatment by traditional healers. The aim of this study is to explore how the development of symptoms concomitant help-seeking steps, and explanatory models (EM) eventually contributed to healing of patients with spirit possession in SW Uganda. Illness narratives of 119 patients with spirit possession referred by traditional healers were analysed using a mixed-method approach. Treatments of two-thirds of the patients were unsuccessful when first seeking help in the medical sector. Their initially physical symptoms subsequently developed into dissociative possession symptoms. After an average of two help-seeking steps, patients reached a healing place where 99% of them found satisfactory EM and effective healing. During healing sessions, possessing agents were summoned to identify themselves and underlying problems were addressed. Often-mentioned explanations were the following: neglect of rituals and of responsibilities towards relatives and inheritance, the call to become a healer, witchcraft, grief, and land conflicts. The results demonstrate that traditional healing processes of spirit possession can play a role in restoring connections with the supra-, inter-, intra-, and extra-human worlds. It does not always seem necessary to address individual traumatic experiences per se, which is in line with other research in this field. The study leads to additional perspectives on treatment of trauma-related dissociation in Western countries and on developing effective mental health services in low -and middle-income countries.

  10. Boiling points of halogenated ethanes: an explanatory model implicating weak intermolecular hydrogen-halogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2008-10-23

    This study explores via structural clues the influence of weak intermolecular hydrogen-halogen bonds on the boiling point of halogenated ethanes. The plot of boiling points of 86 halogenated ethanes versus the molar refraction (linked to polarizability) reveals a series of straight lines, each corresponding to one of nine possible arrangements of hydrogen and halogen atoms on the two-carbon skeleton. A multiple linear regression model of the boiling points could be designed based on molar refraction and subgroup structure as independent variables (R(2) = 0.995, standard error of boiling point 4.2 degrees C). The model is discussed in view of the fact that molar refraction can account for approximately 83.0% of the observed variation in boiling point, while 16.5% could be ascribed to weak C-X...H-C intermolecular interactions. The difference in the observed boiling point of molecules having similar molar refraction values but differing in hydrogen-halogen intermolecular bonds can reach as much as 90 degrees C.

  11. Explanatory risk factors in the relations between schizotypy and indicators of suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2016-04-30

    Schizotypy has been linked to suicide risk, but it is not known whether established suicide-related risk factors mediate this relation. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-esteem, and intimate disclosure in peer relationships in the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. This aim was tested in 590 young adults using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. After inclusion of the mediators, interpersonal schizotypy was no longer directly associated with either suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Depression and self-esteem mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation. No variables mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and lifetime suicide attempts, and there were no significant direct relations when mediators were included. Schizotypy appears to be a distal risk factor for suicidal behavior; assessing depressive symptoms and self-esteem may provide more proximal information about suicide risk, and may be targets for mitigating suicide risk in individuals with schizotypy.

  12. Long-term variability of aerosol optical thickness in Eastern Europe over 2001-2014 according to the measurements at the Moscow MSU MO AERONET site with additional cloud and NO2 correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, N. Y.; Poliukhov, A. A.; Gorlova, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    The aerosol properties of the atmosphere were obtained within the framework of the AERONET program at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (Moscow MSU MO) over 2001-2014 period. The quality data control has revealed the necessity of their additional cloud and NO2 correction. The application of cloud correction according to hourly visual cloud observations provides a decrease in average aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm of up to 0.03 compared with the standard dataset. We also show that the additional NO2 correction of the AERONET data is needed in large megalopolis, like Moscow, with 12 million residents and the NOx emission rates of about 100 kt yr-1. According to the developed method we estimated monthly mean NO2 content, which provides an additional decrease of 0.01 for AOT at 340 nm, and of about 0.015 - for AOT at 380 and 440 nm. The ratios of NO2 optical thickness to AOT at 380 and 440 nm are about 5-6 % in summer and reach 15-20 % in winter when both factors have similar effects on UV irradiance. Seasonal cycle of AOT at 500 nm is characterized by a noticeable summer and spring maxima, and minimum in winter conditions, changing from 0.08 in December and January up to 0.3 in August. The application of the additional cloud correction removes a local AOT maximum in February, and lowered the December artificial high AOT values. The pronounced negative AOT trends of about -1-5 % yr-1 have been obtained for most months, which could be attributed to the negative trends in emissions (E) of different aerosol precursors of about 116 Gg yr-2 in ESOx, 78 Gg yr-2 in ENMVOC, and 272 Gg yr-2 in ECO over European territory of Russia. No influence of natural factors on temporal AOT variations has been revealed.

  13. Long-term variability of aerosol optical thickness in Eastern Europe over 2001-2014 according to the measurements at the Moscow MSU MO AERONET site with additional cloud and NO2 correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, N. Y.; Poliukhov, A. A.; Gorlova, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    The atmospheric aerosol properties were obtained within the framework of the AERONET program at the Moscow State University Meteorological Observatory (Moscow MSU MO) over the 2001-2014 period. The quality data control has revealed the necessity of additional cloud screening and NO2 correction. The application of additional cloud screening according to hourly visual cloud observations provides a decrease in monthly average aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm of up to 0.03 compared with the standard data set. We also show that the additional NO2 correction of the AERONET version 2 data is needed in large megalopolis, like Moscow, with 12 million residents and NOx emission rates of about 100 kt yr-1. According to the developed method, we estimated monthly mean NO2 content, which provides an additional decrease of 0.01 for AOT at 340 nm, and of about 0.015 - for AOT at 380 and 440 nm. The ratios of NO2 optical thickness to AOT at 380 and 440 nm are about 5-6 % in summer and reach 15-20 % in winter when both factors have similar effects on UV irradiance. Seasonal cycle of AOT at 500 nm is characterized by a noticeable summer and spring maxima, and a minimum in winter conditions, changing from 0.08 in December and January up to 0.3 in August. The application of the additional cloud screening removes a local AOT maximum in February. Statistically significant negative trends in annual AOT for UV and mid-visible spectral range have been obtained both for average and 50 % quantile values. The pronounced negative changes were observed in most months with the rate of about -1-5 % yr-1 and could be attributed to the negative trends in emissions (E) of different aerosol precursors of about 135 Gg yr-2 in ESOx, 54 Gg yr-2 in ENMVOC, and slight negative changes in NOx over the European part of Russia. No significant influence of natural factors on temporal AOT variations has been revealed.

  14. An Explanatory Mixed-Methods Approach to Tracing "Career Pathways" Policy in Virginia: How School Counselors and Student Demographics Influence Implementation Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsmith, Michael Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This explanatory mixed-methods policy analysis describes how school counselors' thoughts and attitudes contribute to the implementation fidelity of the Academic and Career Plan (ACP) policy in a suburban Virginia school division. A quantitative survey investigated counselor thoughts about the policy, implementation behaviors, and counselor ideas…

  15. Quantitative geophysics in permafrost rock walls and their explanatory power for geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; Dräbing, D.; Funk, D.; Kemna, A.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of rock falls has been reported for permafrost-affected rockwalls in the last two decades. The anticipation of the hazard induced by permafrost rock slope failure requires monitoring of thermal and hydrological regimes and geomechanical properties inside the rock mass and quantitative geophysics could provide certain information on all of them. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in frozen rock walls could become a key method for such investigations since freezing and sub-freezing temperature changes induce significant and recognizable changes in resistivity. Testing temperature-resistivity T-ρ relationships from a double-digit number of low-porosity sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks from Alpine and Arctic permafrost rockwalls in the laboratory, we found evidence that exponential T-ρ paths developed by McGinnis et al. (1973) do not describe the resistivity behaviour of hard rocks undergoing freezing or melting correctly, as freezing occurs in confined space. We provide evidence that bilinear functions of unfrozen and frozen T-ρ paths offer a better approximation. Inferring reliable thermal state variables from ERT images requires a quantitative approach involving calibrated (T-ρ) relationships and an adequate resistance error description in the ERT inversion process, where the correct description of data errors and the right degree of data fitting are crucial issues. We also provide evidence that seismic refraction tomography is technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity bedrock that constitutes steep rock walls. We have tested temperature - P-wave velocity functions of 22 decimeter-large metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary low-porosity rock samples with a natural texture of numerous micro-fissures from alpine and arctic rock walls. The results show the significance of the ice-pressure-induced matrix velocity increase in low-porosity rocks while the velocity increase of the pore infill is negligible. Hence, the

  16. Improvement in Mortality Risk Prediction Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Through Addition of a “Compassionate Use” Variable to the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI® Dataset: A Study from the Massachusetts Angioplasty Registry

    PubMed Central

    Resnic, Frederic S.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Piemonte, Thomas C.; Shubrooks, Samuel J.; Zelevinsky, Katya; Lovett, Ann; Ho, Kalon K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the impact of adding novel elements to models predicting in-hospital mortality following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Background Massachusetts (MA) mandated public reporting of hospital-specific PCI mortality in 2003. In 2006, a physician advisory group recommended adding to the prediction models three attributes not collected by the National Cardiovascular Data Registry instrument. These “compassionate use” (CU) features included coma on presentation, active hemodynamic support during PCI, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation at PCI initiation. Methods From October 2005 through September 2007, PCI was performed during 29,784 admissions in MA non-federal hospitals. Of these, 5,588 involved patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or cardiogenic shock. Cases with CU criteria identified were adjudicated by trained physician reviewers. Regression models with and without the CU composite variable (presence of any of the 3 features) were compared using areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC). Results Unadjusted mortality in this high-risk subset was 5.7%. Among these admissions, 96 (1.7%) had at least one CU feature, with 69.8% mortality. The adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital death for CU PCIs (vs. no CU criteria) was 27.3 (95% CI 14.5–47.6). Discrimination of the model improved after including CU, with AUC increasing from 0.87 to 0.90 (p<0.01), while goodness of fit was preserved. Conclusions A small proportion of patients at extreme risk for post-PCI mortality can be identified using pre-procedural factors not routinely collected, but that heighten predictive accuracy. Such improvements in model performance may result in greater confidence in reporting of risk-adjusted PCI outcomes. PMID:21329835

  17. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  18. A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators to improving asthma management in South Asian children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions and more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children. South Asians were defined as individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. Methods Data Sources - Medline, HMIC, EMBASE, ASSIA, Web of Science, BNI, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, CRD, Scopus, NHS Evidence, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, RCPCH, ATS, ERS, Asthma UK, Google Scholar & Asthma Guidelines (BTS, GINA, ATS, Monash, NAEPP, Singapore & New Zealand) to August 2013. Inclusion Criteria – Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research with primary focus on identifying explanations for barriers and/or facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children aged 0–18 years with diagnosed/suspected asthma and/or carers and/or healthcare professionals. Data Extraction – Three authors independently reviewed, selected & extracted eligible articles with disagreements resolved by research team discussion. Results 15 studies encompassing 25,755 children, 18,483 parents/carers and 239 healthcare professionals were included. Barriers and explanatory factors identified were: 1. Lack of asthma knowledge in families and healthcare professionals. 2. Under-use of preventer medications. 3. Non-acceptance/denial of asthma. 4. Over-reliance on Emergency Department management. 5. Communication problems. 6. Non-adherence to medication. 7. Use of complementary therapies. Little facilitators regarding asthma management were identified. Conclusions Several key issues were identified as likely to be ethnic-specific to South Asian families, rather than a reflection of minority status: impact of parental and professional knowledge and beliefs

  19. Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography Characterization of the Effect of Processing Variables on Porosity Formation in Laser Power-Bed Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ross; Narra, Sneha P.; Montgomery, Colt; Beuth, Jack; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The porosity observed in additively manufactured (AM) parts is a potential concern for components intended to undergo high-cycle fatigue without post-processing to remove such defects. The morphology of pores can help identify their cause: irregularly shaped lack of fusion or key-holing pores can usually be linked to incorrect processing parameters, while spherical pores suggest trapped gas. Synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography was performed on laser powder-bed AM Ti-6Al-4V samples over a range of processing conditions to investigate the effects of processing parameters on porosity. The process mapping technique was used to control melt pool size. Tomography was also performed on the powder to measure porosity within the powder that may transfer to the parts. As observed previously in experiments with electron beam powder-bed fabrication, significant variations in porosity were found as a function of the processing parameters. A clear connection between processing parameters and resulting porosity formation mechanism was observed in that inadequate melt pool overlap resulted in lack-of-fusion pores whereas excess power density produced keyhole pores.

  20. Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography Characterization of the Effect of Processing Variables on Porosity Formation in Laser Power-Bed Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ross; Narra, Sneha P.; Montgomery, Colt; Beuth, Jack; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    The porosity observed in additively manufactured (AM) parts is a potential concern for components intended to undergo high-cycle fatigue without post-processing to remove such defects. The morphology of pores can help identify their cause: irregularly shaped lack of fusion or key-holing pores can usually be linked to incorrect processing parameters, while spherical pores suggest trapped gas. Synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography was performed on laser powder-bed AM Ti-6Al-4V samples over a range of processing conditions to investigate the effects of processing parameters on porosity. The process mapping technique was used to control melt pool size. Tomography was also performed on the powder to measure porosity within the powder that may transfer to the parts. As observed previously in experiments with electron beam powder-bed fabrication, significant variations in porosity were found as a function of the processing parameters. A clear connection between processing parameters and resulting porosity formation mechanism was observed in that inadequate melt pool overlap resulted in lack-of-fusion pores whereas excess power density produced keyhole pores.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Language Version of Yang Internet Addiction Questionnaire: An Explanatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Anbari, Zohreh; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reliability and validity are the key concepts in measurement processes. Young internet addiction test (YIAT) is regarded as a valid and reliable questionnaire in English speaking countries for diagnosis of Internet-related behavior disorders. Objectives: This study aimed at validating the Persian version of YIAT in the Iranian society. Patients and Methods: A pilot and a cross-sectional study were conducted on 28 and 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, respectively, in order to validate the Persian version of YIAT. Forward and backward translations were conducted to develop a Persian version of the scale. Reliability was measured by test-retest, Cronbach’s alpha and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Face, content and construct validity were approved by the importance score index, content validity ratio (CVR), content validity index (CVI), correlation matrix and factor analysis. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.917 (CI 95%; 0.901 - 0.931). The average of scale-level CVI was calculated to be 0.74; the CVI index for each item was higher than 0.83 and the average of CVI index was equal to 0.89. Factor analysis extracted three factors including personal activities disorder (PAD), emotional and mood disorder (EMD) and social activities disorder (SAD), with more than 55.8% of total variances. The ICC for different factors of Persian version of Young Questionnaire including PAD, EMD and for SAD was r = 0.884; CI 95%; 0.861 - 0.904, r = 0.766; CI 95%; 0.718 - 0.808 and r = 0.745; CI 95%; 0.686 - 0.795, respectively. Conclusions: Our study showed that the Persian version of YIAT is good and usable on Iranian people. The reliability of the instrument was very good. Moreover, the validity of the Persian translated version of the scale was sufficient. In addition, the reliability and validity of the three extracted factors of YIAT were evaluated and were acceptable. PMID:26495253

  2. Pro-anorexia, weight-loss drugs and the internet: an "anti-recovery" explanatory model of anorexia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie; O'Rourke, Alan

    2005-11-01

    This paper explores the online "pro-anorexia" underground, a movement that supports those with anorexia and adopts an "anti-recovery" perspective on the disease. While encouraging a "healthy" diet to sustain an anorexic way-of-life, the movement also recommends the radical use of weight-loss pharmaceuticals to pursue and maintain low body weight, in contrast to their conventional use to treat obesity. Using ethnographic and interview data collected from participants in the "Anagrrl" website and online forum, we analyse the pro-anorexia (or "pro-ana") movement in terms of its underlying "explanatory model" of the disease, and contrast it with medical, psychosocial, sociocultural and feminist models that encourage a "normalisation" of body shape and weight. We suggest that for participants in pro-ana, anorexia represents stability and control, and Anagrrl offers support and guidance for those who wish to remain in this "sanctuary". We discuss the pro-anorexia movement's use of the internet to facilitate resistance to medical and social theories of disease, and its subversion of pharmaceutical technologies.

  3. Religious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Associations between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by social identity theory, this study investigated having a closer identification as a member of one’s religious group as an explanatory mechanism for linkages between more frequent formal religious participation and better subjective psychological well-being (more positive affect, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction). Multivariate regression models were estimated based on data from 3,032 participants, ages 25 to 74, in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS). Results provided support for the mediating effect of religious social identity on the associations between more frequent religious service attendance and all three dimensions of psychological well-being examined. Given the lack of previous empirical attention to social identity within the literature on religiosity and mental health, these findings contribute to our understanding of self, religion, and health, while also pointing to the importance of continuing to draw on well developed social psychological theory in investigations of linkages between religion and health. PMID:18698380

  4. The International Classification of Functioning as an explanatory model of health after distal radius fracture: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jocelyn E; MacDermid, Joy C; Roth, James

    2005-01-01

    Background Distal radius fractures are common injuries that have an increasing impact on health across the lifespan. The purpose of this study was to identify health impacts in body structure/function, activity, and participation at baseline and follow-up, to determine whether they support the ICF model of health. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 790 individuals who were assessed at 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year post injury. The Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), The Wrist Outcome Measure (WOM), and the Medical Outcome Survey Short-Form (SF-36) were used to measure impairment, activity, participation, and health. Multiple regression was used to develop explanatory models of health outcome. Results Regression analysis showed that the PRWE explained between 13% (one week) and 33% (three months) of the SF-36 Physical Component Summary Scores with pain, activities and participation subscales showing dominant effects at different stages of recovery. PRWE scores were less related to Mental Component Summary Scores, 10% (three months) and 8% (one year). Wrist impairment scores were less powerful predictors of health status than the PRWE. Conclusion The ICF is an informative model for examining distal radius fracture. Difficulty in the domains of activity and participation were able to explain a significant portion of physical health. Post-fracture rehabilitation and outcome assessments should extend beyond physical impairment to insure comprehensive treatment to individuals with distal radius fracture. PMID:16288664

  5. Decision-making and evaluation of science causal claims: Effects of goals on uses of evidence and explanatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jacqueline Yin Sang

    2015-10-01

    Evidence and explanatory mechanism are central to scientific practices. Using such information could also inform decisions about issues in which science can play some role, from policy issues like climate change to personal issues like vaccination. While research suggests that people tend to focus on non-science considerations when making science-related decisions, there is also evidence that people can reason very productively with evidence and mechanism. This study examines how the goals participants pursue when reading a science report influences how they attend to information about causal mechanism and evidence. Two hundred and seventeen high school students were asked either to evaluate the truth of a scientific claim, to make a personal decision based on the claim, or to make a social policy decision based on the claim using an online task-based survey. All three groups of participants attended to evidence and mechanism, but participants with different goals requested different types of information and were influenced by evidence and mechanism for different reasons. The findings suggest that goals influence how participants use evidence and mechanism.

  6. Racial disparities in self-rated health: Trends, explanatory factors, and the changing role of socio-demographics

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Hummer, Robert A.; Masters, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (N = 1,513,097) to describe and explain temporal patterns in black-white health disparities with models that simultaneously consider the unique effects of age, period, and cohort. First, we employ cross-classified random effects age–period–cohort (APC) models to document black-white disparities in self-rated health across temporal dimensions. Second, we use decomposition techniques to shed light on the extent to which socio-economic shifts in cohort composition explain the age and period adjusted racial health disparities across successive birth cohorts. Third, we examine the extent to which exogenous conditions at the time of birth help explain the racial disparities across successive cohorts. Results show that black-white disparities are wider among the pre-1935 cohorts for women, falling thereafter; disparities for men exhibit a similar pattern but exhibit narrowing among cohorts born earlier in the century. Differences in socioeconomic composition consistently contribute to racial health disparities across cohorts; notably, marital status differences by race emerge as an increasingly important explanatory factor in more recent cohorts for women whereas employment differences by race emerge as increasingly salient in more recent cohorts for men. Finally, our cohort characteristics models suggest that cohort economic conditions at the time of birth (percent large family, farm or Southern birth) help explain racial disparities in health for both men and women. PMID:24581075

  7. Marital conflict in early childhood and adolescent disordered eating: emotional insecurity about the marital relationship as an explanatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    George, Melissa W; Fairchild, Amanda J; Mark Cummings, E; Davies, Patrick T

    2014-12-01

    Disordered eating behaviors, including frequent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting and skipping meals for weight loss) and binge eating are prevalent among adolescents. While negative, conflict-ridden family environments have long been implicated as problematic and a contributing factor to the development of disordered eating, few studies have examined the influence of marital conflict exposure in childhood to understand the development of these behaviors in adolescence. The current study investigates the impact of marital conflict, children's emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, and disordered eating behaviors in early adolescence in a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 236 families in Midwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Full structural mediation analyses utilizing robust latent constructs of marital conflict and emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, support children's emotional insecurity as an explanatory mechanism for the influence of marital conflict on adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Findings are discussed with important implications for the long-term impact of marital conflict and the development of disordered eating in adolescence.

  8. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  9. Peak flow regression equations For small, ungaged streams in Maine: Comparing map-based to field-based variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2015-01-01

    Regression equations to estimate peak streamflows with 1- to 500-year recurrence intervals (annual exceedance probabilities from 99 to 0.2 percent, respectively) were developed for small, ungaged streams in Maine. Equations presented here are the best available equations for estimating peak flows at ungaged basins in Maine with drainage areas from 0.3 to 12 square miles (mi2). Previously developed equations continue to be the best available equations for estimating peak flows for basin areas greater than 12 mi2. New equations presented here are based on streamflow records at 40 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages with a minimum of 10 years of recorded peak flows between 1963 and 2012. Ordinary least-squares regression techniques were used to determine the best explanatory variables for the regression equations. Traditional map-based explanatory variables were compared to variables requiring field measurements. Two field-based variables—culvert rust lines and bankfull channel widths—either were not commonly found or did not explain enough of the variability in the peak flows to warrant inclusion in the equations. The best explanatory variables were drainage area and percent basin wetlands; values for these variables were determined with a geographic information system. Generalized least-squares regression was used with these two variables to determine the equation coefficients and estimates of accuracy for the final equations.

  10. Ashtekar variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2015-05-01

    In the spirit of Scholarpedia, this invited article is addressed to students and younger researchers. It provides the motivation and background material, a summary of the main physical ideas, mathematical structures and results, and an outline of applications of the connection variables for general relativity. These variables underlie both the canonical/Hamiltonian and the spinfoam/path integral approaches in loop quantum gravity.

  11. Barriers to Advance Care Planning at the End of Life: An Explanatory Systematic Review of Implementation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Susi; Richardson, Alison; May, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Context Advance Care Plans (ACPs) enable patients to discuss and negotiate their preferences for the future including treatment options at the end of life. Their implementation poses significant challenges. Objective To investigate barriers and facilitators to the implementation of ACPs, focusing on their workability and integration in clinical practice. Design An explanatory systematic review of qualitative implementation studies. Data sources Empirical studies that reported interventions designed to support ACP in healthcare. Web of Knowledge, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index and PubMed databases were searched. Methods Direct content analysis, using Normalization Process Theory, to identify and characterise relevant components of implementation processes. Results 13 papers identified from 166 abstracts were included in the review. Key factors facilitating implementation were: specially prepared staff utilizing a structured approach to interactions around ACPs. Barriers to implementation were competing demands of other work, the emotional and interactional nature of patient-professional interactions around ACPs, problems in sharing decisions and preferences within and between healthcare organizations. Conclusions This review demonstrates that doing more of the things that facilitate delivery of ACPs will not reduce the effects of those things that undermine them. Structured tools are only likely to be partially effective and the creation of a specialist cadre of ACP facilitators is unlikely to be a sustainable solution. The findings underscore both the challenge and need to find ways to routinely incorporate ACPs in clinical settings where multiple and competing demands impact on practice. Interventions most likely to meet with success are those that make elements of Advance Care Planning workable within complex and time pressured clinical workflows. PMID:25679395

  12. Phenology Analysis of Forest Vegetation to Environmental Variables during - and Post-Monsoon Seasons in Western Himalayan Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, S.; Latifi, H.; Ghosh, K.

    2016-06-01

    To assess the phenological changes in Moist Deciduous Forest (MDF) of western Himalayan region of India, we carried out NDVI time series analysis from 2013 to 2015 using Landsat 8 OLI data. We used the vegetation index differencing method to calculate the change in NDVI (NDVIchange) during pre and post monsoon seasons and these changes were used to assess the phenological behaviour of MDF by taking the effect of a set of environmental variables into account. To understand the effect of environmental variables on change in phenology, we designed a linear regression analysis with sample-based NDVIchange values as the response variable and elevation aspect, and Land Surface Temperature (LST) as explanatory variables. The Landsat-8 derived phenology transition stages were validated by calculating the phenology variation from Nov 2008 to April 2009 using Landsat-7 which has the same spatial resolution as Landsat-8. The Landsat-7 derived NDVI trajectories were plotted in accordance with MODIS derived phenology stages (from Nov 2008 to April 2009) of MDF. Results indicate that the Landsat -8 derived NDVI trajectories describing the phenology variation of MDF during spring, monsoon autumn and winter seasons agreed closely with Landsat-7 and MODIS derived phenology transition from Nov 2008 to April 2009. Furthermore, statistical analysis showed statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) amongst the environmental variables and the NDVIchange between full greenness and maximum frequency stage of Onset of Greenness (OG) activity.. The major change in NDVI was observed in medium (600 to 650 m) and maximum (650 to 750 m) elevation areas. The change in LST showed also to be highly influential. The results of this study can be used for large scale monitoring of difficult-to-reach mountainous forests, with additional implications in biodiversity assessment. By means of a sufficient amount of available cloud-free imagery, detailed phenological trends across mountainous

  13. Robust efficiency and actuator saturation explain healthy heart rate control and variability.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Cruz, Jerry; Chien, Chenghao Simon; Sojoudi, Somayeh; Recht, Benjamin; Stone, David; Csete, Marie; Bahmiller, Daniel; Doyle, John C

    2014-08-19

    The correlation of healthy states with heart rate variability (HRV) using time series analyses is well documented. Whereas these studies note the accepted proximal role of autonomic nervous system balance in HRV patterns, the responsible deeper physiological, clinically relevant mechanisms have not been fully explained. Using mathematical tools from control theory, we combine mechanistic models of basic physiology with experimental exercise data from healthy human subjects to explain causal relationships among states of stress vs. health, HR control, and HRV, and more importantly, the physiologic requirements and constraints underlying these relationships. Nonlinear dynamics play an important explanatory role--most fundamentally in the actuator saturations arising from unavoidable tradeoffs in robust homeostasis and metabolic efficiency. These results are grounded in domain-specific mechanisms, tradeoffs, and constraints, but they also illustrate important, universal properties of complex systems. We show that the study of complex biological phenomena like HRV requires a framework which facilitates inclusion of diverse domain specifics (e.g., due to physiology, evolution, and measurement technology) in addition to general theories of efficiency, robustness, feedback, dynamics, and supporting mathematical tools.

  14. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  15. Associations between Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Housing- and Individual-Related Variables in Dairy Cows Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Levente; Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Bakony, Mikolt; Hufnágel, Levente; Tőzsér, János; Jurkovich, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations between heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and some housing- and individual-related variables using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCOA) method in lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. We collected a total of 5200 5-min interbeat interval (IBI) samples from 260 animals on five commercial dairy farms [smaller-scale farms with 70 (Farm 1, n = 50) and 80 cows per farm (Farm 2, n = 40), and larger-scale farms with 850 (Farm 3, n = 66), 1900 (Farm 4, n = 60) and 1200 (Farm 5, n = 45) cows. Dependent variables included HRV parameters, which reflect the activity of the autonomic nervous system: heart rate (HR), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in IBIs, the standard deviation 1 (SD1), the high frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and the HF parameter (LF/HF). Explanatory variables were group size, space allowance, milking frequency, parity, daily milk yield, body condition score, locomotion score, farm, season and physical activity (lying, lying and rumination, standing, standing and rumination and feeding). Physical activity involved in standing, feeding and in rumination was associated with HRV parameters, indicating a decreasing sympathetic and an increasing vagal tone in the following order: feeding, standing, standing and rumination, lying and rumination, lying. Objects representing summer positioned close to HR and LF and far from SD1, RMSSD and HF indicate a higher sympathetic and a lower vagal activity. Objects representing autumn, spring and winter associated with increasing vagal activity, in this order. Time-domain measures of HRV were associated with most of the housing- and individual-related explanatory variables. Higher HR and lower RMSSD and SD1 were associated with higher group size, milking frequency, parity and milk yield, and low space allowance. Higher parity and milk yield were associated with higher sympathetic activity as well (higher LF

  16. Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    Le Floch, Jean-Pierre; Kessler, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose variability has been suspected to be a major factor of diabetic complications. Several indices have been proposed for measuring glucose variability, but their interest remains discussed. Our aim was to compare different indices. Methods: Glucose variability was studied in 150 insulin-treated diabetic patients (46% men, 42% type 1 diabetes, age 52 ± 11 years) using a continuous glucose monitoring system (668 ± 564 glucose values; mean glucose value 173 ± 38 mg/dL). Results from the mean, the median, different indices (SD, MAGE, MAG, glucose fluctuation index (GFI), and percentages of low [<60 mg/dL] and high [>180 mg/dL] glucose values), and ratios (CV = SD/m, MAGE/m, MAG/m, and GCF = GFI/m) were compared using Pearson linear correlations and a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). Results: CV, MAGE/m (ns), GCF and GFI (P < .05), MAG and MAG/m (P < .01) were not strongly correlated with the mean. The percentage of high glucose values was mainly correlated with indices. The percentage of low glucose values was mainly correlated with ratios. PCA showed 3 main axes; the first was associated with descriptive data (mean, SD, CV, MAGE, MAGE/m, and percentage of high glucose values); the second with ratios MAG/m and GCF and with the percentage of low glucose values; and the third with MAG, GFI, and the percentage of high glucose values. Conclusions: Indices and ratios provide complementary pieces of information associated with high and low glucose values, respectively. The pairs MAG+MAG/m and GFI+GCF appear to be the most reliable markers of glucose variability in diabetic patients. PMID:26880391

  17. QT variability.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that temporal lability in ventricular repolarization is a marker for, and is mechanistically related to, increased risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. To assess repolarization lability in the surface electrocardiogram, we developed an automated algorithm, based on template matching, to measure beat-to-beat changes in QT interval. We calculate a QT variability index (QTVI) to quantify the relative magnitude of QT interval changes compared to heart rate variability. We found that QTVI is a reproducible measure. It is elevated in patients with ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy compared with age-matched controls (P<.00001). We have also shown that QTVI is elevated in patients with malignant beta-myosin heavy-chain mutations associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In a study of patients undergoing electrophysiologic testing, QTVI identified patients with cardiac arrest better than electrophysiologic test result and better than other risk stratifiers included in the analysis. QT variability is a marker of electrical disease in the ventricle and may be associated with enhanced risk of life-threatening arrhythmias.

  18. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  19. Making sense of illness: late-in-life migration as point of departure for elderly Iranian immigrants' explanatory models of illness.

    PubMed

    Emami, Azita; Torres, Sandra

    2005-07-01

    This article is based on data gathered through 60 qualitative interviews conducted within the realm of three research projects that have used "culture-appropriate lenses" to study the postmigration situation of late-in-life Iranian immigrants to Sweden. The findings gathered through these studies were interpreted against the backdrop that culturally appropriate nursing theories provide. This meant that it was, at times, these elders' backgrounds as cultural "others" that were implicitly used to make sense of the various issues that were brought to the fore by these studies. The particular issue with which this article is concerned is the "unusualness" of these elders' explanatory models of illness. Inspired by the concept "definition of situation" in the symbolic interactionist perspective and by the feeling that this perspective might bring about a different interpretation of the original findings regarding their understandings of illness and disease, we set out to conduct a secondary analysis of these elders' explanatory models of illness. The findings presented in this article will show how the elderly Iranian immigrants interviewed in these three studies utilize the process of "late in life migration" as a point of reference for their understandings of what has caused the illnesses from which they suffered. Hereby we will suggest that the "unusualness" of their explanatory models of illness might be best understood if we focus on what they shared as immigrants (i.e., the fact that the process of late-in-life migration has made their culture obsolete) as opposed to what they shared as Iranians (i.e., their culture of origin).

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  3. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  4. The impact of flood variables on riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzubakova, Katarina; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    the most significant variables impacting vegetation response. Generally, maximal flood attributes had more significant impacts than integrated attributes over the flood duration. Additional explanatory variables in the model should account for vegetation heterogeneity, groundwater conditions and different effects of lateral and surface erosion.

  5. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  6. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  7. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Andrea F. P.; Cey, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  8. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrea F P; Cey, Edwin E

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Improving Space Project Cost Estimating with Engineering Management Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current space project cost models attempt to predict space flight project cost via regression equations, which relate the cost of projects to technical performance metrics (e.g. weight, thrust, power, pointing accuracy, etc.). This paper examines the introduction of engineering management parameters to the set of explanatory variables. A number of specific engineering management variables are considered and exploratory regression analysis is performed to determine if there is statistical evidence for cost effects apart from technical aspects of the projects. It is concluded that there are other non-technical effects at work and that further research is warranted to determine if it can be shown that these cost effects are definitely related to engineering management.

  12. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  13. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  19. Social Cohesion as a Real-Life Phenomenon: Assessing the Explanatory Power of the Universalist and Particularist Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike most studies on social cohesion, this study explores the concept as a real-life macro-level phenomenon. It assesses to what extent the conceptions of social cohesion suggested by several macro-level approaches represent coherent empirically observable forms of social cohesion. Additionally it discusses two perspectives on social…

  20. The role of mass media in adolescents' sexual behaviors: exploring the explanatory value of the three-step self-objectification process.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study (N = 730) explored whether the three-step process of self-objectification (internalization of appearance ideals, valuing appearance over competence, and body surveillance) could explain the influence of sexual media messages on adolescents' sexual behaviors. A structural equation model showed that reading sexualizing magazines (Time 1) was related to the internalization of appearance ideals and valuing appearance over competence (Time 2). In turn, the internalization of appearance ideals was positively associated with body surveillance and valuing appearance over competence (all at Time 2). Valuing appearance over competence was also positively associated with body surveillance (all at Time 2). Lastly, body surveillance (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of French kissing (Time 3) whereas valuing appearance over competence (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of sexual intercourse (Time 3). No significant relationship was observed for intimate touching. The discussion focused on the explanatory role of self-objectification in media effects on adolescents' sexual behaviors.

  1. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  2. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  3. Political determinants of variable aetiology resonance: explaining the African AIDS epidemics.

    PubMed

    Hunsmann, M

    2009-12-01

    Notwithstanding the massive social and economic disruptions caused by HIV/AIDS in many sub-Saharan countries, the epidemic does not pose a serious political threat to African governments. Based on an analysis of today's dominant aetiologic framing of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper argues that the behaviour-centred explanatory approach contributes to the political domestication of the epidemic. The behavioural aetiology suffers from a double reductionism: It concentrates on sexual transmission only and, within sexual transmission, it focuses exclusively on the immediate cause of transmission (unprotected sex), omitting that biological co-factors increase populations' vulnerability to infection. By overlooking these non-behaviour-related determinants of sexual HIV transmission, this explanatory approach implicitly blames individual behaviours for the spread of the virus. Conversely, the likely underestimation (if not the outright denial) of iatrogenic HIV transmission exonerates governments and donor agencies. The variable political resonance of different explanatory approaches is not random and the translation of the available bio-medical and epidemiological evidence into prevention measures is politically mediated.

  4. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  5. Analysis of the diversity of substrate utilisation of soil bacteria exposed to Cd and earthworm activity using generalised additive models.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd.

  6. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  7. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  8. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  9. Family attitudes in youth as a possible precursor of cancer among physicians: a search for explanatory mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.W.; Duszynski, K.R.; Thomas, C.B.

    1982-06-01

    A measure of youthful family attitudes, the Closeness to Parents Scale, has continued to be predictive of cancer among physicians in a prospective study of medical students. Nonetheless, questions have remained concerning the meaning and reliability of this measure and whether its predictive value is diminishing over time. Perhaps more important, it is necessary to ascertain whether the relationship is the result of some methodological artifact or whether it is mediated by an association with known risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, and radiation exposure. Each of these issues was examined in turn, using a variety of statistical techniques to refine the scale and to equate cancer and control groups with respect to risk factors as well as possible artifacts. In a group of 913 men, it was found that the scale is primarily a function of good father-son relationships and that its association with later cancer persists even after the influence of possible mediating and artifactual variables is statistically controlled. Several possible explanations for these findings are discussed.

  10. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  11. Modeling fish biological responses to contaminants and natural variability in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, V F; Vasconcelos, R P; França, S; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Company, R; Bebianno, M J; Costa, M J; Cabral, H N

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence biological responses to contaminants has long been a major goal in marine environmental research. Seven estuarine sites along the Portuguese coast were sampled over a year, and different biological responses of Pomatoschistus microps and Atherina presbyter were determined: superoxide dismutase, catalase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation, RNA:DNA ratio and condition factor K. Generalized linear models (GLM) were developed for each biological variable per species in relation to sediment chemical characterization (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration) and environmental conditions (month, site, water temperature, salinity, depth and mud percentage in the sediment). GLM varied in explanatory power and in the set of predictor variables included in the models. Environmental factors were frequently selected as predictor variables. Individual metals concentration and sediment quality guidelines (integrating all metals) were the major contaminants explaining biological variability. Accordingly, models for metallothioneins and lipid peroxidation had highest explanatory power. Species-specific responses and dataset size were the basis of observed differences between GLM for the two species.

  12. Selection of relevant input variables in storm water quality modeling by multiobjective evolutionary polynomial regression paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creaco, E.; Berardi, L.; Sun, Siao; Giustolisi, O.; Savic, D.

    2016-04-01

    The growing availability of field data, from information and communication technologies (ICTs) in "smart" urban infrastructures, allows data modeling to understand complex phenomena and to support management decisions. Among the analyzed phenomena, those related to storm water quality modeling have recently been gaining interest in the scientific literature. Nonetheless, the large amount of available data poses the problem of selecting relevant variables to describe a phenomenon and enable robust data modeling. This paper presents a procedure for the selection of relevant input variables using the multiobjective evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR-MOGA) paradigm. The procedure is based on scrutinizing the explanatory variables that appear inside the set of EPR-MOGA symbolic model expressions of increasing complexity and goodness of fit to target output. The strategy also enables the selection to be validated by engineering judgement. In such context, the multiple case study extension of EPR-MOGA, called MCS-EPR-MOGA, is adopted. The application of the proposed procedure to modeling storm water quality parameters in two French catchments shows that it was able to significantly reduce the number of explanatory variables for successive analyses. Finally, the EPR-MOGA models obtained after the input selection are compared with those obtained by using the same technique without benefitting from input selection and with those obtained in previous works where other data-modeling techniques were used on the same data. The comparison highlights the effectiveness of both EPR-MOGA and the input selection procedure.

  13. Young adults' knowledge of politics: evaluating the role of socio-cognitive variables using structural equations.

    PubMed

    Brussino, Silvina; Medrano, Leonardo; Sorribas, Patricia; Rabbia, Hugo H

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to create an explanatory model that allows analyzing the predictive power of a set of variables related to political knowledge; more specifically, to analyze the relationship between the education level of young adults and the variables, interest in politics and internal political efficacy. We also analyzed the combined relationship between these variables, together with age, and political knowledge. We worked with a sample group of 280 young adults between the ages of 18-30 from the city of Córdoba (Argentina). The data was subjected to a structural equation modelling SEM analysis, which allowed for the corroboration of the following hypotheses: the higher the education level, the more the interest in politics; the higher the education level, the better the perception of internal political efficacy; the higher the education level, the more the political knowledge; the more the interest in politics, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more interest in politics. Moreover, the following hypotheses could not be verified: the older an individual, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more the political knowledge. The model obtained allows for discussion of the explanatory value of these socio-cognitive variables.

  14. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  15. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  16. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  17. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  18. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  19. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: an explanatory model.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, Mallie J

    2010-06-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among adolescents' perception of community alcohol norms, enforcement of underage drinking laws, personal beliefs (perceived parental disapproval of alcohol use, perceived alcohol availability, perceived drinking by peers, perceived harm and personal disapproval of alcohol use), and their past-30-day alcohol use. This study used data from 17,830 middle and high school students who participated in the 2007 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived community disapproval of adolescents' alcohol use was directly and positively related to perceived local police enforcement of underage drinking laws. In addition, adolescents' personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and past-30-day alcohol use. Enforcement of underage drinking laws appeared to partially mediate the relationship between perceived community disapproval and personal beliefs related to alcohol use. Results of this study suggests that environmental prevention efforts to reduce underage drinking should target adults' attitudes and community norms about underage drinking as well as the beliefs of youth themselves.

  2. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  3. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  4. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  5. Using case study within a sequential explanatory design to evaluate the impact of specialist and advanced practice roles on clinical outcomes: the SCAPE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of the clinical nurse/midwife specialist and advanced nurse/midwife practitioner is complex not least because of the diversity in how the roles are operationalised across health settings and within multidisciplinary teams. This aim of this paper is to use The SCAPE Study: Specialist Clinical and Advanced Practitioner Evaluation in Ireland to illustrate how case study was used to strengthen a Sequential Explanatory Design. Methods In Phase 1, clinicians identified indicators of specialist and advanced practice which were then used to guide the instrumental case study design which formed the second phase of the larger study. Phase 2 used matched case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of specialist and advanced practitioners on clinical outcomes for service users. Data were collected through observation, documentary analysis, and interviews. Observations were made of 23 Clinical Specialists or Advanced Practitioners, and 23 matched clinicians in similar matched non-postholding sites, while they delivered care. Forty-one service users, 41 clinicians, and 23 Directors of Nursing or Midwifery were interviewed, and 279 service users completed a survey based on the components of CS and AP practice identified in Phase 1. A coding framework, and the generation of cross tabulation matrices in NVivo, was used to make explicit how the outcome measures were confirmed and validated from multiple sources. This strengthened the potential to examine single cases that seemed ‘different’, and allowed for cases to be redefined. Phase 3 involved interviews with policy-makers to set the findings in context. Results Case study is a powerful research strategy to use within sequential explanatory mixed method designs, and adds completeness to the exploration of complex issues in clinical practice. The design is flexible, allowing the use of multiple data collection methods from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms. Conclusions Multiple approaches to data

  6. Atrazine and metolachlor occurrence in shallow ground water of the United States, 1993 to 1995: Relations to explanatory factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Barbash, J.E.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the quality of the Nation's water resources. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of why pesticides are found in shallow ground water on a national scale, a set of factors likely to affect the fate and transport of two herbicides in the subsurface were examined. Atrazine and metolachlor were selected for this discussion because they were among the most frequently detected pesticides in ground water during the first phase of the NAWQA Program (1993 to 1995), and each was the most frequently detected compound in its chemical class (triazines and acetanilides, respectively). The factors that most strongly correlated with the frequencies of atrazine detection in shallow ground-water networks were those that provided either: (1) an indication of the potential susceptibility of ground water to atrazine contamination, or (2) an indication of relative ground-water age. The factors most closely related to the frequencies of metolachlor detection in ground water, however, were those that estimated or indicated the intensity of the agricultural use of metolachlor. This difference is probably the result of detailed use estimates for these compounds being available only for agricultural settings. While atrazine use is relatively extensive in nonagricultural settings, in addition to its widespread agricultural use, metolachlor is used almost exclusively for agricultural purposes. As a result, estimates of agricultural applications provide a less reliable indication of total chemical use for atrazine than for metolachlor. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors of interest explained about 50 percent of the variance in atrazine and metolachlor detection frequencies among the NAWQA land-use studies examined. The inclusion of other factors related to pesticide fate and transport in ground water, or improvements in the quality and

  7. The North Texas aerospace manufacturing and aviation industries: An explanatory case study of school-to-work collaborative networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Cynthia Ann

    The purpose of this study is to explore how educators, business partners and facilitators developed ties or networks to initiate a school-to-work collaboration to prepare students for jobs and careers in the aerospace manufacturing and aviation industries. There is growing concern about preparing a future workforce supply in these industries in North Texas. Workforce projections call for 8000 additional jobs between 2010 and 2020 (North Central Texas Council of Governments, 2013). Collaboration is recognized as a valuable asset to connect disjointed segments within the K-16 trajectory. This study explores the contradiction between the stated need for collaborative strategies and the inability of stakeholders attempting to collaborate across organizational and institutional boundaries to sustain these connections. Through the lens of networking theory, the roles of facilitators and the operation of networks and ties between and among partners are investigated. Ten participants in a high school curriculum development project were interviewed, representing a business, community college, and K-12 education. Data analysis revealed findings associated with three major themes: facilitation, project activity and relationships. Nine individuals were identified as facilitators, and facilitators were perceived as helping the project move forward. Project activity benefited from the structured curriculum development process. Although relationships characterized by strong ties helped start the project, weak ties predominated among project participants. Implications for theory include the need for more knowledge about facilitator roles and group dynamics. Further research about the functioning of weak and strong ties and facilitator skill sets relating to collaborative leadership would be valuable. Implications for practice include capturing lessons learned to apply to other industries, and overtly acknowledging the existence and importance of facilitators.

  8. Using satellite-based measurements to explore spatiotemporal scales and variability of drivers of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Crippa, P.; Hallar, A. G.; Clarisse, L.; Whitburn, S.; Van Damme, M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Walker, J. T.; Khlystov, A.; Pryor, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently spatially averaged) measurements of atmospheric conditions to diagnose the occurrence of NPF and NPF characteristics. We demonstrate the potential for using satellite-based measurements of insolation (UV), trace gas concentrations (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCHO), and ozone (O3)), aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE)), and a proxy of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (leaf area index (LAI) and temperature (T)) as predictors for NPF characteristics: formation rates, growth rates, survival probabilities, and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations at five locations across North America. NPF at all sites is most frequent in spring, exhibits a one-day autocorrelation, and is associated with low condensational sink (AOD × AE) and HCHO concentrations, and high UV. However, there are important site-to-site variations in NPF frequency and characteristics, and in which of the predictor variables (particularly gas concentrations) significantly contribute to the explanatory power of regression models built to predict those characteristics. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the reported spatial variability in skill of simple generalized nucleation schemes in reproducing observed NPF. In contrast to more simple proxies developed in prior studies (e.g., based on AOD, AE, SO2, and UV), use of additional predictors (NO2, NH3, HCHO, LAI, T, and O3) increases the explained temporal variance of UFP concentrations at all sites.

  9. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  10. Independent, dependent, and other variables in healthcare and chaplaincy research.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Laura T; Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by defining the term variable and the terms independent variable and dependent variable, providing examples of each. It then proceeds to describe and discuss synonyms for the terms independent variable and dependent variable, including treatment, intervention, predictor, and risk factor, and synonyms for dependent variable, such as response variables and outcomes. The article explains that the terms extraneous, nuisance, and confounding variables refer to any variable that can interfere with the ability to establish relationships between independent variables and dependent variables, and it describes ways to control for such confounds. It further explains that even though intervening, mediating, and moderating variables explicitly alter the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables, they help to explain the causal relationship between them. In addition, the article links terminology about variables with the concept of levels of measurement in research.

  11. Critical reflections on evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory as explanatory account of emergence of sex differences in psychopathology: comment on Martel (2013).

    PubMed

    Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-11-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a metatheory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. In this comment, I first enumerate several strengths and then offer 2 primary critiques about Martel's proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures that hold promise to enhance understanding of such sex differences. At the same time, I raise critical questions regarding EP generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, as the metatheoretical framework chosen to bind together these different influences and mechanisms as drivers of the sex difference in different psychopathologies. Indeed, it is not clear that EP is necessary--nor does it provide unique explanatory power-to explicate the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing disorders among youth. Moreover, Martel's EP-based proposal pertains to adolescent-onset depression and social phobia but does not provide an explanation for known sex differences in other common childhood-onset and early adult-onset anxiety disorders.

  12. Interparental Conflict and Children’s School Adjustment: The Explanatory Role of Children’s Internal Representations of Interparental and Parent–Child Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Winter, Marcia A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how children’s insecure internal representations of interparental and parent–child relationships served as explanatory mechanisms in multiple pathways linking interparental conflict and parent emotional unavailability with the emotional and classroom engagement difficulties the children had in their adjustment to school. With their parents, 229 kindergarten children (127 girls and 102 boys, mean age = 6.0 years, SD = .50, at Wave 1) participated in this multimethod, 3-year longitudinal investigation. Findings revealed that children’s insecure representations of the interparental relationship were a significant intervening mechanism in associations between observational ratings of interparental conflict and child and teacher reports on children’s emotional and classroom difficulties in school over a 2-year period. Moreover, increased parental emotional unavailability accompanying high levels of interparental conflict was associated with children’s insecure representations of the parent–child relationship and children’s difficulties in classroom engagement at school entry. The findings highlight the importance of understanding the intrinsic processes that contribute to difficulties with stage-salient tasks for children who are experiencing interparental discord. PMID:18999330

  13. Subgroup finding via Bayesian additive regression trees.

    PubMed

    Sivaganesan, Siva; Müller, Peter; Huang, Bin

    2017-03-09

    We provide a Bayesian decision theoretic approach to finding subgroups that have elevated treatment effects. Our approach separates the modeling of the response variable from the task of subgroup finding and allows a flexible modeling of the response variable irrespective of potential subgroups of interest. We use Bayesian additive regression trees to model the response variable and use a utility function defined in terms of a candidate subgroup and the predicted response for that subgroup. Subgroups are identified by maximizing the expected utility where the expectation is taken with respect to the posterior predictive distribution of the response, and the maximization is carried out over an a priori specified set of candidate subgroups. Our approach allows subgroups based on both quantitative and categorical covariates. We illustrate the approach using simulated data set study and a real data set. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Examining spatial and temporal variability in snow water equivalent using a 27 year reanalysis: Kern River watershed, Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girotto, M.; Cortés, G.; Margulis, S. A.; Durand, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    This work used a data assimilation framework to estimate spatially and temporally continuous snow water equivalent (SWE) from a 27 year reanalysis (from water year 1985 to 2011) of the Landsat-5 record for the Kern River watershed in the Sierra Nevada, California. The data assimilation approach explicitly treats sources of uncertainty from model parameters, meteorological inputs, and observations. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model (LSM) and snow depletion curve (SDC) model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and fractional snow cover area (FSCA) for a given set of prior (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a retrospective reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the observed fractional snow cover time series. The final posterior SWE estimate is generated from the LSM-SDC using the posterior estimation variables consistently with all postulated sources of uncertainty in the model, inputs, and observations. A reasonable agreement was found between the SWE reanalysis and in situ SWE observations and streamflow data. The data set was studied to evaluate factors controlling SWE spatial and temporal variability. Elevation was found to be the primary control on spatial patterns of peak-SWE and day-of-peak. The easting coordinate had additional explanatory power, which is hypothesized to be related to rain shadow effects due to the prevailing storm track directions. The spatial patterns were found to be interannually inconsistent. However, drier years and lower elevations were found more variable than wetter years and higher elevations, respectively. Only a very small percentage of the Kern River watershed had a significant trend in peak-SWE and day-of-peak. Trends deemed to be significant were found to be positive (peak-SWE is increasing and day-of-peak occurs later) at higher elevations, but negative (peak-SWE is decreasing and day-of-peak occurs earlier) at lower elevations

  15. Examining spatial and temporal variability in snow water equivalent using a 27 year reanalysis: Kern River watershed, Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girotto, Manuela; Cortés, Gonzalo; Margulis, Steven A.; Durand, Michael

    2014-08-01

    This paper used a data assimilation framework to estimate spatially and temporally continuous snow water equivalent (SWE) from a 27 year reanalysis (from water year 1985 to 2011) of the Landsat-5 record for the Kern River watershed in the Sierra Nevada, California. The data assimilation approach explicitly treats sources of uncertainty from model parameters, meteorological inputs, and observations. The method is comprised of two main components: (1) a coupled land surface model (LSM) and snow depletion curve (SDC) model, which is used to generate an ensemble of predictions of SWE and fractional snow cover area (FSCA) for a given set of prior (uncertain) inputs, and (2) a retrospective reanalysis step, which updates estimation variables to be consistent with the observed fractional snow cover time series. The final posterior SWE estimate is generated from the LSM-SDC using the posterior estimation variables consistently with all postulated sources of uncertainty in the model, inputs, and observations. A reasonable agreement was found between the SWE reanalysis and in situ SWE observations and streamflow data. The data set was studied to evaluate factors controlling SWE spatial and temporal variability. Elevation was found to be the primary control on spatial patterns of peak-SWE and day-of-peak. The easting coordinate had additional explanatory power, which is hypothesized to be related to rain shadow effects due to the prevailing storm track directions. The spatial patterns were found to be interannually inconsistent. However, drier years and lower elevations were found more variable than wetter years and higher elevations, respectively. Only a very small percentage of the Kern River watershed had a significant trend in peak-SWE and day-of-peak. Trends deemed to be significant were found to be positive (peak-SWE is increasing and day-of-peak occurs later) at higher elevations, but negative (peak-SWE is decreasing and day-of-peak occurs earlier) at lower elevations

  16. Fitting response models of benthic community structure to abiotic variables in a polluted estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Oreja, José Antonio; Saiz-Salinas, José Ignacio

    1999-07-01

    Models of the macrozoobenthic community responses to abiotic variables measured in the polluted Bilbao estuary were obtained by multiple linear regression analyses. Total, Oligochaeta and Nematoda abundance and biomass were considered as dependent variables. Intertidal level, dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the water column (DOXB) and organic content of the sediment were selected by the analyses as the three principal explanatory variables. Goodness-of-fit of the models was high ( overlinex=71.3% ). Total abundance and biomass increased as a linear function of DOXB. The principal outcome of the vast sewage scheme currently in progress in the study area is an important contributor of increasing DOXB levels. The models exposed in this paper will serve as a tool to evaluate the expected changes in the near future.

  17. Variable gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Eight fourth-year engineering design students formed two teams to study methods of varying the perceived gravity level in a variable gravity research facility. A tether system and an arm system were the chosen topics. Both teams have produced and built scale models of their design. In addition, a three-credit Special Topics Course (Aviation 370) was formed, as the project offers an excellent opportunity to build a multi-disciplinary program around the initial conceptualization process. Fifty students were registered in the Special Topics course. Each week during a three hour class, a guest lecturer covered one or more of the many areas associated with the concept of a variable-gravity facility. The students formed small groups organized on a multi-disciplinary basis (there were twelve separate disciplines represented by one or more students) where they discussed among themselves the various issues involved. These groups also met outside class for three or more hours each week. During class each group presented oral reports on their findings during a one-hour general question and answer period.

  18. Determining the Environmental Factors Underlying the Spatial Variability of Insect Appearance Phenology for the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera, and the Small White, Pieris rapae

    PubMed Central

    Gordo, Oscar; Sanz, Juan José; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial patterns of the variability of the appearance dates of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidea) and the small white Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) were investigated in Spain. A database of more than 7,000 records of the dates of the first spring sightings of each species in more than 700 localities from 1952–2004 was used. Phenological data were related to spatial, topographical, climate, land use, and vegetation productivity explanatory variables by means of multiple regression models in order to search for the environmental mechanisms underlying the observable phenological variability. Temperature and altitudinal spatial gradients accounted for most of the spatial variability in the phenology of the studied species, while vegetation productivity and land use had low relevance. In both species, the first individuals were recorded at those sites with warmer springs and dry summers, at low altitudes, and not covered with dry farming (i.e., cereal crops). The identity and magnitude of the effect of the variables were almost identical for both species and closely mirrored spatial temperature gradients. The best explanatory models accounted for up to half of the variability of appearance dates. Residuals did not show a spatial autocorrelation, meaning that no other spatially structured variable at our working resolution could have improved the results. Differences in the spatial patterns of phenology with regard to other taxa, such as arrival dates of migratory birds, suggest that spatial constraints may play an essential role in the phenological matching between trophic levels. PMID:20578955

  19. Explanatory chapter: next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Technological breakthroughs in sequencing technologies have driven the advancement of molecular biology and molecular genetics research. The advent of high-throughput Sanger sequencing (for information on the method, see Sanger Dideoxy Sequencing of DNA) in the mid- to late-1990s made possible the accelerated completion of the human genome project, which has since revolutionized the pace of discovery in biomedical research. Similarly, the advent of next generation sequencing is poised to revolutionize biomedical research and usher a new era of individualized, rational medicine. The term next generation sequencing refers to technologies that have enabled the massively parallel analysis of DNA sequence facilitated through the convergence of advancements in molecular biology, nucleic acid chemistry and biochemistry, computational biology, and electrical and mechanical engineering. The current next generation sequencing technologies are capable of sequencing tens to hundreds of millions of DNA templates simultaneously and generate >4 gigabases of sequence in a single day. These technologies have largely started to replace high-throughput Sanger sequencing for large-scale genomic projects, and have created significant enthusiasm for the advent of a new era of individualized medicine.

  20. Uncertainty Can Increase Explanatory Credibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    metacognitive cue to infer their conversational partner’s depth of processing . Keywords: explanations, confidence, uncertainty, collaborative reasoning...scope, i.e., those that account for only observed phenomena (Khemlani, Sussman, & Oppenheimer , 2011). These preferences show that properties intrinsic...Fischhoff, & Phillips , 1982; Lindley, 1982; McClelland & Bolger, 1994). Much of the research on subjective confidence addresses how individuals

  1. Improving Explanatory Inferences from Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakow, Ronli Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation comprises three papers that propose, discuss, and illustrate models to make improved inferences about research questions regarding student achievement in education. Addressing the types of questions common in educational research today requires three different "extensions" to traditional educational assessment: (1)…

  2. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H[subscript 2]O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold,…

  3. Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking Behavior Among Trauma-Exposed Daily Smokers: The Explanatory Role of Smoking-Related Avoidance and Inflexibility.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Zvolensky, Michael J; Salazar, Adriana; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe that anxiety-related sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with smoking processes and poorer clinical outcomes among trauma-exposed smokers. Yet the specific mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility is a construct implicated in multiple manifestations of mood regulation that may underlie smoking behavior. The current study examined the explanatory role of smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility in terms of the relation between AS and indices of smoking behavior among trauma-exposed smokers. The sample consisted of 217 treatment-seeking adult smokers (44% female; M age = 37.8; SD = 13.2; age range: 18-65 years), who were exposed to at least one lifetime Criterion A trauma event (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR] Criterion A for trauma exposure). Bootstrap analysis (5,000 re-samples) revealed that AS was indirectly related to the (a) number of cigarettes smoked per day, (b) number of years being a daily smoker, (c) number of failed quit attempts, and (d) heaviness of smoking index among trauma-exposed smokers through its relation with smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility may be an important construct in better understanding AS-smoking relations among trauma-exposed smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility account for relations between AS and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome) in the context of trauma and smoking comorbidity.

  4. Deviant Peer Affiliation as an Explanatory Mechanism in the Association between Corporal Punishment and Physical Aggression: a Longitudinal Study among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Boyu; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-01-09

    Previous research has focused primarily on corporal punishment as a cause and adolescents' physical aggression as an outcome. However, there is a large gap in knowledge of the potentially bidirectional association and explanatory mechanism underlying the association between corporal punishment and physical aggression. The current study, using a longitudinal design across three time points (the fall semester of 7th grade, the fall of 8th grade, and the fall of 9th grade), aimed to a) examine the reciprocal processes between corporal punishment and physical aggression, and b) explore whether deviant peer affiliation may explain such reciprocal connections. Only adolescents participating in all the three time points were included in this study, resulting in a final sample of 342 adolescents (175 boys, 167 girls) who completed questionnaires regarding corporal punishment, deviant peer affiliation, and aggression. Gender, age and socioeconomic status were controlled for in the analyses. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that the results did not support the direct reciprocal effect between corporal punishment and physical aggression among Chinese adolescents. A direct longitudinal link from corporal punishment to physical aggression was found, however, the inverse association was not significant. Moreover, regarding the longitudinal underlying process, in one direction, corporal punishment at 7th grade predicted higher levels of deviant peer affiliation at 8th grade. In turn, higher deviant peer affiliation at 8th grade predicted increased physical aggression at 9th grade. At the same time, in the other direction, adolescent physical aggression at 7th grade significantly predicted deviant peer affiliation at 8th grade. In turn, higher deviant peer affiliation at 8th grade predicted decreased corporal punishment at 9th grade. Identifying the direct and underlying reciprocal processes between corporal punishment and adolescent physical aggression has important

  5. Current Climate Variability & Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  6. Variable conductance heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.; Edwards, D. K.; Anderson, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and development programs in variable conductance heat pipe technology were conducted. The treatment has been comprehensive, involving theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, heat transfer into and out of the pipe, fluid selection, and materials compatibility, in addition to the principal subject of variable conductance control techniques. Efforts were not limited to analytical work and laboratory experimentation, but extended to the development, fabrication and test of spacecraft hardware, culminating in the successful flight of the Ames Heat Pipe Experiment on the OAO-C spacecraft.

  7. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  8. The SU(2) action-angle variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellinas, Demosthenes

    1993-01-01

    Operator angle-action variables are studied in the frame of the SU(2) algebra, and their eigenstates and coherent states are discussed. The quantum mechanical addition of action-angle variables is shown to lead to a noncommutative Hopf algebra. The group contraction is used to make the connection with the harmonic oscillator.

  9. Environmental Variables as Predictors of Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ronald W.

    This project used six environmental variables identified by Dave (1963) and Wolf (1964) and three additional variables (identification with models, range of social interaction, and perception of practical value of education) to predict academic achievement in six-year-old Mexican-American children from an economically depressed area. The children…

  10. Effect of inversion polymorphism on the neutral nucleotide variability of linked chromosomal regions in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, A; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    2000-01-01

    Recombination is a main factor determining nucleotide variability in different regions of the genome. Chromosomal inversions, which are ubiquitous in the genus Drosophila, are known to reduce and redistribute recombination, and thus their specific effect on nucleotide variation may be of major importance as an explanatory factor for levels of DNA variation. Here, we use the coalescent approach to study this effect. First, we develop analytical expressions to predict nucleotide variability in old inversion polymorphisms that have reached mutation-drift-flux equilibrium. The effects on nucleotide variability of a new arrangement appearing in the population and reaching a stable polymorphism are then studied by computer simulation. We show that inversions modulate nucleotide variability in a complex way. The establishment of an inversion polymorphism involves a partial selective sweep that eliminates part of the variability in the population. This is followed by a slow convergence to the equilibrium values. During this convergence, regions close to the breakpoints exhibit much lower variability than central regions. However, at equilibrium, regions close to the breakpoints have higher levels of variability and differentiation between arrangements than regions in the middle of the inverted segment. The implications of these findings for overall variability levels during the evolution of Drosophila species are discussed. PMID:10835391

  11. Progress with variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westmoreland, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of components of an advanced propulsion system for a future supersonic cruise vehicle is discussed. These components, a high performance duct burner for thrust augmentation and a low jet noise coannular exhaust nozzle, are part of the variable stream control engine. An experimental test program involving both isolated component and complete engine tests was conducted for the high performance, low emissions duct burner with excellent results. Nozzle model tests were completed which substantiate the inherent jet noise benefit associated with the unique velocity profile possible of a coannular exhaust nozzle system on a variable stream control engine. Additional nozzle model performance tests have established high thrust efficiency levels at takeoff and supersonic cruise for this nozzle system. Large scale testing of these two critical components is conducted using an F100 engine as the testbed for simulating the variable stream control engine.

  12. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the

  13. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  14. Variability as an Operant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments on operant variability by Neuringer and colleagues (e.g., Neuringer, 1986, 2002; Page & Neuringer, 1985) have been repeatedly cited as showing that behavioral variability can be reinforced by making reinforcement contingent on it. They showed that the degree of variability in pigeons' eight-peck sequences, as measured by U…

  15. Variable rate irrigation (VRI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology is now offered by all major manufacturers of moving irrigation systems, mostly on center pivot irrigation systems. Variable irrigation depths may be controlled by sector only, in which case only the speed of the irrigation lateral is regulated. Or, variable ...

  16. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  17. A new protocol for evaluating putative causes for multiple variables in a spatial setting, illustrated by its application to European cancer rates.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Robert R; Oden, Neal L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Thomson, Barbara A

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a statistical protocol for analyzing spatially varying data, including putative explanatory variables. The procedures comprise preliminary spatial autocorrelation analysis (from an earlier study), path analysis, clustering of the resulting set of path diagrams, ordination of these diagrams, and confirmatory tests against extrinsic information. To illustrate the application of these methods, we present incidence and mortality rates of 31 organ- and sex-specific cancers in Europe; these rates vary markedly with geography and type of cancer. Additionally, we investigated three factors (ethnohistory, genetics, and geography) putatively affecting these rates. The five variables were correlated separately for the 31 cancers over European reporting stations. We analyzed the correlations by path analysis, k-means clustering, and nonmetric multidimensional scaling; coefficients of the 31 path diagrams modeling the correlations vary substantially. To simplify interpretation, we grouped the diagrams into five clusters, for which we describe the differential effects of the three putative causes on incidence and mortality. When scaled, the path coefficients intergrade without marked gaps between clusters. Ethnic differences make for differences in cancer rates, even when the populations tested are ancient and complex mixtures. Path analysis usefully decomposes a structural model involving effects and putative causes, and estimates the magnitude of the model's components. Smooth intergradation of the path coefficients suggests the putative causes are the results of multiple forces. Despite this continuity of the path diagrams of the 31 cancers, clustering offers a useful segmentation of the continuum. Etiological and other extrinsic information on the cancers map significantly into the five clusters, demonstrating their epidemiological relevance.

  18. How policy variables influence the timing of applications for Social Security Disability Insurance.

    PubMed

    Burkhauser, R V; Butler, J S; Weathers, R R

    This article analyzes the impact of policy variables--employer accommodations, state Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) allowance rates, and DI benefits--on the timing of an application for DI benefits by workers with a work-limiting health condition starting when their health condition first begins to bother them. The analysis uses a rich mixture of personal and employer characteristics from the Health and Retirement Study linked to Social Security administrative records. We find that most workers do not apply immediately for DI benefits when they are first bothered by a health condition. On the contrary, the median working-age man with a work-limiting condition waits 7 years after that time before applying, and the median working-age woman waits 8 years. Although the risk of applying for benefits is greatest in the year following onset, only 16 percent of men and 13 percent of women in our sample apply within the first year, and the risk of application falls thereafter. That finding suggests that institutional factors, in addition to health factors, may play a role in the timing of DI applications. Using kernel density estimates of the distribution of application and nonapplication ordered by state allowance rates (the rate of acceptance per DI determination in each state), we find that both men and women who live in states with high allowance rates are disproportionately more likely to apply for benefits in the first year after their condition begins to bother them than are those in states with low allowance rates. Using life-table analysis, we also find that men and women who are accommodated by their employers are significantly less likely to apply for DI benefits in each of the first few years after their condition begins to bother them than are those who are not accommodated. On the basis of this evidence, we include these policy variables in a model of the timing of DI application that controls for other socioeconomic variables as well as health

  19. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  20. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  1. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  2. Nova-like variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    On grounds of different observable characteristics five classes of nova-like objects are distinguished: the UX Ursae Majoris stars, the antidwarf novae, the DQ Herculis stars, the AM Herculis stars, and the AM Canum Venaticorum stars. Some objects have not been classified specifically. Nova-like stars share most observable features with dwarf novae, except for the outburst behavior. The understanding is that dwarf novae, UX Ursae Majoris stars, and anti-dwarf novae are basically the same sort of objects. The difference between them is that in UX Ursae Majoris stars the mass transfer through the accretion disc always is high so the disc is stationary all the time; in anti-dwarf novae for some reason the mass transfer occasionally drops considerably for some time, and in dwarf novae it is low enough for the disc to undergo semiperiodic changes between high and low accretion events. DQ Herculis stars are believed to possess weakly magnetic white dwarfs which disrupt the inner disc at some distance from the central star; the rotation of the white dwarf can be seen as an additional photometric period. In AM Herculis stars, a strongly magnetic white dwarf entirely prevents the formation of an accretion disk and at the same time locks the rotation of the white dwarf to the binary orbit. Finally, AM Canum Venaticorum stars are believed to be cataclysmic variables that consist of two white dwarf components.

  3. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  4. Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions

    PubMed Central

    Eilbeck, J. Chris; England, Matthew; Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus. PMID:25383018

  5. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes.

    PubMed

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the "most active hours/days" (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  6. Short-term favorable weather conditions are an important control of interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Fatichi, Simone; Wolf, Sebastian; Blanken, Peter D.; Bohrer, Gil; Clark, Kenneth; Desai, Ankur R.; Hollinger, David; Keenan, Trevor; Novick, Kimberly A.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystem models often perform poorly in reproducing interannual variability in carbon and water fluxes, resulting in considerable uncertainty when estimating the land-carbon sink. While many aggregated variables (growing season length, seasonal precipitation, or temperature) have been suggested as predictors for interannual variability in carbon fluxes, their explanatory power is limited and uncertainties remain as to their relative contributions. Recent results show that the annual count of hours where evapotranspiration (ET) is larger than its 95th percentile is strongly correlated with the annual variability of ET and gross primary production (GPP) in an ecosystem model. This suggests that the occurrence of favorable conditions has a strong influence on the annual carbon budget. Here we analyzed data from eight forest sites of the AmeriFlux network with at least 7 years of continuous measurements. We show that for ET and the carbon fluxes GPP, ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem production, counting the "most active hours/days" (i.e., hours/days when the flux exceeds a high percentile) correlates well with the respective annual sums, with correlation coefficients generally larger than 0.8. Phenological transitions have much weaker explanatory power. By exploiting the relationship between most active hours and interannual variability, we classify hours as most active or less active and largely explain interannual variability in ecosystem fluxes, particularly for GPP and RE. Our results suggest that a better understanding and modeling of the occurrence of large values in high-frequency ecosystem fluxes will result in a better understanding of interannual variability of these fluxes.

  7. Responses to additional JAPC questions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.

    1998-02-03

    The goals are to improve performance and reduce costs; the variables tested are fuel fabrication and assembly tolerances and cladding materials. Significant results are: goal lifetimes achieved; D9/HT9 alloys superior--reduced swelling potential duct mechanical attachment methods viable; test performance per design predictions.

  8. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  9. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  10. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean): an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Babin, M.; Stemmann, L.; Picheral, M.; Sampei, M.; Fortier, L.; Gratton, Y.; Bélanger, S.; Devred, E.; Sahlin, J.; Doxaran, D.; Joux, F.; Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Jeffrey, W. H.; Martín, J.; Gasser, B.; Miquel, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here, we combine mooring times-series, ship-based measurements and remote-sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their biophysical determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size-distributions (17 classes from 0.08-4.2 mm) measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. Redundancy analyses and forward selection of abiotic/biotic parameters, linear trends, and spatial structures (i.e. principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM), were conducted to partition the variation of POC flux size-classes. Flux variability was explained at 69.5 % by the addition of a linear temporal trend, 7 significant PCNM and 9 biophysical variables. The interaction of all these factors explained 27.8 % of the variability. The first PCNM canonical axis (44.4 % of spatial variance) reflected a shelf-basin gradient controlled by bottom depth and ice concentration (p < 0.01), but a complex assemblage of fine-to-broad scale patterns was also identified. Among biophysical parameters, bacterial production and northeasterly wind (upwelling-favorable) were the two strongest explanatory variables (r2 cum. = 0.37), suggesting that bacteria were associated with sinking material, which was itself partly linked to upwelling-induced productivity. The second most important spatial structure corresponded actually to the two areas where shelf break upwelling is known to occur under easterlies. Copepod biomass was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans played a significant role in the regulation of export fluxes. The low fractal dimension of settling particles (1

  11. Multiscale variability of amphipod assemblages in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturaro, Nicolas; Lepoint, Gilles; Vermeulen, Simon; Gobert, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The study of spatial patterns is important in understanding the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides a valuable basis for management and conservation. Amphipod crustaceans are key organisms in seagrass ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the spatial scales at which amphipod assemblages may vary. We examined variability patterns of amphipod populations inhabiting Posidonia oceanica meadows, over spatial scales spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 meters) and for two consecutive years. This study reports the scales that contributed most to spatial variation of amphipod assemblages and explores the potential processes driving the observed patterns, with particular emphasis on habitat features. The number of species, the diversity, and the density of some species varied substantially across years. For most species the highest spatial variation in density and biomass occurred at small scales (1 and 10 meters). Based on density data, the structure of amphipod assemblages did not differ at any scales investigated. The patchiness that occurred at small scales may have been related to habitat features, but only weakly. Instead, we postulate that amphipod behavioral processes likely represent good explanatory factors. Although, small-scale spatial variability can be an important feature of amphipod assemblages in P. oceanica meadows, some patterns may have gone undetected because they occur at scales smaller than those investigated.

  12. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  13. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  14. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  15. Aerosol Variability Observed with Rpas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Lampert, A.; Scholtz, A.; Bange, J.; Platis, A.; Hermann, M.; Wehner, B.

    2013-08-01

    To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter). Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  16. Variable frequency microwave moisture leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    A variable frequency microwave system was examined to replace an existing carousel resistance heating line as the method for drying of mouth swabs for the pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical manufacturer located in Northern Illinois had a resistive heating system that was not drying product satisfactorily, thus requiring additional ambient drying time even after a 30-minute drying cycle. Since the swabs are used for the healthcare industry, the amount of moisture present after drying was critical to avoid the formation of mold on the product that could have lead to dissatisfied customers. Variable frequency microwave moisture leveling allowed better product quality while turning the manufacturing operation into just in time delivery. During pilot scale testing, a 300 times cycle improvement was realized for variable frequency microwave compared to the conventional carousel resistive drying unit (24 hours to 5 minutes). The projected total cost of the variable frequency microwave system is $1 million, with 25% of the cost in the microwave unit and 70% of the cost in a new autobagging system. The author projected a $0.58 million saving per year in reduced operational costs with productivity increases. Although the project would have had a 1.8 year payback time, it was not implemented due to the capital expense and risk of an unknown technology.

  17. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  18. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  19. Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables.

    PubMed

    Montella, Alfonso; Imbriani, Lella Liana

    2015-01-01

    which are significant explanatory variables of the safety performance functions developed in this study are: (1) consistency in driving dynamics, i.e., difference between side friction assumed with respect to the design speed and side friction demanded at the 85th percentile speed; (2) operating speed consistency, i.e., absolute value of the 85th percentile speed reduction through successive elements of the road; (3) inertial speed consistency, i.e., difference between the operating speed in the curve and the average operating speed along the 5 km preceding the beginning of the curve; and (4) length of tangent preceding the curve (only for run-off-the-road crashes).

  20. Modeling variability and trends in pesticide concentrations in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V.; Martin, J.D.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A parametric regression model was developed for assessing the variability and long-term trends in pesticide concentrations in streams. The dependent variable is the logarithm of pesticide concentration and the explanatory variables are a seasonal wave, which represents the seasonal variability of concentration in response to seasonal application rates; a streamflow anomaly, which is the deviation of concurrent daily streamflow from average conditions for the previous 30 days; and a trend, which represents long-term (inter-annual) changes in concentration. Application of the model to selected herbicides and insecticides in four diverse streams indicated the model is robust with respect to pesticide type, stream location, and the degree of censoring (proportion of nondetections). An automatic model fitting and selection procedure for the seasonal wave and trend components was found to perform well for the datasets analyzed. Artificial censoring scenarios were used in a Monte Carlo simulation analysis to show that the fitted trends were unbiased and the approximate p-values were accurate for as few as 10 uncensored concentrations during a three-year period, assuming a sampling frequency of 15 samples per year. Trend estimates for the full model were compared with a model without the streamflow anomaly and a model in which the seasonality was modeled using standard trigonometric functions, rather than seasonal application rates. Exclusion of the streamflow anomaly resulted in substantial increases in the mean-squared error and decreases in power for detecting trends. Incorrectly modeling the seasonal structure of the concentration data resulted in substantial estimation bias and moderate increases in mean-squared error and decreases in power. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  1. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  2. Pathogen-Reduced, Platelet Additive Solution, Extended Stored Platelets (PREPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    trauma patients. References: 1. Slichter SJ, Harker LA. Preparation and storage of platelet concentrates . II. Storage variables influencing ...Storage variables influencing platelet viability and function. Br J Haematol 1976;34(3):403-419. 2. Becker GA, Tuccelli M, Kunicki T, et al. Studies of...platelet additive solution (PAS) to extend the life of stored platelets. Our project also aims to determine how long acceptable platelet viability can be

  3. Chromospheric variability of M giant semiregular variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Joel A.; Johnson, Hollis R.; Cadmus, Robert R., Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The results of monitoring the chromospheric emission from three M giant semiregular variables, W Cyg, NU Pav, and Theta Aps at low dispersion with the IUE satellite are reported along with high-dispersion IUE spectra for R Lyr and Delta(2) Lyr. The chromospheric emission is variable in all of the first three stars, and the Mg II strength generally follows changes in the continuum. However, the changes are not directly proportional, and there is a phase lag between the emission in the continuum and that in the Mg II lines, at least in W Cyg and probably in NU Pav. R Lyr showed changes in Mg II lines strengths and profiles uncorrelated with Al II 2669 A strength or with the strengths of fluorescent Fe I lines. The chromospheres of all these stars are clearly modified by stellar pulsation. The position and extent of the emitting layers of the chromospheres of the stars are estimated.

  4. A novel variable selection approach that iteratively optimizes variable space using weighted binary matrix sampling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bai-chuan; Yun, Yong-huan; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yi, Lun-zhao

    2014-10-07

    In this study, a new optimization algorithm called the Variable Iterative Space Shrinkage Approach (VISSA) that is based on the idea of model population analysis (MPA) is proposed for variable selection. Unlike most of the existing optimization methods for variable selection, VISSA statistically evaluates the performance of variable space in each step of optimization. Weighted binary matrix sampling (WBMS) is proposed to generate sub-models that span the variable subspace. Two rules are highlighted during the optimization procedure. First, the variable space shrinks in each step. Second, the new variable space outperforms the previous one. The second rule, which is rarely satisfied in most of the existing methods, is the core of the VISSA strategy. Compared with some promising variable selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), VISSA showed better prediction ability for the calibration of NIR data. In addition, VISSA is user-friendly; only a few insensitive parameters are needed, and the program terminates automatically without any additional conditions. The Matlab codes for implementing VISSA are freely available on the website: https://sourceforge.net/projects/multivariateanalysis/files/VISSA/.

  5. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  6. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  7. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  8. Landscape risk factors for Lyme disease in the eastern broadleaf forest province of the Hudson River valley and the effect of explanatory data classification resolution.

    PubMed

    Messier, Kyle P; Jackson, Laura E; White, Jennifer L; Hilborn, Elizabeth D

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity) and aggregate classes (e.g., forest, developed). Percent of each landcover type, median income, and centroid coordinates were calculated by census tract. Regression results from individual and aggregate variable models were compared with the dispersion parameter-based R(2) (Rα(2)) and AIC. The maximum Rα(2) was 0.82 and 0.83 for the best aggregate and individual model, respectively. The AICs for the best models differed by less than 0.5%. The aggregate model variables included forest, developed, agriculture, agriculture-squared, y-coordinate, y-coordinate-squared, income and income-squared. The individual model variables included deciduous forest, deciduous forest-squared, developed low intensity, pasture, y-coordinate, y-coordinate-squared, income, and income-squared. Results indicate that regional landscape models for Lyme disease rate are robust to NLCD landcover classification resolution.

  9. Latent Variable Interaction Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacker, Randall E.

    2002-01-01

    Used simulation to study two different approaches to latent variable interaction modeling with continuous observed variables: (1) a LISREL 8.30 program and (2) data analysis through PRELIS2 and SIMPLIS programs. Results show that parameter estimation was similar but standard errors were different. Discusses differences in ease of implementation.…

  10. A variety of variables.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In designing studies and developing plans for analyses, we must consider which tests are appropriate for the types of variables we are using. Here I describe the types of variables available to us, and I briefly consider the appropriate tools to use in their analysis.

  11. Variable Density Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Variable Density Tunnel in operation. Man at far right is probably Harold J. 'Cannonball' Tuner, longtime safety officer, who started with Curtiss in the teens. This view of the Variable Density Tunnel clearly shows the layout of the Tunnel's surroundings, as well as the plumbing and power needs of the this innovative research tool.

  12. Variable volume combustor

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  13. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  14. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  15. Basic properties and variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Francois R.

    1987-01-01

    Giant and supergiant M, S, and C stars are discussed in this survey of research. Basic properties as determined by spectra, chemical composition, photometry, or variability type are discussed. Space motions and space distributions of cool giants are described. Distribution of these stars in our galaxy and those nearby is discussed. Mira variables in particular are surveyed with emphasis on the following topics: (1) phase lag phenomenon; (2) Mira light curves; (3) variations in color indices; (4) determination of multiple periods; (5) correlations between quantities such as period length, light-curve shape, infrared (IR) excess, and visible and IR color diagram; (6) semiregular (SR) variables and different time scales in SR light variations; (7) irregular variable Lb and Lc stars; (8) different time-scale light variations; (9) hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, in particular RCB stars; and (10) irreversible changes and rapid evolution in red variable stars.

  16. Bayesian variable selection for binary outcomes in high-dimensional genomic studies using non-local priors

    PubMed Central

    Nikooienejad, Amir; Wang, Wenyi; Johnson, Valen E.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The advent of new genomic technologies has resulted in the production of massive data sets. Analyses of these data require new statistical and computational methods. In this article, we propose one such method that is useful in selecting explanatory variables for prediction of a binary response. Although this problem has recently been addressed using penalized likelihood methods, we adopt a Bayesian approach that utilizes a mixture of non-local prior densities and point masses on the binary regression coefficient vectors. Results: The resulting method, which we call iMOMLogit, provides improved performance in identifying true models and reducing estimation and prediction error in a number of simulation studies. More importantly, its application to several genomic datasets produces predictions that have high accuracy using far fewer explanatory variables than competing methods. We also describe a novel approach for setting prior hyperparameters by examining the total variation distance between the prior distributions on the regression parameters and the distribution of the maximum likelihood estimator under the null distribution. Finally, we describe a computational algorithm that can be used to implement iMOMLogit in ultrahigh-dimensional settings (p>>n) and provide diagnostics to assess the probability that this algorithm has identified the highest posterior probability model. Availability and implementation: Software to implement this method can be downloaded at: http://www.stat.tamu.edu/∼amir/code.html. Contact: wwang7@mdanderson.org or vjohnson@stat.tamu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26740524

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  18. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  19. Design of Discrete Variable Structure Controller Based on Variable Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shibin; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Hua; Xiong, Wei

    Variable structure control is recognized as the most efficient method for control of uncertain systems. In order to reduce the chattering and improve the stability of the Discrete-time Variable Structure Control System (DVSCS) with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances, this paper proposes a variable structure controller based on variable boundary layer. Simulations results demonstrate the controller is not only effectively reduce chattering of the DVSCS, but improve the asymptotic stability and robustness of system. In addition, the results also revealed that the controller has strong effectiveness and robustness of the trajectory tracking.

  20. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  1. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  2. Variability study for saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Hansen, E. K.; Williams, V. J.

    2005-10-01

    This report is a summary of the bench-scale experimental studies performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to establish the viability of a grout-based variability study. In order for a variability study to be useful, the property measurements of the fresh and cured Saltstone must be reproducible with an inherent variation that is small compared to the changes in the properties measured over the expected range of variability for a Salt Batch. This scoping task addressed the issue of reproducibility for Saltstone.

  3. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  4. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  5. Body size variability of Varroa destructor and its role in acaricide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Peralta, Luciano; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Fuselli, S; Eguaras, Martín

    2012-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been defined as the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes when exposed to distinct environments throughout its ontogeny. Morphological variability of individuals is an example of this plasticity. Taking into account that several studies have reported a wide morphological variability in Varroa destructor populations, we evaluated if the body size plasticity of the parasite constituted a key factor able to modulate mites survival when they were exposed to a drug bioassays. Drug bioassays against mites were conducted using three different Syzygium aromaticum essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5 μl/capsule) and controls. After 4 h of exposition, mite mortality was registered. The width (WS) and length (LS) of the dorsal shield were measured in dead mites. General lineal models were carried to determine if V. destructor survival to acaricides was related to the explanatory variables. Data modelling confirmed that WS and LS variables, together with time interaction, were significantly related to V. destructor survival when the parasites were exposed to acaricides. The models proposed demonstrated that for the smaller S. aromaticum essential oil concentration, the larger the parasite body, the greater the probability that it remains alive at the end of the bioassay. Such relationship was inverse for the other two concentrations tested. Possible causes explaining the body size variability in V. destructor individuals were discussed.

  6. Weather Variability, Tides, and Barmah Forest Virus Disease in the Gladstone Region, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S.; McMichael, Anthony J.; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (β = 0.15, p-value < 0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (β = −1.03, p-value = 0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention. PMID:16675420

  7. Weather variability, tides, and Barmah Forest virus disease in the Gladstone region, Australia.

    PubMed

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Nicholls, Neville; Mackenzie, John S; McMichael, Anthony J; Dale, Pat; Tong, Shilu

    2006-05-01

    In this study we examined the impact of weather variability and tides on the transmission of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease and developed a weather-based forecasting model for BFV disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models to determine the contribution of weather variables to BFV transmission after the time-series data of response and explanatory variables were made stationary through seasonal differencing. We obtained data on the monthly counts of BFV cases, weather variables (e.g., mean minimum and maximum temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity), high and low tides, and the population size in the Gladstone region between January 1992 and December 2001 from the Queensland Department of Health, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Transport, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The SARIMA model shows that the 5-month moving average of minimum temperature (b=0.15, p-value<0.001) was statistically significantly and positively associated with BFV disease, whereas high tide in the current month (b=-1.03, p-value=0.04) was statistically significantly and inversely associated with it. However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention.

  8. Complex, Dynamic Combination of Physical, Chemical and Nutritional Variables Controls Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sandy Beach Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J.; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C∶N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy

  9. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  10. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  11. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  12. Solar variability datalogger

    DOE PAGES

    Lave, Matthew; Stein, Joshua; Smith, Ryan

    2016-07-28

    To address the lack of knowledge of local solar variability, we have developed and deployed a low-cost solar variability datalogger (SVD). While most currently used solar irradiance sensors are expensive pyranometers with high accuracy (relevant for annual energy estimates), low-cost sensors display similar precision (relevant for solar variability) as high-cost pyranometers, even if they are not as accurate. In this work, we present evaluation of various low-cost irradiance sensor types, describe the SVD, and present validation and comparison of the SVD collected data. In conclusion, the low cost and ease of use of the SVD will enable a greater understandingmore » of local solar variability, which will reduce developer and utility uncertainty about the impact of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and thus will encourage greater penetrations of solar energy.« less

  13. Solar variability datalogger

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew; Stein, Joshua; Smith, Ryan

    2016-07-28

    To address the lack of knowledge of local solar variability, we have developed and deployed a low-cost solar variability datalogger (SVD). While most currently used solar irradiance sensors are expensive pyranometers with high accuracy (relevant for annual energy estimates), low-cost sensors display similar precision (relevant for solar variability) as high-cost pyranometers, even if they are not as accurate. In this work, we present evaluation of various low-cost irradiance sensor types, describe the SVD, and present validation and comparison of the SVD collected data. In conclusion, the low cost and ease of use of the SVD will enable a greater understanding of local solar variability, which will reduce developer and utility uncertainty about the impact of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and thus will encourage greater penetrations of solar energy.

  14. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  15. Discovery of variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurochkin, N. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Instrumented methods of discovering variable stars are reviewed, specifically the blink comparator, color contrast method, positive-negative method, and television method. Among the empirical methods discussed, the Van Gent method is the most important.

  16. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  17. Variable pitch propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistolesi, Enrico

    1923-01-01

    The advantages of variable pitch propellers over constant pitch propellers is presented along with different methods of varying the pitch. The technique of varying the shape of the propeller is presented as the most efficient one.

  18. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  20. Variable contour securing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebus, P. P.; Packer, P. N.; Haynie, C. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A variable contour securing system has a retaining structure for a member whose surface contains a variable contour. The retaining mechanism includes a spaced array of adjustable spindles mounted on a housing. Each spindle has a base member support cup at one end. A vacuum source is applied to the cups for seating the member adjacent to the cups. A locking mechanism sets the spindles in a predetermined position once the member has been secured to the spindle support cups.

  1. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    DOEpatents

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  2. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste.

  3. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  4. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  5. Medical care transition planning and dental care use for youth with special health care needs during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood: a preliminary explanatory model.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L

    2014-05-01

    The aims of the study were to test the hypotheses that youth with special health care needs (YSHCN) with a medical care transition plan are more likely to use dental care during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and that different factors are associated with dental utilization for YSHCN with and YSHCN without functional limitations. National Survey of CSHCN (2001) and Survey of Adult Transition and Health (2007) data were analyzed (N = 1,746). The main predictor variable was having a medical care transition plan, defined as having discussed with a doctor how health care needs might change with age and having developed a transition plan. The outcome variable was dental care use in 2001 (adolescence) and 2007 (young adulthood). Multiple variable Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to estimate covariate-adjusted relative risks (RR). About 63 % of YSHCN had a medical care transition plan and 73.5 % utilized dental care. YSHCN with a medical care transition plan had a 9 % greater RR of utilizing dental care than YSHCN without a medical care transition plan (RR 1.09; 95 % CI 1.03-1.16). In the models stratified by functional limitation status, having a medical care transition plan was significantly associated with dental care use, but only for YSHCN without functional limitations (RR 1.11; 95 % CI 1.04-1.18). Having a medical care transition plan is significantly associated with dental care use, but only for YSHCN with no functional limitation. Dental care should be an integral part of the comprehensive health care transition planning process for all YSHCN.

  6. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  7. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  8. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  9. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  10. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  11. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  12. Phytoplankton community structure defined by key environmental variables in Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Brogueira, Maria José; Oliveira, Maria do Rosário; Cabeçadas, Graça

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we analyze environmental (physical and chemical) and biological (phytoplankton) data obtained along Tagus estuary during three surveys, carried out in productive period (May/June/July) at ebb tide. The main objective of this study was to identify the key environmental factors affecting phytoplankton structure in the estuary. BIOENV analysis revealed that, in study period, temperature, salinity, silicate and total phosphorus were the variables that best explained the phytoplankton spatial pattern in the estuary (Spearman correlation, rho=0.803). A generalized linear model (GLM) also identified salinity, silicate and phosphate as having a high explanatory power (63%) of phytoplankton abundance. These selected nutrients appear to be consistent with the requirements of the dominant phytoplankton group, Baccilariophyceae. Apparently, phytoplankton community is adapted to fluctuations in light intensity, as suspended particulate matter did not come out as a key factor in shaping phytoplankton structure along Tagus estuary.

  13. Classifying TDSS Stellar Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Rachael Christina; Green, Paul J.; TDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), a subprogram of SDSS-IV eBOSS, obtains classification/discovery spectra of point-source photometric variables selected from PanSTARRS and SDSS multi-color light curves regardless of object color or lightcurve shape. Tens of thousands of TDSS spectra are already available and have been spectroscopically classified both via pipeline and by visual inspection. About half of these spectra are quasars, half are stars. Our goal is to classify the stars with their correct variability types. We do this by acquiring public multi-epoch light curves for brighter stars (r<19.5mag) from the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS). We then run a number of light curve analyses from VARTOOLS, a program for analyzing astronomical time-series data, to constrain variable type both for broad statistics relevant to future surveys like the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and to find the inevitable exotic oddballs that warrant further follow-up. Specifically, the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram and the Box-Least Squares Method are being implemented and tested against their known variable classifications and parameters in the Catalina Surveys Periodic Variable Star Catalog. Variable star classifications include RR Lyr, close eclipsing binaries, CVs, pulsating white dwarfs, and other exotic systems. The key difference between our catalog and others is that along with the light curves, we will be using TDSS spectra to help in the classification of variable type, as spectra are rich with information allowing estimation of physical parameters like temperature, metallicity, gravity, etc. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  14. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  16. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  17. Social support and social undermining as explanatory factors for health-related quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, John; Wilcox, Bryan; Archiopoli, Ashley; Avila, Magdalena; Hell, Cia; Hill, Ricky; Muhammad, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of social support (from personal networks and health care providers) and social undermining (from personal networks) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL; general health perceptions, physical functioning, and depression). Specifically, the authors aimed to identify the nature of the effects (direct, mediating, or moderating) of social support and social undermining on HRQOL. A total of 344 people living with HIV/AIDS and who were patients in a federally funded clinic in New Mexico completed a self-report survey questionnaire. The major findings of this study are the following: (a) social support and social undermining had direct and indirect effects on HRQOL-there was no evidence of a moderating effect of social support and social undermining; (b) for direct effects, social undermining was a stronger predictor of HRQOL than social support with social support variables having positive relations and social undermining variables having negative relations with HRQOL; and (c) for indirect effects, providers' social support partially mediated the influence of unstable employment/unemployment and social undermining on HRQOL.

  18. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yikmis, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  19. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  20. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  1. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  2. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  3. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  4. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  5. Variable stator radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  6. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  7. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  8. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  9. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  10. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  11. Response variability of marmoset parvocellular neurons

    PubMed Central

    Victor, J D; Blessing, E M; Forte, J D; Buzás, P; Martin, P R

    2007-01-01

    This study concerns the properties of neurons carrying signals for colour vision in primates. We investigated the variability of responses of individual parvocellular lateral geniculate neurons of dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets to drifting sinusoidal luminance and chromatic gratings. Response variability was quantified by the cycle-to-cycle variation in Fourier components of the response. Averaged across the population, the variability at low contrasts was greater than predicted by a Poisson process, and at high contrasts the responses were approximately 40% more variable than responses at low contrasts. The contrast-dependent increase in variability was nevertheless below that expected from the increase in firing rate. Variability falls below the Poisson prediction at high contrast, and intrinsic variability of the spike train decreases as contrast increases. Thus, while deeply modulated responses in parvocellular cells have a larger absolute variability than weakly modulated ones, they have a more favourable signal: noise ratio than predicted by a Poisson process. Similar results were obtained from a small sample of magnocellular and koniocellular (‘blue-on’) neurons. For parvocellular neurons with pronounced colour opponency, chromatic responses were, on average, less variable (10–15%, p < 0.01) than luminance responses of equal magnitude. Conversely, non-opponent parvocellular neurons showed the opposite tendency. This is consistent with a supra-additive noise source prior to combination of cone signals. In summary, though variability of parvocellular neurons is largely independent of the way in which they combine cone signals, the noise characteristics of retinal circuitry may augment specialization of parvocellular neurons to signal luminance or chromatic contrast. PMID:17124265

  12. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    PubMed

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y (-1)) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y (-1)), and

  13. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability

    PubMed Central

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1), and

  14. Variable Radius Nacelle Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the active shape control for a variable radius nacelle leading edge program is presented. The current technical plan and schedule will be discussed. Results from the structural shape change of curved plates demonstration will be presented, as well as the NASA LaRC concept for a variable radius nacelle leading edge. Results of a Boeing systems integration study of this concept will be discussed briefly. The status of the sensors, actuators, and computational design tools tasks will also be presented.

  15. Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria

    SciTech Connect

    Metter, E.J.; Hanson, W.R.

    1986-10-01

    Ten male patients with parkinsonism secondary to Parkinson's disease or progressive supranuclear palsy had clinical neurological, speech, and acoustical speech evaluations. In addition, seven of the patients were evaluated by x-ray computed tomography (CT) and (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Extensive variability of speech features, both clinical and acoustical, were found and seemed to be independent of the severity of any parkinsonian sign, CT, or FDG PET. In addition, little relationship existed between the variability across each measured speech feature. What appeared to be important for the appearance of abnormal acoustic measures was the degree of overall severity of the dysarthria. These observations suggest that a better understanding of hypokinetic dysarthria may result from more extensive examination of the variability between patients. Emphasizing a specific feature such as rapid speaking rate in characterizing hypokinetic dysarthria focuses on a single and inconstant finding in a complex speech pattern.

  16. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  17. Job rotation: Effects on muscular activity variability.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Andres C; Barrero, Lope H

    2017-04-01

    Job rotation strategies have been used for years as an administrative intervention to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The benefits of job rotation have been hypothesized to occur via changes in muscular activity variability (MAV). However, the effect of job rotation on MAV has not been fully analyzed in a literature review. A wide search was conducted to identify studies testing the effect of different job rotation strategies on MAV. Twenty-six studies of acceptable quality were included. Several studies on different types of tasks supported the view that job rotation can increase muscular activity variability, particularly with strategies such as alternating tasks and pace changes. However, it remains uncertain whether such variability changes immediately translate into benefits for the worker because little evidence was found that showed simultaneous changes in different muscular groups. Additionally, variability was occasionally achieved at the expense of average activity in the assessed muscles.

  18. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  19. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  20. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  1. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  3. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  4. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  5. Continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, H.; Okada, M.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for transmitting a torque from an engine to a final reduction gear, comprising: an input shaft connected with the engine at one end thereof; a continuously variable transmission means having a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member, the movable member being actuated by an hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening between the fixed member and movable member, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. The other movable member is similarly actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening between the other fixed member and the other movable member, and a belt member spanning the pulleys provides for a continuously variable transmission ratio; a planetary gear unit including a sun gear, a plurality of pinion gears which mesh with the sun gear and are connected with the driven pulley and a ring gear which meshes with the plurality of pinion gears; and a rotation transmitting means for transmitting rotation of the input shaft to the planetary gear unit. The rotation transmitting means is provided between the input shaft and the planetary gear unit and includes a shaft connected with the sun gear of the planetary gear unit and a first gear connected with the input shaft. The first gear is located between the engine and the continuously variable transmission means.

  6. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  7. Variable camber rotor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L.; Cowan, J.; Mchugh, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Deployment of variable camber concepts on helicopter rotors was analytically assessed. It was determined that variable camber extended the operating range of helicopters provided that the correct compromise can be obtained between performance/loads gains and mechanical complexity. A number of variable camber concepts were reviewed on a two dimensional basis to determine the usefulness of leading edge, trailing edge and overall camber variation schemes. The most powerful method to vary camber was through the trailing edge flaps undergoing relatively small motions (-5 deg to +15 deg). The aerodynamic characteristics of the NASA/Ames A-1 airfoil with 35% and 50% plain trailing edge flaps were determined by means of current subcritical and transonic airfoil design methods and used by rotor performance and loads analysis codes. The most promising variable camber schedule reviewed was a configuration with a 35% plain flap deployment in an on/off mode near the tip of a blade. Preliminary results show approximately 11% reduction in power is possible at 192 knots and a rotor thrust coefficient of 0.09. The potential demonstrated indicates a significant potential for expanding the operating envelope of the helicopter. Further investigation into improving the power saving and defining the improvement in the operational envelope of the helicopter is recommended.

  8. Variable Rate Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers with the ability to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer a producer great cost savings; however, the full potential of these benefits and savings cannot...

  9. Variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  10. Variable gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.

  11. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  12. Variable polarity arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  13. Genetic variability in Macadamia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic variability analysis involving 45 accessions of Macadamia including four species, M. integrifolia, M. tetraphylla, M. ternifolia, and M. hildebrandii and a wild relative, Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia was performed usingeight enzyme systems encoded by 16 loci (Gpi-1 and 2, Idh-1 and 2, Lap, Md...

  14. [Anatomical and radiological studies on additional mandible teeth anesthesia considering innervation variability].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, S V; Dydykin, S S; Kuzin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents studies on nutritional foramina of the mandible. Some nutritional foramina located in the frontal mandibular region on the lingual surface and containing significant blood vessels and nerves are found to be more typical for teeth-bearing mandible. In retromolar area in case of third molars presence intraosseous canals were revealed leading to inferior alveolar nerve canal. One should consider intraligamental and lingual anesthesia by lower incisors extraction. Intraosseous anesthesia and retromolar area infiltration significantly increase anesthesia efficiency by third molar extraction.

  15. Soil variability in engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Finite Element Method (RFEM). This method has been used to investigate the random behavior of soils in the context of a variety of classical geotechnical problems. Afterward, some following studies collected the worldwide variability values of many technical parameters of soils (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999a) and their spatial correlation functions (Phoon and Kulhawy 1999b). In Italy, Cherubini et al. (2007) calculated the spatial variability structure of sandy and clayey soils from the standard cone penetration test readings. The large extent of the worldwide measured spatial variability of soils and rocks heavily affects the reliability of geotechnical designing as well as other uncertainties introduced by testing devices and engineering models. So far, several methods have been provided to deal with the preceding sources of uncertainties in engineering designing models (e.g. First Order Reliability Method, Second Order Reliability Method, Response Surface Method, High Dimensional Model Representation, etc.). Nowadays, the efforts in this field have been focusing on (1) measuring spatial variability of different rocks and soils and (2) developing numerical models that take into account the spatial variability as additional physical variable. References Cherubini C., Vessia G. and Pula W. 2007. Statistical soil characterization of Italian sites for reliability analyses. Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop. on Characterization and Engineering Properties of Natural Soils, 3-4: 2681-2706. Griffiths D.V. and Fenton G.A. 1993. Seepage beneath water retaining structures founded on spatially random soil, Géotechnique, 43(6): 577-587. Mandelbrot B.B. 1983. The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W H Freeman. Matheron G. 1962. Traité de Géostatistique appliquée. Tome 1, Editions Technip, Paris, 334 p. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999a. Characterization of geotechnical variability. Can Geotech J, 36(4): 612-624. Phoon K.K. and Kulhawy F.H. 1999b. Evaluation of geotechnical property

  16. Tides and Decadal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  17. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  18. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  19. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  20. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  1. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  2. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  3. Progress on Variable Cycle Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westmoreland, J. S.; Howlett, R. A.; Lohmann, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    Progress in the development and future requirements of the Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) are presented. The two most critical components of this advanced system for future supersonic transports, the high performance duct burner for thrust augmentation, and the low jet coannular nozzle were studied. Nozzle model tests substantiated the jet noise benefit associated with the unique velocity profile possible with a coannular nozzle system on a VSCE. Additional nozzle model performance tests have established high thrust efficiency levels only at takeoff and supersonic cruise for this nozzle system. An experimental program involving both isolated component and complete engine tests has been conducted for the high performance, low emissions duct burner with good results and large scale testing of these two components is being conducted using a F100 engine as the testbed for simulating the VSCE. Future work includes application of computer programs for supersonic flow fields to coannular nozzle geometries, further experimental testing with the duct burner segment rig, and the use of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) Testbed Program for evaluating the VSCE duct burner and coannular nozzle technologies.

  4. A survey for faint variable objects in SA 57

    SciTech Connect

    Trevese, D.; Pittella, G.; Kron, R.G.; Koo, D.C.; Bershady, M.; Roma, Osservatorio Astronomico; ESA, European Space Research Institute, Frascati; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD; Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; Chicago Univ., IL )

    1989-07-01

    Nine Mayall 4 m prime-focus Kodak IIIa-J plates spanning an 11-yr baseline are analyzed in a uniform manner for the detection of variable objects to B = 22.6 at the level of Sigma of about 0.1 mag. Techniques are developed that succeed in independently finding objects already known to be variable, namely a sample of QSOs. Few additional objects were identified as variables with high certainty. The principal result, therefore, is an upper limit both to variable QSOs not previously identified by other techniques, and an upper limit at faint magnitudes on other classes of variable objects. 21 refs.

  5. Development of comprehensive accident models for two-lane rural highways using exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Di Silvestro, Giacomo; La Cava, Grazia; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, approximately 60% of road accident fatalities occur on two-lane rural roads. Thus, research to develop and enhance explanatory and predictive models for this road type continues to be of interest in mitigating these accidents. To this end, this paper describes a novel and extensive data collection and modeling effort to define accident models for two-lane road sections based on a unique combination of exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables directly related to the safety performance. The first part of the paper documents how these were identified for the segmentation of highways into homogeneous sections. Next, is a description of the extensive data collection effort that utilized differential cinematic GPS surveys to define the horizontal alignment variables, and road safety inspections (RSIs) to quantify the other road characteristics related to safety. The final part of the paper focuses on the calibration of models for estimating the expected number of accidents on homogeneous sections that can be characterized by constant values of the explanatory variables. Several candidate models were considered for calibration using the Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) approach. After considering the statistical significance of the parameters related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors, and goodness of fit statistics, 19 models were ranked and three were selected as the recommended models. The first of the three is a base model, with length and traffic as the only predictor variables; since these variables are the only ones likely to be available network-wide, this base model can be used in an empirical Bayesian calculation to conduct network screening for ranking "sites with promise" of safety improvement. The other two models represent the best statistical fits with different combinations of significant variables related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors. These multiple variable models can be used, with

  6. The Role of Lexical Frequency in Syntactic Variability: Variable Subject Personal Pronoun Expression in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erker, Daniel; Guy, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    Much recent work argues that lexical frequency plays a central explanatory role in linguistic theory, but the status, predicted effects, and methodological treatment of frequency are controversial, especially so in the less-investigated area of syntactic variation. This article addresses these issues in a case study of lexical frequency effects on…

  7. Applying generalized linear models as an explanatory tool of sex steroids, thyroid hormones and their relationships with environmental and physiologic factors in immature East Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Mangel, Marc; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2013-09-01

    Generalized linear models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and thyroxine (T4) levels in immature East Pacific green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their body condition, size, mass, blood biochemistry parameters, handling time, year, season and site of capture. According to external (tail size) and morphological (<77.3 straight carapace length) characteristics, 95% of the individuals were juveniles. Hormone levels, assessed on sea turtles subjected to a capture stress protocol, were <34.7nmolTL(-1), <532.3pmolE2 L(-1) and <43.8nmolT4L(-1). The statistical model explained biologically plausible metabolic relationships between hormone concentrations and blood biochemistry parameters (e.g. glucose, cholesterol) and the potential effect of environmental variables (season and study site). The variables handling time and year did not contribute significantly to explain hormone levels. Differences in sex steroids between season and study sites found by the models coincided with specific nutritional, physiological and body condition differences related to the specific habitat conditions. The models correctly predicted the median levels of the measured hormones in green sea turtles, which confirms the fitted model's utility. It is suggested that quantitative predictions could be possible when the model is tested with additional data.

  8. Coupled variable selection for regression modeling of complex treatment patterns in a clinical cancer registry.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, I; Elsäßer, A; Weinmann, A; Binder, H

    2014-12-30

    For determining a manageable set of covariates potentially influential with respect to a time-to-event endpoint, Cox proportional hazards models can be combined with variable selection techniques, such as stepwise forward selection or backward elimination based on p-values, or regularized regression techniques such as component-wise boosting. Cox regression models have also been adapted for dealing with more complex event patterns, for example, for competing risks settings with separate, cause-specific hazard models for each event type, or for determining the prognostic effect pattern of a variable over different landmark times, with one conditional survival model for each landmark. Motivated by a clinical cancer registry application, where complex event patterns have to be dealt with and variable selection is needed at the same time, we propose a general approach for linking variable selection between several Cox models. Specifically, we combine score statistics for each covariate across models by Fisher's method as a basis for variable selection. This principle is implemented for a stepwise forward selection approach as well as for a regularized regression technique. In an application to data from hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the coupled stepwise approach is seen to facilitate joint interpretation of the different cause-specific Cox models. In conditional survival models at landmark times, which address updates of prediction as time progresses and both treatment and other potential explanatory variables may change, the coupled regularized regression approach identifies potentially important, stably selected covariates together with their effect time pattern, despite having only a small number of events. These results highlight the promise of the proposed approach for coupling variable selection between Cox models, which is particularly relevant for modeling for clinical cancer registries with their complex event patterns.

  9. Gaia and variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, Laurent; Holl, Berry; Mowlavi, Nami

    2014-01-01

    The study of variable phenomena (periodic, irregular or transient) provides a unique way to acquire knowledge about objects in our Universe. Currently, we are going through a rapid expansion of time-domain astrophysics. One reason for this expansion is the technological developments materialised in small to medium size observational projects such as HAT, OGLE, Catalina, PTF and upcoming very large projects such as Gaia or LSST. In this article, we are focusing on the ESA cornerstone mission Gaia. This spacecraft will provide astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic measurements for one billion stars. Among the existing and planned multi-epoch projects Gaia is unique because it will provide exquisite astrometric measurements for all objects it observes. We provide a brief overview of the literature concerning this mission and its expected contribution to variability studies.

  10. Medical examiner variability.

    PubMed

    Hinchcliffe, R

    1997-01-01

    There are undoubtedly many factors that contribute to inter-examiner variability relevant to the use of medical practitioners in justiciable matters. One source of variability with regard to claims relating to hearing disorders could well be the training and 'calibration' of medical examiners. A tentative analysis of the examination papers and of the declared roles of the specialties that provide these examiners lends support to such a thesis. One solution would be to train special specialists for medicolegal work, as envisaged by Boyarsky for forensic urology (Boyarsky, 1996). At the same time there is the need to change the role-perception of many examiners. There is also the need for medical examiners to express honest, unbiased opinions. There are also problems inherent in the litigation process which does not promote the interactive and adaptive processes between experts that characterise scientific discussions and enquiry.

  11. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    PubMed

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  12. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kumada, M.; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

    2007-05-23

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

  13. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  14. Climate Variability Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Climate Variability Program briefly describes research activities of Principal Investigators who are funded by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Division. The report is focused on the year 2001. Utilization of satellite observations is a singularity of research on climate science and technology at JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Research at JPL has two foci: generate new knowledge and develop new technology.

  15. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  16. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  17. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  18. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  19. Variable Camber Morphing Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    exploring smart materials , aiming at achieving more efficient morphing capability in terms of control authority and energy consump- tion. Other specific...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT...methodology of variable camber morphing wings based on the use of active materials , namely piezoelectric materials and shape memory alloys. The research work

  20. Variable percentage sampler

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    A remotely operable sampler is provided for obtaining variable percentage samples of nuclear fuel particles and the like for analyses. The sampler has a rotating cup for a sample collection chamber designed so that the effective size of the sample inlet opening to the cup varies with rotational speed. Samples of a desired size are withdrawn from a flowing stream of particles without a deterrent to the flow of remaining particles.

  1. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  2. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data has been "generalized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. SLM-produced IN718, tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of-experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  3. Variable displacement vane pump

    SciTech Connect

    Tschantz, J.S.; Bisson, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    What has been developed under this program is a pumping system which can vary the amount of fuel delivered according to engine needs, thereby reducing the temperature rise of the fuel to very low levels. This permits the elimination of the air/oil coolers and conserves the vital airflow through the fan. The variable displacement vane pump (VDVP) also permits a substantial simplification of the control system with the elimination of complex metering valves, offering a significant reduction in fuel system cost. This program was initiated to develop a technology that embodied the ruggedness of the gear pump with the efficiency and metering versatility of the variable displacement vane pump. Thick metal vanes emulate the teeth on pumping gears while the simple, elegant swing cam feature provides the variable displacement capability without the unwieldy multiple cam segments found in other concepts. The result is a pumping architecture which is rugged, light in weight and extremely versatile, having demonstrated superb heat management and controllability in extensive bench and engine testing. This paper will report the results that the pumps have achieved to date both in terms of durability and efficiency.

  4. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  5. Climate change, climate variability and brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2013-04-01

    In addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods, climate change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity, altering the composition of global atmosphere. This phenomenon continues to be a significant and global threat for the humankind, and its impact compromises many aspects of the society at different levels, including health. The impact of climate change on zoonotic diseases has been largely ignored, particularly brucellosis. We here review some direct and indirect evidences of the impact of climate change and climate variability on brucellosis.

  6. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  7. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)

  8. Symbolic dynamics marker of heart rate variability combined with clinical variables enhance obstructive sleep apnea screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo-García, A. G.; Saavedra-Santana, P.; Juliá-Serdá, G.; Navarro-Mesa, J. L.; Navarro-Esteva, J.; Álvarez-López, X.; Gapelyuk, A.; Penzel, T.; Wessel, N.

    2014-06-01

    Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p < 10-3), neck circumference (p < 10-3), score on a questionnaire scale intended to quantify daytime sleepiness (p < 10-3), and intensity of snoring (p < 10-3). The validation of this model demonstrated an increase in classification performance when a variable based on non-linear dynamics of HRV (p < 0.01) was used additionally to the other variables. For diagnostic rule based only on clinical and physical variables, the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.907 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.848, 0.967), (sensitivity 87.10% and specificity 80%). For the model including the average of a symbolic dynamic variable, the area under the ROC curve was increased to 0.941 (95% = 0.897, 0.985), (sensitivity 88.71% and specificity 82.86%). In conclusion, symbolic dynamics, coupled with significant clinical and physical variables can help to prioritize polysomnographies in patients with a high probability of apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique.

  9. A New Variable Weighting and Selection Procedure for K-Means Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A variance-to-range ratio variable weighting procedure is proposed. We show how this weighting method is theoretically grounded in the inherent variability found in data exhibiting cluster structure. In addition, a variable selection procedure is proposed to operate in conjunction with the variable weighting technique. The performances of these…

  10. Large interannual variability in net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange of a disturbed temperate peatland.

    PubMed

    Aslan-Sungur, Guler; Lee, Xuhui; Evrendilek, Fatih; Karakaya, Nusret

    2016-06-01

    Peatland ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle as significant C sinks. However, human-induced disturbances can turn these sinks into sources of atmospheric CO2. Long-term measurements are needed to understand seasonal and interannual variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and effects of hydrological conditions and their disturbances on C fluxes. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of NEE were conducted between August 2010 and April 2014 at Yenicaga temperate peatland (Turkey), which was drained for agricultural usage and for peat mining until 2009. Annual NEE during the three full years of measurement indicated that the peatland acted as a CO2 source with large interannual variability, at rates of 246, 244 and 663 g Cm(-2)yr(-1) for 2011, 2012, and 2013 respectively, except for June 2011, and May to July 2012. The emission strengths were comparable to those found for severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The peak CO2 emissions occurred in the dry summer of 2013 when water table level (WTL) was below a threshold value of -60 cm and soil water content (SCW) below a threshold value of 70% by volume. Water availability index was found to have a stronger explanatory power for variations in monthly ecosystem respiration (ER) than the traditional water status indicators (SCW and WTL). Air temperature, evapotranspiration and vapor pressure deficient were the most significant variables strongly correlated with NEE and its component fluxes of gross primary production and ER.

  11. The role of climate and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Thornes, John; Leckebusch, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Nigeria has a number of climate-sensitive infectious diseases; one of the most important of these diseases that remains a threat to public health is cholera. This study investigates the influences of both meteorological and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria. A stepwise multiple regression models are used to estimate the influence of the year-to-year variations of cholera cases and deaths for individual states in the country and as well for three groups of states that are classified based on annual rainfall amount. Specifically, seasonal mean maximum and minimum temperatures and annual rainfall totals were analysed with annual aggregate count of cholera cases and deaths, taking into account of the socioeconomic factors that are potentially enhancing vulnerability such as: absolute poverty, adult literacy, access to pipe borne water and population density. Result reveals that the most important explanatory meteorological and socioeconomic variables in explaining the spatiotemporal variability of the disease are rainfall totals, seasonal mean maximum temperature, absolute poverty, and accessibility to pipe borne water. The influences of socioeconomic factors appeared to be more pronounced in the northern part of the country, and vice-versa in the case of meteorological factors. Also, cross validated models output suggests a strong possibility of disease prediction, which will help authorities to put effective control measures in place which depend on prevention, and or efficient response.

  12. Variable selection for distribution-free models for longitudinal zero-inflated count responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Wu, Pan; Tang, Wan; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Changyong; Kowalski, Jeanne; Tu, Xin M

    2016-07-20

    Zero-inflated count outcomes arise quite often in research and practice. Parametric models such as the zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial are widely used to model such responses. Like most parametric models, they are quite sensitive to departures from assumed distributions. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide distribution-free, or semi-parametric, alternatives. These methods extend the generalized estimating equations to provide robust inference for population mixtures defined by zero-inflated count outcomes. In this paper, we propose methods to extend smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD)-based variable selection methods to these new models. Variable selection has been gaining popularity in modern clinical research studies, as determining differential treatment effects of interventions for different subgroups has become the norm, rather the exception, in the era of patent-centered outcome research. Such moderation analysis in general creates many explanatory variables in regression analysis, and the advantages of SCAD-based methods over their traditional counterparts render them a great choice for addressing this important and timely issues in clinical research. We illustrate the proposed approach with both simulated and real study data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Variable pressure washer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, III, Stanley S. (Inventor); Estrada, Hector (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A variable pressure washer has two interlocking channel rings separated by a channel and retained by a captive set of fasteners. Within the channel between the rings are multiple rows of springs having at least two different spring moduli. The washer is particularly suited for use with a polar boss assembly secured to a bulkhead of a pressure vessel such as of propellent tank dome structure where the washer allows for the substantially uniform deflection of multiple O-rings as affected by the curved structure.

  14. Zoonoses and climate variability.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Rocio; Sandoval, Claudia M; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Vivas, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Leishmaniasis in the Americas is transmitted by Lutzomyia spp., which have many animal reservoirs. Previous studies indicated potential changes in vectors of climate-related distribution, but impact outcomes need to be further studied. We report climatic and El Niño events during 1985-2002 that may have had an impact on leishmaniasis in 11 southern departments of Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Cauca (Ca), Huila, Meta (Mt), Nariño, Putumayo (Py), Tolima, Valle (Va), Vaupes (Vp), and Vichada. Climatic data were obtained by satellite and epidemiologic data were obtained from the Health Ministry. NOAA climatic classification and SOI/ONI indexes were used as indicators of global climate variability. Yearly variation comparisons and median trend deviations were made for disease incidence and climatic variability. During this period there was considerable climatic variability, with a strong El Niño for 6 years and a strong La Niña for 8. During this period, 19,212 cases of leishmaniasis were registered, for a mean of 4756.83 cases/year. Disease in the whole region increased (mean of 4.98%) during the El Niño years in comparison to the La Niña years, but there were differences between departments with increases during El Niño (Mt 6.95%, Vp 4.84%), but the rest showed an increase during La Niña (1.61%-64.41%). Differences were significant in Va (P= 0.0092), Py (P= 0.0001), Ca (P= 0.0313), and for the whole region (P= 0.0023), but not in the rest of the departments. The importance of climate change is shown by shifts in insect and animal distributions. These data reflect the importance of climate on transmission of leishmaniasis and open further investigations related to forecasting and monitoring systems, where understanding the relationship between zoonoses and climate variability could help to improve the management of these emerging and reemerging diseases.

  15. Variable camshaft timing system

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, R.P.; Smith, F.R.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes an improvement in a variable camshaft timing system for an internal combustion engine having intake and exhaust valves and a camshaft for each of the intake and exhaust valves, an intake sprocket and an exhaust sprocket keyed to their respective camshaft, only one of the camshafts being directly driven by an engine crankshaft, and a timing chain engaging both sprockets. The improvement comprising a single bracket carrying at least one idler sprocket engaging the timing chain, the bracket being mounted for movement to alter the timing relationship between the intake and exhaust sprockets.

  16. Variable leak gas source

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  17. The effect of job insecurity on employee health complaints: A within-person analysis of the explanatory role of threats to the manifest and latent benefits of work.

    PubMed

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Näswall, Katharina; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The current study contributes to the literature on job insecurity by highlighting threat to the benefits of work as an explanation of the effect of job insecurity on health complaints. Building on the latent deprivation model, we predicted that threats to both manifest (i.e., financial income) and latent benefits of work (i.e., collective purpose, social contacts, status, time structure, activity) mediate the relationships from job insecurity to subsequent mental and physical health complaints. In addition, in line with the conservation of resources theory, we proposed that financial resources buffer the indirect effect of job insecurity on health complaints through threat to the manifest benefit. Hypotheses were tested using a multilevel design, in which 3 measurements (time lag of 6 months between subsequent measurements) were clustered within 1,994 employees (in Flanders, Belgium). This allowed for the investigation of within-person processes, while controlling for variance at the between-person level. The results demonstrate that job insecurity was related to subsequent threats to both manifest and latent benefits, and that these threats in turn were related to subsequent health complaints (with an exception for threat to the manifest benefit that did not predict mental health complaints). Three significant indirect effects were found: threat to the latent benefits mediated the relationships between job insecurity and both mental and physical health complaints, and threat to the manifest benefit mediated the relationship between job insecurity and physical health complaints. Unexpectedly, the latter indirect effect was exacerbated by financial resources.

  18. Modeling multiple land use changes using ANN, CART and MARS: Comparing tradeoffs in goodness of fit and explanatory power of data mining tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, Amin; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

    2014-05-01

    Over half of the earth's terrestrial surface has been modified by humans. This modification is called land use change and its pattern is known to occur in a non-linear way. The land use change modeling community can advance its models using data mining tools. Here, we present three data mining land use change models, one based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN), another on Classification And Regression Trees (CART) and another Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). We reconfigured the three data mining models to concurrently simulate multiple land use classes (e.g. agriculture, forest and urban) in South-Eastern Wisconsin (SEWI), USA (time interval 1990-2000) and in Muskegon River Watershed (MRW), Michigan, USA (time interval 1978-1998). We compared the results of the three data mining tools using relative operating characteristic (ROC) and percent correct match (PCM). We found that ANN provided the best accuracy in both areas for three land use classes (e.g. urban, agriculture and forest). In addition, in both regions, CART and MARS both showed that forest gain occurred in areas close to current forests, agriculture patches and away from roads. Urban increased in areas of high urban density, close to roads and in areas with few forests and wetlands. We also found that agriculture gain is more likely for the areas closer to the agriculture and forest patches. Elevation strongly influenced urbanization and forest gain in MRW while it has no effect in SEWI.

  19. Microbial variability in growth and heat resistance of a pathogen and a spoiler: All variabilities are equal but some are more equal than others.

    PubMed

    den Besten, Heidy M W; Aryani, Diah C; Metselaar, Karin I; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2017-01-02

    Quantitative microbiology is used in risk assessment studies, microbial shelf life studies, product development, and experimental design. Realistic prediction is, however, complicated by different sources of variability. The final concentration of microorganisms at the moment of consumption is affected by different sources of variability: variability in the storage times and temperatures, variability in product characteristics, variability in process characteristics, variability in the initial contamination of the raw materials, and last but not least, microbiological variability. This article compares different sources of microbiological variability in growth and inactivation kinetics of a pathogen and a spoiler, namely experimental variability, reproduction variability (within strain variability), strain variability (between strain variability) and variability between individual cells within a population (population heterogeneity). Comparison of the different sources of microbiological variability also allows to prioritize their importance. In addition, the microbiological variability is compared to other variability factors encountered in a model food chain to evaluate the impact of different variability factors on the variability in microbial levels encountered in the final product.

  20. FRESIP project observations of cataclysmic variables: A unique opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.

    1994-01-01

    FRESIP Project observations of cataclysmic variables would provide unique data sets. In the study of known cataclysmic variables they would provide extended, well sampled temporal photometric information and in addition, they would provide a large area deep survey; obtaining a complete magnitude limited sample of the galaxy in the volume cone defined by the FRESIP field of view.