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Sample records for additional exploratory analyses

  1. What can we do about exploratory analyses in clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Moyé, Lem

    2015-11-01

    The research community has alternatively embraced then repudiated exploratory analyses since the inception of clinical trials in the middle of the twentieth century. After a series of important but ultimately unreproducible findings, these non-prospectively declared evaluations were relegated to hypothesis generating. Since the majority of evaluations conducted in clinical trials with their rich data sets are exploratory, the absence of their persuasive power adds to the inefficiency of clinical trial analyses in an atmosphere of fiscal frugality. However, the principle argument against exploratory analyses is not based in statistical theory, but pragmatism and observation. The absence of any theoretical treatment of exploratory analyses postpones the day when their statistical weaknesses might be repaired. Here, we introduce examination of the characteristics of exploratory analyses from a probabilistic and statistical framework. Setting the obvious logistical concerns aside (i.e., the absence of planning produces poor precision), exploratory analyses do not appear to suffer from estimation theory weaknesses. The problem appears to be a difficulty in what is actually reported as the p-value. The use of Bayes Theorem provides p-values that are more in line with confirmatory analyses. This development may inaugurate a body of work that would lead to the readmission of exploratory analyses to a position of persuasive power in clinical trials.

  2. Caring Leadership in Schools: Findings from Exploratory Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Murphy, Joseph; Smylie, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article (1) analyzes and synthesizes literatures from philosophy and education to propose a conceptual framework for caring in schools and caring school leadership and (2) reports the results of an exploratory analysis of the relationship of caring principal leadership to school-level supports for student academic learning.…

  3. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Multicultural Teaching Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Montgomery, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing conceptual controversy of cultural competence for preservice teachers led to the current study that explored the underlying structure of cultural competence through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis methods. A total of 793 preservice teachers from two large Midwestern universities completed the…

  4. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Kim, Jungeun; Chen, Grace A; Alvarez, Alvin N

    2012-03-01

    The authors conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) to further examine the underlying factor structure in a total sample of 1,273 Asian American participants. In the first step of analysis, an exploratory factor analysis with 651 participants yielded a 13-item two-factor solution to the data. In the second step, a confirmatory factor analysis with 622 participants supported both the 13-item two-factor model and the original 29-item three-factor model in the cross-validation sample and generational and ethnicity analyses. The two-factor and three-factor models produced internal consistency estimates ranging from .81 to .95. In addition, the authors examined convergent and criterion related evidence for 13-item and 29-item versions of the AARRSI. Given its brief nature and generally good fit across generational status and ethnicity, the authors suggest that the 13-item AARRSI might be advantageous for research and assessment endeavors.

  5. Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

    2011-01-01

    This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

  6. Haptic Exploratory Strategies and Children Who Are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This study of the haptic exploratory strategies used by nine children with visual impairments and additional disabilities when interacting with portable and freely manipulable objects found that a broader approach to assessment and analysis is required than is used with typically developing children. An "adaptive-tasks" approach is proposed as a…

  7. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses with a Malaysian sample.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers in 14 randomly selected schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. Analyses were conducted in a 3-stage process using both confirmatory (stages 1 and 3) and exploratory factor analyses (stage 2) to test, modify, and confirm the underlying factor structure of the TRAS in a non-Western teacher sample. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 3-factor model previously reported in the original TRAS study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an 8-item, 4-factor structure. Further confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated appropriateness of the 4-factor structure. Reliability estimates for the four factors-commitment, value, concern, and confidence-were moderate. The modified short form TRAS (Malay version) has potential to be used as a simple tool for relatively quick assessment of teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward reporting may exist and the transferability of newly developed instruments to other populations should be evaluated.

  8. Results of On-Top Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding in Thailand. Part II: Exploratory Analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, William L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Silverman, Bernard A.

    2003-07-01

    ) established that the Thai cold-cloud demonstration experiment, evaluated according to its original design, failed to reach statistical significance in the time allotted to the experiment, although the probabilities that the seeding effects were positive on the treated cells and units are 72% and 79%, respectively. The results of exploratory examination of the entire demonstration experiment, including both A- and B-type experimental units, are presented herein. The exploratory studies involved both cell [392 seeded (S) and 335 nonseeded (NS)] and unit (35 S and 35 NS) analyses, a bivariate analysis of the joint effects on cells and units, and the analysis of pooled results from the exploratory experiment and the entire demonstration experiment. The results of these exploratory studies strengthen the case for seeding-induced changes in rainfall that were indicated in the evaluation of the a priori demonstration experiment. A multiple regression analysis to account for some of the natural rainfall variability suggests, however, that the apparent seeding effect has been overestimated by about a factor of 2 (i.e., +92% versus +48%). Temporal plots and analyses of unit rain-volume rates and cumulative rain volumes for seeding effects revealed stronger statistical support for convective masses within the unit not having seeded ancestry, as determined by radar, than for convective clusters with seeded ancestry. This result suggests that the effect of seeding, which begins with the directly treated cells, is propagated to nonseeded clouds within the unit. Enhanced downdrafts and/or `secondary seeding,' as discussed herein, are posited as possible propagation mechanisms. Partitioning of the data by a crude aircraft measure of coalescence intensity revealed that the rain volume from NS units increased as coalescence intensity increased, whereas the greatest mean S rainfall was observed in the moderate coalescence category. The apparent seeding effects were >100% for

  9. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  10. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Mohr, David C; Meterko, Mark; Sales, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional

  11. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

    PubMed

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Kennedy, Adam D; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  12. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Kennedy, Adam D.; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region—specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development. PMID:26317757

  13. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  14. Ranging in Human Sonar: Effects of Additional Early Reflections and Exploratory Head Movements

    PubMed Central

    Wallmeier, Ludwig; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Many blind people rely on echoes from self-produced sounds to assess their environment. It has been shown that human subjects can use echolocation for directional localization and orientation in a room, but echo-acoustic distance perception - e.g. to determine one's position in a room - has received little scientific attention, and systematic studies on the influence of additional early reflections and exploratory head movements are lacking. This study investigates echo-acoustic distance discrimination in virtual echo-acoustic space, using the impulse responses of a real corridor. Six blindfolded sighted subjects and a blind echolocation expert had to discriminate between two positions in the virtual corridor, which differed by their distance to the front wall, but not to the lateral walls. To solve this task, participants evaluated echoes that were generated in real time from self-produced vocalizations. Across experimental conditions, we systematically varied the restrictions for head rotations, the subjects' orientation in virtual space and the reference position. Three key results were observed. First, all participants successfully solved the task with discrimination thresholds below 1 m for all reference distances (0.75–4 m). Performance was best for the smallest reference distance of 0.75 m, with thresholds around 20 cm. Second, distance discrimination performance was relatively robust against additional early reflections, compared to other echolocation tasks like directional localization. Third, free head rotations during echolocation can improve distance discrimination performance in complex environmental settings. However, head movements do not necessarily provide a benefit over static echolocation from an optimal single orientation. These results show that accurate distance discrimination through echolocation is possible over a wide range of reference distances and environmental conditions. This is an important functional benefit of human echolocation

  15. Ranging in human sonar: effects of additional early reflections and exploratory head movements.

    PubMed

    Wallmeier, Ludwig; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Many blind people rely on echoes from self-produced sounds to assess their environment. It has been shown that human subjects can use echolocation for directional localization and orientation in a room, but echo-acoustic distance perception--e.g. to determine one's position in a room--has received little scientific attention, and systematic studies on the influence of additional early reflections and exploratory head movements are lacking. This study investigates echo-acoustic distance discrimination in virtual echo-acoustic space, using the impulse responses of a real corridor. Six blindfolded sighted subjects and a blind echolocation expert had to discriminate between two positions in the virtual corridor, which differed by their distance to the front wall, but not to the lateral walls. To solve this task, participants evaluated echoes that were generated in real time from self-produced vocalizations. Across experimental conditions, we systematically varied the restrictions for head rotations, the subjects' orientation in virtual space and the reference position. Three key results were observed. First, all participants successfully solved the task with discrimination thresholds below 1 m for all reference distances (0.75-4 m). Performance was best for the smallest reference distance of 0.75 m, with thresholds around 20 cm. Second, distance discrimination performance was relatively robust against additional early reflections, compared to other echolocation tasks like directional localization. Third, free head rotations during echolocation can improve distance discrimination performance in complex environmental settings. However, head movements do not necessarily provide a benefit over static echolocation from an optimal single orientation. These results show that accurate distance discrimination through echolocation is possible over a wide range of reference distances and environmental conditions. This is an important functional benefit of human echolocation

  16. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the WISC-IV with Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Dandridge, Jessica; Pawlush, Alexandra; Thompson, Dawna F.; Ferrier, David E.

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigated the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) with exploratory factor analysis (EFA; Study 1) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; Study 2) among 2 independent samples of gifted students. The EFA sample consisted of 225 children who were referred for a…

  17. Development and Validation of the Personal Strengths Inventory Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liau, Albert Kienfie; Chow, Daryl; Tan, Teck Kiang; Senf, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the scores on a brief strengths-based assessment, the 22-item Personal Strengths Inventory (PSI). In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis of 410 adolescents provided evidence for a five-factor solution--social competence (four items), emotional awareness (five…

  18. Development of a Composite Pain Measure for Persons with Advanced Dementia: Exploratory Analyses in Self-Reporting Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Mary; Polissar, Nayak; Neradilek, Moni Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Context Experts agree that pain assessment in non-communicative persons requires data from sources that do not rely on self-report, including proxy reports, health history, and observation of pain behaviors. However, there is little empirical evidence to guide clinicians in weighting or combining these sources to best approximate the person’s experience. Objectives The aim of this exploratory study was to identify a combination of observer-dependent pain indicators that would be significantly more predictive of self-reported pain intensity than any single indicator. Because self-reported pain is usually viewed as the criterion measure for pain, self-reported usual and worst pain were the dependent variables. Methods The sample consisted of 326 residents (mean age: 83.2 years; 69% female) living in one of 24 nursing homes. Independent variables did not rely on self-report: surrogate reports from certified nursing assistants (CNA IPT), Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI), Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS), number of painful diagnoses, and Minimum Data Set (MDS) pain variables. Results In univariate analyses, the CNA IPT scores were correlated most highly with self-reported pain. The final multivariate model for self-reported usual pain included CNA IPT, CSDD, PAS and education; this model accounted for only 14% of the variance. The more extensive of the two final models for worst pain included MDS pain frequency, CSDD, CNA IPT, CNPI and age (R2 = 0.14). Conclusion Additional research is needed to develop a predictive pain model for nonverbal persons. PMID:21094018

  19. Cucumis monosomic alien addition lines: morphological, cytological, and genotypic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Feng; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Qian, Chun-Tao; Jahn, Molly M; Staub, Jack E; Zhuang, Fei-Yun; Lou, Qun-Feng; Ren, Gang

    2004-05-01

    Cucumis hystrix Chakr. (HH, 2n=24), a wild relative of the cultivated cucumber, possesses several potentially valuable disease-resistance and abiotic stress-tolerance traits for cucumber ( C. sativus L., CC, 2n=14) improvement. Numerous attempts have been made to transfer desirable traits since the successful interspecific hybridization between C. hystrix and C. sativus, one of which resulted in the production of an allotriploid (HCC, 2n=26: one genome of C. hystrix and two of C. sativus). When this genotype was treated with colchicine to induce polyploidy, two monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) (plant nos. 87 and 517: 14 CC+1 H, 2n=15) were recovered among 252 viable plants. Each of these plants was morphologically distinct from allotriploids and cultivated cucumbers. Cytogenetic and molecular marker analyses were performed to confirm the genetic constitution and further characterize these two MAALs. Chromosome counts made from at least 30 meristematic cells from each plant confirmed 15 nuclear chromosomes. In pollen mother cells of plant nos. 87 and 517, seven bivalents and one univalent were observed at diakinesis and metaphase I; the frequency of trivalent formation was low (about 4-5%). At anaphase I and II, stochastic and asymmetric division led to the formation of two gamete classes: n=7 and n=8; however, pollen fertility was relatively high. Pollen stainability in plant no. 87 was 86.7% and in plant no. 517 was 93.2%. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed using 100 random 10-base primers. Genotypes obtained with eight primers (A-9, A-11, AH-13, AI-19, AJ-18, AJ-20, E-19, and N-20) showed a band common to the two MAAL plants and C. hystrix that was absent in C. sativus, confirming that the alien chromosomes present in the MAALs were derived from C. hystrix. Morphological differences and differences in banding patterns were also observed between plant nos. 87 and 517 after amplification with primers AI-5, AJ-13, N-12, and N-20

  20. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  1. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage.

  2. Using the Beck Anxiety Inventory among South Africans Living with HIV: Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagee, Ashraf; Coetzee, Bronwyne; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to 101 adults receiving HIV treatment. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single anxiety factor that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in the data. A single score may be used to indicate the overall level of anxiety of individuals receiving HIV treatment in South Africa.

  3. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment.

  4. Chemical and colloidal analyses of natural seep water collected from the exploratory studies facility inside Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Cizdziel, James V; Guo, Caixia; Steinberg, Spencer M; Yu, Zhongbo; Johannesson, Karen H

    2008-02-01

    Yucca Mountain is being considered as a geological repository for the USA's spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. Numerous groundwater seeps appeared during March 2005 within the exploratory studies facility (ESF), a tunnel excavated in the mountain. Because of the relevance to radionuclide transport and unsaturated zone-modeling studies, we analyzed the seep samples for major anions and cations, rare earth elements, and colloids. Major ion species and elemental concentrations in seep samples reflect interaction of the water with the volcanic rock and secondary calcites. Elemental fractograms from flow-injection field-flow fractionation ICP-MS scans detected Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, Mg, Si, Sr, W, and U at void fractions, suggesting they may be present in the form of dissolved anions. Colloids approximately 10 nm in hydrodynamic diameter, possibly calcite, were also present in the seepage samples. Geochemical calculations indicate, however, these may be an artifact (not present in the groundwater) which arose because of loss of CO2 during sample collection and storage.

  5. Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Örjan; Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-03-01

    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment. PMID:25558962

  6. Preliminary analyses of the excavation investigation experiments proposed for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L.S.; Bauer, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. Three excavation experiments, Shaft Convergence, Demonstration Breakout Rooms, and Sequential Drift Mining, will provide some of the data required to (1) assess the mechanical behavior of repository-size openings and (2) validate numerical models that may be used in the repository design process. In this report, the results of preliminary analyses of the three excavation experiments are presented. The major objective of these analyses was to provide some guidance to the experiment planners regarding the expected displacements and stresses near the experimental drifts so that selection and placement of instrumentation could be optimized. Further, successful completion of these analyses demonstrates the ability to model the experiments, given the simplifying assumptions presented. Limitations of the analyses performed and the experiments as currently designed are also discussed. Finally, the results of these analyses provided some indication of how the variation of some key geometric and material parameters would affect the predicted results. Once the experiment design is finalized and site-specific material data are collected, pretest predictive analyses will be conducted using the mechanical and material models that require validation. 15 refs., 123 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  8. Additional Measurements and Analyses of H217O and H218O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John; Yu, Shanshan; Walters, Adam; Daly, Adam M.

    2015-06-01

    Historically the analysis of the spectrum of water has been a balance between the quality of the data set and the applicability of the Hamiltonian to a highly non-rigid molecule. Recently, a number of different non-rigid analysis approaches have successfully been applied to 16O water resulting in a self-consistent set of transitions and energy levels to high J which allowed the spectrum to be modeled to experimental precision. The data set for 17O and 18O water was previously reviewed and many of the problematic measurements identified, but Hamiltonian modeling of the remaining data resulted in significantly poorer quality fits than that for the 16O parent. As a result, we have made additional microwave measurements and modeled the existing 17O and 18O data sets with an Euler series model. This effort has illuminated a number of additional problematic measurements in the previous data sets and has resulted in analyses of 17O and 18O water that are of similar quality to the 16O analysis. We report the new lines, the analyses and make recommendations on the quality of the experimental data sets. SS. Yu, J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 279,~16-25 (2012) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 117, 29-58 (2013) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 110, 573-596 (2009) H.M. Pickett, J.C. Pearson, C.E. Miller J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 174-179 (2005)

  9. Exploratory metabolomic analyses reveal compounds correlated with lutein concentration in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex of human infant brain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with...

  10. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and…

  11. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  12. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  13. Dissecting an online intervention for cancer survivors: four exploratory analyses of internet engagement and its effects on health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenghao; Koh, Pang Wei; Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Saria, Suchi

    2015-02-01

    The Internet has been used extensively to offer health education content and also for social support. More recently, we have seen the advent of Internet-based health education interventions that combine content with structured social networking. In many ways this is the Internet equivalent to small group interventions. While we have some knowledge about the efficacy of these interventions, few studies have examined how participants engage with programs and how that might affect outcomes. This study seeks to explore (a) the content of posts and (b) the nature of participant engagement with an online, 6-week workshop for cancer survivors and how such engagement may affect health outcomes. Using methodologies related to computational linguistics (latent Dirichlet allocation) and more standard statistical approaches, we identified (a) discussion board themes; (b) the relationship between reading and posting messages and outcomes; (c) how making, completing, or not completing action plans is related to outcome; and (d) how self-tailoring relates to outcomes. When considering all posts, emotional support is a key theme. However, different sets of themes are expressed in the first workshop post where participants are asked to express their primary concern. Writing posts was related to improved outcomes, but reading posts was less important. Completing, but not merely making, action plans and self-tailoring are statistically associated with future positive health outcomes. The findings from these exploratory studies can be considered when shaping future electronically mediated social networking interventions. In addition, the methods used here can be used in analyzing other large electronically mediated social-networking interventions.

  14. Metagenomic analyses of the late Pleistocene permafrost - additional tools for reconstruction of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkina, Elizaveta; Petrovskaya, Lada; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Krivushin, Kirill; Shmakova, Lyubov; Tutukina, Maria; Meyers, Arthur; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the metagenomes from two 30 000-year-old permafrost samples, one of lake-alluvial origin and the other from late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments, revealed significant differences within microbial communities. The late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments (which have been characterized by the absence of methane with lower values of redox potential and Fe2+ content) showed a low abundance of methanogenic archaea and enzymes from both the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but a higher abundance of enzymes associated with the sulfur cycle. The metagenomic and geochemical analyses described in the paper provide evidence that the formation of the sampled late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments likely took place under much more aerobic conditions than lake-alluvial sediments.

  15. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  16. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  17. Analysing spatio-temporal patterns of the global NO2-distribution retrieved from GOME satellite observations using a generalized additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayn, M.; Beirle, S.; Hamprecht, F. A.; Platt, U.; Menze, B. H.; Wagner, T.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing availability of observational data from different sources at a global level, joint analysis of these data is becoming especially attractive. For such an analysis - oftentimes with little prior knowledge about local and global interactions between the different observational variables at hand - an exploratory, data-driven analysis of the data may be of particular relevance. In the present work we used generalized additive models (GAM) in an exemplary study of spatio-temporal patterns in the tropospheric NO2-distribution derived from GOME satellite observations (1996 to 2001) at global scale. We focused on identifying correlations between NO2 and local wind fields, a quantity which is of particular interest in the analysis of spatio-temporal interactions. Formulating general functional, parametric relationships between the observed NO2 distribution and local wind fields, however, is difficult - if not impossible. So, rather than following a model-based analysis testing the data for predefined hypotheses (assuming, for example, sinusoidal seasonal trends), we used a GAM with non-parametric model terms to learn this functional relationship between NO2 and wind directly from the data. The NO2 observations showed to be affected by wind-dominated processes over large areas. We estimated the extent of areas affected by specific NO2 emission sources, and were able to highlight likely atmospheric transport "pathways". General temporal trends which were also part of our model - weekly, seasonal and linear changes - showed to be in good agreement with previous studies and alternative ways of analysing the time series. Overall, using a non-parametric model provided favorable means for a rapid inspection of this large spatio-temporal NO2 data set, with less bias than parametric approaches, and allowing to visualize dynamical processes of the NO2 distribution at a global scale.

  18. Impact of enzalutamide on quality of life in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy: additional analyses from the AFFIRM randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cella, D.; Ivanescu, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Bui, C. N.; Spalding, J.; Fizazi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background To present longitudinal changes in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) scores during 25-week treatment with enzalutamide or placebo in men with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after chemotherapy in the AFFIRM trial. Patients and methods Patients were randomly assigned to enzalutamide 160 mg/day or placebo. FACT-P was completed before randomization, at weeks 13, 17, 21, and 25, and every 12 weeks thereafter while on study treatment. Longitudinal changes in FACT-P scores from baseline to 25 weeks were analyzed using a mixed effects model for repeated measures (MMRM), with a pattern mixture model (PMM) applied as secondary analysis to address non-ignorable missing data. Cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots were generated and different methodological approaches and models for handling missing data were applied. Due to the exploratory nature of the analyses, adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made. AFFIRM is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00974311. Results The intention-to-treat FACT-P population included 938 patients (enzalutamide, n = 674; placebo n = 264) with evaluable FACT-P assessments at baseline and ≥1 post-baseline assessment. After 25 weeks, the mean FACT-P total score decreased by 1.52 points with enzalutamide compared with 13.73 points with placebo (P < 0.001). In addition, significant treatment differences at week 25 favoring enzalutamide were evident for all FACT-P subscales and indices, whether analyzed by MMRM or PMM. CDF plots revealed differences favoring enzalutamide compared with placebo across the full range of possible response levels for FACT-P total and all disease- and symptom-specific subscales/indices. Conclusion In men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel-based chemotherapy, enzalutamide is superior to placebo in health-related quality-of-life outcomes, regardless of analysis model or threshold selected for meaningful response. Clinical

  19. SCAMP: standardised, concentrated, additional macronutrients, parenteral nutrition in very preterm infants: a phase IV randomised, controlled exploratory study of macronutrient intake, growth and other aspects of neonatal care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infants born <29 weeks gestation are at high risk of neurocognitive disability. Early postnatal growth failure, particularly head growth, is an important and potentially reversible risk factor for impaired neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate nutrition is a major factor in this postnatal growth failure, optimal protein and calorie (macronutrient) intakes are rarely achieved, especially in the first week. Infants <29 weeks are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the bulk of their nutrient needs for the first 2-3 weeks of life to allow gut adaptation to milk digestion. The prescription, formulation and administration of neonatal parenteral nutrition is critical to achieving optimal protein and calorie intake but has received little scientific evaluation. Current neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens often rely on individualised prescription to manage the labile, unpredictable biochemical and metabolic control characteristic of the early neonatal period. Individualised prescription frequently fails to translate into optimal macronutrient delivery. We have previously shown that a standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimen can optimise macronutrient intake. Methods We propose a single centre, randomised controlled exploratory trial of two standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens comparing a standard macronutrient content (maximum protein 2.8 g/kg/day; lipid 2.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 10%) with a higher macronutrient content (maximum protein 3.8 g/kg/day; lipid 3.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 12%) over the first 28 days of life. 150 infants 24-28 completed weeks gestation and birthweight <1200 g will be recruited. The primary outcome will be head growth velocity in the first 28 days of life. Secondary outcomes will include a) auxological data between birth and 36 weeks corrected gestational age b) actual macronutrient intake in first 28 days c) biomarkers of biochemical and metabolic tolerance d) infection biomarkers and

  20. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Study sample: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. Design: LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. Results: The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R2 = 0.40). Conclusions: All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment. PMID:27589015

  1. Analyses of microbial community within a composter operated using household garbage with special reference to the addition of soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, M; Pedro, M S; Haruta, S; Ding, L; Fukada, T; Kigawa, A; Kodama, T; Ishii, M; Igarashi, Y

    2001-01-01

    A commercially available composter was operated using fixed composition of garbage with or without the addition of soybean oil. The composter was operated without adding seed microorganisms or bulking materials. Microflora within the composter were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in the case of oil addition, or by 16/18 S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolated microorganisms in the case of no oil addition. The results showed that, irrespective of the addition of oil, the bacteria identified were all gram positive, and that lactobacilli seemed to be the key microorganisms. Based on the results, suitable microflora for use in a household composter are discussed.

  2. Biochemical analyses of the antioxidative activity and chemical ingredients in eight different Allium alien monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Matsumoto, Misato; Date, Rie; Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs. PMID:24317054

  3. Newberry exploratory slimhole

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    During July-November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 foot exploratory slimhole (3.85 inches diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA.

  4. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a frequently used multivariate analysis technique in statistics. Jennrich and Sampson (1966) solved a significant EFA factor loading matrix rotation problem by deriving the direct Quartimin rotation. Jennrich was also the first to develop standard errors for rotated solutions, although these have still not made…

  5. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  6. Exploratory Business Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for Arkansas ninth-grade students to explore business careers through the use of competency-based instructional materials. Exploratory business teachers are asked to incorporate the twenty-three units of study into a sequence best suited to their teaching style. Units include such topics as "Social Security,""What…

  7. Early-blind subjects' spatial representation of manipulatory space: exploratory strategies and reaction to change.

    PubMed

    Gaunet, F; Martinez, J L; Thinus-Blanc, C

    1997-01-01

    The present study was aimed at analysing the effects of a lack of visual experience in human subjects on the detection and identification of a spatial change brought about to a configuration of objects displayed in manipulatory space. Exploratory patterns and performance levels were recorded. Learning effects were observed in different types of change and condition of presentation only in the early-blind and blindfolded sighted groups, but not in the late-blind group. Early blindness affected both exploratory patterns and performance levels. In addition, significant correlations were found between performance level and the use of systematic patterns of exploration. These data are discussed in relation with the importance of early vision during the development of spatial cognition.

  8. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, S A

    1987-07-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources. From the Greek rationalists and atomists comes the idea that appearance is to be explained by something not observed. From Aristotle comes the idea of induction and seeking common features of things as explanations of them. From Francis Bacon comes the idea of an automatic algorithm for inductively discovering common causes. From Descartes come the ideas of analysis and synthesis that underlie the emphasis on analysis of variables into orthogonal or linearly independent factors and focus on reproducing (synthesizing) the correlation matrix from the factors. From empiricist statisticians like Pearson and Yule comes the idea of exploratory, descriptive statistics. Also from the empiricist heritage comes the false expectation some have that factor analysis yields unique and unambiguous knowledge without prior assumptions -- the inductivist fallacy. This expectation founders on the indeterminacy of factors, even after their loadings are defined by rotation. Indeterminacy is unavoidable in the interpretation of common factors because the process of interpretation is inductive and inductive inferences are not uniquely determined by the data on which they are based. But from Kant we learn not to discard inductive inferences but to treat them as hypotheses that must be tested against additional data to establish their objectivity. And so the conclusions of exploratory factor analyses are never complete without a subsequent confirmatory analysis with additional variables and new data. PMID:26776378

  9. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, S A

    1987-07-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources. From the Greek rationalists and atomists comes the idea that appearance is to be explained by something not observed. From Aristotle comes the idea of induction and seeking common features of things as explanations of them. From Francis Bacon comes the idea of an automatic algorithm for inductively discovering common causes. From Descartes come the ideas of analysis and synthesis that underlie the emphasis on analysis of variables into orthogonal or linearly independent factors and focus on reproducing (synthesizing) the correlation matrix from the factors. From empiricist statisticians like Pearson and Yule comes the idea of exploratory, descriptive statistics. Also from the empiricist heritage comes the false expectation some have that factor analysis yields unique and unambiguous knowledge without prior assumptions -- the inductivist fallacy. This expectation founders on the indeterminacy of factors, even after their loadings are defined by rotation. Indeterminacy is unavoidable in the interpretation of common factors because the process of interpretation is inductive and inductive inferences are not uniquely determined by the data on which they are based. But from Kant we learn not to discard inductive inferences but to treat them as hypotheses that must be tested against additional data to establish their objectivity. And so the conclusions of exploratory factor analyses are never complete without a subsequent confirmatory analysis with additional variables and new data.

  10. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  11. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  12. Young Children's Haptic Exploratory Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…

  13. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  14. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  15. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  16. Exploratory orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  17. An Exploratory Study of Biology Teachers' Online Information Seeking Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on exploratory research that investigated biology teachers' perceptions of their online information seeking practices and how these practices influenced their instructional planning activities. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the results of an online survey and ten in-depth interviews measuring use of specific online…

  18. Exploratory battery technology development report for FY90

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Butler, P.C.; Akhil, A.A.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Freese, J.M.; Lott, S.E.

    1991-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of advanced rechargeable batteries for stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1990. 82 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Researching Primary Engineering Education: UK Perspectives, an Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of…

  20. Discussing Medicare Physician Productivity and the Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dyckman, Zachary; Harper, Michael; McMenamin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article provides comments of three conference panel members on the analyses of the productivity adjustment used in the Medicare Economic Index (MEI), and on exploratory estimates of physician-specific productivity measures. Each has a different background and perspective. PMID:18435222

  1. Analysing spatio-temporal patterns of the global NO2-distribution retrieved from GOME satellite observations using a generalized additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayn, M.; Beirle, S.; Hamprecht, F. A.; Platt, U.; Menze, B. H.; Wagner, T.

    2009-04-01

    With the increasing availability of observations from different space-borne sensors, the joint analysis of observational data from multiple sources becomes more and more attractive. For such an analysis - oftentimes with little prior knowledge about local and global interactions between the different observational variables available - an explorative data-driven analysis of the remote sensing data may be of particular relevance. In the present work we used generalized additive models (GAM) in this task, in an exemplary study of spatio-temporal patterns in the tropospheric NO2-distribution derived from GOME satellite observations (1996 to 2001) at global scale. We modelled different temporal trends in the time series of the observed NO2, but focused on identifying correlations between NO2 and local wind fields. Here, our nonparametric modelling approach had several advantages over standard parametric models: While the model-based analysis allowed to test predefined hypotheses (assuming, for example, sinusoidal seasonal trends) only, the GAM allowed to learn functional relations between different observational variables directly from the data. This was of particular interest in the present task, as little was known about relations between the observed NO2 distribution and transport processes by local wind fields, and the formulation of general functional relationships to be tested remained difficult. We found the observed temporal trends - weekly, seasonal and linear changes - to be in overall good agreement with previous studies and alternative ways of data analysis. However, NO2 observations showed to be affected by wind-dominated processes over several areas, world wide. Here we were able to estimate the extent of areas affected by specific NO2 emission sources, and to highlight likely atmospheric transport pathways. Overall, using a nonparametric model provided favourable means for a rapid inspection of this large spatio-temporal data set,with less bias than

  2. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  3. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Bellevue, Oliver C; Johnson, Bennett M; Feczko, Andrew F; Nadig, Daniel E; White, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  4. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  5. Additive and nonadditive genetic variation in avian personality traits.

    PubMed

    van Oers, K; Drent, P J; de Jong, G; van Noordwijk, A J

    2004-11-01

    Individuals of all vertebrate species differ consistently in their reactions to mildly stressful challenges. These typical reactions, described as personalities or coping strategies, have a clear genetic basis, but the structure of their inheritance in natural populations is almost unknown. We carried out a quantitative genetic analysis of two personality traits (exploration and boldness) and the combination of these two traits (early exploratory behaviour). This study was carried out on the lines resulting from a two-directional artificial selection experiment on early exploratory behaviour (EEB) of great tits (Parus major) originating from a wild population. In analyses using the original lines, reciprocal F(1) and reciprocal first backcross generations, additive, dominance, maternal effects ands sex-dependent expression of exploration, boldness and EEB were estimated. Both additive and dominant genetic effects were important determinants of phenotypic variation in exploratory behaviour and boldness. However, no sex-dependent expression was observed in either of these personality traits. These results are discussed with respect to the maintenance of genetic variation in personality traits, and the expected genetic structure of other behavioural and life history traits in general.

  6. Exploratory studies, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL`s institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation.

  7. Exploratory studies, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL's institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation.

  8. "Exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.

    PubMed

    Schickore, Jutta

    2016-02-01

    This essay utilizes the concept "exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science. The essay traces the emergence of the historiographical concept "exploratory experimentation" in the late 1990s. The reconstruction of the early discussions about exploratory experimentation shows that the introduction of the concept had unintended consequences: Initially designed to debunk philosophical ideas about theory testing, the concept "exploratory experimentation" quickly exposed the poverty of our conceptual tools for the analysis of experimental practice. Looking back at a number of detailed analyses of experimental research, we can now appreciate that the concept of exploratory experimentation is too vague and too elusive to fill the desideratum whose existence it revealed.

  9. "Exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.

    PubMed

    Schickore, Jutta

    2016-02-01

    This essay utilizes the concept "exploratory experimentation" as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science. The essay traces the emergence of the historiographical concept "exploratory experimentation" in the late 1990s. The reconstruction of the early discussions about exploratory experimentation shows that the introduction of the concept had unintended consequences: Initially designed to debunk philosophical ideas about theory testing, the concept "exploratory experimentation" quickly exposed the poverty of our conceptual tools for the analysis of experimental practice. Looking back at a number of detailed analyses of experimental research, we can now appreciate that the concept of exploratory experimentation is too vague and too elusive to fill the desideratum whose existence it revealed. PMID:26774065

  10. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery, for purposes of this section, is a...

  11. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery, for purposes of this section, is a...

  12. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery, for purposes of this section, is a...

  13. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery,...

  14. 50 CFR 300.106 - Exploratory fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exploratory fisheries. 300.106 Section 300.106 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.106 Exploratory fisheries. (a) An exploratory fishery,...

  15. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  16. Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

  17. Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program report for FY91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, N. J.; Butler, P. C.; Akhil, A. A.; Braithwaite, J. W.; Clark, N. H.; Freese, J. M.

    1991-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of rechargeable batteries for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1991. Sodium/Sulfur, Zinc/Bromine, Nickel/Hydrogen, Aluminium/Air, and Lead/Acid batteries are evaluated.

  18. Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program report for FY91

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Butler, P.C.; Akhil, A.A.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Clark, N.H.; Freese, J.M.

    1991-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of rechargeable batteries for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1991. Sodium/Sulfur, Zinc/Bromine, Nickel/Hydrogen, Aluminium/Air and Lead/Acid batteries are evaluated.

  19. Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program report for FY91

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Butler, P.C.; Akhil, A.A.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Clark, N.H.; Freese, J.M.

    1991-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of rechargeable batteries for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1991. Sodium/Sulfur, Zinc/Bromine, Nickel/Hydrogen, Aluminium/Air and Lead/Acid batteries are evaluated.

  20. ADHD and College Students: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Structures With Student and Parent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glutting, Joseph J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2005-01-01

    Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to investigate the structure of the Student Report Inventory (SRI) and Parent Report Inventory (PRI) of the College Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Response Evaluation. The sample was composed of 1,080 college students and their parents and was…

  1. An economic and financial exploratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  2. Using Solo to Analyse Group Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading, Chris; Lawrie, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The increased use of group work in teaching and learning has seen an increased need for knowledge about assessment of group work. This report considers exploratory research where the SOLO Taxonomy, previously used to analyse the quality of individual responses, is applied to group responses. The responses were created as part of an activity…

  3. Exploratory factor analysis for small samples.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunho; Lee, Soonmook

    2011-09-01

    Traditionally, two distinct approaches have been employed for exploratory factor analysis: maximum likelihood factor analysis and principal component analysis. A third alternative, called regularized exploratory factor analysis, was introduced recently in the psychometric literature. Small sample size is an important issue that has received considerable discussion in the factor analysis literature. However, little is known about the differential performance of these three approaches to exploratory factor analysis in a small sample size scenario. A simulation study and an empirical example demonstrate that regularized exploratory factor analysis may be recommended over the two traditional approaches, particularly when sample sizes are small (below 50) and the sample covariance matrix is near singular.

  4. In situ sulfur isotopes (δ(34)S and δ(33)S) analyses in sulfides and elemental sulfur using high sensitivity cones combined with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiali; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Lu; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Gao, Shan; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-03-10

    The sulfur isotope is an important geochemical tracer in diverse fields of geosciences. In this study, the effects of three different cone combinations with the addition of N2 on the performance of in situ S isotope analyses were investigated in detail. The signal intensities of S isotopes were improved by a factor of 2.3 and 3.6 using the X skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone or the Jet sample cone, respectively, compared with the standard arrangement (H skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone). This signal enhancement is important for the improvement of the precision and accuracy of in situ S isotope analysis at high spatial resolution. Different cone combinations have a significant effect on the mass bias and mass bias stability for S isotopes. Poor precisions of S isotope ratios were obtained using the Jet and X cones combination at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow when using Ar plasma only. The addition of 4-8 ml min(-1) nitrogen to the central gas flow in laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was found to significantly enlarge the mass bias stability zone at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow in these three different cone combinations. The polyatomic interferences of OO, SH, OOH were also significantly reduced, and the interference free plateaus of sulfur isotopes became broader and flatter in the nitrogen mode (N2 = 4 ml min(-1)). However, the signal intensity of S was not increased by the addition of nitrogen in this study. The laser fluence and ablation mode had significant effects on sulfur isotope fractionation during the analysis of sulfides and elemental sulfur by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. The matrix effect among different sulfides and elemental sulfur was observed, but could be significantly reduced by line scan ablation in preference to single spot ablation under the optimized fluence. It is recommended that the d90 values of the particles in pressed powder pellets for accurate and precise S isotope analysis

  5. In situ sulfur isotopes (δ(34)S and δ(33)S) analyses in sulfides and elemental sulfur using high sensitivity cones combined with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiali; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Lu; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Gao, Shan; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-03-10

    The sulfur isotope is an important geochemical tracer in diverse fields of geosciences. In this study, the effects of three different cone combinations with the addition of N2 on the performance of in situ S isotope analyses were investigated in detail. The signal intensities of S isotopes were improved by a factor of 2.3 and 3.6 using the X skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone or the Jet sample cone, respectively, compared with the standard arrangement (H skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone). This signal enhancement is important for the improvement of the precision and accuracy of in situ S isotope analysis at high spatial resolution. Different cone combinations have a significant effect on the mass bias and mass bias stability for S isotopes. Poor precisions of S isotope ratios were obtained using the Jet and X cones combination at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow when using Ar plasma only. The addition of 4-8 ml min(-1) nitrogen to the central gas flow in laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was found to significantly enlarge the mass bias stability zone at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow in these three different cone combinations. The polyatomic interferences of OO, SH, OOH were also significantly reduced, and the interference free plateaus of sulfur isotopes became broader and flatter in the nitrogen mode (N2 = 4 ml min(-1)). However, the signal intensity of S was not increased by the addition of nitrogen in this study. The laser fluence and ablation mode had significant effects on sulfur isotope fractionation during the analysis of sulfides and elemental sulfur by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. The matrix effect among different sulfides and elemental sulfur was observed, but could be significantly reduced by line scan ablation in preference to single spot ablation under the optimized fluence. It is recommended that the d90 values of the particles in pressed powder pellets for accurate and precise S isotope analysis

  6. Exploratory Programs in Alabama Middle Grades Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Allen, Michael G.; McKenna, Beverly

    Many educators believe that middle grades schools have a responsibility to capitalize on the natural curiosity of young adolescents through the use of an exploratory curriculum to help students understand the world in which they live. This study examined the status of middle grades exploratory programs in Alabama. A 22-item questionnaire was sent…

  7. Exploratory Programing in Georgia's Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Allen, Michael G.

    This study surveyed the nature and extent of exploratory programming in intermediate schools. A 22-item questionnaire was sent to all 285 of the state's middle and junior high schools. Of the 163 respondents, 160 indicated that they had some form of exploratory programming. The latter number included: (1) 155 schools with traditional exploratory…

  8. Addition of docetaxel or bisphosphonates to standard of care in men with localised or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analyses of aggregate data

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Claire L; Burdett, Sarah; Rydzewska, Larysa H M; Albiges, Laurence; Clarke, Noel W; Fisher, David; Fizazi, Karim; Gravis, Gwenaelle; James, Nicholas D; Mason, Malcolm D; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sweeney, Christopher J; Sydes, Matthew R; Tombal, Bertrand; Tierney, Jayne F

    2016-01-01

    docetaxel for men with locally advanced disease (M0). Survival results from three (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE) of these trials (2121 [53%] of 3978 men) showed no evidence of a benefit from the addition of docetaxel (HR 0·87 [95% CI 0·69–1·09]; p=0·218), whereas failure-free survival data from four (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE, TAX 3501) of these trials (2348 [59%] of 3978 men) showed that docetaxel improved failure-free survival (0·70 [0·61–0·81]; p<0·0001), which translates into a reduced absolute 4-year failure rate of 8% (5–10). We identified seven eligible randomised controlled trials of bisphosphonates for men with M1 disease. Survival results from three of these trials (2740 [88%] of 3109 men) showed that addition of bisphosphonates improved survival (0·88 [0·79–0·98]; p=0·025), which translates to 5% (1–8) absolute improvement, but this result was influenced by the positive result of one trial of sodium clodronate, and we found no evidence of a benefit from the addition of zoledronic acid (0·94 [0·83–1·07]; p=0·323), which translates to an absolute improvement in survival of 2% (−3 to 7). Of 17 trials of bisphosphonates for men with M0 disease, survival results from four trials (4079 [66%] of 6220 men) showed no evidence of benefit from the addition of bisphosphonates (1·03 [0·89–1·18]; p=0·724) or zoledronic acid (0·98 [0·82–1·16]; p=0·782). Failure-free survival definitions were too inconsistent for formal meta-analyses for the bisphosphonate trials. Interpretation The addition of docetaxel to standard of care should be considered standard care for men with M1 hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who are starting treatment for the first time. More evidence on the effects of docetaxel on survival is needed in the M0 disease setting. No evidence exists to suggest that zoledronic acid improves survival in men with

  9. Addition of docetaxel or bisphosphonates to standard of care in men with localised or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analyses of aggregate data

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Claire L; Burdett, Sarah; Rydzewska, Larysa H M; Albiges, Laurence; Clarke, Noel W; Fisher, David; Fizazi, Karim; Gravis, Gwenaelle; James, Nicholas D; Mason, Malcolm D; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sweeney, Christopher J; Sydes, Matthew R; Tombal, Bertrand; Tierney, Jayne F

    2016-01-01

    docetaxel for men with locally advanced disease (M0). Survival results from three (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE) of these trials (2121 [53%] of 3978 men) showed no evidence of a benefit from the addition of docetaxel (HR 0·87 [95% CI 0·69–1·09]; p=0·218), whereas failure-free survival data from four (GETUG-12, RTOG 0521, STAMPEDE, TAX 3501) of these trials (2348 [59%] of 3978 men) showed that docetaxel improved failure-free survival (0·70 [0·61–0·81]; p<0·0001), which translates into a reduced absolute 4-year failure rate of 8% (5–10). We identified seven eligible randomised controlled trials of bisphosphonates for men with M1 disease. Survival results from three of these trials (2740 [88%] of 3109 men) showed that addition of bisphosphonates improved survival (0·88 [0·79–0·98]; p=0·025), which translates to 5% (1–8) absolute improvement, but this result was influenced by the positive result of one trial of sodium clodronate, and we found no evidence of a benefit from the addition of zoledronic acid (0·94 [0·83–1·07]; p=0·323), which translates to an absolute improvement in survival of 2% (−3 to 7). Of 17 trials of bisphosphonates for men with M0 disease, survival results from four trials (4079 [66%] of 6220 men) showed no evidence of benefit from the addition of bisphosphonates (1·03 [0·89–1·18]; p=0·724) or zoledronic acid (0·98 [0·82–1·16]; p=0·782). Failure-free survival definitions were too inconsistent for formal meta-analyses for the bisphosphonate trials. Interpretation The addition of docetaxel to standard of care should be considered standard care for men with M1 hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who are starting treatment for the first time. More evidence on the effects of docetaxel on survival is needed in the M0 disease setting. No evidence exists to suggest that zoledronic acid improves survival in men with M1 or M0 disease, and any potential benefit is probably small. Funding Medical Research Council UK. PMID

  10. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsou, P; Griffiths, D J

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  11. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  12. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E. Beyer's "Educational Studies and…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Emotional Affordance of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Jeremy C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examines emotional affordance of a massive open online course (MOOC). Postings in a discussion forum of a MOOC in computer science are analysed following a research design informed by virtual ethnography. Emotional affordance is investigated, focusing on non-achievement emotions which are not directly linked to achievement…

  14. The Temporal Properties of E-Learning: An Exploratory Study of Academics' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Jorge; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an exploratory study that investigates Portuguese academics' conceptions concerning the temporal properties of e-learning, in the context of traditional Higher Education Institutions. Design/methodology/approach: Grounded Theory methodology was used to systematically analyse data…

  15. Changing Teachers' Practices through Exploratory Talk in Mathematics: A Discursive Pedagogical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data collected as part of an intervention research project to develop exploratory talk and collaborative group work with six and seven year-old students in mathematics. A discursive approach was used to analyse and interpret variations in the way that three case-study teachers, involved in the project, managed the group work…

  16. A New Look at the Big Five Factor Structure through Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    NEO instruments are widely used to assess Big Five personality factors, but confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) conducted at the item level do not support their a priori structure due, in part, to the overly restrictive CFA assumptions. We demonstrate that exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), an integration of CFA and exploratory…

  17. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  18. Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.

    1992-03-24

    As was stated by the first presenter, the Long Valley Exploratory Well represents a vital linking of geothermal theory, technology and applications. The five presenters take us through that linking to the extent the current progress at the well makes that possible. The site is, of course, a geothermally rich resource, a ''recently active'' caldera. In many ways, the site has a wealth of data preceding the present work. It is a site which has excited the interest of the geothermal community for a long time. As is often the case in geothermal work, the prior data has raised as many questions as were answered. It is on this basis that the further exploration of a probable high temperature resource is being explored to great depths. The first presentation represents the cooperation and coordination maintained between similar elements of the Basic Energy Sciences programs and those in the Geothermal programs of DOE's Conservation and Renewable Energy activities. Similarly, the work exemplifies the close coordination of the DOE work with the U. S. Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the U. S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The first presentation also represents the theoretical and modeling portion of the session. Appropriate to geothermal technology, the central programmatic theme is geophysical and geochemical aspects of fluid flow and interaction in porous and fractured rocks. It was interesting to note that even the theoretical work and modeling addressed the applicability to earth-based energy resources, and as well their utilization in a manner such as to assure environmental acceptability. Topics addressed included: (1) fundamental properties and interactions of rocks, mineral, and fluids; (2) transport and flow of fluids in rocks; and (3) structure of geologic units. The session continued with the description of the Phase II operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well. The drilling operations were described as relatively trouble

  19. The role of stimulus complexity, age and experience in the expression of exploratory behaviour in the Chimango Caracara, Milvago chimango.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Laura Marina; Guido, Jorgelina María; Bó, María Susana; Muzio, Rubén N; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2015-01-01

    Exploration represents an important way by which organisms evaluate environment information. The decision of whether or not an animal should investigate environmental changes may influence the extent to which animals learn about their surroundings and cope with habitat modifications. We analysed exploration behaviour in a suburban population of a raptor species, the Chimango Caracara, Milvago chimango, by examining how age, previous experience and object complexity influence novel object exploration. Our findings showed that object complexity did not influence caracaras initial approach and contact with objects, but did influence the degree of engagement during exploratory activities, as measured by total exploration time and number of exploration events. These variables were higher for complex objects than for simple objects. Experience resulted in less exploration of simple objects. It is likely that, for caracaras, simple objects are easier to encode and recall than complex objects, so additional exploration of such objects would not provide further information. Results suggest that exploratory behaviour in this raptor was guided more by the benefits of a greater quantity of information obtained by exploring complex objects, than by the risks associated to this activity. We can conclude that caracaras cope with novel features in their surroundings with a novelty-seeking strategy, characteristic for generalist species in discovering early new resources opportunities, and which might be a determining factor for adaptive responses to environment modification.

  20. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  1. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  2. Exploratory structural equation modeling of personality data.

    PubMed

    Booth, Tom; Hughes, David J

    2014-06-01

    The current article compares the use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative to confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models in personality research. We compare model fit, factor distinctiveness, and criterion associations of factors derived from ESEM and CFA models. In Sample 1 (n = 336) participants completed the NEO-FFI, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Creative Domains Questionnaire. In Sample 2 (n = 425) participants completed the Big Five Inventory and the depression and anxiety scales of the General Health Questionnaire. ESEM models provided better fit than CFA models, but ESEM solutions did not uniformly meet cutoff criteria for model fit. Factor scores derived from ESEM and CFA models correlated highly (.91 to .99), suggesting the additional factor loadings within the ESEM model add little in defining latent factor content. Lastly, criterion associations of each personality factor in CFA and ESEM models were near identical in both inventories. We provide an example of how ESEM and CFA might be used together in improving personality assessment.

  3. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  4. Impact of exploratory offshore drilling on benthic communities in the Minerva gas field, Port Campbell, Australia.

    PubMed

    Currie, D R; Isaacs, Leanne R

    2005-04-01

    Changes to benthic infauna caused by exploratory gas drilling operations in the Minerva field were examined experimentally using a BACI (before, after, control, impact) design. Analysis of 72 x 0.1 m2 Smith-McIntyre grab samples obtained from one pre-drilling and three post-drilling periods yielded a diverse fauna consisting of 196 invertebrate species and 5035 individuals. Changes to benthic community structure were assessed using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The abundances of two common species (Apseudes sp. 1 and Prionospio coorilla) decreased significantly at the well-head site immediately after drilling. The size of these reductions in abundance ranged between 71% and 88%, and persisted for less than 4 months after drilling. A third common species (Katlysia sp. 1) increased in abundance 200 m east of the well-head following drilling. Most species occurred at densities too low to be analysed individually and so were pooled at higher taxonomic levels. Changes in the abundance of species aggregated by phylum varied, but significant declines in the most abundant phyla (Crustaceans and Polychaetes) of 45-73% were observed at all sites within a 100 m radius of the well-head following drilling. In most cases these changes became undetectable four months after drilling following species recruitments. MDS ordinations confirm that drilling related changes to benthic community structure are most pronounced at stations located closest to the well-head. Additionally, the ordinations indicate that modified communities persist at the well-head for more than 11 months following exploratory drilling.

  5. Impact of exploratory offshore drilling on benthic communities in the Minerva gas field, Port Campbell, Australia.

    PubMed

    Currie, D R; Isaacs, Leanne R

    2005-04-01

    Changes to benthic infauna caused by exploratory gas drilling operations in the Minerva field were examined experimentally using a BACI (before, after, control, impact) design. Analysis of 72 x 0.1 m2 Smith-McIntyre grab samples obtained from one pre-drilling and three post-drilling periods yielded a diverse fauna consisting of 196 invertebrate species and 5035 individuals. Changes to benthic community structure were assessed using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The abundances of two common species (Apseudes sp. 1 and Prionospio coorilla) decreased significantly at the well-head site immediately after drilling. The size of these reductions in abundance ranged between 71% and 88%, and persisted for less than 4 months after drilling. A third common species (Katlysia sp. 1) increased in abundance 200 m east of the well-head following drilling. Most species occurred at densities too low to be analysed individually and so were pooled at higher taxonomic levels. Changes in the abundance of species aggregated by phylum varied, but significant declines in the most abundant phyla (Crustaceans and Polychaetes) of 45-73% were observed at all sites within a 100 m radius of the well-head following drilling. In most cases these changes became undetectable four months after drilling following species recruitments. MDS ordinations confirm that drilling related changes to benthic community structure are most pronounced at stations located closest to the well-head. Additionally, the ordinations indicate that modified communities persist at the well-head for more than 11 months following exploratory drilling. PMID:15465131

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Possible survival benefits from zoledronic acid treatment in patients with bone metastases from solid tumours and poor prognostic features—An exploratory analysis of placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robert E.; Lipton, Allan; Costa, Luis; Cook, Richard J.; Lee, Ker-Ai; Saad, Fred; Brown, Janet E.; Terpos, Evangelos; Major, Pierre P.; Kohno, Norio; Smith, Matthew; Body, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Background Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is an important component of therapy for patients with metastatic bone disease (MBD) to reduce the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs). We evaluated overall survival (OS) in patients with MBD secondary to solid tumours included in placebocontrolled ZOL trials. Patients and methods Exploratory analyses were performed using databases from three randomised trials of ZOL versus placebo. 1126 patients (ZOL, n=731; placebo, n=395) with complete baseline data for 18 predefined parameters were evaluated for OS. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were assessed using stratified and adjusted Cox regression models. Baseline covariates defining patient populations with significantly different effects of ZOL treatment on OS (identified by stepwise backward elimination) were included in multivariate models. Results Although OS was similar between the overall treatment groups, ZOL significantly improved OS in the subset of patients (n=423; 38%) with elevated baseline NTX (≥100 nmol/mmol creatinine; RR, 0.692; P=.0028). Notably, this effect was independent of SRE prevention. Additional covariates associated with OS benefits with ZOL (e.g., low albumin, SRE history, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, shorter cancer duration) were characteristic of advanced disease. Conclusion These exploratory analyses suggest a beneficial effect of ZOL on OS in patients with highly aggressive or advanced MBD. PMID:26909273

  8. SNS shielding analyses overview

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz; Iverson, Erik B; Lu, Wei; Remec, Igor

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on on-going shielding analyses for Spallation Neutron Source. Presently, the most of the shielding work is concentrated on the beam lines and instrument enclosures to prepare for commissioning, save operation and adequate radiation background in the future. There is on-going work for the accelerator facility. This includes radiation-protection analyses for radiation monitors placement, designing shielding for additional facilities to test accelerator structures, redesigning some parts of the facility, and designing test facilities to the main accelerator structure for component testing. Neutronics analyses are required as well to support spent structure management, including waste characterisation analyses, choice of proper transport/storage package and shielding enhancement for the package if required.

  9. Exploratory Research for New Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

    2005-01-01

    We will review highlights of exploratory research for new PV technologies funded by the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program through NREL and its Photovoltaic Exploratory Research Project. The goal for this effort is highlighted in the beginning of the Solar Program Multi-Year Technical Plan by Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham's challenge to leapfrog the status quo by pursuing research having the potential to create breakthroughs. The ultimate goal is to create solar electric technologies for achieving electricity costs below 5 cents/kWh. Exploratory research includes work on advanced photovoltaic technologies (organic and ultra-high efficiency solar cells for solar concentrators) as well as innovative approaches to emerging and mature technologies (e.g., crystalline silicon).

  10. Lidar Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1995-01-01

    A brief description of enhancements made to the NASA MSFC coherent lidar model is provided. Notable improvements are the addition of routines to automatically determine the 3 dB misalignment loss angle and the backscatter value at which the probability of a good estimate (for a maximum likelihood estimator) falls to 50%. The ability to automatically generate energy/aperture parametrization (EAP) plots which include the effects of angular misalignment has been added. These EAP plots make it very easy to see that for any practical system where there is some degree of misalignment then there is an optimum telescope diameter for which the laser pulse energy required to achieve a particular sensitivity is minimized. Increasing the telescope diameter above this will result in a reduction of sensitivity. These parameterizations also clearly show that the alignment tolerances at shorter wavelengths are much stricter than those at longer wavelengths. A brief outline of the NASA MSFC AEOLUS program is given and a summary of the lidar designs considered during the program is presented. A discussion of some of the design trades is performed both in the text and in a conference publication attached as an appendix.

  11. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  12. Understanding the Development of Chinese EFL Learners' Email Literacy through Exploratory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuan-shan

    2016-01-01

    While many empirical studies demonstrate the effects of instruction on enhancing second language (L2) learners' pragmatic competence (Rose, 2005), few have attempted to gain an understanding of the quality of classroom life in addition to instructional efficacy. Drawing on the framework of Exploratory Practice (Allwright, 2005), the present study…

  13. Motivation and Strategies for Learning in Traditional-Aged College Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarosa, Stephanie R.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study uses the 15 scales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) to examine how traditional-aged college students in their first year of college compare with those who have persisted to their second year. In addition, the relationship of students' motivation levels and use of learning strategies with student…

  14. Parent Explanation and Preschoolers' Exploratory Behavior and Learning in a Shadow Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study fills a gap in existing visitor research by focusing on the preschool age group. The study explores relationships between parent explanation, children's exploratory behavior, and their domain-specific learning in a shadow exhibition. In addition, the effect of a preceding theater show on child and parent behaviors is examined. In…

  15. To Flip or Not to Flip? An Exploratory Study Comparing Student Performance in Calculus I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Larissa B.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, mixed-methods study was to compare student performance in flipped and non-flipped sections of Calculus I. The study also examined students' perceptions of the flipping pedagogy. Students in the flipped courses reported spending, on average, an additional 1-2 hours per week outside of class on course content.…

  16. School Counselors' Activities in Predominantly African American Urban Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Lacretia

    2014-01-01

    A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…

  17. An Exploratory Framework for Handling the Complexity of Mathematical Problem Posing in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontorovich, Igor; Koichu, Boris; Leikin, Roza; Berman, Avi

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces an exploratory framework for handling the complexity of students' mathematical problem posing in small groups. The framework integrates four facets known from past research: task organization, students' knowledge base, problem-posing heuristics and schemes, and group dynamics and interactions. In addition, it contains a new…

  18. Moderators of Varenicline Treatment Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial for Alcohol Dependence: an Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Daniel E.; Castle, I-Jen P.; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne; Litten, Raye Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore if varenicline (Chantix®) showed more efficacy in treating certain subgroups of patients. In a recent multi-site trial, varenicline was shown to be effective in reducing drinking in alcohol dependent patients, both smokers and nonsmokers. Given the heterogeneity among alcohol dependent patients, secondary analyses were conducted to determine if certain subgroups responded more favorably than others to treatment with varenicline. Methods Data were drawn from a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-site 13-week trial of varenicline in alcohol dependent patients (Litten et al., 2013). Seventeen moderator variables were selected for exploratory testing on the basis of theoretical and scientific interest. Results Of the 17 moderator variables assessed, four were statistically significant, including cigarettes per day reduction, treatment drinking goal, years drinking regularly, and age of patient. Two other variables—the type of adverse events experienced by patients and the severity of alcohol-related consequences—appeared to moderate the varenicline treatment effect at borderline statistical significance. Individuals who reduced the number of cigarettes per day experienced a significant effect from varenicline in reducing drinking, whereas those who did not change or who increased their number of cigarettes observed no beneficial effect. Reviewing the moderators related to severity, varenicline appeared to have greater efficacy than placebo among less severely-dependent patients. Conclusions Varenicline appears to be more efficacious in certain subgroups, particularly in those who reduced their smoking and in the “less severe” patient. Additional studies are warranted to confirm the results of these exploratory analyses. PMID:26083958

  19. Revisiting the Leadership Scale for Sport: Examining Factor Structure Through Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Weisheng; Rodriguez, Fernando M; Won, Doyeon

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the factor structure of the shortened version of the Leadership Scale for Sport, through a survey of 201 collegiate swimmers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III institutions, using both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis. Both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis showed that a five-factor solution fit the data adequately. The sizes of factor loadings on target factors substantially differed between the confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling solutions. In addition, the inter-correlations between factors of the Leadership Scale for Sport and the correlations with athletes' satisfaction were found to be inflated in the confirmatory factor analysis solution. Overall, the findings provide evidence of the factorial validity of the shortened Leadership Scale for Sport.

  20. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  1. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  2. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  3. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  4. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other...

  5. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  6. Exploratory research and development FY90

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.; Clements, W.; Donohue, M.L.; Francke, A.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Shaw, G.

    1990-01-01

    In general, the Exploratory Research and Development (ER D) Program supports research projects considered too basic or long-range to be funded by other Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. This Program is managed for the Laboratory Director by a special assistant who chairs the LLNL's IR D Review Committee. Membership in the Review Committee comprises senior LLNL scientists, engineers, and managers whose areas of expertise span the range of scientific disciplines pursued at the Laboratory. The research supported by the Program falls into three categories: Exploratory Research in the Disciplines, Director's Initiatives, and Laboratory-Wide Competition. The first two, Exploratory Research and Director's Initiatives, promote pioneering work in the various scientific disciplines and programmatic areas. Laboratory departments and divisions propose and manage projects in the Exploratory Research category. The Laboratory Director, with the advice of the Review Committee, selects several larger projects to fund as Director's Initiative. These projects, which are proposed and managed by the responsible associate director, are intended to enhance the scope of existing programs or establish new technical directions and programs for the Laboratory. All FY90 projects are described in detail in this report. Other publications on ER D projects are included in the Publications List at the back of this report.

  7. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  8. More About Reconfigurable Exploratory Robotic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Nesnas, Issa; Werger, Barry; Helmick, Daniel; Clark, Murray; Christian, Raymond; Cipra, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Modular exploratory robotic vehicles that will be able to reconfigure themselves in the field are undergoing development. Proposed for use in exploration of the surfaces of Mars and other remote planets, these vehicles and others of similar design could also be useful for exploring hostile terrain on Earth.

  9. Investigating Crickets: Observing Animal Exploratory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    For curriculum content-related reasons, inquiry activities can be difficult in classrooms unless the activities are approached in a manner that makes variations among student group findings understandable in the context of the study. Studies of individual animals and plant reactions to stimuli, such as insect exploratory behavior, allow the…

  10. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  11. Networked Collections in Question: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hur-li

    2001-01-01

    Reports on results of an exploratory study of perceptions of collections by librarians in an academic library that provides both traditional and networked information services. Five librarians from a Midwestern university library were interviewed. Findings indicated an uncertainty about the virtual world in two particular areas: collection and…

  12. Exploratory Homemaking. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1776.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls State Univ., Thibodaux, LA.

    This document contains teacher's materials for seventh- and eighth-grade courses in exploratory homemaking in Louisiana. The seventh-grade course materials are on instructional units called orientation, assuming responsibility, care of the elderly, child care and development, clothing and textiles, consumer awareness, food and nutrition, home…

  13. Career Exploratory Behaviors of Postsectondary Agriculture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Levon T.; McCulloh, Rachel E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of career exploratory behaviors of students enrolled in Iowa State University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Career exploration was measured using the self and environmental exploration scales of the Career Exploration Survey (CES; Stumpf, Colarelli, Hartmann, 1983). A MANOVA…

  14. Comparisons of Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.

    Historically, most researchers conducting factor analysis have used exploratory methods. However, more recently, confirmatory factor analytic methods have been developed that can directly test theory either during factor rotation using "best fit" rotation methods or during factor extraction, as with the LISREL computer programs developed by K. G.…

  15. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  16. US corn and soybeans exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The results from the U.S. corn/soybeans exploratory experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are summarized. The experiment consisted of two parts: the classification procedures verification test and the simulated aggregation test. Evaluations of labeling, proportion estimation, and aggregation procedures are presented.

  17. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  18. Measuring Group Dynamics: An Exploratory Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Loan T.; Rivera, Edil Torres; Volker, Martin A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a scale used to assess and measure group dynamics during group supervision counselling courses (practicum and internship). A 20-item Likert-type scale was administered to 200 counsellors-in-training master's students. Reliability and validity data are described. An exploratory factor analysis yielded…

  19. Mentoring Field Directors: A National Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Martha L.; Raskin, Miriam S.

    2014-01-01

    In social work field education, mentoring is underused and lacks research data. There is a paucity of research that examines the effect mentoring has on social work field directors who administer field programs at the undergraduate and/or graduate level. This exploratory study fills this void by examining the mentoring opportunities and…

  20. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  2. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

  3. An exploratory study of Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality: Implications for sex education and prevention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1) discussions were polarized, 2) opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3) the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality). PMID:20815921

  4. Adult baby/diaper lovers: an exploratory study of an online community sample.

    PubMed

    Hawkinson, Kaitlyn; Zamboni, Brian D

    2014-07-01

    This internet-based study provided descriptive information and exploratory analyses on 1,795 male and 139 female members of the Adult Baby/Diaper Lover (ABDL) community. Based on prior research, some research questions focused on the degree to which ABDL behavior was associated with negative mood states, parental relationships, and attachment style. Based on clinical experience, a second research question focused on discerning two possible subgroups within the ABDL community: persons focused on role play behavior and persons who were primarily interested in sexual arousal in their ABDL behavior. The results showed modest support for the former research questions, but notable support for the last research question. Because of some overlap between the two hypothesized subgroups, additional subgroups may exist. Males in the ABDL community identified their ABDL interests earlier than females and these males may be more focused on sexual aspects of ABDL practices. Both males and females perceived being dominated as important in their ABDL behavior. Most participants were comfortable with their ABDL behavior and reported few problems. ABDL behavior may represent a sexual subculture that is not problematic for most of its participants. PMID:24473941

  5. Exploratory study of nursing in an operating department: preliminary findings on the role of the nurse.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, H E; Chambers, M G; Boore, J R

    1999-12-01

    This study was exploratory and describes how nursing was viewed and practised by nurses who worked in an operating department. It also highlighted factors that might influence the role performance of operating department nurses. The research involved interviews with a sample of 6 nurses working in an operating department, observation of 32 hours of nursing work over 6 operating sessions, in addition to the analysis of various documents, including the nursing care plans of 22 patients. Data were triangulated and analysed by constant comparison. Findings indicated that nurses had difficulty in articulating exactly what it was that operating department nursing entailed, but rather viewed their role in terms of the functions they performed. Observations indicated that the nursing role was primarily orientated toward the physical rather than the psychological aspects of care-giving. Furthermore, it appeared that the medical profession, nursing philosophy/leadership and the characteristics of patients all influenced the manner in which nurses enacted their role. These findings suggest that further research into the role of the nurse within the operating department environment is warranted. Key factors from this study were developed into a framework suitable for guiding future study of the nursing role in this environment.

  6. Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea through an Investigation of the National Registration Project of Type 1 Diabetes for the Reimbursement of Glucometer Strips with Additional Analyses Using Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Nam, Joo Young; Park, Kyeong Hye; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Son, Kyung-Mi; Ko, Young; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Korea. In addition, we planned to do a performance analysis of the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes for the reimbursement of consumable materials. Methods To obtain nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of T1DM, we extracted claims data from July 2011 to August 2013 from the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes on the reimbursement of consumable materials in the National Health Insurance (NHI) Database. For a more detailed analysis of the T1DM population in Korea, stratification by gender, age, and area was performed, and prevalence and incidence were calculated. Results Of the 8,256 subjects enrolled over the 26 months, the male to female ratio was 1 to 1.12, the median age was 37.1 years, and an average of 136 new T1DM patients were registered to the T1DM registry each month, resulting in 1,632 newly diagnosed T1DM patients each year. We found that the incidence rate of new T1DM cases was 3.28 per 100,000 people. The average proportion of T1DM patients compared with each region's population was 0.0125%. The total number of insurance subscribers under the universal compulsory NHI in Korea was 49,662,097, and the total number of diabetes patients, excluding duplication, was 3,762,332. Conclusion The prevalence of T1DM over the course of the study was approximately 0.017% to 0.021% of the entire population of Korea, and the annual incidence of T1DM was 3.28:100,000 overall and 3.25:100,000 for Koreans under 20 years old. PMID:26912154

  7. Polish Teachers' Conceptions of and Approaches to the Teaching of Linear Equations to Grade Six Students: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschall, Gosia; Andrews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present an exploratory case study of six Polish teachers' perspectives on the teaching of linear equations to grade six students. Data, which derived from semi-structured interviews, were analysed against an extant framework and yielded a number of commonly held beliefs about what teachers aimed to achieve and how they would…

  8. Information Omitted From Analyses.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    In the Original Article titled “Higher- Order Genetic and Environmental Structure of Prevalent Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology” published in the February 2011 issue of JAMA Psychiatry (then Archives of General Psychiatry) (2011;68[2]:181-189), there were 2 errors. Although the article stated that the dimensions of psychopathology were measured using parent informants for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder, and a combination of parent and youth informants for conduct disorder, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, all dimensional scores used in the reported analyses were actually based on parent reports of symptoms; youth reports were not used. In addition, whereas the article stated that each symptom dimension was residualized on age, sex, age-squared, and age by sex, the dimensions actually were only residualized on age, sex, and age-squared. All analyses were repeated using parent informants for inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder, and a combination of parent and youth informants for conduct disorder,major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder; these dimensional scores were residualized on age, age-squared, sex, sex by age, and sex by age-squared. The results of the new analyses were qualitatively the same as those reported in the article, with no substantial changes in conclusions. The only notable small difference was that major depression and generalized anxiety disorder dimensions had small but significant loadings on the internalizing factor in addition to their substantial loadings on the general factor in the analyses of both genetic and non-shared covariances in the selected models in the new analyses. Corrections were made to the

  9. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosimann, Garrett; Wagner, Rachel; Schirber, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  10. Structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of finger ridge-count inheritance: I. Major gene index, midparental correlation, and offspring-between-parents function in 125 south Indian families.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Chakraborty, R; Williams, P T; Mathew, S

    1983-12-01

    Fourteen dermatoglyphic traits measured on 125 Velanadu Brahmin families were analyzed for mode of inheritance using three Structured Exploratory Data Analysis (SEDA) statistics: the major gene index, the offspring between parents function, and the traditional midparental correlation coefficient. Since the traits are integer valued with restricted ranges of variation, we simulated various transmission models with discrete expression to better understand the nature of the SEDA statistics for such variables. In addition, permutation procedures were employed to aid the interpretation of the SEDA results. These analyses suggest that corresponding homologous fingers on the left and right hands exhibit similar transmission characteristics. The relationship of the parent and child total ridge-counts of the two hands separately, as well as their combined total, virtually simulate complete Galtonian blending inheritance. Results for the individual digital ridge-counts as well as the pattern-intensity-index variable also suggest a multifactorial mode of transmission or possibly one involving several genes.

  11. Unconventional gas - exploratory drilling, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    BF Goodrich owns and operates a large tire manufacturing plant located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. This plant consumes approximately 3000 MCF of natural gas daily in generating steam for the manufacturing process. In addition, Goodrich has other facilities with requirements for gaseous fuels. Because of increased costs for gas and oil, and forecasted shortages of gas, Goodrich is investigating alternative sources for energy. In the Tuscaloosa vicinity, Goodrich studied in depth the possibility of obtaining methane gas from coal beds. In this process, BF Goodrich worked with the Unites States Bureau of Mines, the University of Alabama School of Mines and Energy Development and various other companies having experience in coalbed degasification. The information available to Goodrich led to the conclusion that degasification may have the potential of meeting the Company's energy and financial objectives. With DOE funding, a test well was drilled and various analyses necessary to verify this potential were made. BF Goodrich management would contemplate investing Goodrich capital to develop production wells if the test well analyses indicated such development to be feasible and the economics of production were consistent with corporate objectives for return on investment. The completed analyses, however, indicate that investment in this program is not justified at this time. 20 figures, 13 tables.

  12. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  13. Dragon exploratory system on hepatitis C virus (DESHCV).

    PubMed

    Kwofie, Samuel K; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S; Maqungo, Monique; Christoffels, Alan; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2011-06-01

    Even though hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA was characterized about 20 years ago, there is insufficient understanding of the molecular etiology underlying HCV infections. Current global rates of infection and its increasingly chronic character are causes of concern for health policy experts. Vast amount of data accumulated from biochemical, genomic, proteomic, and other biological analyses allows for novel insights into the HCV viral structure, life cycle and functions of its proteins. Biomedical text-mining is a useful approach for analyzing the increasing corpus of published scientific literature on HCV. We report here the first comprehensive HCV customized biomedical text-mining based online web resource, dragon exploratory system on hepatitis C virus (DESHCV), a biomedical text-mining and relationship exploring knowledge base was developed by exploring literature on HCV. The pre-compiled dictionaries existing in the dragon exploratory system (DES) were enriched with biomedical concepts pertaining to HCV proteins, their name variants and symbols to make it suitable for targeted information exploration and knowledge extraction as focused on HCV. A list of 32,895 abstracts retrieved via PubMed database using specific keywords searches related to HCV were processed based on concept recognition of terms from several dictionaries. The web query interface enables retrieval of information using specified concepts, keywords and phrases, generating text-derived association networks and hypotheses, which could be tested to identify potentially novel relationship between different concepts. Such an approach could also augment efforts in the search for diagnostic or even therapeutic targets. DESHCV thus represents online literature-based discovery resource freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/DESHCV/ and its mirror site http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deshcv/.

  14. Factor analyses of an Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI).

    PubMed

    Escoffery, Cam; Bamps, Yvan; LaFrance, W Curt; Stoll, Shelley; Shegog, Ross; Buelow, Janice; Shafer, Patricia; Thompson, Nancy J; McGee, Robin E; Hatfield, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of an enhanced Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI). An instrument of 113 items, covering 10 a priori self-management domains, was generated through a multiphase process, based on a review of the literature, validated epilepsy and other chronic condition self-management scales and expert input. Reliability and exploratory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 422 adults with epilepsy. The instrument was reduced to 65 items, converging on 11 factors: Health-care Communication, Coping, Treatment Management, Seizure Tracking, Social Support, Seizure Response, Wellness, Medication Adherence, Safety, Stress Management, and Proactivity. Exploratory factors supported the construct validity for 6 a priori domains, albeit with significant changes in the retained items or in their scope and 3 new factors. One a priori domain was split in 2 subscales pertaining to treatment. The configuration of the 11 factors provides additional insight into epilepsy self-management behaviors. Internal consistency reliability of the 65-item instrument was high (α=.935). Correlations with independent measures of health status, quality of life, depression, seizure severity, and life impact of epilepsy further validated the instrument. This instrument shows potential for use in research and clinical settings and for assessing intervention outcomes and self-management behaviors in adults with epilepsy.

  15. Site study plan for exploratory shaft monitoring wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, two exploratory shafts will be constructed at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Twelve wells at five locations have been proposed to monitor potential impacts of shaft construction on water-bearing zones in the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group. In addition, tests have been proposed to determine the hydraulic properties of the water-bearing zones for use in design and construction of the shafts. Samples of the Blackwater Draw Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group will be obtained during construction of these wells. Visual indentification, laboratory testing, and in situ testing will yield data necessary for Exploratory Shaft Facility design and construction. This activity provides the earliest data on the Blackwater Drew Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group near the exploratory shaft locations. Drilling and hydrologic testing are scheduled prior to other subsurface activity at the Exploratory Shaft Facility to establish ground-water baseline conditions. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 45 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Individual variation in exploratory behaviour improves speed and accuracy of collective nest selection by Argentine ants

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Ashley; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviours are influenced by the behavioural composition of the group. For example, a collective behaviour may emerge from the average behaviour of the group's constituents, or be driven by a few key individuals that catalyse the behaviour of others in the group. When ant colonies collectively relocate to a new nest site, there is an inherent trade-off between the speed and accuracy of their decision of where to move due to the time it takes to gather information. Thus, variation among workers in exploratory behaviour, which allows gathering information about potential new nest sites, may impact the ability of a colony to move quickly into a suitable new nest. The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, expands its range locally through the dispersal and establishment of propagules: groups of ants and queens. We examine whether the success of these groups in rapidly finding a suitable nest site is affected by their behavioural composition. We compared nest choice speed and accuracy among groups of all-exploratory, all-nonexploratory and half-exploratory–half-nonexploratory individuals. We show that exploratory individuals improve both the speed and accuracy of collective nest choice, and that exploratory individuals have additive, not synergistic, effects on nest site selection. By integrating an examination of behaviour into the study of invasive species we shed light on the mechanisms that impact the progression of invasion. PMID:25018558

  17. Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans.

    PubMed

    Daw, Nathaniel D; O'Doherty, John P; Dayan, Peter; Seymour, Ben; Dolan, Raymond J

    2006-06-15

    Decision making in an uncertain environment poses a conflict between the opposing demands of gathering and exploiting information. In a classic illustration of this 'exploration-exploitation' dilemma, a gambler choosing between multiple slot machines balances the desire to select what seems, on the basis of accumulated experience, the richest option, against the desire to choose a less familiar option that might turn out more advantageous (and thereby provide information for improving future decisions). Far from representing idle curiosity, such exploration is often critical for organisms to discover how best to harvest resources such as food and water. In appetitive choice, substantial experimental evidence, underpinned by computational reinforcement learning (RL) theory, indicates that a dopaminergic, striatal and medial prefrontal network mediates learning to exploit. In contrast, although exploration has been well studied from both theoretical and ethological perspectives, its neural substrates are much less clear. Here we show, in a gambling task, that human subjects' choices can be characterized by a computationally well-regarded strategy for addressing the explore/exploit dilemma. Furthermore, using this characterization to classify decisions as exploratory or exploitative, we employ functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that the frontopolar cortex and intraparietal sulcus are preferentially active during exploratory decisions. In contrast, regions of striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex exhibit activity characteristic of an involvement in value-based exploitative decision making. The results suggest a model of action selection under uncertainty that involves switching between exploratory and exploitative behavioural modes, and provide a computationally precise characterization of the contribution of key decision-related brain systems to each of these functions.

  18. Crowdsourcing for quantifying transcripts: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Harman, Elena

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study attempts to demonstrate the potential utility of crowdsourcing as a supplemental technique for quantifying transcribed interviews. Crowdsourcing is the harnessing of the abilities of many people to complete a specific task or a set of tasks. In this study multiple samples of crowdsourced individuals were asked to rate and select supporting quotes from two different transcripts. The findings indicate that the different crowdsourced samples produced nearly identical ratings of the transcripts, and were able to consistently select the same supporting text from the transcripts. These findings suggest that crowdsourcing, with further development, can potentially be used as a mixed method tool to offer a supplemental perspective on transcribed interviews.

  19. Auto-exploratory average reward reinforcement learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ok, DoKyeong; Tadepalli, P.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a model-based average reward Reinforcement Learning method called H-learning and compare it with its discounted counterpart, Adaptive Real-Time Dynamic Programming, in a simulated robot scheduling task. We also introduce an extension to H-learning, which automatically explores the unexplored parts of the state space, while always choosing greedy actions with respect to the current value function. We show that this {open_quotes}Auto-exploratory H-learning{close_quotes} performs better than the original H-learning under previously studied exploration methods such as random, recency-based, or counter-based exploration.

  20. Exploratory 5-micron spectrum of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, G.S.; Kaminski, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    The intensity peak at 4.8 microns characterizing the spectrum observed for the disk of Uranus near 5 microns, in June 1987, exhibits steep declines at shorter and longer wavelength. An exploratory discussion is presented of various models in view of these data; it is noted that some component of the radiation must originate near the 140 K atmospheric irrespective of the radiation's origin in sunlight or thermal emission; physical considerations dictate that it be at least partly thermal in origin. One model consistent with the data requires the presence of a cloud top at the 8-bar level. 30 references.

  1. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  2. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial solutions, a…

  3. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  4. Exploratory data analysis of the dependencies between skin permeability, molecular weight and log P.

    PubMed

    Kilian, D; Lemmer, H J R; Gerber, M; du Preez, J L; du Plessis, J

    2016-06-01

    Molecular weight and log P remain the most frequently used physicochemical properties in models that predict skin permeability. However, several reports over the past two decades have suggested that predictions made by these models may not be sufficiently accurate. In this study, exploratory data analysis of the probabilistic dependencies between molecular weight, log P and log Kp was performed on a dataset constructed from the combination of several popular datasets. The results suggest that, in general, molecular weight and log P are poorly correlated to log Kp. However, after employing several exploratory data analysis techniques, regions within the dataset of statistically significant dependence were identified. As an example of the applicability of the information extracted from the exploratory data analyses, a multiple linear regression model was constructed, bounded by the ranges of dependence. This model gave reasonable approximations to log Kp values obtained from skin permeability studies of selected non-steroidal ant-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) administered from a buffer solution and a lipid-based drug delivery system. A method of testing whether a given drug falls within the regions of statistical dependence was also presented. Knowing the ranges within which molecular weight and log P are statistically related to log Kp can supplement existing methods of screening, risk analysis or early drug development decision making to add confidence to predictions made regarding skin permeability.

  5. Exploratory data analysis of the dependencies between skin permeability, molecular weight and log P.

    PubMed

    Kilian, D; Lemmer, H J R; Gerber, M; du Preez, J L; du Plessis, J

    2016-06-01

    Molecular weight and log P remain the most frequently used physicochemical properties in models that predict skin permeability. However, several reports over the past two decades have suggested that predictions made by these models may not be sufficiently accurate. In this study, exploratory data analysis of the probabilistic dependencies between molecular weight, log P and log Kp was performed on a dataset constructed from the combination of several popular datasets. The results suggest that, in general, molecular weight and log P are poorly correlated to log Kp. However, after employing several exploratory data analysis techniques, regions within the dataset of statistically significant dependence were identified. As an example of the applicability of the information extracted from the exploratory data analyses, a multiple linear regression model was constructed, bounded by the ranges of dependence. This model gave reasonable approximations to log Kp values obtained from skin permeability studies of selected non-steroidal ant-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) administered from a buffer solution and a lipid-based drug delivery system. A method of testing whether a given drug falls within the regions of statistical dependence was also presented. Knowing the ranges within which molecular weight and log P are statistically related to log Kp can supplement existing methods of screening, risk analysis or early drug development decision making to add confidence to predictions made regarding skin permeability. PMID:27455549

  6. College Teachers' Instructional Practices: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Niu, Lian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument, the College Teachers' Instructional Practices (CTIP), which was designed to measure college teachers' instructional practices in terms of teacher-centered or student-centered teaching preferences. An initial survey was administered among dental faculty members.…

  7. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner.

  8. Validation of the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Jennifer Y.; Cheung, Siu-Yin; King, Carina C.; Lam, Eddie T. C.

    2016-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of local residents' perception and reaction to the impacts of mega events. However, there is limited empirical research on the social impacts that shape foreign attitudes toward the host country. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS) to examine viewers'…

  9. Characterizing Response-Reinforcer Relations in the Natural Environment: Exploratory Matching Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sy, Jolene R.; Borrero, John C.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed problem and appropriate behavior in the natural environment from a matching perspective. Problem and appropriate behavior were conceptualized as concurrently available responses, the occurrence of which was thought to be determined by the relative rates or durations of reinforcement. We also assessed whether response allocation could…

  10. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  11. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

  12. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses with a Malaysian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667…

  13. California residential indoor air quality study. Volume 3. Ancillary and exploratory analyses. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Colome, S.D.; Tian, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The topics covered in this report are: describe the relationship between measured benzene, toluene, NO2, and radon concentrations with building characteristics, appliance factors, meteorological conditions, other measured pollutants, geographical locations, and sampling parameters; extrapolate the measured CO distributions from the three service territories to the entire State of California; develop a mass balance model to predict CO concentrations from air exchange rate, home volume and cooking/heating type; and explore the relationship among CO concentrations, measured benzene levels, and smoking behaviors.

  14. Exploratory Analyses of the Effects of Managerial Support and Feedback Consequences on Behavioral Safety Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, M. Dominic

    2006-01-01

    Reviews indicate management commitment is vital to maintain behavioral safety processes. Similarly, the impact of observation frequency on safety behaviors is thought to be important. An employee-driven process which encompassed behavioral observations, goal-setting, and feedback was implemented in a paper mill with 55 workgroups using a…

  15. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Ford, Julian; Lin, Hsiu-ju; Frisman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to provide the first empirical examination of the factor structure of a revised version of the clinically derived Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, a structured interview designed to assess associated features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) thought to be related to early onset, interpersonal,…

  16. Analysing Feedback Processes in an Online Teaching and Learning Environment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espasa, Anna; Meneses, Julio

    2010-01-01

    Within the constructivist framework of online distance education the feedback process is considered a key element in teachers' roles because it can promote the regulation of learning. Therefore, faced with the need to guide and train teachers in the kind of feedback to provide and how to provide it, we establish three aims for this research:…

  17. Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between

  18. Exploratory visual analysis of pharmacogenomic results.

    PubMed

    Reif, David M; Dudek, Scott M; Shaffer, Christian M; Wang, Janey; Moore, Jason H

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of expansive pharmacogenomic datasets is a daunting challenge. A thorough exploration of experimental results requires both statistical and annotative information. Therefore, appropriate analysis tools must bring a readily-accessible, flexible combination of statistics and biological annotation to the user's desktop. We present the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA) software and database as such a tool and demonstrate its utility in replicating the findings of an earlier pharmacogenomic study as well as elucidating novel biologically plausible hypotheses. EVA brings all of the often disparate pieces of analysis together in an infinitely flexible visual display that is amenable to any type of statistical result and biological question. Here, we describe the motivations for developing EVA, detail the database and custom graphical user interface (GUI), provide an example of its application to a publicly available pharmacogenomic dataset, and discuss the broad utility of the EVA tool for the pharmacogenomics community. PMID:15759635

  19. Predicting Nursing Human Resources: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2010-01-01

    The nurse-to-population ratio (NPOP) is a standard indicator used to indicate a country’s health care human resources capacity for responding to its disease burden. This study sought to explore if socioeconomic development indicators could predict the NPOP in a country. Mexico served as the case example for this exploratory study, with the final five variables selected based on findings from a qualitative study analyzing the development of nursing human resources in the country. Multiple linear regression showed that two variables proved significant predictors of the NPOP and the model itself explained 70% of the variance (r2 = .7; p = .0000). The findings have multiple implications for nursing human resources policy in Mexico and at a global level as governments attempt to build human capital to respond to population health needs. PMID:19628510

  20. Fort Bliss exploratory slimholes: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    During November/96 to April/97 Sandia National Laboratories provided consulation, data collection, analysis and project documentation to the U.S. Army for a series of four geothermal exploratory slimholes drilled on the McGregor Range approximately 25 miles north of El Paso, Texas. This drilling was directed toward evaluating a potential reservoir for geothermal power generation in this area, with a secondary objective of assessing the potential for direct use applications such as space heating or water de-salinization. This report includes: representative temperature logs from the wells; daily drilling reports; a narrative account of the drilling and testing; a description of equipment used; a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data; and recommendations for future work.

  1. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  2. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  3. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  4. Occupational exposure to non-ionizing radiation and an association with heart disease: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, S; Logue, J N; Silverman, P M

    1983-01-01

    Exploratory analyses for dose-related exposure to non-ionizing radiation and adverse health effects among male physical therapists were done from a mail questionnaire survey. The cohort consisted of 3004 respondents who were stratified into subgroups according to exposure across and within the various types of non-ionizing radiation energy emitted from diathermy equipment. The radiation modalities considered were ultrasound, microwave, shortwave, and infrared. An association between heart disease and exposure to shortwave radiation was the only consistently significant finding when high and low exposure groups were compared. PMID:6643646

  5. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  6. Serum Levels of Oxylipins in Achilles Tendinopathy: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L.; Gaida, Jamie E.; Forsgren, Sture; Alfredson, Håkan; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid-derived oxidation products are found in experimental pain models. However, little is known about the levels of such oxylipins in human pain. In consequence, in the present study, we have undertaken a lipidomic profiling of oxylipins in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy and controls. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 34 oxylipins were analysed in the serum samples. At a significance level of P<0.00147 (<0.05/34), two linoleic acid-derived oxylipins, 13-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic (13-HODE) and 12(13)-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME) were present at significantly higher levels in the Achilles tendinopathy samples. This difference remained significant when the dataset was controlled for age, gender and body-mass index. In contrast, 0/21 of the arachidonic acid- and 0/4 of the dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahenaenoic acid-derived oxylipins were higher in the patient samples at this level of significance. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve for 12,13-DiHOME was 0.91 (P<0.0001). Levels of four N-acylethanolamines were also analysed and found not to be significantly different between the controls and the patients at the level of P<0.0125 (<0.05/4). Conclusions/Significance It is concluded from this exploratory study that abnormal levels of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins are seen in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Given the ability of two of these, 9- and 13-HODE to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, it is possible that these changes may contribute to the symptoms seen in Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:25875933

  7. Meta-analyses of animal studies: an introduction of a valuable instrument to further improve healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2014-01-01

    In research aimed at improving human health care, animal studies still play a crucial role, despite political and scientific efforts to reduce preclinical experimentation in laboratory animals. In animal studies, the results and their interpretation are not always straightforward, as no single study is executed perfectly in all steps. There are several possible sources of bias, and many animal studies are replicates of studies conducted previously. Use of meta-analysis to combine the results of studies may lead to more reliable conclusions and a reduction of unnecessary duplication of animal studies. In addition, due to the more exploratory nature of animal studies as compared to clinical trials, meta-analyses of animal studies have greater potential in exploring possible sources of heterogeneity. There is an abundance of literature on how to perform meta-analyses on clinical data. Animal studies, however, differ from clinical studies in some aspects, such as the diversity of animal species studied, experimental design, and study characteristics. In this paper, we will discuss the main principles and practices for meta-analyses of experimental animal studies.

  8. The Emergence of Inclusive Exploratory Talk in Primary Students' Peer Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Antti; Hilppo, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine a prominent type of classroom talk, exploratory talk, in primary school peer interactions. Exploratory talk has been shown to be productive in facilitating problem solving and fostering school achievement. However, within the growing body of research concerning exploratory talk, the relation between exploratory talk and…

  9. Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Carole A.; Olstad, Roger G.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between (a) novelty and exploratory behavior, (b) novelty and cognitive learning, and (c) exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in science museums. Sixty-four sixth-grade public school students participated in a posttest-only control group design. The control group received a treatment designed to decrease the novelty of a field trip setting through a vicarious exposure while the placebo group received an informative but not novelty-reducing treatment. Both groups then visited the field site where they were videotaped. Statistical analyses were conducted on both dependent variables with socioeconomic status and academic achievement as covariates, novelty-reducing preparation as the independent variable, and gender as moderator variable. Exploratory behavior was shown to be positively correlated with cognitive learning. Significant differences were detected for exploratory behavior. For both dependent variables, gender by treatment group interaction was significant with novelty-reducing preparation shown to be highly effective on boys but having no effect on girls.

  10. [Effects of nootropic drugs on behavior of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in the exploratory cross-maze test].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E V; Salimov, R M; Kovalev, G I

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil). PMID:23025044

  11. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; de Jong, R. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Drory, N.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; Gronwall, C.; Hill, G. J.; Hopp, U.; Jogee, S.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Marshall, J. L.; McLinden, E.; Mentuch Cooper, E.; Somerville, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Tran, K.-V.; Tuttle, S.; Viero, M.; Wechsler, R.; Zeimann, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ˜ 800 spectroscopy will produce ˜200,000 redshifts from the Lyα emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 < z < 3.5, and an additional ˜200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K-band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ˜0.5 Gpc3 at 1.9 < z < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1 μJy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm (1σ, for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  12. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; de Jong, R. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Drory, N.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; Gronwall, C.; Hill, G. J.; Hopp, U.; Jogee, S.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Marshall, J. L.; McLinden, E.; Mentuch Cooper, E.; Somerville, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Tran, K.-V.; Tuttle, S.; Viero, M.; Wechsler, R.; Zeimann, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ˜ 800 spectroscopy will produce ˜200,000 redshifts from the Lyα emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 < z < 3.5, and an additional ˜200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K-band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ˜0.5 Gpc3 at 1.9 < z < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1 μJy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm (1σ, for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  13. Exploratory Network Meta Regression Analysis of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Fails to Identify Any Interactions with Treatment Effect

    PubMed Central

    Batson, Sarah; Sutton, Alex; Abrams, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with atrial fibrillation are at a greater risk of stroke and therefore the main goal for treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation is to prevent stroke from occurring. There are a number of different stroke prevention treatments available to include warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants. Previous network meta-analyses of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation acknowledge the limitation of heterogeneity across the included trials but have not explored the impact of potentially important treatment modifying covariates. Objectives To explore potentially important treatment modifying covariates using network meta-regression analyses for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Methods We performed a network meta-analysis for the outcome of ischaemic stroke and conducted an exploratory regression analysis considering potentially important treatment modifying covariates. These covariates included the proportion of patients with a previous stroke, proportion of males, mean age, the duration of study follow-up and the patients underlying risk of ischaemic stroke. Results None of the covariates explored impacted relative treatment effects relative to placebo. Notably, the exploration of ‘study follow-up’ as a covariate supported the assumption that difference in trial durations is unimportant in this indication despite the variation across trials in the network. Conclusion This study is limited by the quantity of data available. Further investigation is warranted, and, as justifying further trials may be difficult, it would be desirable to obtain individual patient level data (IPD) to facilitate an effort to relate treatment effects to IPD covariates in order to investigate heterogeneity. Observational data could also be examined to establish if there are potential trends elsewhere. The approach and methods presented have potentially wide applications within any indication as to highlight the potential benefit

  14. Associations of Toll-Like Receptor and β-Defensin Polymorphisms with Measures of Periodontal Disease (PD) in HIV+ North American Adults: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Catherine M.; Weinberg, Aaron; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Vernon, Lance T.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and β-defensin (DEFB) genes have been recognized as potential genetic factors that can influence susceptibility to and severity of periodontal diseases (PD). However, data regarding associations between these polymorphisms and PD are still scarce in North American populations, and are not available in HIV+ North American populations. In this exploratory study, we analyzed samples from HIV+ adults (n = 115), who received primary HIV care at 3 local outpatient HIV clinics and were monitored for PD status. We genotyped a total of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 TLR genes and copy number variation (CNV) in DEFB4/103A. We performed regression analyses for levels of 3 periodontopathogens in subgingival dental plaques (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Treponema denticola [Td], and Tannerella forsythia [Tf]) and 3 clinical measures of PD (periodontal probing depth [PPD], gingival recession [REC], and bleeding on probing [BOP]). In all subjects combined, 2 SNPs in TLR1 were significantly associated with Td, and one SNP in TLR2 was significantly associated with BOP. One of the 2 SNPs in TLR1 was significantly associated with Td in Caucasians. In addition, another SNP in TLR1 and a SNP in TLR6 were also significantly associated with Td and Pg, respectively, in Caucasians. All 3 periodontopathogen levels were significantly associated with PPD and BOP, but none was associated with REC. Instrumental variable analysis showed that 8 SNPs in 6 TLR genes were significantly associated with the 3 periodontopathogen levels. However, associations between the 3 periodontopathogen levels and PPD or BOP were not driven by associations with these identified SNPs. No association was found between DEFB4/103A CNV and any periodontopathogen level or clinical measure in all samples, Caucasians, or African Americans. Our exploratory study suggests a role of TLR polymorphisms, particularly TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms, in PD in HIV+ North

  15. Exploratory water-well drilling in the Houston District, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Nicholas A.; White, W.N.; Livingston, Penn Poore

    1944-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 1939 a program of exploratory drilling wad undertaken in the Houston district, Tx., in conjunction with a general initiation of the water resources of the district. The main purposes of the program were to determine the thickness and character of water-bearing sands down to a maximum depth of 2,000 feet, the chemical character of the water at different depths, and the artesian pressure and to provide additional observation wells for studying fluctuations in artesian pressure and possibilities of intrusion of salt water from the direction of the Gulf. Thirteen deep test wells, 5? inches in diameter and ranging in depth from 360 to 2,000 feet, were put down with a hydraulic rotary drill by the city of Houston. The combined drilling footage of all of the wells amounted to 17,460 feet, and their averse depth was 1,246 feet. All were electrically logged. Samples of cuttings were collected from the drilling mud after every 20 feet of drilling. In 6 of the wells sand samples were obtained by core drilling in beds at selected horizons, about 230 feet being recovered. A total of 15 samples of sand and water were obtained in 8 wells by the drill-stem method. Side-wall sampling was attempted. Six of the test holes were cased with 3? casing (inside diameter) and equipped with screens so that water-level measurements could be made and samples of water collected for chemical analyses , Selected sand samples were analyzed and tested in a field laboratory for mechanical composition, permeability, and porosity. The field and laboratory data were studied with special reference to the significance of the electrical logs. A comparison of the electrical logs of the test wells with the driller's logs shows that, on the whole, they agree remarkably well in fixing the upper and lower limits of the thicker beds of sand and clay, but that the agreement is not so close where the beds are thin. Variable results were obtained from attempts to correlate the second

  16. Coupling tendencies during exploratory behaviours of competing players in rugby union dyads.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Diniz, Ana; Kelso, J A Scott

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interpersonal coordination tendencies in 1vs.1 dyads in rugby union, here expressed by participants' movement velocity towards or away from the sideline as they competed to score or prevent a try. We examined whether coupling tendencies of members of each dyad shaped key performance outcomes (try or successful tackle). Data on movement displacement trajectories of eight male rugby union players (aged 11-12 years) were analysed during performance in 47 trials. To assess coordination tendencies during exploratory behaviours in the dyads, analyses of performance time series data were undertaken using variable time graphs, running correlations and cross-correlations. Results revealed distinct coupling patterns characterised by shifts between synchronous coordination and asynchronous coordination tendencies and uncoordinated actions. Observed behaviours were interpreted as attempts of competing participants to create and perceive possibilities for action while seeking to achieve specific performance goals. Findings also revealed that a variety of patterned relations between participants resulted in different performance outcomes.

  17. National Guard service members' perceptions of informal and formal supports: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Amanda R; Kobayashi, Rie

    2015-01-01

    Much of the research on military families has focused on active duty service members. Little is known about informal and formal supports that National Guard service members use. Using an ecological systems perspective, this exploratory pilot study assessed awareness, access, use, satisfaction, and perceptions of effectiveness of informal and formal supports in a small group of National Guard service members. Results indicate that although service members are aware of many formal and informal supports, use of many of the supports is limited. Additionally, satisfaction and perceptions of effectiveness of many supports is neutral. The implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Confirmatory and exploratory analysis applied to pharmaco-EEG and related study data: contradiction or useful enrichment?

    PubMed

    Ferner, U; Matejcek, M; Neff, G

    1983-01-01

    Besides hypothesis testing, which should be done as sparingly as possible, the measured or observed data should be described as extensively as possible. The traditional reliance on profiles of the mean responses may neglect useful information, and such profiles may also be misleading. With the aid of exploratory data analysis, different aspects of the structure of a data set can be considered. 'Data snooping' may discover coherences, non-trivial structures and peculiarities, which lead to a new hypothesis or to new mathematical-statistical models. It is, in our opinion, a necessity to consider exploratory and confirmatory data analyses in conjunction. This will be illustrated by examples taken from pharmaco-EEG studies. PMID:6621857

  19. Exploratory studies on some electrochemical cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Srikumar; Guha, D.

    Exploratory studies were conducted on cell systems with different metal anodes, and iodine and sulphur mixed with graphite powder in a polymer matrix as cathodes, using different electrolytes in non-aqueous and aqueous media as ionic charge carriers. The electrical conductance of the electrolyte solutions in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents, the open circuit voltage (OCV) and short circuit current (SCC) for the different cell systems were measured. To date, the non-aqueous solvents used in our studies were dimethylformamide, formamide, dioxan, and nitrobenzene, and the electrolytes used were potassium iodide, caustic potash, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and calcium chloride. These electrolytes were used in both non-aqueous and aqueous media. In general, aqueous electrolyte solutions gave a better performance than non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. Of the aqueous electrolytes, the highest conductance was shown by potassium chloride solution in water (conductance=0.0334 mho). However, the best OCV and SCC were shown by aluminium as anode and iodine as cathode with a saturated solution of caustic potash in water. The OCV was 1.85 V and the SCC was 290 mA cm -2. The highest conductance among the non-aqueous systems was shown by caustic potash in formamide. (Conductance=0.013 mho.) The best OCV and SCC, however, were shown by a zinc anode and iodine cathode with saturated potassium chloride in formamide, having an OCV of 1.55 V and an SCC of 150 mA cm -2. Further studies are in progress to obtain detailed performance data and recharging characteristics of some of the more promising systems reported here.

  20. Exploratory Environmental Tests of Several Heat Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, George P.; Betts, John, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Exploratory tests have been conducted with several conceptual radiative heat shields of composite construction. Measured transient temperature distributions were obtained for a graphite heat shield without insulation and with three types of insulating materials, and for a metal multipost heat shield, at surface temperatures of approximately 2,000 F and 1,450 F, respectively, by use of a radiant-heat facility. The graphite configurations suffered loss of surface material under repeated irradiation. Temperature distribution calculated for the metal heat shield by a numerical procedure was in good agreement with measured data. Environmental survival tests of the graphite heat shield without insulation, an insulated multipost heat shield, and a stainless-steel-tile heat shield were made at temperatures of 2,000 F and dynamic pressures of approximately 6,000 lb/sq ft, provided by an ethylene-heated jet operating at a Mach number of 2.0 and sea-level conditions. The graphite heat shield survived the simulated aerodynamic heating and pressure loading. A problem area exists in the design and materials for heat-resistant fasteners between the graphite shield and the base structure. The insulated multipost heat shield was found to be superior to the stainless-steel-tile heat shield in retarding heat flow. Over-lapped face-plate joints and surface smoothness of the insulated multi- post heat shield were not adversely affected by the test environment. The graphite heat shield without insulation survived tests made in the acoustic environment of a large air jet. This acoustic environment is random in frequency and has an overall noise level of 160 decibels.

  1. Geologic Results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Vicki S.; Eichelberger, John C.; Keskinen, Mary J.; Layer, Paul W.

    1992-03-24

    As a deep well in the center of a major Quaternary caldera, the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) provides a new perspective on the relationship between hydrothermal circulation and a large crustal magma chamber. It also provides an important test of models for the subsurface structure of active continental calderas. Results will impact geothermal exploration, assessment, and management of the Long Valley resource and should be applicable to other igneous-related geothermal systems. Our task is to use the cuttings and core from LVEW to interpret the evolution of the central caldera region, with emphasis on evidence of current hydrothermal conditions and circulation. LVEW has reached a depth of 2313 m, passing through post-caldera extrusives and the intracaldera Bishop Tuff to bottom in the Mt. Morrison roof pendant of the Sierran basement. The base of the section of Quaternary volcanic rocks related to Long Valley Caldera was encountered at 1800 m of which 1178 m is Bishop Tuff. The lithologies sampled generally support the classic view of large intercontinental calderas as piston-cylinder-like structures. In this model, the roof of the huge magma chamber, like an ill-fitting piston, broke and sank 2 km along a ring fracture system that simultaneously and explosively leaked magma as Bishop Tuff. Results from LVEW which support this model are the presence of intact basement at depth at the center of the caldera, the presence of a thick Bishop Tuff section, and textural evidence that the tuff encountered is not near-vent despite its central caldera location. An unexpected observation was the presence of rhyolite intrusions within the tuff with a cumulative apparent thickness in excess of 300 m. Chemical analyses indicate that these are high-silica, high-barium rhyolites. Preliminary {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses determined an age of 626 {+-} 38 ka (this paper). These observations would indicate that the intrusions belong to the early post-collapse episode of

  2. Exploratory and structural data analysis of a sandy aquifer at Mol/Dessel, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogiers, Bart; Mallants, Dirk; Batelaan, Okke; Gedeon, Matej; Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in a near-surface disposal facility in Dessel, Belgium, additional extensive site characterization has been performed in 2008. The gathered data now enclose 388 hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples of 8 cored boreholes. Additionally, secondary information as grain size analysis, resistivity, porosity, etc. was gathered. With this dataset, a small-scale probabilistic approach can be used 1) to validate the current existing deterministic groundwater models based on large-scale average hydraulic conductivity values, and 2) to support design for a monitoring network. In preparation for stochastic realizations of the subsurface, an exploratory and structural data analysis was performed and is presented here. The exploratory data analysis allows definition of hydrogeological units, independent from the existing lithostratigraphy. It also shows the presence of three conductivity classes within a strongly heterogeneous unit. Currently, only vertical structural data analysis is performed based on vertical data profiles. Semi-variograms and cross-variograms are calculated to characterize the spatial variance of the different hydrogeological units. Additional sampling and measurements will be performed in the future to provide information of the horizontal spatial variance. Together with the current results, these will serve as the basis for conditional stochastic simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

  3. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1).

  4. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1). PMID:25219894

  5. Identifying neural correlates of visual consciousness with ALE meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, Sandrine; Trapp, Sabrina; Neumann, Jane; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2015-11-15

    Neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been a topic of study for nearly two decades. In functional imaging studies, several regions have been proposed to constitute possible candidates for NCC, but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature on NCC has been done. The question whether single (striate or extrastriate) regions or a network consisting of extrastriate areas that project directly to fronto-parietal regions are necessary and sufficient neural correlates for visual consciousness is still highly debated [e.g., Rees et al., 2002, Nat Rev. Neurosci 3, 261-270; Tong, 2003, Nat Rev. Neurosci 4, 219-229]. The aim of this work was to elucidate this issue and give a synopsis of the present state of the art by conducting systematic and quantitative meta-analyses across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using several standard paradigms for conscious visual perception. In these paradigms, consciousness is operationalized via perceptual changes, while the visual stimulus remains invariant. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed, representing the best approach for voxel-wise meta-analyses to date. In addition to computing a meta-analysis across all paradigms, separate meta-analyses on bistable perception and masking paradigms were conducted to assess whether these paradigms show common or different NCC. For the overall meta-analysis, we found significant clusters of activation in inferior and middle occipital gyrus; fusiform gyrus; inferior temporal gyrus; caudate nucleus; insula; inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri; precuneus; as well as in inferior and superior parietal lobules. These results suggest a subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network rather than a single region that constitutes the necessary NCC. The results of our exploratory paradigm-specific meta-analyses suggest that this subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network might be differentially activated as a function of the

  6. Identifying neural correlates of visual consciousness with ALE meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Bisenius, Sandrine; Trapp, Sabrina; Neumann, Jane; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2015-11-15

    Neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been a topic of study for nearly two decades. In functional imaging studies, several regions have been proposed to constitute possible candidates for NCC, but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature on NCC has been done. The question whether single (striate or extrastriate) regions or a network consisting of extrastriate areas that project directly to fronto-parietal regions are necessary and sufficient neural correlates for visual consciousness is still highly debated [e.g., Rees et al., 2002, Nat Rev. Neurosci 3, 261-270; Tong, 2003, Nat Rev. Neurosci 4, 219-229]. The aim of this work was to elucidate this issue and give a synopsis of the present state of the art by conducting systematic and quantitative meta-analyses across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using several standard paradigms for conscious visual perception. In these paradigms, consciousness is operationalized via perceptual changes, while the visual stimulus remains invariant. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was performed, representing the best approach for voxel-wise meta-analyses to date. In addition to computing a meta-analysis across all paradigms, separate meta-analyses on bistable perception and masking paradigms were conducted to assess whether these paradigms show common or different NCC. For the overall meta-analysis, we found significant clusters of activation in inferior and middle occipital gyrus; fusiform gyrus; inferior temporal gyrus; caudate nucleus; insula; inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri; precuneus; as well as in inferior and superior parietal lobules. These results suggest a subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network rather than a single region that constitutes the necessary NCC. The results of our exploratory paradigm-specific meta-analyses suggest that this subcortical-extrastriate-fronto-parietal network might be differentially activated as a function of the

  7. Magma energy exploratory well Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bender-Lamb, S.

    1991-04-01

    Intensive study of Long Valley over the past 15 years indicates evidence for magma at depths accessible to drilling. The Department of Energy's Magma Energy Extraction Program is currently drilling a 20,000 foot exploratory well into the Long Valley caldera. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of producing electrical power from magma. If the magma energy experiment is successful, the Long Valley caldera could hypothetically supply the electrical power needs of California for 100 years at present power consumption rates. The paper describes calderas, the potential of geothermal energy, Long Valley geology, the Long Valley magma energy exploratory well, the four phases of the exploratory well drilling program, and Phase 1 results.

  8. Mind Wandering, Sleep Quality, Affect and Chronotype: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carciofo, Richard; Du, Feng; Song, Nan; Zhang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Poor sleep quality impairs cognition, including executive functions and concentration, but there has been little direct research on the relationships between sleep quality and mind wandering or daydreaming. Evening chronotype is associated with poor sleep quality, more mind wandering and more daydreaming; negative affect is also a mutual correlate. This exploratory study investigated how mind wandering and daydreaming are related to different aspects of sleep quality, and whether sleep quality influences the relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering/daydreaming and chronotype. Three surveys (Ns = 213; 190; 270) were completed with Chinese adults aged 18–50, including measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mind wandering, daydreaming, chronotype and affect (positive and negative). Higher frequencies of mind wandering and daydreaming were associated with poorer sleep quality, in particular with poor subjective sleep quality and increased sleep latency, night-time disturbance, daytime dysfunction and daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationships between daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering and negative affect. Additionally, low positive affect and poor sleep quality, in conjunction, fully mediated the relationships between chronotype and mind wandering, and chronotype and daydreaming. The relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and positive affect were also moderated by chronotype, being weaker in those with a morning preference. Finally, while daytime sleepiness was positively correlated with daydream frequency, it was negatively correlated with a measure of problem-solving daydreams, indicating that more refined distinctions between different forms of daydreaming or mind wandering are warranted. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of a bi-directional relationship between poor sleep quality and mind wandering/daydreaming, which may be

  9. Exploratory trench across the Pleasant Valley Fault, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonilla, Manuel G.; Villalobos, H.A.; Wallace, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An exploratory trench was excavated across the 1915 trace of the Pleasant Valley fault 60 km south of Winnemucca, Nevada, to get information on the history of recent displacements on a fault that had produced a major earthquake in historic time, and on the appearance of such a fault in a trench cut in gravels, sands and silts of an alluvial fan. The trench exposed 16 mappable sedimentary units and four soils, including three buried paleosols. The ages of the mapped units could not be narrowly defined but they are of late Quaternary age. Some rodent bones suggest a possible age of about 5,000 years for one of the higher stratigraphic units. The fault zone is very clearly represented in the trench, and, to the full 4-m depth of the trench, consists of a zone of fault rubble as much as 1.5 m wide. Two fractures outside the fault rubble show no vertical displacement. In addition to the fault rubble, the fault is conspicuous because several of the mapped units terminate abruptly against the rubble zone, and because the sediments southeast of the zone are coarser-grained than the sediments northwest of the zone. Maximum vertical component of the 1915 displacement was estimated to be 0.4–0.6 m based on topography and 0.5–0.6 m based on displacement of stratigraphic units including soils. Two or more episodes of vertical displacement, one of about 0.3 m and another totaling at least 1.15 m prior to 1915 are recorded and may have occurred in the last 5,000 years. These and other displacement events prior to 1915 are poorly dated, but that several did occur in late Pleistocene and Holocene time is certain. Lack of wedge-shaped deposits or concentrations of large clasts adjacent to the fault suggest that all displacements were produced in small increments of probably less than one meter each.

  10. HYDROS: The Hydrosphere State Exploratory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E.; Houser, P.; Belair, S.; Jackson, T.; Kerr, Y.; Kimball, J.; Koster, R.; McDonald, K.; O'Neill, P.; Pulz, T.; Running, S.; Shi, J.; van Zyl, J.; Wood, E.

    2001-12-01

    In order to better understand and monitor the total Earth system, to learn how it is changing, and to predict the effects of changes on the global environment the HYDROS - the Hydrosphere State Exploratory Mission - is proposed to investigate two high-priority science questions about the Earth system: (1) How are global precipitation, evaporation, and the cycling of water changing? and (2) How do ecosystems respond to and affect global environmental change and the carbon cycle? HYDROS will provide global observations of the Earth's changing soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw conditions which together define the land hydrosphere state. Knowledge of this state is vital to understanding the Earth system cycling of water, energy, and carbon because fluxes of these quantities at the land-atmosphere boundary are strongly influenced by a surface resistance that is linked to the soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw condition. This resistance exerts the primary control on evaporation, transpiration, and carbon exchange over most of the global land surface and, hence, is a fundamental determinant of the global water, energy and carbon cycles. The characteristics of a space-borne and high-resolution mapping system is presented. The baseline mission builds on the heritage of ground-based and airborne passive and active low-frequency microwave measurements that have demonstrated and validated the effectiveness of the measurements. The radiometer design provides polarized brightness temperature fields at 1.4 GHz across a wide swath ( ~900 km) at a resolution of 40 km. The 1.2 GHz (VV, HH, and HV) radar design is capable of high-resolution mapping (<3 km) over 70 percent of the swath and low-resolution across the remainder. All terrestrial land regions are revisited within 2-3 days. A light-weight deployable mesh reflector rotates at 6rpm to make conical scans at a constant-incidence angle. Finally we present a strategy for using data assimilation to use the synergy of

  11. An exploratory pilot study of mechanisms of action within normative feedback for adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Muench, Frederick J; Lee, Rufina; Pena, Juan; Hail, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Normative feedback (NF), or receiving information about one's drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF's mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance-the affective response to feedback) and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56) and women (n = 31) completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one's estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy's impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one's drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to create personal dissonance

  12. An exploratory pilot study of mechanisms of action within normative feedback for adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Muench, Frederick J.; Lee, Rufina; Pena, Juan; Hail, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Normative feedback (NF), or receiving information about one’s drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF’s mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance—the affective response to feedback) and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56) and women (n = 31) completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one’s estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy’s impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one’s drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to create personal

  13. Exploratory research into pathogen surface interactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Lane, Todd W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Jones, Howland D. T.; Rebeil, Roberto; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Kaiser, Julie (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McGrath, Lucas K.; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2006-02-01

    In this short-duration project the research team was able to achieve growth of both drinking water biofilms and monospecific biofilms of Legionella pneurnophila. Preliminary comparative proteomic analyses were carried out on planktonic and biofilm-associated Legionella. After delay for completion of permitting and review by the director of the National Institutes for Allergy and Infectious Disease, the Utah 112 strain of Francisella novicida was obtained and preliminary culture and comparative proteomic analyses were carried out. Comprehensive literature searches and data mining were carried out on all research topics.

  14. [Definitive or exploratory periodontal experimentation: an overview of the literature].

    PubMed

    Hujoel, P P

    1996-01-01

    Definitive and exploratory randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have different goals as well as different design and analysis characteristics. The goal of definitive studies is to provide unequivocal evidence of a treatment's tangible benefit to the patient; a pre-trial-specified hypothesis is tested by use of a pre-trial-specified method. The goal of exploratory studies is to elucidate biological treatment mechanisms, to identify promising treatments, and to generate hypotheses for definitive studies: multiple hypotheses are evaluated to extract as much information from the data as possible. The purposes of this study were: (1) to survey selected design and analysis characteristics of randomized controlled periodontal trials published between 1988 and 1992 (n = 86), and (2) to classify trials as exploratory or definitive studies. The periodontal RCTs surveyed were typical of exploratory studies whose primary goal was to elucidate biological treatment mechanisms. Trial reports indicated the testing of multiple hypotheses (> or = 6 hypothesis tests in 70 of the 86 trials) on a variety of biological markers (86 out of 86 trials). The sample size (< or = 30 subjects in 67 out of 86 trials), duration (< or = 6 months in 65 out of 86 trials), and design and analysis characteristics (e.g., an absence of masking in 57 out of 86 trials) were also typical of exploratory studies which strive to obtain quick answers (short duration) at a low cost (small sample size; accept bias for increased efficiency and a lower cost). No definitive trials were identified. Promising, biologically active, treatments identified in exploratory trials should be evaluated in definitive studies where the primary goal is the procurement of unequivocal evidence of a treatment's tangible benefit to the patient. The costs and benefits of conducting definitive periodontal RCTs to provide such evidence should be investigated.

  15. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  16. A school-based mental health intervention for refugee children: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Mina; Doll, Helen; Stein, Alan

    2009-04-01

    This report describes an exploratory study of a school-based mental health service developed to address the psychological needs of refugee children. The service was made available in three schools and followed a consultative framework. Refugee children were discussed with the mental health team and children at greatest risk were seen. A questionnaire of psychological functioning was completed by teachers before and after the intervention. Data were collected on 47 refugee children and two control groups (ethnic minority and indigenous white children). Subgroup analyses compared children who were seen directly by the service with those for whom only consultation was provided. Refugee children had poorer overall adjustment at baseline particularly in the emotional and peer problem domains. The greatest improvements following the intervention were seen in hyperactivity for the refugee group and in peer problems for the refugees directly seen by the service. While further studies are necessary to assess its efficacy, this exploratory study indicates that an intervention which involves collaboration with teachers and parents, in an environment where children spend much of their time, can benefit vulnerable children.

  17. Old Maid Flat geothermal exploratory hole No. 7A drilling and completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Drilling and testing efforts for a 6000-foot geothermal exploratory hole on the western approaches to Mount Hood, near Portland, Oregon were completed. The intent of the drilling was to encounter a hydrothermal reservoir in a postulated fracture system and confirm the existence of a moderate-temperature (200/sup 0/F) geothermal resource in the Old Main Flat (OMF) vicinity of Mount Hood. The exploratory hole, OMF No. 7A, was completed to a total depth of 6027 feet in 54 days using conventional rotary drilling techniques. The hole was found to be incapable of producing fluids with the desired temperatures. A maximum hole temperature of about 235/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth and a temperature gradient of about 3.3/sup 0/F/100 feet was exhibited over the lower 1000 feet of hole. A variety of technical data, including physical samples such as cores, cuttings, and borehole fluids, plus geophysical well logs were acquired. Data analyses are continuing, with results to be made available through future separate reports.

  18. A school-based mental health intervention for refugee children: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Mina; Doll, Helen; Stein, Alan

    2009-04-01

    This report describes an exploratory study of a school-based mental health service developed to address the psychological needs of refugee children. The service was made available in three schools and followed a consultative framework. Refugee children were discussed with the mental health team and children at greatest risk were seen. A questionnaire of psychological functioning was completed by teachers before and after the intervention. Data were collected on 47 refugee children and two control groups (ethnic minority and indigenous white children). Subgroup analyses compared children who were seen directly by the service with those for whom only consultation was provided. Refugee children had poorer overall adjustment at baseline particularly in the emotional and peer problem domains. The greatest improvements following the intervention were seen in hyperactivity for the refugee group and in peer problems for the refugees directly seen by the service. While further studies are necessary to assess its efficacy, this exploratory study indicates that an intervention which involves collaboration with teachers and parents, in an environment where children spend much of their time, can benefit vulnerable children. PMID:19293324

  19. Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, C.V.; King, J.L.; Perkins, D.M.; Mudd, R.W.; Richardson, A.M.; Calovini, J.C.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Emerson, D.O.

    1990-08-01

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts` structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Lévy Flights and Self-Similar Exploratory Behaviour of Termite Workers: Beyond Model Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Octavio; DeSouza, Og; Paiva, Leticia Ribeiro; Marins, Alessandra; Orozco, Sirio

    2014-01-01

    Animal movements have been related to optimal foraging strategies where self-similar trajectories are central. Most of the experimental studies done so far have focused mainly on fitting statistical models to data in order to test for movement patterns described by power-laws. Here we show by analyzing over half a million movement displacements that isolated termite workers actually exhibit a range of very interesting dynamical properties –including Lévy flights– in their exploratory behaviour. Going beyond the current trend of statistical model fitting alone, our study analyses anomalous diffusion and structure functions to estimate values of the scaling exponents describing displacement statistics. We evince the fractal nature of the movement patterns and show how the scaling exponents describing termite space exploration intriguingly comply with mathematical relations found in the physics of transport phenomena. By doing this, we rescue a rich variety of physical and biological phenomenology that can be potentially important and meaningful for the study of complex animal behavior and, in particular, for the study of how patterns of exploratory behaviour of individual social insects may impact not only their feeding demands but also nestmate encounter patterns and, hence, their dynamics at the social scale. PMID:25353958

  1. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and... by conducting additional analyses using any standard engineering economics method such as sensitivity... energy or water system alternative....

  2. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and... by conducting additional analyses using any standard engineering economics method such as sensitivity... energy or water system alternative....

  3. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  4. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  5. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  6. Parents and Exploration: The Effect of Context on Individual Differences in Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bruce B.

    1984-01-01

    Three studies investigated: the effect of parent involvement on the exploratory behaviors of children rated as high-, moderate-, or low-explorers; whether maternal presence increased the exploration of low-exploratory children, decreased the exploration of high-exploratory children, or both; and whether maternal presence or mother/child…

  7. 75 FR 48305 - Kaibab National Forest; Arizona; Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest; Arizona; Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project AGENCY: Forest... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project, posted in the Federal...-delivered to Kaibab National Forest, Attn: VANE Minerals Uranium Exploratory Drilling Project, 800 S. 6th...

  8. An exploratory study of mental health and HIV risk behavior among drug-using rural women in jail

    PubMed Central

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi LH; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J. Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rural women, particularly those involved in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV due to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use, as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk behavior by three different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) among drug-using women in rural jails. Methods This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women from rural jails in one Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk among this sample of drug-using women. Findings Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health was significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Implications Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Due to service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. PMID:25799305

  9. Emotional Reactions of Students in Field Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvack, Andrea; Mishna, Faye; Bogo, Marion

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study using qualitative methodology was undertaken with recent MSW graduates (N=12) from 2 graduate social work programs to identify and describe the students' emotional reactions to experiences in field education. Significant and interrelated themes emerged including the subjective and unique definitions of emotionally charged…

  10. Exploratory Students' Experiences with First-Year Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Six sophomore students who had entered a public midwestern university as undeclared participated in the study. The advisors used a modified form of appreciative advising designed to assist first-year exploratory students. The study was conducted using grounded theory techniques, a phenomenological perspective, and semi-structured interviews. At…

  11. An Exploratory Analysis of History Students' Dissertation Acknowledgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Librarians and archivists can gain insight into the disciplinary culture of historians, and history doctoral students in particular, by examining the acknowledgment sections of these students' doctoral dissertations. This paper is an exploratory analysis of the 219 history dissertations written at the University of Oklahoma between 1930 and 2005.…

  12. Comprehension and Recall of Television's Computerized Image: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos; Chartrand, Sylvie

    This exploratory study of the effects of the new visual communications media imagery (e.g., video games, digital television, and computer graphics) on the visual perception process is designed to provide a theoretical framework for research, introduce appropriate research instruments for such study, and experiment with the application of biometric…

  13. Exploratory Honors Students: Academic Major and Career Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carduner, Jessie; Padak, Gary M.; Reynolds, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we investigated the academic major and career decision-making processes of honors college students who were declared as "exploratory" students in their freshman year at a large, public, midwestern university. We used semistandardized interviews and document analysis as primary data collection methods to answer four…

  14. Foreign Languages--Middle School. Exploratory Foreign Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Dora F.

    This curriculum guide outlines Prince George's County (MD) schools' seventh and eighth grade program of exploratory foreign language. Topics presented include: administrative and instructional policy statements; course overview; notes on concepts, skills, and content; timetables for fall and spring semester courses; rationale and goals; student…

  15. Factor Loading Estimation Error and Stability Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is commonly employed to evaluate the factor structure of measures with dichotomously scored items. Generally, only the estimated factor loadings are provided with no reference to significance tests, confidence intervals, and/or estimated factor loading standard errors. This simulation study assessed factor loading…

  16. A Comparative Investigation of Rotation Criteria within Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a commonly used statistical technique for examining the relationships between variables (e.g., items) and the factors (e.g., latent traits) they depict. There are several decisions that must be made when using EFA, with one of the more important being choice of the rotation criterion. This selection can be…

  17. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  18. School Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: An Exploratory History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, David

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, television for schools is 50 years old in 2007. The anniversary provides a reason to undertake an exploratory history of school broadcasting, an area that has received very little attention from historians of British education. The first part of this article examines the origins of school radio broadcasting, focusing…

  19. Alternative Energy Curriculum for Trade and Industry Exploratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Central Arkansas, Conway.

    This study was a descriptive curriculum research project covering the development of learning packets on alternative energy. The purpose of the project was to improve instruction in trades and industry exploratory programs by providing alternative energy materials. It was anticipated that the use of a prepared learning package would facilitate the…

  20. Situated Analysis of Team Handball Players' Decisions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzen, Benoit; Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated-action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship…

  1. Classic Articles in Special Education: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Landers, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory investigation sought to identify classic articles from the general special education literature that were published between 1960 and 1989. Initially, widely cited articles that were published during this time in "Exceptional Children, Remedial and Special Education," and "The Journal of Special Education" were identified. Faculty…

  2. Counselor Education and Educational Administration: An Exploratory Survey of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perusse, Rachelle; Goodnough, Gary E.; Bouknight, Tamisha

    2007-01-01

    One way to inform educational administration faculty and future school principals about the role of the school counselor is for counselor educators to collaborate with educational administration faculty. However, there are very few recommendations about how these faculty members might collaborate. In an exploratory national survey, counselor…

  3. Competent Communication in the First College Year: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Sherwyn; Staley, Constance; Campbell, Tajshen

    2015-01-01

    First-year students' communication abilities are critical to succeeding in college and interacting professionally with faculty, student affairs staff, and administrators. The purpose of this exploratory study is to better understand how introductory-level college students, particularly those born since 1990, define competent communication in the…

  4. "Education Is Not Just Teaching": Learner Thoughts on Exploratory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory Practice (EP) has recently been established as an innovative form of practitioner research in language education, one which includes learners alongside their teachers as co-researchers. However, to date, little attention has been given to learners' perspectives on this approach. This article focuses on the experiences of learners…

  5. Postgraduate Study and Managers' Subsequent Work Experience: An Exploratory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jane; Harris, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on an exploratory qualitative study, this article considers the link between business school teaching at graduate level and subsequent work behaviour and experiences of former students. It evaluates the student experience some time "after" graduation. The findings of the retrospective evaluation point to the value of classroom peer…

  6. Young Children's Views of the Technology Process: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Louise; Edwards, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study of an aspect of the technological knowledge of two groups of five-year-old students in their first year at school. Their emerging understandings of the steps required to develop a new product were investigated through a series of interviews. A theoretical framework linking technological knowledge to "funds…

  7. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…

  8. Flickr's Potential as an Academic Image Resource: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Emma; Stuart, David; Thelwall, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many web 2.0 sites are extremely popular and contain vast amounts of content, but how much of this content is useful in academia? This exploratory paper investigates the potential use of the popular web 2.0 image site Flickr as an academic image resource. The study identified images tagged with any one of 12 subject names derived from recognized…

  9. Teaching Social Skills in a Virtual Environment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason; Parks-Savage, Agatha; Rehfuss, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study which examines the use of virtual environment technology as a tool to teach elementary school children social skills. Small group interventions were assessed to determine how the participants were measurably different on 7 different dependent variables: problem behaviors, academic competence,…

  10. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  11. Sustaining Latina Student Organizations: An Exploratory Instrumental Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing the exploratory case study methodology, the author examines the conditions that support and limit a Latina-based student organization at a predominately White institution of higher education. Seven organizational structures were found to influence the organization's ability to advance its aims, from interviews, documents, observations,…

  12. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  13. Exploratory energy research program at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, W.

    1980-12-01

    A grant to the University of Michigan for an Exploratory Energy Research Program is used by Office of Energy Research (OER) to support faculty research and graduate student research assistantships. Progress on activity during the first six months of the program is described and brief status reports on 20 energy related faculty research projects in the physical, engineering, biological, and behavioral sciences are presented.

  14. The Rural Social Justice Leader: An Exploratory Profile in Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Gerri M.; Locke, Leslie Ann; Scheurich, James Joseph

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted into the motivations and leadership traits of five rural school superintendents who over time evidenced a commitment to social justice. This effort meets a call in the research literature by Furman (2012), who noted that "to date, the literature offers few specifics about the actual practice of…

  15. Adaptive Organizational Behavior of School Organizations: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koberg, Christine S.

    1986-01-01

    This study collected exploratory data on a group of organizational adjustment variables (procedural, personnel, process, structural, and strategic) among a group of schools and school districts. Results provide a preliminary basis for suggesting that the adaptive organizational behavior of schools and school districts may be influenced by…

  16. Therapeutic Writing: An Exploratory Speech-Language Pathology Counseling Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Brown, Betty G.; Alemán, Sara; Hackstaff, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigated the use of therapeutic writing for counseling long-term caregivers of spouses with brain injury and neurogenic communication disorders. Three participants wrote an average of six single-spaced pages of text. After analysis of the written text, the common themes of onset of diagnosis, anger, grief,…

  17. Exploratory and Confirmatory Analysis of the Trauma Practices Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…

  18. Active Learning in the Library Instruction Environment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alanna; Furno, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study investigating the impact of problem-based learning and clicker technology as active learning strategies at the American University of Sharjah Library, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Studies compared traditional and active learning classes. The present article maps the successes and challenges of these unique…

  19. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  20. Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Task Unfolding: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2010-01-01

    Although teachers' knowledge is thought to contribute to the selection and implementation of mathematical tasks, empirical evidence supporting this claim is scarce. To investigate this relationship and understand its nature, this exploratory study examines the unfolding of tasks in a series of lessons led by 2 elementary school teachers who…

  1. Three Configurations of School-University Partnerships: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an array of structural configurations that invite new consideration of the necessary conditions for developing systemic school reform; first by reviewing the current literature, and then by examining thirty-six existing partnerships as structural configurations, an exploratory typology for the analysis of successful…

  2. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  3. Group Time in Early Childhood Centers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Oralie

    To investigate the current status of group time in early childhood centers, a small-scale exploratory study was designed and executed. Results of interviews with 35 teachers and observations in five classrooms serving children ages 2 1/2 through kindergarten revealed that all classrooms had at least one group time or circle time, usually in the…

  4. Perceptions of ICT Careers in German Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hellens, Liisa; Clayton, Kaylene; Beekhuyzen, Jenine; Nielsen, Sue H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory investigation of the perceptions of information and communication technology (ICT) as a field of study and work in German secondary schools. A total of 160 students from five secondary schools in Lower Saxony participated in the study in February 2007, and four teachers of the students were interviewed. The…

  5. Dyadic vs. Individual Practice with Exploratory and Directive Mathematics Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadrick, Robert M.; Regian, J. Wesley; Connolly-Gomez, Catherine; Robertson-Schule, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Compared performance of low-aptitude remedial adults learning to solve mathematics word problems. Participants worked either alone or as collaborative dyads and received instruction/practice using either the Word Problem-Solving Environment (WPSE), an exploratory system over which learners exercise control, or Solver, a structured and directive…

  6. Exploratory Computer Literacy Curriculum Guide, Grades 7-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Designed to offer direction for classroom teachers and administrators in the development of an exploratory computer literacy program for grades 7 and 8, this resource unit comprises four major sections, four appendices, and two resource lists. The introductory section provides information on the history of Hawaii's computer literacy program; cites…

  7. Exploratory Computer Literacy Curriculum Guide, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Designed to offer direction for classroom teachers and administrators in the development of an exploratory computer literacy program for grades 9-12, this resource unit comprises four major sections, four appendices, and two resource lists. The introductory section provides information on the history of Hawaii's computer literacy program; cites…

  8. Comparisons of Means Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Rebecca M.; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses comparisons of means using exploratory and confirmatory approaches. Three methods are discussed: hypothesis testing, model selection based on information criteria, and Bayesian model selection. Throughout the article, an example is used to illustrate and evaluate the two approaches and the three methods. We demonstrate that…

  9. Critical Geragogy and Foreign Language Learning: An Exploratory Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Gómez, Danya

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes an exploratory application of the principles of critical geragogy (Formosa, 2002, 2011, 2012) to foreign language (FL) education (i.e., L2 learning in the L1 community). Critical geragogy is an educational, practical framework intended to empower older adults and lead them to emancipate from age strictures (Glendenning &…

  10. Behavioral Momentum during a Continuous Reading Task: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often fail to master literacy skills, in part because disruptive behaviors interfere with task engagement and persistence. The theory of behavioral momentum explains the persistence of behavior in the face of changing environmental conditions. The current exploratory study examined…

  11. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  12. Dimensions of Parental Engagement in Home Visiting Programs: Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, M.; Spiker, D.; Inman Linn, M.; Gerlach-Downie, S.; Hernandez, F.

    2003-01-01

    A randomized trial of the multisite evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting program indicated significant attrition from program services and wide variation in participation and involvement of the families. This exploratory study of parental engagement reflects a growing emphasis in the field on research related to implementation…

  13. Living Accommodation for Young People. Report of An Exploratory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Phyllis G.; Miller, A.

    The Building Research Station has embarked on a series of case-studies on the provision of living accommodations for single young people in the 15 to 24 age group in England who live away from home because of education, training or employment. An exploratory review of the existing literature on the subject was made. Discussed are some of the…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Sustainable Development at Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagnoni, Emidia; Cavicchi, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the current status of the implementation of sustainability practices in the context of Italian public universities, highlighting the strengths and gaps. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a qualitative approach, an exploratory study design has been outlined using the model of Glavic and Lukman (2007) focusing…

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of Task-Interspersal Procedures While Teaching Object Labels to Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Volkert, Valerie M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Trosclair, Nicole; Addison, Laura; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that interspersing mastered tasks with new tasks facilitates learning under certain conditions; however, little is known about factors that influence the effectiveness of this treatment strategy. The initial purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of similar versus dissimilar interspersed tasks while teaching object labels to children diagnosed with autism or developmental delays. We then conducted a series of exploratory analyses involving the type of reinforcer delivered for correct responses on trials with unknown or known object labels. Performance was enhanced under the interspersal condition only when either brief praise was delivered for all correct responses or presumably more preferred reinforcers were provided for performance on known trials rather than on unknown trials. PMID:18816973

  16. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Diego A.; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H.; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  17. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Diego A; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data.

  18. Psychosocial Problems Among Truant Youth: A Multi-Group, Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Wareham, Jennifer; Belenko, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Truant youth represent a critical group needing problem-oriented research and involvement in effective services. The limited number of studies on the psychosocial functioning of truant youths have focused on one or a few problem areas, rather than examining co-morbid problem behaviors. The present study addresses the need to examine the interrelationships of multiple domains of psychosocial functioning, including substance involvement, mental health, and delinquency, among truant youth. Exploratory structural equation modeling on baseline data collected on 219 truant youths identified two major factors reflecting psychosocial functioning, and found the factor structure was similar across major sociodemographic subgroups. Further analyses supported the validity of the factor structure. The research and service delivery implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23243383

  19. Positive Affect Processing and Joint Attention in Infants at High Risk for Autism: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Ibanez, Lisa V; Henderson, Heather A; Warren, Zachary; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2015-12-01

    Few behavioral indices of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are present before 12 months, and potential biomarkers remain largely unexamined. This prospective study of infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 16) and low-risk comparison infants (n = 15) examined group differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing processing of facial positive affect (N290/P400, Nc) at 9 months and their relation to joint attention at 15 months. Group differences were most pronounced for subtle facial expressions, in that the low-risk group exhibited relatively longer processing (P400 latency) and greater attention resource allocation (Nc amplitude). Exploratory analyses found associations between ERP responses and later joint attention, suggesting that attention to positive affect cues may support the development of other social competencies.

  20. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Diego A.; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H.; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data.

  1. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Diego A; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  2. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  3. Disturbance of deep-water reef communities by exploratory oil and gas operations in the Santa Maria basin and Santa Barbara channel. Final report, September 1992-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, D.; Benech, S.V.; Busnardo, M.; Davis, N.; Evans, J.

    1995-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the impacts to deep-water, hard-bottom benthic communities associated with disturbances caused by oil and gas exploratory operations on the Outer Continental Shelf of California. A literature survey compiled a history of exploratory oil and gas development and located wellsites where disturbances due to anchoring or discharges probably impacted hard-bottom communities. A photographic survey of the selected sites collected data for subsequent analyses on the type, distribution, and longevity of anchoring disturbances. Analyses of the field data revealed that less than one percent of hard-bottom habitat within the area of the mooring system was disturbed. The results of the study indicated that hard-bottom epifaunal communities do recover from these disturbances; however, recovery is highly dependent on the type of disturbance.

  4. Early-blind subjects' spatial abilities in the locomotor space: exploratory strategies and reaction-to-change performance.

    PubMed

    Gaunet, F; Thinus-Blanc, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at analysing the effect of the lack of visual experience in the human subject in detecting the rearrangement of objects after a free exploration in the locomotor space. Exploratory patterns and performance levels were recorded. Distance processing was affected by early blindness. The early-blind group's patterns of exploration differed significantly from those of the visually experienced groups. Significant correlations were found between the performance level and the use of systematic patterns of exploration but not with individual features. These data are discussed in the light of the importance of early vision on the development of spatial cognition.

  5. Exploratory decision-making as a function of lifelong experience, not cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Nathaniel J; Love, Bradley C; Ramscar, Michael; Otto, A Ross; Smayda, Kirsten; Maddox, W Todd

    2016-03-01

    Older adults perform worse than younger adults in some complex decision-making scenarios, which is commonly attributed to age-related declines in striatal and frontostriatal processing. Recently, this popular account has been challenged by work that considered how older adults' performance may differ as a function of greater knowledge and experience, and by work showing that, in some cases, older adults outperform younger adults in complex decision-making tasks. In light of this controversy, we examined the performance of older and younger adults in an exploratory choice task that is amenable to model-based analyses and ostensibly not reliant on prior knowledge. Exploration is a critical aspect of decision-making poorly understood across the life span. Across 2 experiments, we addressed (a) how older and younger adults differ in exploratory choice and (b) to what extent observed differences reflect processing capacity declines. Model-based analyses suggested that the strategies used by the 2 groups were qualitatively different, resulting in relatively worse performance for older adults in 1 decision-making environment but equal performance in another. Little evidence was found that differences in processing capacity drove performance differences. Rather the results suggested that older adults' performance might result from applying a strategy that may have been shaped by their wealth of real-word decision-making experience. While this strategy is likely to be effective in the real world, it is ill suited to some decision environments. These results underscore the importance of taking into account effects of experience in aging studies, even for tasks that do not obviously tap past experiences.

  6. Exploratory Decision-Making as a Function of Lifelong Experience, Not Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Older adults perform worse than younger adults in some complex decision-making scenarios, which is commonly attributed to age-related declines in striatal and frontostriatal processing. Recently, this popular account has been challenged by work that considered how older adults’ performance may differ as a function of greater knowledge and experience, and by work showing that, in some cases, older adults outperform younger adults in complex decision-making tasks. In light of this controversy, we examined the performance of older and younger adults in an exploratory choice task that is amenable to model-based analyses and ostensibly not reliant on prior knowledge. Exploration is a critical aspect of decision-making poorly understood across the life span. Across 2 experiments, we addressed (a) how older and younger adults differ in exploratory choice and (b) to what extent observed differences reflect processing capacity declines. Model-based analyses suggested that the strategies used by the 2 groups were qualitatively different, resulting in relatively worse performance for older adults in 1 decision-making environment but equal performance in another. Little evidence was found that differences in processing capacity drove performance differences. Rather the results suggested that older adults’ performance might result from applying a strategy that may have been shaped by their wealth of real-word decision-making experience. While this strategy is likely to be effective in the real world, it is ill suited to some decision environments. These results underscore the importance of taking into account effects of experience in aging studies, even for tasks that do not obviously tap past experiences. PMID:26726916

  7. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  8. Apollo 14 microbial analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive microbiological analyses that were performed on the Apollo 14 prime and backup crewmembers and ancillary personnel are discussed. The crewmembers were subjected to four separate and quite different environments during the 137-day monitoring period. The relation between each of these environments and observed changes in the microflora of each astronaut are presented.

  9. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling of Resting-state fMRI: applicability of group models to individual subjects

    PubMed Central

    James, G. Andrew; Kelley, Mary E.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Dunlop, Boadie; Nemeroff, Charles; Mayberg, Helen S.; Hu, Xiaoping P.

    2009-01-01

    The extension of group-level connectivity methods to individual subjects remains a hurdle for statistical analyses of neuroimaging data. Previous group analyses of positron emission tomography data in clinically depressed patients, for example, have shown that resting-state connectivity prior to therapy predicts how patients eventually respond to pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Such applications would be considerably more informative for clinical decision making if these connectivity methods could be extended into the individual subject domain. To test such an extension, 46 treatment-naïve depressed patients were enrolled in an fMRI study to model baseline resting-state functional connectivity. Resting-state fMRI scans were acquired and submitted to exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) to derive the optimal group connectivity model. Jackknife and split sample tests confirm that group model was highly reproducible, and path weights were consistent across the best five group models. When this model was applied to data from individual subjects, 85% of patients fit the group model. Histogram analysis of individual subjects’ paths indicate that some paths are better representative of group membership. These results suggest that exploratory SEM is a viable technique for neuroimaging connectivity analyses of individual subjects’ resting-state fMRI data. PMID:19162206

  10. Dairy cattle exploratory and social behaviors: is there an effect of cloning?

    PubMed

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Depaulis-Carre, M; Heyman, Y; Renard, J P; Richard, C; Deputte, B L

    2007-11-01

    While an increasing number of animals are produced by means of somatic cloning, behavioral studies on cloned animals are still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the somatic cloning procedure has an influence on locomotion, exploratory, vocal and social behaviors of heifers. Ten heifers were used in the present study. Five of them were cloned heifers derived from somatic cells of three different Prim'Holstein cows and five others were same-age control heifers produced by artificial insemination. In addition to observations of social behaviors in the stable group, each animal was placed individually for a short time in an unfamiliar environment. Our results failed to show any statistical differences between clones and their controls both in frequencies of agonistic and non-agonistic behaviors. However, cloned heifers showed significantly more non-agonistic and less agonistic behaviors towards other cloned partners than towards control ones. This result also stood for control heifers. As far as their Hierarchical Index was concerned, three cloned heifers were highest ranking and two others lowest ranking. In this herd, social dominance appeared to be linked to body weight and age rather than to a cloning effect. In an unfamiliar environment, cloned and control subjects exhibited the same level of locomotion and vocalization. However, cloned heifers showed more exploratory behaviors than did control ones. This difference could be due to environmental factors during the postnatal period rather than to cloning.

  11. Exploratory search on Twitter utilizing user feedback and multi-perspective microblog analysis.

    PubMed

    Zilincik, Michal; Navrat, Pavol; Koskova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, besides typical information retrieval, a broader concept of information exploration--exploratory search--is emerging into the foreground. In addition, more and more valuable information is presented in microblogs on social networks. We propose a new method for supporting the exploratory search on the Twitter social network. The method copes with several challenges, namely brevity of microblogs called tweets, limited number of available ratings and the need to process the recommendations online. In order to tackle the first challenge, the representation of microblogs is enriched by information from referenced links, topic summarization and affect analysis. The small number of available ratings is raised by interpreting implicit feedback trained by feedback model during browsing. Recommendations are made by a preference model that models user's preferences over tweets. The evaluation shows promising results even when navigating in the space of brief pieces of information, making recommendations based only on a small number of ratings, and by optimizing the models to process in real time.

  12. The effects of smoking on whisker movements: A quantitative measure of exploratory behaviour in rodents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robyn A; Cielen, Nele; Maes, Karen; Heulens, Nele; Galli, Gina L J; Janssens, Wim; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Degens, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Nicotine, an important component of cigarette smoke, is a neurotransmitter that contributes to stress, depression and anxiety in smokers. In rodents, it increases anxiety and reduces exploratory behaviours. However, so far, the measurements of exploratory behaviour in rodents have only been semi-quantitative and lacking in sufficient detail to characterise the temporal effect of smoking cessation. As rodents, such as mice and rats, primarily use whiskers to explore their environment, we studied the effect of 3 months smoking with 1 and 2 weeks smoking cessation on whisker movements in mice, using high-speed video camera footage and image analysis. Both protraction and retraction whisker velocities were increased in smoking mice (p<0.001) and returned to normal following just one week of smoking cessation. In addition, locomotion speeds were decreased in smoking mice, and returned to normal following smoking cessation. Lung function was also impacted by smoking and remained impaired even following smoking cessation. We suggest that the increased whisker velocities in the smoking mice reflect reduced exploration and impeded tactile performance. The increase in whisker velocity with smoking, and its reduction following smoking cessation, also lends support to acetylcholine being involved in awareness, attention and alertness pathways. It also shows that smoking-induced behavioural changes can be reversed with smoking cessation, which may have implications for human smokers. PMID:27045697

  13. Exploratory Search on Twitter Utilizing User Feedback and Multi-Perspective Microblog Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zilincik, Michal; Navrat, Pavol; Koskova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, besides typical information retrieval, a broader concept of information exploration – exploratory search - is emerging into the foreground. In addition, more and more valuable information is presented in microblogs on social networks. We propose a new method for supporting the exploratory search on the Twitter social network. The method copes with several challenges, namely brevity of microblogs called tweets, limited number of available ratings and the need to process the recommendations online. In order to tackle the first challenge, the representation of microblogs is enriched by information from referenced links, topic summarization and affect analysis. The small number of available ratings is raised by interpreting implicit feedback trained by feedback model during browsing. Recommendations are made by a preference model that models user’s preferences over tweets. The evaluation shows promising results even when navigating in the space of brief pieces of information, making recommendations based only on a small number of ratings, and by optimizing the models to process in real time. PMID:24265724

  14. Candidate SNP Associations of Optimism and Resilience in Older Adults: Exploratory Study of 935 Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Brinda K.; Darst, Burcu F.; Bloss, Cinnamon; Shih, Pei-an Betty; Depp, Colin; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Allison, Matthew; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schork, Nicholas; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Optimism and resilience promote health and well-being in older adults, and previous reports suggest that these traits are heritable. We examined the association of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with optimism and resilience in older adults. Design Candidate gene association study that was a follow-on at the University of California, San Diego sites of two NIH-funded multi-site longitudinal investigations: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and SELenium and vitamin E Cancer prevention Trial (SELECT). Participants 426 Women from WHI older than age 50, and 509 men older than age 55 (age 50 for African-American men) from SELECT. Measurements 65 candidate gene SNPs that were judged by consensus, based on a literature review, as being related to predisposition to optimism and resilience, and 31 ancestry informative marker SNPs, genotyped from blood-based DNA samples and self-report scales for trait optimism, resilience, and depressive symptoms. Results Using a Bonferroni threshold for significant association (p=0.00089), there were no significant associations for individual SNPs with optimism or resilience in single-locus analyses. Exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses with a p-value of <.05, showed an association of optimism with SNPs in MAO-A, IL10, and FGG genes, and an association of resilience with a SNP in MAO-A gene. Conclusions Correcting for Type I errors, there were no significant associations of optimism and resilience with specific gene SNPs in single-locus analyses. Positive psychological traits are likely to be genetically complex, with many loci having small effects contributing to phenotypic variation. Our exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses suggest that larger sample sizes and complementary approaches involving methods such as sequence-based association studies, copy number variation analyses, and pathway-based analyses could be useful for better understanding the genetic basis of these positive psychological traits

  15. Examining the Influence of Additional Field-Based Experiences on Pre-Service Teachers and Their Perceived Ability to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse more closely the training experiences of pre-service teachers, the author conducted an exploratory quasi-experimental study at a university located in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. All students who were enrolled in the same reading methods course (but enrolled in different sections) were invited to participate in…

  16. Correctional services and prison chaplaincy in Australia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Del Medico, Laura

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes an exploratory study undertaken to consider the work of Australian chaplaincy personnel ministering to prisoners within correctional facilities. This qualitative research was not concerned with specific correctional institutions per se, but predominantly about the perspectives of chaplains concerning their professional contribution and issues they experienced while trying to provide pastoral care to prisoners. Data from a single-focus group indicated that prison chaplains were striving to fulfill religious and spiritual duties according to national and international standards for the treatment of prisoners. Given various frustrations identified by participants, that either impeded or thwarted their professional role as chaplains, a number of improvements were subsequently identified in order to develop the efficiency and effectiveness of chaplaincy and thus maximize the benefits of pastoral care to prisoners. Implications of this exploratory study relate not only to prison chaplaincy but also to ecclesiastical organizations, correctional facilities, governments and the need of support for further research to be conducted.

  17. Distinguishing between exploratory and confirmatory preclinical research will improve translation.

    PubMed

    Kimmelman, Jonathan; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical researchers confront two overarching agendas related to drug development: selecting interventions amid a vast field of candidates, and producing rigorous evidence of clinical promise for a small number of interventions. We suggest that each challenge is best met by two different, complementary modes of investigation. In the first (exploratory investigation), researchers should aim at generating robust pathophysiological theories of disease. In the second (confirmatory investigation), researchers should aim at demonstrating strong and reproducible treatment effects in relevant animal models. Each mode entails different study designs, confronts different validity threats, and supports different kinds of inferences. Research policies should seek to disentangle the two modes and leverage their complementarity. In particular, policies should discourage the common use of exploratory studies to support confirmatory inferences, promote a greater volume of confirmatory investigation, and customize design and reporting guidelines for each mode.

  18. Construction of Virtual Psychology Laboratory Describing Exploratory Experimental Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaike, Ryuichi; Miwa, Kazuhisa

    In the present study, we show a simulated experiment environment, VPL(Virtual Psychology Laboratory), for visualizing user's exploratory experimental behavior, and present two main modules of the environment: (1) a cognitive simulator and (2) a system for automatically describing experimenter's behavior based on EBS (Exploratory Behavior Schema) proposed by the author. Users use this environment as an experimental psychologist who investigates human collaborative discovery. They experience many trials of conducting experiments using the simulated environment, and analyze by themselves their experimental processes based on the description of their behavior by EBS. It is expected that learners can notice their errors of experimental planning and refine various types of knowledge related to the experimental skills by repeating the experimental activities in this environment.

  19. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  20. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  1. Exploratory battery technology development and testing report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Diegle, R.B.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Bush, D.M.; Butler, P.C.; Freese, J.M.; Grothaus, K.R.; Murphy, K.D.; Scott, D.W.

    1988-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Department and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1987. 47 refs., 73 figs., 48 tabs.

  2. Exploratory battery technology development and testing report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Diegle, R.B.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Bush, D.M.; Freese, J.M.; Akhil, A.A.; Lott, S.E.

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1989. 4 refs., 84 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Exploratory battery technology development and testing report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Diegle, R.B.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Bush, D.M.; Butler, P.C.; Freese, J.M.; Grothaus, K.R.; Murphy, K.D.

    1989-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1988.

  4. Visual exploratory search of relationship graphs on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jianquan; Zheng, Hao; Kong, Fanbin; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for Visual Exploratory Search of Relationship Graphs on Smartphones (VESRGS) that is composed of three major components: inference and representation of semantic relationship graphs on the Web via meta-search, visual exploratory search of relationship graphs through both querying and browsing strategies, and human-computer interactions via the multi-touch interface and mobile Internet on smartphones. In comparison with traditional lookup search methodologies, the proposed VESRGS system is characterized with the following perceived advantages. 1) It infers rich semantic relationships between the querying keywords and other related concepts from large-scale meta-search results from Google, Yahoo! and Bing search engines, and represents semantic relationships via graphs; 2) the exploratory search approach empowers users to naturally and effectively explore, adventure and discover knowledge in a rich information world of interlinked relationship graphs in a personalized fashion; 3) it effectively takes the advantages of smartphones' user-friendly interfaces and ubiquitous Internet connection and portability. Our extensive experimental results have demonstrated that the VESRGS framework can significantly improve the users' capability of seeking the most relevant relationship information to their own specific needs. We envision that the VESRGS framework can be a starting point for future exploration of novel, effective search strategies in the mobile Internet era.

  5. Communicating with School Staff about Sexual Identity, Health and Safety: An Exploratory Study of the Experiences and Preferences of Black and Latino Teen Young Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Lesesne, Catherine A.; Rasberry, Catherine N.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Morris, Elana; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This exploratory study examined the experiences of black and Latino teen young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and their preferences for communication with school staff about matters related to sexual orientation. Methods Participants for this study were recruited in three urban centers in the United States and by multiple community-based organizations serving black and Latino YMSM. Eligible youth were male, black or Latino, ages 13-19, enrolled in 90 days of school in the previous 18 months, and reported attraction to or sexual behavior with other males, or identified as gay or bisexual. Participants completed Web-based questionnaires (n=415) and/or in-depth interviews (n=32). Results Questionnaire participants reported willingness to talk to at least one school staff member about: safety, dating and relationships, and feeling attracted to other guys (63.4%, 58.4%, and 55.9%, respectively). About one-third of the sample reported they would not talk with any school staff about these topics. Exploratory analyses revealed youth who experienced feeling unsafe at school and who had higher levels of trust in the information provided by school staff were more likely to be willing to talk with school staff about safety issues, dating, or same sex attraction (aOR=2.80 and aOR=4.85, respectively). Interview participants reported being most willing to talk to staff who (1) were able and willing to help them; (2) would keep discussions confidential, and (3) expressed genuine care. Preferences for confiding in school staff perceived to be LGBT and having similar racial/ethnic background were also noted. Conclusion Findings suggest school staff can serve as points of contact for reaching YMSM and professional development and interventions can be tailored to reach YMSM and connect them to services they need. Additional research is needed to understand how to increase YMSM comfort talking with school staff about sexual health or sexual identity concerns. PMID:26436114

  6. An exploratory drilling exhaustion sequence plot program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The exhaustion sequence plot program computes the conditional area of influence for wells in a specified rectangular region with respect to a fixed-size deposit. The deposit is represented by an ellipse whose size is chosen by the user. The area of influence may be displayed on computer printer plots consisting of a maximum of 10,000 grid points. At each point, a symbol is presented that indicates the probability of that point being exhausted by nearby wells with respect to a fixed-size ellipse. This output gives a pictorial view of the manner in which oil fields are exhausted. In addition, the exhaustion data may be used to estimate the number of deposits remaining in a basin. ?? 1977.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area.

  8. An exploratory study of selected female registered nurses: meaning and expression of nurturance.

    PubMed

    Geissler, E M

    1990-05-01

    The words 'nurse' and 'nursing' originate in the word 'nurture' which dates back to the 14th century. 'Nurturance' appeared for the first time in the 1976 Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary and in a United States dictionary in 1983. Etymologically and semantically bound to nursing, little is known about the term nurturance. An exploratory design using phenomenological analysis was applied to understand the female registered nurses' experience of nurturing patients throughout the life-span and to uncover behaviours commonly believed nurturant. Interviews with 14 RNs practising in diverse settings revealed 39 nurturant behaviours that were intuited into four themes describing the subjects' perceived structure of nurturance as: (1) enabling maximum potential; (2) providing physical and emotional protection; (3) engaging in a supportive interaction; and (4) conveying shared humanity. Data were formulated into an exhaustive description of the phenomenon nurturance. Additionally, the results support Greenberg-Edelstein's theoretical model of the positive reciprocity of nurturance between nurse and patient. PMID:2358570

  9. An exploratory study of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-30 copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A precipitation-strengthened alloy has been produced through minor additions of zirconium to a base Ni-30Cu alloy. The results of this exploratory study indicate that thermomechanical processing of a solution-treated Ni-30Cu-0.2Zr alloy produced a dispersion of precipitates. The precipitates have been tentatively identified as a Ni5Zr compound. Comparison of the mechanical properties, as determined by testing in air, of the Zr-modified alloy to those of a Ni-30Cu alloy reveals that the precipitation-strengthened alloy has improved tensile properties to 1200 K and improved stress-rupture properties to 1100 K. The oxidation characteristics of the modified alloy appeared to be equivalent to those of the base Ni-30Cu alloy.

  10. An exploratory study of selected female registered nurses: meaning and expression of nurturance.

    PubMed

    Geissler, E M

    1990-05-01

    The words 'nurse' and 'nursing' originate in the word 'nurture' which dates back to the 14th century. 'Nurturance' appeared for the first time in the 1976 Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary and in a United States dictionary in 1983. Etymologically and semantically bound to nursing, little is known about the term nurturance. An exploratory design using phenomenological analysis was applied to understand the female registered nurses' experience of nurturing patients throughout the life-span and to uncover behaviours commonly believed nurturant. Interviews with 14 RNs practising in diverse settings revealed 39 nurturant behaviours that were intuited into four themes describing the subjects' perceived structure of nurturance as: (1) enabling maximum potential; (2) providing physical and emotional protection; (3) engaging in a supportive interaction; and (4) conveying shared humanity. Data were formulated into an exhaustive description of the phenomenon nurturance. Additionally, the results support Greenberg-Edelstein's theoretical model of the positive reciprocity of nurturance between nurse and patient.

  11. Abstinence Memorable Message Narratives: A New Exploratory Research Study Into Young Adult Sexual Narratives.

    PubMed

    Cooke-Jackson, Angela; Orbe, Mark P; Johnson, Amber L; Kauffman, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Abstinence for most adolescent-aged college students relates to several factors, including strong religious beliefs, an aversion to taking risks, high career expectations, or limited attractiveness. Young adults receive hundreds of messages from various sources; therefore, understanding their memorable sexual messages is essential. This exploratory research uses an interpretive method to unravel the memorable sexual narratives of 65 virgin respondents. Findings yield two primary themes: involuntary abstinence, and conscious abstinence, which demonstrate that messages of abstinence are important yet often imbue punitive internal attitudes and beliefs derived from mainstream media and peer relationships. The article concludes with a recommendation for health practitioners and communication scholars to create positive open spaces where young adults can discuss sexuality, sexual relationships, and sexual behaviors. Additionally, understanding stigmas related to abstinence helps reframe normative sex communication messages and promote constructive short- and long-term sexual health behaviors.

  12. Gender, acculturative stress and Caribbean immigrants' health in the United States of America: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Livingston, I L; Neita, M; Riviere, L; Livingston, S L

    2007-06-01

    Given that the health of many immigrants declines after increasing years in their host countries and that there may be gender differences in these experiences, this exploratory study's main objective was twofold: a) assess the relationship between acculturative stress and negative health (ie both mental and physical) and b) determine if there were any gender differences in these stress-health relationships. Gender-stratified analyses were conducted on a sample of 418 (males = 158, females = 260) English-speaking immigrants (the majority of whom were Jamaicans--males = 81%, females = 86%) that lived in the District of Columbia, Virginia, and Maryland (DC Metropolitan Area, United States of America (USA). Mail-order surveys were used to collect the data over a six-month period in 2002. Data for the main independent variable, acculturative stress, were collected using five indices (ie personal problems, group affiliations, adjustment to life in the USA, lonely feelings and feeling socially satisfied). Data for the major dependent variable, health, were collected using four indices (ie symptoms of depression, physical health conditions, the rating of one's health and the feeling of control one had over one's health). After controlling for selected covariates, both males (r = 0.42, p < 0.001) and females (r = 0.19, p < 0.05) reported a positive relationship between personal problems and depression. In other cases, female immigrants, with increasing personal problems, reported more physical health problems (r = 0.20, p < 0.05). Male immigrants who had more group affiliations (r = 0.22, p < 0.05), and who reported more loneliness (r = .26, p < 0.05) had less symptoms of depression. These exploratory results suggest the potential importance of selected variables (eg personal problems and depression) in efforts at improving the health of Caribbean immigrants. PMID:18072399

  13. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under contract NAS8-39386 from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center entitled LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses. The basic objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of present models and computational methods for defining the ionizing radiation environment for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by making comparisons with radiation measurements made on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The emphasis of the work here is on predictions and comparisons with LDEF measurements of induced radioactivity and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) measurements. These model/data comparisons have been used to evaluate the accuracy of current models for predicting the flux and directionality of trapped protons for LEO missions.

  14. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  15. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  16. Network class superposition analyses.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  17. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  18. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    -methylimidazolium iodide (PMII) were tested in various electrolyte concentrations. After identifying PMII as the most efficient salt additive for promoting anion conduction in the MEE-trimer systems, it was tested in MEEP-based DSSC polymer-gel electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC). The MEEP/PMII type electrolytes were compared against and outperformed similar formulations based on poly(ethylene oxide). Chapter 4 extends the concept of poly[(oligoethyleneoxy)phosphazene] electrolytes by the synthesis of MEEP-analogues with various ammonium ions covalently bound to the polymer side chains in order to create a single-ion conducting polyelectrolyte. In this case iodide is the only ion that is free to move and carry charge since the cation is bound to the polymer. Two candidates from the series of polyelectrolytes were selected for extensive study, one in which the ammonium ion has a hexyl group, and another in which the ammonium ion has an MEE-group. The polymers were characterized by dielectric spectroscopy, X-ray scattering, and density functional theory calculations. In chapter 5 the concept of polyphosphazene based polyelectrolytes is extended further by quaternization of nitrogen atoms that are a part of the polymer backbone rather than a pendent group. The feasibility of the concept is first explored using cyclic-trimeric phosphazenes as small molecule models and is then extended to high polymeric systems. Chapter 6 begins a new section of exploratory synthesis meant to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover useful structure-property relationships as well as to improve on the synthetic procedures of the past. Thus, in chapter 6 a series of cyclotriphosphazenes is synthesized for evaluation as compounds with the ability to complex to metal surfaces or to form ceramic materials after pyrolysis. Several known compounds are resynthesized, many with improvements over previously published procedures either in yield or simplicity of reaction conditions

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  1. An Exploratory Examination of Interpersonal Interactions between Peers in Informal Sport Play Contexts.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Karl; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (<25 years old, Mage = 19.84) participating in informal mixed-age volleyball, soccer, and basketball sessions at a community recreation center were observed and their interactive behavior coded. Participants also completed questionnaire measures of psychological characteristics (competence, confidence, character). Descriptive analyses examined the interaction patterns of young athletes in these contexts. Multiple regression analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between peer interactive behavior and athlete psychological characteristics. Results point to the social nature of participation in informal sport play contexts and the critical relationship between athlete competence and peer interaction tendencies. This study presents an initial exploration of peer interactive behavior in informal, mixed-age sport play contexts, but continued future research is needed to better understand the developmental processes and implications of participation in these important contexts. PMID:27144843

  2. An Exploratory Examination of Interpersonal Interactions between Peers in Informal Sport Play Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (<25 years old, Mage = 19.84) participating in informal mixed-age volleyball, soccer, and basketball sessions at a community recreation center were observed and their interactive behavior coded. Participants also completed questionnaire measures of psychological characteristics (competence, confidence, character). Descriptive analyses examined the interaction patterns of young athletes in these contexts. Multiple regression analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between peer interactive behavior and athlete psychological characteristics. Results point to the social nature of participation in informal sport play contexts and the critical relationship between athlete competence and peer interaction tendencies. This study presents an initial exploration of peer interactive behavior in informal, mixed-age sport play contexts, but continued future research is needed to better understand the developmental processes and implications of participation in these important contexts. PMID:27144843

  3. An Exploratory Examination of Interpersonal Interactions between Peers in Informal Sport Play Contexts.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Karl; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Athlete-driven informal sport play represents an important context for athlete development. However, in contrast to coach-driven organized sport, little is known about the interpersonal processes driving development in this context. The present study was an exploratory descriptive analysis of the interactive peer behaviors occurring in an informal sport play setting and their relationship to athlete psychological characteristics. Thirty young athletes (<25 years old, Mage = 19.84) participating in informal mixed-age volleyball, soccer, and basketball sessions at a community recreation center were observed and their interactive behavior coded. Participants also completed questionnaire measures of psychological characteristics (competence, confidence, character). Descriptive analyses examined the interaction patterns of young athletes in these contexts. Multiple regression analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between peer interactive behavior and athlete psychological characteristics. Results point to the social nature of participation in informal sport play contexts and the critical relationship between athlete competence and peer interaction tendencies. This study presents an initial exploration of peer interactive behavior in informal, mixed-age sport play contexts, but continued future research is needed to better understand the developmental processes and implications of participation in these important contexts.

  4. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of “exercise readiness” is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key points Assessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined. Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor

  8. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of "exercise readiness" is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key pointsAssessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined.Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor analysis

  9. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identify and address relevant markets and issues, and provide additional information as requested by the...). (b) For major transactions, applicants shall submit “full system” impact analyses (incorporating any... (including inter- and intramodal competition, product competition, and geographic competition) and...

  10. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses in Reading-Related Cognitive Component among Grade Four Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Deenang, Exkarach; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the structure and the validity of the cognitive components of reading in Thai, which is a language with a high degree of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The participants were 1181 fourth-grade students in 29 schools in Thailand, divided into two subsamples for data analysis. Phoneme isolation, rapid colour naming,…

  11. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  12. Descriptive and Experimental Analyses of Potential Precursors to Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Borrero, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted descriptive observations of severe problem behavior for 2 individuals with autism to identify precursors to problem behavior. Several comparative probability analyses were conducted in addition to lag-sequential analyses using the descriptive data. Results of the descriptive analyses showed that the probability of the potential…

  13. NNWSI exploratory shaft site and construction method recommendation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the process by which alternative construction methods were evaluated and by which potential sites were screened by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, in Nye County, Nevada. The evaluation was made by the Ad Hoc Technical Overview Contractor Committee. Our recommendations were to construct a vertical shaft using conventional mining techniques in a dry canyon known as Coyote Wash, located on the east flank of the mountain. 11 references, 10 figures, 15 tables.

  14. Exploratory Study of the Acoustic Performance of Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SantaMaria, O. S.; Thurlow, E. M.; Jones, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed ducted fan engine has prompted the need for increasingly lightweight and efficient noise control devices. Exploratory tests at the NASA Langley Research Center were conducted to evaluate three piezoelectric specimens as possible control transducers: a Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) piezofilm sample and two composite samples of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) rods embedded in fiberglass. The tests measured the acoustic output efficiency and evaluated the noise control characteristics when interacting with a primary sound source. The results showed that a PZT sample could diminish the reflected acoustic waves. However, the PZT acoustic output must increase by several orders of magnitude to qualify as a control transducer for the ducted fan engine.

  15. Final Reclamation Report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Exploratory behaviour and novel predator recognition: behavioural correlations across contexts.

    PubMed

    Blake, C A; Gabor, C R

    2016-08-01

    It was hypothesized that the exploratory behaviour of an individual measured in a novel environment could predict its behaviour in response to a novel predator. This study examined novel predator recognition in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, a species with individual differences in risk-taking, activity and exploration in novel environments. Prey responded with characteristic shoaling and avoidance in response to native predators, but did not show characteristic antipredator behaviour towards novel predators. Furthermore, G. affinis exhibited individual-level behavioural correlations across contexts but only when prey were tested with native predators. This could be the result of native predatory selection on behavioural correlations in the prey species. PMID:27220896

  17. Exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. L.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory evaluation of ceramics for automobile thermal reactors was conducted. Potential ceramic materials were evaluated in several reactor designs using both engine dynamometer and vehicle road tests. Silicon carbide contained in a corrugated metal support structure exhibited the best performance lasting over 800 hours in engine dynamometer tests and over 15,000 miles (24,200 km) of vehicle road tests. Reactors containing glass-ceramic components did not perform as well as silicon carbide. But the glass-ceramics still offer good potential for reactor use. The results of this study are considered to be a reasonable demonstration of the potential use of ceramics in thermal reactors.

  18. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females.

  19. Rearrangement of the dendritic morphology in limbic regions and altered exploratory behavior in a rat model of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bringas, M E; Carvajal-Flores, F N; López-Ramírez, T A; Atzori, M; Flores, G

    2013-06-25

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a blocker of histone deacetylase widely used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorders, and migraine; its administration during pregnancy increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the child. Thus, prenatal VPA exposure has emerged as a rodent model of ASD. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VPA (500mg/kg) at E12.5 on the exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in a novel environment, as well as on neuronal morphological rearrangement in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), in the hippocampus, in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at three different ages: immediately after weaning (postnatal day 21 [PD21]), prepubertal (PD35) and postpubertal (PD70) ages. Hyper-locomotion was observed in a novel environment in VPA animals at PD21 and PD70. Interestingly, exploratory behavior assessed by the hole board test at PD70 showed a reduced frequency but an increase in the duration of head-dippings in VPA-animals compared to vehicle-treated animals. In addition, the latency to the first head-dip was longer in prenatal VPA-treated animals at PD70. Quantitative morphological analysis of dendritic spine density revealed a reduced number of spines at PD70 in the PFC, dorsal hippocampus and BLA, with an increase in the dendritic spine density in NAcc and ventral hippocampus, in prenatal VPA-treated rats. In addition, at PD70 increases in neuronal arborization were observed in the NAcc, layer 3 of the PFC, and BLA, with retracted neuronal arborization in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. Our results extend the list of altered behaviors (exploratory behavior) detected in this model of ASD, and indicate that the VPA behavioral phenotype is accompanied by previously undescribed morphological rearrangement in limbic regions.

  20. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  1. MotionExplorer: exploratory search in human motion capture data based on hierarchical aggregation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Nils; Krüger, Björn; May, Thorsten; Schreck, Tobias; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2013-12-01

    We present MotionExplorer, an exploratory search and analysis system for sequences of human motion in large motion capture data collections. This special type of multivariate time series data is relevant in many research fields including medicine, sports and animation. Key tasks in working with motion data include analysis of motion states and transitions, and synthesis of motion vectors by interpolation and combination. In the practice of research and application of human motion data, challenges exist in providing visual summaries and drill-down functionality for handling large motion data collections. We find that this domain can benefit from appropriate visual retrieval and analysis support to handle these tasks in presence of large motion data. To address this need, we developed MotionExplorer together with domain experts as an exploratory search system based on interactive aggregation and visualization of motion states as a basis for data navigation, exploration, and search. Based on an overview-first type visualization, users are able to search for interesting sub-sequences of motion based on a query-by-example metaphor, and explore search results by details on demand. We developed MotionExplorer in close collaboration with the targeted users who are researchers working on human motion synthesis and analysis, including a summative field study. Additionally, we conducted a laboratory design study to substantially improve MotionExplorer towards an intuitive, usable and robust design. MotionExplorer enables the search in human motion capture data with only a few mouse clicks. The researchers unanimously confirm that the system can efficiently support their work. PMID:24051792

  2. Does academic dishonesty relate to unethical behavior in professional practice? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Harding, Trevor S; Carpenter, Donald D; Finelli, Cynthia J; Passow, Honor J

    2004-04-01

    Previous research indicates that students in engineering self-report cheating in college at higher rates than those in most other disciplines. Prior work also suggests that participation in one deviant behavior is a reasonable predictor of future deviant behavior. This combination of factors leads to a situation where engineering students who frequently participate in academic dishonesty are more likely to make unethical decisions in professional practice. To investigate this scenario, we propose the hypotheses that (1) there are similarities in the decision-making processes used by engineering students when considering whether or not to participate in academic and professional dishonesty, and (2) prior academic dishonesty by engineering students is an indicator of future decisions to act dishonestly. Our sample consisted of undergraduate engineering students from two technically-oriented private universities. As a group, the sample reported working full-time an average of six months per year as professionals in addition to attending classes during the remaining six months. This combination of both academic and professional experience provides a sample of students who are experienced in both settings. Responses to open-ended questions on an exploratory survey indicate that students identify common themes in describing both temptations to cheat or to violate workplace policies and factors which caused them to hesitate in acting unethically, thus supporting our first hypothesis and laying the foundation for future surveys having forced-choice responses. As indicated by the responses to forced-choice questions for the engineering students surveyed, there is a relationship between self-reported rates of cheating in high school and decisions to cheat in college and to violate workplace policies; supporting our second hypothesis. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrates connections between decision-making about both academic and professional dishonesty. If better

  3. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior.

  4. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  5. Psychological and Psychosocial Consequences of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Women in Tunisia: Preliminary Findings from an Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Chahed, Mohamed Kouni; Bellali, Hédia; Ben Jemaa, Sonia; Bellaj, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) makes it the most widespread parasitic disease in Tunisia and the Arab world. Yet, few studies have addressed its psychological and psychosocial effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial impact of ZCL scars among Tunisian women. Methods We conducted an exploratory study, we administered Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), World Health Organization Quality Of Life-26 (WHOQOL-26) and Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory (PLSI) to a group of girls and women with ZCL scar in the region of Sidi Bouzid. This group was randomly selected from volunteers who came to primary health care facilities to seek for treatment for any pathology. Results Descriptive statistics showed that the collected scores from the three scales exhibit heterogeneous distributions: IPQ-R (M = 63.6, SD = 15.6), PSLI (M = 9.5, SD = 6.7), WHOQOL-Physical (M = 63, SD = 12.9), WHOQOL-Psychological (M = 52.6, SD = 11.1), WHOQOL-Social (M = 61.8, SD = 17.5), and WHOQOL-Environmental (M = 47.8, SD = 13.3). The correlation analyses performed on Inter and intra-subscales showed that the emotional representations associated with ZCL were correlated with the loss of self-esteem and feelings of inferiority (r = 0.77, p<0.05). In addition, high education level and the knowledge about ZCL are positively correlated with cognitive and emotional representation in the IPQ-R (r = 0.33, p<0.05). "Rejection experiences" and the "anticipation and avoidance of stress" were respectively negatively correlated with age (r = -0.33, p<0.05 and r = -0.31, p<0.05). Correlations between the scores on IPQ-R domains and PLSI factors were significant. The results showed that anticipation of rejection and avoidance of stress are strongly correlated with a negative perception of ZCL. Quality of life scores were not correlated with either age, education level, time of illness, or the number of facial or body scars. However, the

  6. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Structural Invariance in Caucasian and African American Samples, and Score Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnau, Randolph C.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Green, Bradley A.; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly used measure of anxiety sensitivity is the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised (ASI-R). Exploratory factor analyses have produced several different factors structures for the ASI-R, but an acceptable fit using confirmatory factor analytic approaches has only been found for a 21-item version of the instrument. We evaluated…

  7. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    PubMed

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. PMID:23692760

  8. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. Foreign Language Exploratory (French, German, Spanish), (6-8), Resource Guide and Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Dora F.; And Others

    The guide focuses on a rationale for exploratory foreign language courses in middle or junior high school, and on the goals and objectives for such courses. An exploratory course may serve a number of purposes regardless of whether or not a pupil elects a foreign language at a later time. These purposes include: (1) acquainting pupils with a…

  11. Medium-Based Design: Extending a Medium to Create an Exploratory Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rick, Jochen; Lamberty, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces "medium-based" design -- an approach to creating "exploratory learning environments" using the method of "extending a medium". First, the characteristics of exploratory learning environments and medium-based design are described and grounded in related work. Particular attention is given to "extending a medium" --…

  12. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Community College Department Chairs' Perspectives of Online Learning: Creating Sustainable Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This two-phase exploratory study examined department chairs' perspectives of online learning in a California community college district and examined if differences existed in This two-phase exploratory study examined department chairs' perspectives of online learning in a California community college district and examined if differences existed in…

  14. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  15. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  16. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  17. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  18. Envisioning Competence: Learning, Problem Solving, and Children at Work in the Exploratory Bicycle Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Charles Florian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the conceptual learning and cognitive development processes of schoolchildren engaged in problem solving activities in a non-school, workplace setting known as the exploratory bicycle shop. The exploratory bike shop is a commercial bicycle shop: a) that has been adapted for combined retail and educational purposes and b) where…

  19. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1993-10-01

    This summary denotes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability, and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EV's). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL's Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. Program consists of three major elements: exploratory eesearch; applied science research; and air systems research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described.

  20. Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage during calendar year 1992. The primary objective of the ETR Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is to identify electrochemical technologies that can satisfy stringent performance, durability, and economic requirements for electric vehicles (EV's). The ultimate goal is to transfer the most-promising electrochemical technologies to the private sector or to another DOE program (e.g., SNL's Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development Program, EVABS) for further development and scale-up. Besides LBL, which has overall responsibility for the ETR Program, LANL and BNL have participated in the ETR Program by providing key research support in several of the program elements. The ETR Program consists of three major elements: Exploratory Research; Applied Science Research; and Air Systems Research. The objectives and the specific battery and electrochemical systems addressed by each program element are discussed in the following sections, which also include technical summaries that relate to the individual programs. Financial information that relates to the various programs and a description of the management activities for the ETR Program are described in the Executive Summary.

  1. The orienting-exploratory response hypothesis of discriminative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Grastyán, E; Buzsáki, G

    1979-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological manifestations occurring under conditions of spatial discontiguity of CS and reinforcement (or response) are described. It is concluded that the conflict or learning difficulties which arise in such situations are the result of a competition between the signal directed conditioned orienting response and the goal directed approach response which require different or opposite directional movements. Considerations are offered to prove that the complex orienting-exploratory response emerging as a result of reinforcement corresponds to the real conditioned response and accordingly the CS to a new independent goal with comparable attractiveness as the primary (consummative) goal. Arguments are (brought up against the validity of the stimulus substitution theory of signal directed activities. Findings obtained in fimbria-fornix lesioned animals are presented to show that the orienting-exploratory mode of coping with spatial tasks necessitates the intactness of the limbic system. The conclusion is drawn that an apparently more adaptive mode of behaving in spatial discontiguity, where the CS only releases or triggers the goal response (used occasionally by intact but exclusively by limbic lesioned animals) corresponds to a relatively inferior mode of adaptation.

  2. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project exploratory studies facilities construction status

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.N.; Leonard, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses the progress to date on the construction planning and development of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The purpose of the ESF is to determine early site suitability and to characterize the subsurface of the Yucca Mountain site to assess its suitability for a potential high level nuclear waste repository. The present ESF configuration concept is for two main ramps to be excavated by tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the surface to the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff Formation. From the main ramps, slightly above Topopah Spring level, supplemental ramps will be penetrated to the Calico Hills formation below the potential repository. There will be exploratory development drifts driven on both levels with the Main Test Area being located on the Topopah Spring level, which is the level of the proposed repository. The Calico Hills formation lies below the Topopah Spring member and is expected to provide the main geo-hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the underlying saturated zones in the Crater Flat Tuff.

  3. Exploratory activity and habituation of Drosophila in confined domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soibam, B.; Chen, L.; Roman, G. W.; Gunaratne, G. H.

    2014-09-01

    Animals use locomotion to find food, shelter, and escape routes as well as to locate predators, competitors, and mates. Thus, locomotion is related to many behavioral traits, and can be used to characterize these more complex facets of behavior. Exploratory behaviors are random and need to be assessed through stochastic analysis. By comparing ensembles of trajectories from Drosophila and a model animal, we identify a pair of principles that govern the stochastic motion of a specific species. The first depends on local cues and quantify directional persistence, i.e., the propensity of an animal to maintain direction; the second, its attraction to walls, is relevant for exploration in confined arenas. Statistical properties of exploratory activity in several types of arenas can be computed from these principles. A pair of spiral arenas are designed to demonstrate that centrophobicity, or fear of the center of an arena, is not a fundamental feature of exploration. xxxx We provide evidence to show that the decay in an animal's activity following its introduction into a novel arena is correlated to its familiarity with the arena. We define two measures, coverage and habituation, to quantify familiarity. It is found that the relationship between activity and coverage is independent of the arena size. Finally, we use an analysis of exploration of mutant species to infer that in Drosophila, habituation relies on visual cues.

  4. Court chaplaincy and spiritual care in australia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B

    2015-06-01

    This paper summarizes an exploratory study undertaken to consider the work of Australian chaplaincy personnel ministering to people proceeding through emotionally challenging judicial court proceedings. This qualitative research (a first among Australian court chaplains) was not concerned with specific court procedures per se, but predominantly about the perspectives of chaplains concerning their professional contribution and issues they experienced while trying to assist people struggling with court processes. Data from a single focus group indicated that court chaplains were striving to fulfill religious and spiritual duties according to national and international standards. Given various frustrations identified by chaplain participants, which either impeded or thwarted their professional role as chaplains, a number of improvements were subsequently identified in order to develop the efficiency and effectiveness of court chaplaincy and thus maximize the benefits of spiritual and pastoral care to people in court. Implications of this exploratory study relate not only to court chaplaincy but also to ecclesiastical organizations, governments and the need of support for further research to be conducted.

  5. Atypical myopathy in grazing horses: a first exploratory data analysis.

    PubMed

    Votion, Dominique-M; Linden, Annick; Delguste, Catherine; Amory, Hélène; Thiry, Etienne; Engels, Patrick; van Galen, Gaby; Navet, Rachel; Sluse, Francis; Serteyn, Didier; Saegerman, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Over the last decade, atypical myopathy (AM) in grazing horses has emerged in several European countries. An exploratory analysis was conducted to determine horse- and pasture-level indicators or factors associated with AM in Belgium. Belgian cases of AM confirmed by histology (n=57) were compared to their healthy co-grazing horses (n=77) and to pastured horses not involved with AM as controls (n=386). The pastures where confirmed cases were grazing (42 pastures; 38 sites; 44 incidences of AM) were compared with those of the controls (216 pastures; 96 sites; no incidence of AM). Statistically significant (P< or =0.05) exploratory variables, identified by means of adjusted odds ratios, suggested that indicators or factors associated with individual horses (young age, inactivity, body condition poor to normal), management practices (permanent pasturing, spreading of manure) and pasture characteristics (humid, sloping pastures, accumulated dead leaves, presence of waterway) may increase the risk of AM. Specific interventions based on these factors might help to reduce the incidence of AM.

  6. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies.

  7. Exploratory User Study to Evaluate the Effect of Street Name Changes on Route Planning Using 2d Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Hankel, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory user study using 2D maps to observe and analyse the effect of street name changes on prospective route planning. The study is part of a larger research initiative to understand the effect of street name changes on wayfinding. The common perception is that street name changes affect our ability to navigate an environment, but this has not yet been tested with an empirical user study. A combination of a survey, the thinking aloud method and eye tracking was used with a group of 20 participants, mainly geoinformatics students. A within-subject participant assignment was used. Independent variables were the street network (regular and irregular) and orientation cues (street names and landmarks) portrayed on a 2D map. Dependent variables recorded were the performance (were the participant able to plan a route between the origin and destination?); the accuracy (was the shortest path identified?); the time taken to complete a task; and fixation points with eye tracking. Overall, the results of this exploratory study suggest that street name changes impact the prospective route planning performance and process that individuals use with 2D maps. The results contribute to understanding how route planning changes when street names are changed on 2D maps. It also contributes to the design of future user studies. To generalise the findings, the study needs to be repeated with a larger group of participants.

  8. 14 CFR 437.77 - Additional safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.77 Additional safety... solid propellants. The FAA may also require the permittee to conduct additional analyses of the cause...

  9. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  10. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  11. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  12. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  13. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  14. Early Visual Attention in Preterm and Fullterm Infants in Relation to Cognitive and Motor Outcomes at School Age: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hitzert, Marrit M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Hunnius, Sabine; Geuze, Reint H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Preterm infants are exposed to the visual environment earlier than fullterm infants, but whether early exposure affects later development is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether the development of visual disengagement capacity during the first 6 months postterm was associated with cognitive and motor outcomes at school age, and whether associations differed between fullterms and low-risk preterms. Method: Seventeen fullterms and ten low-risk preterms were tested in a gaze shifting task every 4 weeks until 6 months postterm. The longitudinal data were converted into single continuous variables by fitting the data with an S-shaped curve (frequencies of looks) or an inverse model (latencies of looks). Neuropsychological test results at school age were converted into composite z scores. We then performed linear regression analyses for each functional domain at school age with the variables measuring infant visual attention as separate predictors and adjusting for maternal level of education and group (fullterms versus preterms). We included an interaction term, visual attention*group, to determine whether predictive relations differed between fullterms and preterms. Results: A slower development of disengagement predicted poorer performance on attention, motor skills, and handwriting, irrespective of fullterm or preterm birth. Predictive relationships differed marginally between fullterms and preterms for inhibitory attentional control (P = 0.054) and comprehensive reading (P = 0.064). Conclusion: This exploratory study yielded no indications of a clear advantage or disadvantage of the extra visual exposure in healthy preterm infants. We tentatively conclude that additional visual exposure does not interfere with the ongoing development of neuronal networks during this vulnerable period of brain development. PMID:25340045

  15. How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.
STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.
DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.
CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco industry; additives; masking PMID:10982572

  16. Intensive care nurses' encounters with multicultural families in Norway: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Høye, Sevald; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units in Norwegian hospitals. Immigrants from non-Western countries make up 6.1% of the population in Norway. When a person suffers an acute and critical illness the person's family may experience crises. Nurses' previous experiences of caring for culturally diverse patients and families is challenging due to linguistic differences, and contextual factors. Family members should be near their critically ill spouse to reduce the impact from a frightening environment. The study had a descriptive exploratory qualitative design with a retrospective focus. Three multistage focus groups consisting of 16 nurses were set up in intensive care units. The data were analysed by interpretive content analysis. The theme 'Cultural diversity and workplace stressors' emerged. This theme was characterised by four categories: 'impact on work patterns'; 'communication challenges'; 'responses to crises' and 'professional status and gender issues'. In conclusion, nurses' perception of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units seem to be ambiguous with challenges in interaction, and the nurses' stressors emanating from linguistic, cultural and ethnic differentness. To diminish cultural diversity the nurses strive for increased knowledge of different cultures and religions.

  17. Exploratory Studies in Generalized Predictive Control for Active Aeroelastic Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Bennett, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aeroelasticity Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has a long and substantive history of tiltrotor aeroelastic research. That research has included a broad range of experimental investigations in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) using a variety of scale models and the development of essential analyses. Since 1994, the tiltrotor research program has been using a 1/5-scale, semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 designed and built by Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) in 1981. That model has been refurbished to form a tiltrotor research testbed called the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) for use in the TDT. In collaboration with BHTI, studies under the current tiltrotor research program are focused on aeroelastic technology areas having the potential for enhancing the commercial and military viability of tiltrotor aircraft. Among the areas being addressed, considerable emphasis is being directed to the evaluation of modern adaptive multi-input multi- output (MIMO) control techniques for active stability augmentation and vibration control of tiltrotor aircraft. As part of this investigation, a predictive control technique known as Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) is being studied to assess its potential for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in both helicopter and airplane modes of flight. This paper summarizes the exploratory numerical and experimental studies that were conducted as part of that investigation.

  18. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety.

  19. Adolescent Athletic Participation and Nonmedical Adderall Use: An Exploratory Analysis of a Performance-Enhancing Drug

    PubMed Central

    Veliz, Philip; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A primary motive for adolescents and young adults to nonmedically use prescription stimulants is to help them study. Adolescents and young adults are using prescription stimulants, such as Adderall (amphetamine aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, dextroamphetamine sulfate), as performance enhancers in certain social domains, including academics and sports. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the nonmedical use of Adderall (a commonly prescribed stimulant used nonmedically) among adolescents who participate in competitive sports. Method: The Monitoring the Future survey for 2010 and 2011, a representative sample of 8th- and 10th-grade students, surveyed involvement in competitive sports and nonmedical Adderall use among 21,137 adolescents. Pastyear nonmedical use of Adderall served as the main outcome measure. Logistic regression analyses were run to examine whether sports participation in general and involvement in different types of competitive sports participation were associated with past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males and females. Results: The odds of past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males were higher for male respondents who participated in lacrosse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% CI [1.20, 5.29]) and wrestling (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI [1.01, 2.98]). However, no particular sport among females was found to be associated with pastyear nonmedical use of Adderall. Conclusions: Certain extracurricular activities, such as high-contact sports, may influence male participants to misuse prescription stimulants as performance enhancers either on or off the playing field. PMID:23948530

  20. Do Online Voting Patterns Reflect Evolved Features of Human Cognition? An Exploratory Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Maria; Mesoudi, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence), content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias), content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias), and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world. PMID:26066657

  1. Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers.

  2. Intensive care nurses' encounters with multicultural families in Norway: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Høye, Sevald; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units in Norwegian hospitals. Immigrants from non-Western countries make up 6.1% of the population in Norway. When a person suffers an acute and critical illness the person's family may experience crises. Nurses' previous experiences of caring for culturally diverse patients and families is challenging due to linguistic differences, and contextual factors. Family members should be near their critically ill spouse to reduce the impact from a frightening environment. The study had a descriptive exploratory qualitative design with a retrospective focus. Three multistage focus groups consisting of 16 nurses were set up in intensive care units. The data were analysed by interpretive content analysis. The theme 'Cultural diversity and workplace stressors' emerged. This theme was characterised by four categories: 'impact on work patterns'; 'communication challenges'; 'responses to crises' and 'professional status and gender issues'. In conclusion, nurses' perception of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units seem to be ambiguous with challenges in interaction, and the nurses' stressors emanating from linguistic, cultural and ethnic differentness. To diminish cultural diversity the nurses strive for increased knowledge of different cultures and religions. PMID:18468898

  3. Disentangling clinical learning experiences: an exploratory study on the dynamic tensions in internship.

    PubMed

    Deketelaere, Ann; Kelchtermans, Geert; Struyf, Elke; De Leyn, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Clinical practice is an essential component of medical training, but not all internships yield the appropriate and expected learning results. We report on an exploratory study of the learning process during internship in undergraduate medical education. We hypothesised that learning experiences in clinical practice are determined by characteristics of the interns, characteristics of the training setting and the meaningful interactions between them. As the study focused on the perceptions and interpretations of both interns and their supervisors of interns' experiences in practical training, qualitative research methods were used for data collection and analysis. This consisted of student shadowing, complemented by informal and semistructured interviews with both interns and supervisors. Analysis revealed 5 components that constitute learning experiences in clinical internship. These components represent dynamics in the clinical environment that constantly require students to (re-)define and (re-)position themselves: the agenda of the internship (working versus learning); the attitude of the supervisor (evaluator versus coach); the culture of the training setting (work-orientated versus training-orientated); the intern's learning attitude (passive versus proactive), and the nature of the learning process (informal versus formal). The model of components and tensions offers a conceptual framework to analyse and understand students' learning during internship. It not only contributes to a grounded theoretical conceptualisation of clinical learning, but may also be used in efforts to improve the quality of learning during internship, as well as the level of support and supervision.

  4. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  5. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety. PMID:27294389

  6. An exploratory, interview study of oncology patients' and health-care staff experiences of discussing resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Karen; Wilson, E; Jones, L; Fyfe, D

    2007-11-01

    There is little research about how patients and their families would like discussions surrounding resuscitation to take place. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the experience of a discussion of resuscitation from the perspective of the participants. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 21 patients, of whom nine were interviewed together with a relative and 14 staff in an oncology setting. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method and coded using NVIVO qualitative data analysis software. Patients appeared to be accepting resuscitation discussions as necessary and important. A minority felt that the timing of the discussion could have been better, particularly if they were newly diagnosed or had recently commenced treatment. Relatives generally found the discussions more difficult and felt that discussions should take place much closer to death. Patients identified that they needed time and privacy during the discussion. Staff identified a need to present a sensitive and individualised discussion which took into account the key elements of timing, place, space, manner and pace. Patients acknowledged that the resuscitation discussion enabled them to begin to address issues relating to dying and end of life. For staff on-going communication skills training and support in this area were seen as important but often overlooked parts of the process.

  7. An exploratory study of the sources of influence on the clinical decisions of community nurses.

    PubMed

    Luker, K A; Kenrick, M

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports a small exploratory study which identifies what community nurses consider to be the scope of their practice and the sources of influence on their clinical decisions. The study was stimulated by the emergence of the nurse prescribing initiative, which is likely to bring clinical decision making to the centre of professional debate. The study was carried out over a 5-month period and data were collected from 47 community nurses in four district health authorities. A qualitative method was employed and field work involved observation of 40 home visits and five nurse-run clinics, individual interviews and group discussions with the nurses, and scrutiny of nursing records. The data were content analysed and classified, and the categories were validated by practitioners. Findings suggest that although community nurses consider that a large proportion of their work requires a scientific basis, their practice is largely founded on experiential knowledge, and on the whole they are not positively disposed to research knowledge. The findings are discussed in the context of nurse prescribing. Questions are raised about the nature of a 'professional' knowledge base and the reclassification of scientific knowledge as nursing or experiential knowledge once it has diffused into practice.

  8. An Exploratory Framework for Combining CFD Analysis and Evolutionary Optimization into a Single Integrated Computational Environment

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkle, Douglas S.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent reports and workshops have identified integrated computational engineering as an emerging technology with the potential to transform engineering design. The goal is to integrate geometric models, analyses, simulations, optimization and decision-making tools, and all other aspects of the engineering process into a shared, interactive computer-generated environment that facilitates multidisciplinary and collaborative engineering. While integrated computational engineering environments can be constructed from scratch with high-level programming languages, the complexity of these proposed environments makes this type of approach prohibitively slow and expensive. Rather, a high-level software framework is needed to provide the user with the capability to construct an application in an intuitive manner using existing models and engineering tools with minimal programming. In this paper, we present an exploratory open source software framework that can be used to integrate the geometric models, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and optimization tools needed for shape optimization of complex systems. This framework is demonstrated using the multiphase flow analysis of a complete coal transport system for an 800 MW pulverized coal power station. The framework uses engineering objects and three-dimensional visualization to enable the user to interactively design and optimize the performance of the coal transport system.

  9. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Law. J.; Alexander, D.; Ryder, V. Myers; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.

  10. Exploratory Analysis of the Social Network of Researchers in Inductive Logic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrač, Nada; Grčar, Miha; Fortuna, Blaž; Velardi, Paola

    In this chapter, we present selected techniques for social network analysis and text mining and interpret the results of exploratory analysis of the social network of researchers in inductive logic programming (ILP), based on the ILP scientific publications database collected within the ILPnet2 project. Part of the analysis was performed with the Pajek software for large (social) network analyses, where the central entity of the analysis was the author, related to other authors by coauthorship links, weighted by the number of his or her publications registered in the ILPnet2 database. The chapter presents also a novel methodology for topic ontology learning from text documents. The proposed methodology, named OntoTermExtraction (Term Extraction for Ontology learning), is based on OntoGen, a semiautomated tool for topic ontology construction, upgraded by using an advanced terminology extraction tool in an iterative, semiautomated ontology construction process. The approach was successfully used for generating the ontology of topics in Inductive Logic Programming, learned semiautomatically from papers indexed in the ILPnet2 publications database.

  11. Do Online Voting Patterns Reflect Evolved Features of Human Cognition? An Exploratory Empirical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Priestley, Maria; Mesoudi, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence), content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias), content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias), and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world. PMID:26066657

  12. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  15. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  16. Using Patient Experiences on Dutch Social Media to Supervise Health Care Services: Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Verhoef, Lise M; van der Weide, Marian JA; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has become mainstream and a growing number of people use it to share health care-related experiences, for example on health care rating sites. These users’ experiences and ratings on social media seem to be associated with quality of care. Therefore, information shared by citizens on social media could be of additional value for supervising the quality and safety of health care services by regulatory bodies, thereby stimulating participation by consumers. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the added value of social media for two types of supervision by the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate (DHI), which is the regulatory body charged with supervising the quality and safety of health care services in the Netherlands. These were (1) supervision in response to incidents reported by individuals, and (2) risk-based supervision. Methods We performed an exploratory study in cooperation with the DHI and searched different social media sources such as Twitter, Facebook, and healthcare rating sites to find additional information for these incidents and topics, from five different sectors. Supervision experts determined the added value for each individual result found, making use of pre-developed scales. Results Searches in social media resulted in relevant information for six of 40 incidents studied and provided relevant additional information in 72 of 116 cases in risk-based supervision of long-term elderly care. Conclusions The results showed that social media could be used to include the patient’s perspective in supervision. However, it appeared that the rating site ZorgkaartNederland was the only source that provided information that was of additional value for the DHI, while other sources such as forums and social networks like Twitter and Facebook did not result in additional information. This information could be of importance for health care inspectorates, particularly for its enforcement by risk-based supervision in care of

  17. "Bringing home more than a paycheck:" an exploratory analysis of Black lesbians' experiences of stress and coping in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye

    2008-01-01

    Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination.

  18. Quantifying exploratory low dose compounds in humans with AMS

    PubMed Central

    Dueker, Stephen R.; Vuong, Le T.; Lohstroh, Peter N.; Giacomo, Jason A.; Vogel, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is an established technology whose essentiality extends beyond simply a better detector for radiolabeled molecules. Attomole sensitivity reduces radioisotope exposures in clinical subjects to the point that no population need be excluded from clinical study. Insights in human physiochemistry are enabled by the quantitative recovery of simplified AMS processes that provide biological concentrations of all labeled metabolites and total compound related material at non-saturating levels. In this paper, we review some of the exploratory applications of AMS 14C in toxicological, nutritional, and pharmacological research. This body of research addresses the human physiochemistry of important compounds in their own right, but also serves as examples of the analytical methods and clinical practices that are available for studying low dose physiochemistry of candidate therapeutic compounds, helping to broaden the knowledge base of AMS application in pharmaceutical research. PMID:21047543

  19. [School blogs about sexuality: an exploratory documentary study].

    PubMed

    Valli, Gabriela Petró; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to analyze the structure of school blogs on sexuality and their utilization by adolescents. This quantitative, exploratory and documentary study was performed with 11 blogs designed by students and available online in March of 2012. The information was submitted to hypertext analysis and descriptive statistics, taking research ethics norms into consideration. Group and education blogs developed in Portuguese and Brazilian schools were most often signed by their authors and suffered few updates. The written posts mixed scientific and informal languages, besides presenting videos and images. Every blog included information regarding the number of followers, visits, comments and a contact to answer questions. The highlighted discussed topics were birth control methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Blogs are a resource for health education that should promote active discussions and rely on the participation of health care professionals. PMID:24344582

  20. Tunnel boring machine applications; Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM.

  1. [School blogs about sexuality: an exploratory documentary study].

    PubMed

    Valli, Gabriela Petró; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to analyze the structure of school blogs on sexuality and their utilization by adolescents. This quantitative, exploratory and documentary study was performed with 11 blogs designed by students and available online in March of 2012. The information was submitted to hypertext analysis and descriptive statistics, taking research ethics norms into consideration. Group and education blogs developed in Portuguese and Brazilian schools were most often signed by their authors and suffered few updates. The written posts mixed scientific and informal languages, besides presenting videos and images. Every blog included information regarding the number of followers, visits, comments and a contact to answer questions. The highlighted discussed topics were birth control methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Blogs are a resource for health education that should promote active discussions and rely on the participation of health care professionals.

  2. A design framework for exploratory geovisualization in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design framework for geographic visualization based on iterative evaluations of a toolkit designed to support cancer epidemiology. The Exploratory Spatio-Temporal Analysis Toolkit (ESTAT), is intended to support visual exploration through multivariate health data. Its purpose is to provide epidemiologists with the ability to generate new hypotheses or further refine those they may already have. Through an iterative user-centered design process, ESTAT has been evaluated by epidemiologists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Results of these evaluations are discussed, and a design framework based on evaluation evidence is presented. The framework provides specific recommendations and considerations for the design and development of a geovisualization toolkit for epidemiology. Its basic structure provides a model for future design and evaluation efforts in information visualization. PMID:20390052

  3. Secure software practices among Malaysian software practitioners: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shafinah Farvin Packeer; Baharom, Fauziah; Deraman, Aziz; Yahya, Jamaiah; Mohd, Haslina

    2016-08-01

    Secure software practices is increasingly gaining much importance among software practitioners and researchers due to the rise of computer crimes in the software industry. It has become as one of the determinant factors for producing high quality software. Even though its importance has been revealed, its current practice in the software industry is still scarce, particularly in Malaysia. Thus, an exploratory study is conducted among software practitioners in Malaysia to study their experiences and practices in the real-world projects. This paper discusses the findings from the study, which involved 93 software practitioners. Structured questionnaire is utilized for data collection purpose whilst statistical methods such as frequency, mean, and cross tabulation are used for data analysis. Outcomes from this study reveal that software practitioners are becoming increasingly aware on the importance of secure software practices, however, they lack of appropriate implementation, which could affect the quality of produced software.

  4. Hidden multiplicity in exploratory multiway ANOVA: Prevalence and remedies.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Angélique O J; van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Matzke, Dora; Steingroever, Helen; Wetzels, Ruud; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Waldorp, Lourens J; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2016-04-01

    Many psychologists do not realize that exploratory use of the popular multiway analysis of variance harbors a multiple-comparison problem. In the case of two factors, three separate null hypotheses are subject to test (i.e., two main effects and one interaction). Consequently, the probability of at least one Type I error (if all null hypotheses are true) is 14 % rather than 5 %, if the three tests are independent. We explain the multiple-comparison problem and demonstrate that researchers almost never correct for it. To mitigate the problem, we describe four remedies: the omnibus F test, control of the familywise error rate, control of the false discovery rate, and preregistration of the hypotheses.

  5. An exploratory study of neuro linguistic programming and communication anxiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Lois M.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis is an exploratory study of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its capabilities to provide a technique or a composite technique that will reduce the anxiety associated with making an oral brief or presentation before a group, sometimes referred to as Communication Apprehension. The composite technique comes from NLP and Time Line Therapy, which is an extension to NLP. Student volunteers (17) from a Communications course given by the Administrative Sciences Department were taught this technique. For each volunteer, an informational oral presentation was made and videotaped before the training and another informational oral presentation made and videotaped following the training. The before and after training presentations for each individual volunteer were evaluated against criteria for communications anxiety and analyzed to determine if there was a noticeable reduction of anxiety after the training. Anxiety was reduced in all of the volunteers in this study.

  6. The Black Seventh-Day Adventist exploratory health study.

    PubMed

    Nyenhuis, David L; Gorelick, Philip B; Easley, Cheryl; Garron, David C; Harris, Yvonne; Richardson, DeJuran; Raman, Rema; Levy, Paul

    2003-01-01

    African Americans are at high risk for stroke and dementia. Modifications of lifestyle, however, might lower this risk. The Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) Church encourages both spiritual adherence and a healthy lifestyle. Members are encouraged to exercise and are discouraged from smoking, drinking alcoholic or caffeinated beverages, or eating meat. The present study describes an exploratory project in 2 Black SDA congregations (N = 82) designed to characterize the lifestyle, dietary, and spiritual health habits of these congregations, and to test the feasibility of collecting such information in the Black SDA community at large. Three separate data collection methods are described and evaluated. Data demonstrate that the sample differs significantly from the African-American community at large in dietary, lifestyle, and spiritual health habits. The Black SDA community represents a unique opportunity to test the effects of diet, lifestyle, and spirituality on risk for stroke and dementia.

  7. Factors in students' seat selection: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Losonczy-Marshall, Marta; Marshall, P Douglas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for students' seat selection. Participants were 346 college students (14% freshmen, 47% sophomores, 24% juniors, and 14% seniors) from 12 classes (six sections of two courses). A 20-item questionnaire was used to ask students why they chose their seats in class. An exploratory factor analysis reduced the items to five seat-selection factors: Performance, Social, Asocial, Noticeability, and Environment. Seat selection factors were analyzed in terms of seating location: by row, by front/middle/back of the room, by center versus perimeter of the room, and by mid-room versus sides of the room. Performance and Noticeability ratings decreased by row from the front toward the back of the room. The Asocial factor was rated higher by those who sat in the back of the room, while the Environment factor was rated higher by those who sat in the center of the room.

  8. Exploratory Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Air Pollution in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Golay, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution in the city is an important problem influencing environment, well-being of society, economy, management of urban zones, etc. The problem is extremely difficult due to a very complex distribution of the pollution sources, morphology of the city and dispersion processes leading to multivariate nature of the phenomena and high local spatial-temporal variability. The task of understanding, modelling and prediction of spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in urban zones is an interesting and challenging topic having many research axes from science-based modelling to geostatistics and data mining. The present research mainly deals with a comprehensive exploratory analysis of spatial-temporal air pollution data using statistical, geostatistical and machine learning tools. This analysis helps to 1) understand and model spatial-temporal correlations using variography, 2) explore the temporal evolution of spatial correlation matrix; 3) analyse and visualize an interconnection between measurement stations using network science tools; 4) quantify the availability and predictability of structured patterns. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of canton Geneva (2002-2011). Carbon dioxide (NO2) have caught our attention. It has effects on health: nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs, effects on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are reducing the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxides increase the corrosion. Well-defined patterns of spatial-temporal correlations were detected. The analysis and visualization of spatial correlation matrix for 91 stations were carried out using the network science tools and high levels of clustering were revealed. Moving Window Correlation Matrix and Spatio-temporal variography methods were applied to define and explore the dynamic of our data. More than just

  9. Final Project Report: "Exploratory Research: Mercury Stable Isotopes as Indicators of the Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury"

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    This is the final project report for award DE-SC0005351, which supported the research project "Exploratory Research: Mercury Stable Isotopes as Indicators of the Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury. "This exploratory project investigated the use of mercury (Hg) stable isotope measurements as a new approach to study how Hg moves and changes its chemical form in environmental systems, with particular focus on the East Fork of Poplar Creek (EFPC) near the DOE Y-12 plant (a Hg contamination source). This study developed analytical methods and collected pilot data that have set the stage for more detailed studies and have begun to provide insights into Hg movement and chemical changes. The overall Hg stable isotope approach was effective. The Hg isotope analysis methods yielded high-precision measurements of the sediment, water, and fish samples analyzed; quality control measures demonstrated the precision. The pilot data show that the 202Hg/198Hg, 199Hg/198Hg, and 201Hg/198Hg isotope ratios vary in this system. 202Hg/198Hg ratios of the Hg released from the Y-12 plant are relatively high, and those of the regional Hg background in soils and river sediments are significantly lower. Unfortunately, 202Hg/198Hg differences that might have been useful to distinguish early Hg releases from later releases were not observed. However, 202Hg/198Hg ratios in sediments do provide insights into chemical transformations that may occur as Hg moves through the system. Furthermore, 199Hg/198Hg and 201Hg/198Hg ratio analyses of fish tissues indicate that the effects of sunlight-driven chemical reactions on the Hg that eventually ends up in EFPC fish are measureable, but small. These results provide a starting point for a more detailed study (already begun at Univ. of Michigan) that will continue Hg isotope ratio work aimed at improving understanding of how Hg moves, changes chemically, and does or does not take on more highly toxic forms in the Oak Ridge area. This work also benefits

  10. Pulsatile dry cupping in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee – a randomized controlled exploratory trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cupping is used in various traditional medicine forms to relieve pain in musculoskeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cupping in relieving the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In a two-group, randomized controlled exploratory pilot study patients with a clinically and radiological confirmed knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale: 2-4) and a pain intensity > 40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) were included. 40 Patients were randomized to either 8 sessions of pulsatile dry cupping within 4 weeks or no intervention (control). Paracetamol was allowed on demand for both groups. Outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score, the pain intensity on a VAS (0 mm = no pain to 100 mm = maximum intensity) and Quality of Life (SF-36) 4 and 12 weeks after randomization. Use of Paracetamol was documented within the 4-week treatment period. Analyses were performed by analysis of covariance adjusting for the baseline value for each outcome. Results 21 patients were allocated to the cupping group (5 male; mean age 68 ± SD 7.2) and 19 to the control group (8 male; 69 ± 6.8). After 4 weeks the WOMAC global score improved significantly more in the cupping group with a mean of 27.7 (95% confidence interval 22.1; 33.3) compared to 42.2 (36.3; 48.1) in the control group (p = 0.001). After 12 weeks the WOMAC global score were still significantly different in favor for cupping (31.0 (24.9; 37.2) vs. 40.8 (34.4; 47.3) p = 0.032), however the WOMAC subscores for pain and stiffness were not significant anymore. Significantly better outcomes in the cupping group were also observed for pain intensity on VAS and for the SF-36 Physical Component Scale compared to the control group after 4 and 12 weeks. No significant difference was observed for the SF-36 Mental Component Scale and the total number of consumed Paracetamol tablets

  11. NOx analyser interefence from alkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Lee, J. D.; Vazquez, M.; Munoz, A.; Rodenas, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, collectively NOx) are critical intermediates in atmospheric chemistry. NOx abundance controls the levels of the primary atmospheric oxidants OH, NO3 and O3, and regulates the ozone production which results from the degradation of volatile organic compounds. NOx are also atmospheric pollutants in their own right, and NO2 is commonly included in air quality objectives and regulations. In addition to their role in controlling ozone formation, NOx levels affect the production of other pollutants such as the lachrymator PAN, and the nitrate component of secondary aerosol particles. Consequently, accurate measurement of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere is of major importance for understanding our atmosphere. The most widely employed approach for the measurement of NOx is chemiluminescent detection of NO2* from the NO + O3 reaction, combined with NO2 reduction by either a heated catalyst or photoconvertor. The reaction between alkenes and ozone is also chemiluminescent; therefore alkenes may contribute to the measured NOx signal, depending upon the instrumental background subtraction cycle employed. This interference has been noted previously, and indeed the effect has been used to measure both alkenes and ozone in the atmosphere. Here we report the results of a systematic investigation of the response of a selection of NOx analysers, ranging from systems used for routine air quality monitoring to atmospheric research instrumentation, to a series of alkenes ranging from ethene to the biogenic monoterpenes, as a function of conditions (co-reactants, humidity). Experiments were performed in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) to ensure common calibration, a common sample for the monitors, and to unequivocally confirm the alkene (via FTIR) and NO2 (via DOAS) levels present. The instrument responses ranged from negligible levels up to 10 % depending upon the alkene present and conditions used. Such interferences may be of substantial importance

  12. Identity transformation and a changed lifestyle following dramatic weight loss and body-contouring surgery: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew; Soldin, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on two major quality-of-life perception changes for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following dramatic weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The results provide unique glimpses of surgical consumption empowering and facilitating 'identity transformation', embracing improved physical function and enhanced self-esteem, confidence and quality of life, and a 'changed lifestyle'. For a minority, identity transformation was sometimes interrupted by 'identity lag', posing the need for additional health-care support throughout the adjustment process. The study provides additional insight into existing quantitative studies, adding to the body of knowledge in this area.

  13. Role of CCK in anti-exploratory action of paroxetine, 5-HT reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kõks, Sulev; Bourin, Michel; Võikar, Vootele; Soosaar, Andres; Vasar, Eero

    1999-03-01

    The administration of paroxetine (0.5-8 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, induced a dose-dependent reduction of exploratory activity of rats in the motility test. In the elevated plus-maze paroxetine was less effective, only 8 mg/kg of paroxetine decreased the exploratory behaviour of rats. The doses of paroxetine (2-8 mg/kg) reducing the exploratory activity in the motility test increased the density of CCK receptors in the frontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. The treatment of rats with the CCK(B) receptor antagonist LY288,513 (0.01-1 mg/kg) did not change the exploratory activity. However, the reduction of exploratory activity induced by the low dose of paroxetine (2 mg/kg), but not by the higher dose (8 mg/kg), was dose-dependently reversed by the administration of LY288,513. Moreover, LY288,513 did not affect the anti-exploratory action of paroxetine (8 mg/kg) in the elevated plus-maze. Diazepam at doses (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) not suppressing the locomotor activity did not change the anti-exploratory action of paroxetine in the motility test. It is likely that the anti-exploratory action of a low dose of paroxetine (2 mg/kg) is not related to the increase in anxiety, but rather to the reduction of exploratory drive. Evidence exists that this effect of paroxetine is mediated via the activation of CCK-ergic transmission.

  14. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  16. EEO Implications of Job Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, D. Patrick, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses job analyses as they relate to the requirements of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Argues that job analyses can establish the job-relatedness of entrance requirements and aid in defenses against charges of discrimination. Journal availability: see EA 511 615.

  17. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A impairs sexual differentiation of exploratory behavior and increases depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Kubo, Kazuhiko; Aou, Shuji

    2006-01-12

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA, 0.1 and 1 ppm in drinking water applied to mother rats for 6 weeks) has been shown to impair the sexual differentiation in exploratory behavior, but the exact critical period of this disrupting effect is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA (0.1 ppm in drinking water applied to dams during the final week of pregnant) on emotional and learning behaviors in addition to exploratory behavior. Estimated daily intake was 15 microg/kg/day, below the reference dose (RfD) in the United States and the daily tolerable intake (TDI) in Japan (50 microg/kg/day). The rats were successively tested in open-field test, elevated plus maze test, passive avoidance test and forced swimming test during development from 6 to 9 weeks of juvenile period. Prenatal exposure to BPA mainly affected male rats and abolished sex differences in rearing behavior in the open-field test and struggling behavior in the forced swimming test. BPA increased the immobility of male rats in the forced swimming test. The avoidance learning and behaviors in the elevated plus maze were not affected. The present study demonstrates that male rats at the final week of prenatal period are sensitive to BPA, which impairs sexual differentiation in rearing and struggling behavior and facilitate depression-like behavior.

  18. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  19. Exploration of heterogeneity in distributed research network drug safety analyses.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W

    2014-12-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were replicated across eight distributed data sources using an identical analytic structure. To evaluate heterogeneity of risk estimates across data sources, the estimates were combined with summary-level data characterizing the population of each data source. Meta-analysis, meta-regression, and plots of the influence on overall results versus contribution to heterogeneity were examined and used to illustrate an approach to heterogeneity assessment. Heterogeneity, as measured by the I-squared statistic, was high with variability across outcomes. Plots of the relationship between influence on overall results and contribution to heterogeneity suggest that certain datasets and characteristics were influential but there was variability dependent on the drug and outcome being assessed. Exploratory meta-regression identified many possible influential factors, but may be subject to ecological bias and false positive conclusions. Distributed data network drug safety analyses can produce heterogeneous risk estimates that may not be easily explained. Approaches illustrated here can be useful for research that is subject to similar problems with heterogeneity. PMID:26052957

  20. Exploration of heterogeneity in distributed research network drug safety analyses.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Zeng, Peng; Ryan, Patrick; Gao, Juan; Sonawane, Kalyani; Teeter, Benjamin; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W

    2014-12-01

    Distributed data networks representing large diverse populations are an expanding focus of drug safety research. However, interpreting results is difficult when treatment effect estimates vary across datasets (i.e., heterogeneity). In a previous study, risk estimates were generated for selected drugs and potential adverse outcomes. Analyses were replicated across eight distributed data sources using an identical analytic structure. To evaluate heterogeneity of risk estimates across data sources, the estimates were combined with summary-level data characterizing the population of each data source. Meta-analysis, meta-regression, and plots of the influence on overall results versus contribution to heterogeneity were examined and used to illustrate an approach to heterogeneity assessment. Heterogeneity, as measured by the I-squared statistic, was high with variability across outcomes. Plots of the relationship between influence on overall results and contribution to heterogeneity suggest that certain datasets and characteristics were influential but there was variability dependent on the drug and outcome being assessed. Exploratory meta-regression identified many possible influential factors, but may be subject to ecological bias and false positive conclusions. Distributed data network drug safety analyses can produce heterogeneous risk estimates that may not be easily explained. Approaches illustrated here can be useful for research that is subject to similar problems with heterogeneity.

  1. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  2. Enhancement of ethylenethiourea recoveries in food analyses by addition of cysteine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sack, C A

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of cysteine hydrochloride (Cys-HCl) as a preservative of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in product matrixes and during analysis was studied. ETU recoveries were adversely affected by certain product matrixes when fortified directly into the product. Recoveries in 8 selected food items were 0-92% when analyzed 30 min after fortification and 0-51% when analyzed after 24 h. When Cys-HCl was added to product prior to fortification, recoveries increased to 71-95% even after frozen storage for 2-4 weeks. Cys-HCl was added during analysis of 53 untreated items. Recoveries improved an average of 15% with Cys-HCl. Without Cys-HCl, recoveries were erratic (20-98%), but with Cys-HCl, recoveries were 68-113%. Other antioxidants (sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and vitamins A and C) also were evaluated as ETU preservatives. When lettuce was treated first with sodium sulfite and then fortified with ETU, recoveries averaged 86%; without sodium sulfite, they averaged 1%. The other antioxidants were less effective for preserving ETU in lettuce, giving only 8-46% recoveries. The effect of oxidizers (potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) on ETU recovery was also determined. Recovery of ETU from a baby food product (pears and pineapple) was 82%; with oxidizers, recoveries were 0-8%.

  3. Computer-Based Exploratory Learning Systems for Communication-Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geoffrion, Leo D.; Goldenberg, E. Paul

    1981-01-01

    A rationale for exploratory learning via computers is presented, emphasizing the need for modeling normal communication development in children with communication handicaps, including deafness, cerebral palsy, and autism. (Author/CL)

  4. Unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observation. Volume 2: Calculations and derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Delp, Steve E.; Guidry, Michelle A.; Lisano, Michael E.; Packard, James D.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the final report on the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) details all calculations, derivations, and computer programs that support the information presented in the first volume.

  5. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rossignol, Elsa; Rice, Margaret E; Machold, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transmission is critical for exploratory motor behaviour. A key regulator is acetylcholine; forebrain acetylcholine regulates striatal dopamine release, whereas brainstem cholinergic inputs regulate the transition of dopamine neurons from tonic to burst firing modes. How these sources of cholinergic activity combine to control dopamine efflux and exploratory motor behaviour is unclear. Here we show that mice lacking total forebrain acetylcholine exhibit enhanced frequency-dependent striatal dopamine release and are hyperactive in a novel environment, whereas mice lacking rostral brainstem acetylcholine are hypoactive. Exploratory motor behaviour is normalized by the removal of both cholinergic sources. Involvement of dopamine in the exploratory motor phenotypes observed in these mutants is indicated by their altered sensitivity to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity.

  6. Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David P.

    1999-01-01

    The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing

  7. An improved exploratory search technique for pure integer linear programming problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogle, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development is documented of a heuristic method for the solution of pure integer linear programming problems. The procedure draws its methodology from the ideas of Hooke and Jeeves type 1 and 2 exploratory searches, greedy procedures, and neighborhood searches. It uses an efficient rounding method to obtain its first feasible integer point from the optimal continuous solution obtained via the simplex method. Since this method is based entirely on simple addition or subtraction of one to each variable of a point in n-space and the subsequent comparison of candidate solutions to a given set of constraints, it facilitates significant complexity improvements over existing techniques. It also obtains the same optimal solution found by the branch-and-bound technique in 44 of 45 small to moderate size test problems. Two example problems are worked in detail to show the inner workings of the method. Furthermore, using an established weighted scheme for comparing computational effort involved in an algorithm, a comparison of this algorithm is made to the more established and rigorous branch-and-bound method. A computer implementation of the procedure, in PC compatible Pascal, is also presented and discussed.

  8. Study protocol—an exploratory trial on health promoting schools at Dutch secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Petrus Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural domains simultaneously via a combination of education, creating a healthy environment and introducing healthy behavioural policies. Additionally, extensive partnerships are formed between schools, parents, neighbourhoods and youth health authorities to coordinate health promotion efforts. Study design and data collection methods The intervention will be implemented at two secondary schools. Results will be compared with two control schools (n≈1500). The intervention’s effectiveness in changing student behaviours as well as physical and psychosocial health status along with qualitative lessons learned on the integration of youth health care services and school health education practices are the main aimed outcomes of this study. Data are collected via a mixed methods design combining an annual youth health (behaviour) monitor with a qualitative process evaluation via interviews with key stakeholders. Data analysis A multilevel analysis is performed combined with a systematic analysis of qualitative interview data. Conclusions This study will produce an evaluation of a comprehensive health promoting school intervention that combines an integrated approach of schools, neighbourhoods, families and youth health services to improve adolescent health. PMID:22977424

  9. Pain intensity rating training: results from an exploratory study of the ACTTION PROTECCT system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon M; Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Hunsinger, Matthew; Jensen, Mark P; McDermott, Michael P; Patel, Kushang V; Williams, Mark; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Burke, Laurie B; Chambers, Christine T; Cooper, Stephen A; Cowan, Penney; Desjardins, Paul; Etropolski, Mila; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Huang, I-zu; Katz, Mitchell; Kerns, Robert D; Kopecky, Ernest A; Rappaport, Bob A; Resnick, Malca; Strand, Vibeke; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Veasley, Christin; Versavel, Mark; Wasan, Ajay D; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Clinical trial participants often require additional instruction to prevent idiosyncratic interpretations regarding completion of patient-reported outcomes. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership developed a training system with specific, standardized guidance regarding daily average pain intensity ratings. A 3-week exploratory study among participants with low-back pain, osteoarthritis of the knee or hip, and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy was conducted, randomly assigning participants to 1 of 3 groups: training with human pain assessment (T+); training with automated pain assessment (T); or no training with automated pain assessment (C). Although most measures of validity and reliability did not reveal significant differences between groups, some benefit was observed in discriminant validity, amount of missing data, and ranking order of least, worst, and average pain intensity ratings for participants in Group T+ compared with the other groups. Prediction of greater reliability in average pain intensity ratings in Group T+ compared with the other groups was not supported, which might indicate that training produces ratings that reflect the reality of temporal pain fluctuations. Results of this novel study suggest the need to test the training system in a prospective analgesic treatment trial. PMID:27058680

  10. Exploratory Analysis of Biological Networks through Visualization, Clustering, and Functional Annotation in Cytoscape.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks define how genes, proteins, and other cellular components interact with one another to carry out specific functions, providing a scaffold for understanding cellular organization. Although in-depth network analysis requires advanced mathematical and computational knowledge, a preliminary visual exploration of biological networks is accessible to anyone with basic computer skills. Visualization of biological networks is used primarily to examine network topology, identify functional modules, and predict gene functions based on gene connectivity within the network. Networks are excellent at providing a bird's-eye view of data sets and have the power of illustrating complex ideas in simple and intuitive terms. In addition, they enable exploratory analysis and generation of new hypotheses, which can then be tested using rigorous statistical and experimental tools. This protocol describes a simple procedure for visualizing a biological network using the genetic interaction similarity network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an example. The visualization procedure described here relies on the open-source network visualization software Cytoscape and includes detailed instructions on formatting and loading the data, clustering networks, and overlaying functional annotations. PMID:26988373

  11. Nicotine-Cadmium Interaction Alters Exploratory Motor Function and Increased Anxiety in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chris Ajonijebu, Duyilemi; Adeyemi Adeniyi, Philip; Oloruntoba Adekeye, Adeshina; Peter Olatunji, Babawale; Olakunle Ishola, Azeez; Michael Ogundele, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the time dependence in cadmium-nicotine interaction and its effect on motor function, anxiety linked behavioural changes, serum electrolytes, and weight after acute and chronic treatment in adult male mice. Animals were separated randomly into four groups of n = 6 animals each. Treatment was done with nicotine, cadmium, or nicotine-cadmium for 21 days. A fourth group received normal saline for the same duration (control). Average weight was determined at 7-day interval for the acute (D1-D7) and chronic (D7-D21) treatment phases. Similarly, the behavioural tests for exploratory motor function (open field test) and anxiety were evaluated. Serum electrolytes were measured after the chronic phase. Nicotine, cadmium, and nicotine-cadmium treatments caused no significant change in body weight after the acute phase while cadmium-nicotine and cadmium caused a decline in weight after the chronic phase. This suggests the role of cadmium in the weight loss observed in tobacco smoke users. Both nicotine and cadmium raised serum Ca2+ concentration and had no significant effect on K+ ion when compared with the control. In addition, nicotine-cadmium treatment increased bioaccumulation of Cd2+ in the serum which corresponded to a decrease in body weight, motor function, and an increase in anxiety. PMID:26317007

  12. Exploratory Studies on Biomarkers: An Example Study on Brown Adipose Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    In mammals, two kinds of adipose tissue are known to exist, i.e., white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue. The physiological role of WAT is storage of excess energy as fat, whereas that of BAT is the expenditure of excess energy as heat. The uncoupling protein UCP1, which is specifically expressed in brown fat mitochondria, dissipates the proton electrochemical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane, known as a driving force of ATP synthesis, and thus it dissipates excess energy in a form of heat. Because deficiency in effective expenditure of excess energy causes accumulation of this energy in the form of fat (i.e., obesity), it is very important to understand the energy metabolism in this tissue for the development of anti-obesity drugs. In this article, in addition to providing a brief introduction to the functional properties of BAT and UCP1, the results of our exploratory studies on protein components involved in the energy-dissipating function in BAT.

  13. The identification of factors linked to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duguay, Francois; Katsanis, Lea Prevel; Thakor, Mrugank V

    2003-01-01

    In this exploratory study, Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory was used to identify which factors are likely to contribute to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals (TG-Bs). These products are not yet available to the general public. A scale was designed to assess three of five core attributes related to the potential adoption rate of innovations (Rogers 1995), as well as to measure potential acceptance characteristics for biotechnology products. These attributes were relative advantage, compatibility with existing values, and complexity. In addition, two other characteristics were included: knowledge (Gartrell and Gartrell 1979) and perceived risks (Bauer 1960). The survey was completed by 74 consumers (78% response rate) using convenience sampling. The research findings show that Rogers' three core attributes are supported, but that knowledge andperceived risks were excluded from the model. The model for transgenic biopharmaceuticals consists of: 1. Consumer-related benefits (positively correlated to potential adoption). 2. New types of animals (negatively correlated to potential 3. Perceived complexity (negatively correlated to potential adoption). All the scaled items developed for this study were highly significant, which indicates that they can be used successfully by other researchers working in this field. As TG-Bs are a discontinuous innovation, biotechnology companies may need to present the benefits of these products, as well as the ease of their use prior to their launch, in order to increase their potential acceptance by consumers. PMID:15271632

  14. Pain intensity rating training: results from an exploratory study of the ACTTION PROTECCT system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon M; Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Hunsinger, Matthew; Jensen, Mark P; McDermott, Michael P; Patel, Kushang V; Williams, Mark; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Burke, Laurie B; Chambers, Christine T; Cooper, Stephen A; Cowan, Penney; Desjardins, Paul; Etropolski, Mila; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Huang, I-zu; Katz, Mitchell; Kerns, Robert D; Kopecky, Ernest A; Rappaport, Bob A; Resnick, Malca; Strand, Vibeke; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Veasley, Christin; Versavel, Mark; Wasan, Ajay D; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Clinical trial participants often require additional instruction to prevent idiosyncratic interpretations regarding completion of patient-reported outcomes. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership developed a training system with specific, standardized guidance regarding daily average pain intensity ratings. A 3-week exploratory study among participants with low-back pain, osteoarthritis of the knee or hip, and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy was conducted, randomly assigning participants to 1 of 3 groups: training with human pain assessment (T+); training with automated pain assessment (T); or no training with automated pain assessment (C). Although most measures of validity and reliability did not reveal significant differences between groups, some benefit was observed in discriminant validity, amount of missing data, and ranking order of least, worst, and average pain intensity ratings for participants in Group T+ compared with the other groups. Prediction of greater reliability in average pain intensity ratings in Group T+ compared with the other groups was not supported, which might indicate that training produces ratings that reflect the reality of temporal pain fluctuations. Results of this novel study suggest the need to test the training system in a prospective analgesic treatment trial.

  15. Exploratory studies in sensory reinforcement in male rats: effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Gancarz, Amy M; Ashrafioun, Lisham; San George, Michele A; Hausknecht, Kathy A; Hawk, Larry W; Richards, Jerry B

    2012-02-01

    Understanding sensory reinforcement and the effects of stimulant drugs on sensory reinforcers is potentially important for understanding their influence on addiction processes. Experiment 1 explored the reinforcing properties of a visual stimulus and the effects of methamphetamine (METH) on responding maintained by a visual reinforcer (VRF) in male rats. Snout poke responses to the active alternative produced the VRF according to variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement, and responses to an inactive alternative had no programmed effect. Experiment 2 explored the effects of METH on choice between the VRF and a water reinforcer (H2ORF) using concurrent VI schedules in male rats. In Experiment 1, response-contingent onset of the VRF produced an increase in both the relative frequency and absolute rate of active responding. The rate of both active and inactive responding declined across the 40-min test sessions. METH did not differentially enhance active responding for the VRF. Instead, METH nondifferentially increased the rate of responding and attenuated the within-session decline of responding. In Experiment 2, METH differentially increased the rate of responding for the VRF relative to the H2ORF. The results of these exploratory experiments indicate that the reinforcing effects of the VRF were weak and transient. In addition, METH treatment increased responding, and the specificity of the enhancement of METH was dependent upon the testing conditions. Potential explanations of these differences, such as novelty and reinforcer type, are discussed. PMID:21942261

  16. Long-Term Association Between Developmental Assets and Health Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Based on internal and external assets, the positive youth development approach aims to increase the capacity among adolescents to overcome challenges as they transition to adulthood. Developmental assets have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement, a variety of health promoting behaviors, and improved physical and mental health. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the long-term association between positive youth developmental assets with health risk and promoting behaviors. Method A continuous scale of developmental assets was created using 30 items from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, when participants were in 7th to 12th grades. Health behavior outcomes including cigarette use, substance use, fast food consumption, and physical activity were measured at both Wave III (age 18-26) and Wave IV (age 24-32). Path analysis was employed to assess the relationship between these observed measures. Results The well-fitted path model revealed associations between developmental assets with each health behavior at Wave III. Developmental assets indirectly influenced each health behavior and direct associations were observed between assets with substance use and physical activity at Wave IV. Conclusion Findings provide additional support for the developmental assets approach to adolescent health. Implications include Healthy People 2020 objectives related to tobacco and alcohol use and nutrition and physical activity. PMID:26462541

  17. Exploratory studies in sensory reinforcement in male rats: effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Gancarz, Amy M; Ashrafioun, Lisham; San George, Michele A; Hausknecht, Kathy A; Hawk, Larry W; Richards, Jerry B

    2012-02-01

    Understanding sensory reinforcement and the effects of stimulant drugs on sensory reinforcers is potentially important for understanding their influence on addiction processes. Experiment 1 explored the reinforcing properties of a visual stimulus and the effects of methamphetamine (METH) on responding maintained by a visual reinforcer (VRF) in male rats. Snout poke responses to the active alternative produced the VRF according to variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement, and responses to an inactive alternative had no programmed effect. Experiment 2 explored the effects of METH on choice between the VRF and a water reinforcer (H2ORF) using concurrent VI schedules in male rats. In Experiment 1, response-contingent onset of the VRF produced an increase in both the relative frequency and absolute rate of active responding. The rate of both active and inactive responding declined across the 40-min test sessions. METH did not differentially enhance active responding for the VRF. Instead, METH nondifferentially increased the rate of responding and attenuated the within-session decline of responding. In Experiment 2, METH differentially increased the rate of responding for the VRF relative to the H2ORF. The results of these exploratory experiments indicate that the reinforcing effects of the VRF were weak and transient. In addition, METH treatment increased responding, and the specificity of the enhancement of METH was dependent upon the testing conditions. Potential explanations of these differences, such as novelty and reinforcer type, are discussed.

  18. Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A.; Kessel, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

  19. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  20. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs.

  1. Work problems after breast cancer: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Maunsell, E; Brisson, C; Dubois, L; Lauzier, S; Fraser, A

    1999-01-01

    People treated for cancer have reported a variety of problems at work. However, there is little data on work experience after breast cancer, particularly for women treated in recent years. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 13 breast cancer survivors who had paid employment at diagnosis, returned to work afterwards, and mentioned work-related problems to a clinic nurse or physician. Unstructured, thematic interviews were undertaken. Qualitative thematic content analysis was conducted to identify and group themes which emerged from participants' discourse. Women in various types of jobs reported experiencing job loss, demotion, unwanted changes in tasks, problems with the employer and co-workers, personal changes in attitudes to work and diminished physical capacity. These work problems also preoccupied people treated for cancer more than two decades ago. New areas of concern also emerged: possible positive and negative effects of learning (implicitly or explicitly) about the diagnosis while at work and lack of discussion with health professionals about work and return-to-work issues, suggesting that health professionals' behaviour may influence women's work experience right from diagnosis. The identification of these new problems and confirmation of previously reported ones underlines the pertinence of determining how important and widespread these problems are in women now being treated for breast cancer.

  2. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  4. Model of Exploratory Search for Mating Partners by Fission Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Daniel; Bendezu, Felipe; Martin, Sophie; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    During conditions of nitrogen starvation, the model eukaryote S. pombe (fission yeast) undergoes sexual sporulation. Because fission yeast are non-motile, contact between opposite mating types during spore formation is accomplished by polarizing growth, via the Rho GTP-ase Cdc42, in each mating type towards the selected mate, a process known as shmooing. Recent findings showed that cells pick one of their neighboring compatible mates by randomizing the position of the Cdc42 complex about the cell membrane, such that the complex is stabilized near areas of high concentration of the opposite mating type pheromone. We developed Monte Carlo simulations to model partner finding in populations of mating cells and in small cell clusters. We assume that pheromones are secreted at the site of Cdc42 accumulation and that the Cdc42 dwell time increases in response to increasing pheromone concentration. We measured the number of cells that succeed in successful reciprocal pairing, the number of cells that were unable to find a partner, and the number of cells that picked a partner already engaged with another cell. For optimal cell pairing, we find the pheromone concentration decay length is around 1 micron, of order the cell size. We show that non-linear response of Cdc42 dwell time to pheromone concentration improves the number of successful pairs for a given spatial cell distribution. We discuss how these results compare to non-exploratory pairing mechanisms.

  5. An exploratory study on attitudes toward inclusive education in Russia.

    PubMed

    Martz, Erin

    2005-06-01

    This exploratory study examined the attitudes toward inclusive education among Russian teachers, administrators and parents of students with and without disabilities (n=176). The results indicated that while there were no significant differences among teachers, administrators and parents of students with and without disabilities on overall attitudes toward inclusive education, there were significant differences in perspectives about the possible time-frame for implementing inclusive education. Generally speaking, school administrators and teachers tended to express the belief that inclusive education could be a reality even today, though many of this group thought that it might be a question of the near future or undefined future. Both groups of parents tended to think that inclusive education could occur in an undefined future. There were significant differences among the three groups about perceptions of responsibility for implementing inclusive education. Administrators, teachers and parents of students with disabilities viewed it as a responsibility of the school, while parents of students without disabilities viewed it as the government's duty. Further, the majority of respondents reported the lack of necessary conditions in schools and the lack of government policies and finances as the main barriers to inclusive education. These findings suggest two areas of intervention to promote the implementation of inclusive education in Russia: physical accessibility of schools and government support.

  6. Factors Affecting Nurses’ Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Azimian, Jalil; Negarandeh, Reza; Fakhr- Movahedi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aim: One of the most important factors contributing to staff shortage is nurses’ ineffective coping with transitions. Changes in nurses’ official positions are usually associated with varying degrees of transition. Identification of affecting factors on nurses’ coping in responding to transition can promote quality of nursing activity and prevent nurses’ shortage. So the aim of this study was to explore factors affecting nurses’ coping with transitions. Methods: The participant of this exploratory qualitative study consisted of sixteen nurses that were work in medical wards of four hospitals in Qazvin, Iran. Data collected by semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The main theme of the study was ‘inadequate preparation for transition’. This theme consisted of six categories including “staff training and development”, “professional relationships”, “perceived level of support”, “professional accountability and commitment”, “welfare services”, and “nursing staff shortage”. Conclusion: Nursing managers and policy makers need to pay special attention to the affecting factors on nurses’ coping with transition and develop effective strategies for facilitating it. PMID:25363117

  7. Aging and the Effects of Exploratory Behavior on Spatial Memory.

    PubMed

    Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W

    2016-03-01

    The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration.

  8. Moral content and assignment marking: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin; Snelling, Paul C

    2006-08-01

    This small scale exploratory survey investigates the relation between the moral content of student assignments and potential marking behaviour by lecturers. A questionnaire containing a number of deliberately discriminatory statements was sent to a sample of nurse academics, and participants were asked to indicate whether the inclusion of these statements might affect the mark awarded. The sample was too small to undertake tests of statistical significance. However, the results tentatively suggest that a majority of participants would penalise assignments that contain morally questionable statements, and many would cite the code of professional conduct in justification. There appeared to be little difference in the response to statements that offered opinions (normative) or described actions (descriptive). However, differences between responses to statements discriminating against different groups were apparent, with racist statements being penalised more often and with greater severity than other categories. Qualitative data support the quantitative data. Several areas for discussion are identified, including the academic status of nursing, the use of the code of professional conduct, the moral claims made for nurses, a potential 'hierarchy of wrongness', student self censorship, and inconsistency in marking. Further research is justified. PMID:16458999

  9. Lidar for Guidance of a Spacecraft or Exploratory Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Bunker, Robert; Mobasser, Sohrab; Padgett, Curtis; Chapsky, Jacob; Spiers, Gary; Bartman, Randall; Newell, Michael; Abramovici, Alexander; Hemmati, Hemad; San Martin, Alejandro; Chu, Chengchih; Roberts, William; Wright, Malcolm; Dillon, James W.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Tratt, David M.; Warfield, Zachary G.; Calvet, Robert; Hausmann, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the Laser Mapper (LAMP) -- a lightweight, compact, low-power lidar system under development for guidance of a spacecraft or exploratory robotic vehicle (rover) at Mars or another planet. The LAMP is intended especially for use during rendezvous of two spacecraft in orbit, for mapping terrain during descent and landing of a spacecraft, for capturing a sample that has been launched into orbit, or navigation and avoidance of obstacles by a rover traversing terrain. The LAMP includes a laser that emits high-power, short light pulses. The laser beam is aimed in azimuth and elevation by use of a mirror on a two-axis gimbal, which scans the beam across a field of regard. Light reflected by a target is collected by a telescope, and the distance to the target is determined by measuring the round-trip travel time for reflected light pulses. The distance information is combined with directional information to construct a three-dimensional map of targets in the field of regard.

  10. Coagulation activation in sickle cell trait: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Amin, Chirag; Adam, Soheir; Mooberry, Micah J; Kutlar, Abdullah; Kutlar, Ferdane; Esserman, Denise; Brittain, Julia E; Ataga, Kenneth I; Chang, Jen-Yea; Wolberg, Alisa S; Key, Nigel S

    2015-11-01

    Recent epidemiologic data suggest that sickle cell trait (HbAS; AS) is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We conducted an exploratory study of healthy subjects with AS under baseline conditions to determine whether a chronic basal hyperactivation of coagulation exists, and if so, what mechanism(s) contribute to this state. Eighteen healthy AS individuals were compared to 22 African-American controls with a normal haemoglobin profile (HbAA; AA) and 17 patients with sickle cell disease (HbSS; SS). Plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimer levels were elevated in AS relative to AA patients (P = 0·0385 and P = 0·017, respectively), and as expected, were much higher in SSversusAA (P < 0·0001 for both). Thrombin generation in platelet poor plasma was indistinguishable between AA and AS subjects, whereas a paradoxical decrease in endogenous thrombin potential was observed in SS (P ≤ 0·0001). Whole blood tissue factor was elevated in SS compared to AA (P = 0·005), but did not differ between AA and AS. Plasma microparticle tissue factor activity was non-significantly elevated in AS (P = 0·051), but was clearly elevated in SS patients (P = 0·004) when compared to AA controls. Further studies in larger cohorts of subjects with sickle cell trait are needed to confirm the results of this preliminary investigation.

  11. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.D.; Craib, K.J.; Choi, B.C.; Miller, A.B.; Risch, H.A.; Howe, G.R.

    1987-04-01

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies.

  12. Neuronal network analyses: premises, promises and uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal networks assemble the cellular components needed for sensory, motor and cognitive functions. Any rational intervention in the nervous system will thus require an understanding of network function. Obtaining this understanding is widely considered to be one of the major tasks facing neuroscience today. Network analyses have been performed for some years in relatively simple systems. In addition to the direct insights these systems have provided, they also illustrate some of the difficulties of understanding network function. Nevertheless, in more complex systems (including human), claims are made that the cellular bases of behaviour are, or will shortly be, understood. While the discussion is necessarily limited, this issue will examine these claims and highlight some traditional and novel aspects of network analyses and their difficulties. This introduction discusses the criteria that need to be satisfied for network understanding, and how they relate to traditional and novel approaches being applied to addressing network function. PMID:20603354

  13. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  14. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  15. When cells divide: Label-free multimodal spectral imaging for exploratory molecular investigation of living cells during cytokinesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jen-Fang; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    In vivo, molecular-level investigation of cytokinesis, the climax of the cell cycle, not only deepens our understanding of how life continues, but it will also open up new possibilities of diagnosis/prognosis of cancer cells. Although fluorescence-based methods have been widely employed to address this challenge, they require a fluorophore to be designed for a specific known biomolecule and introduced into the cell. Here, we present a label-free spectral imaging approach based on multivariate curve resolution analysis of Raman hyperspectral data that enables exploratory untargeted studies of mammalian cell cytokinesis. We derived intrinsic vibrational spectra and intracellular distributions of major biomolecular components (lipids and proteins) in dividing and nondividing human colon cancer cells. In addition, we discovered an unusual autofluorescent lipid component that appears predominantly in the vicinity of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. This autofluorescence signal could be utilized as an endogenous probe for monitoring and visualizing cytokinesis in vivo.

  16. When cells divide: Label-free multimodal spectral imaging for exploratory molecular investigation of living cells during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jen-Fang; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Hsin-Yun; Shigeto, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    In vivo, molecular-level investigation of cytokinesis, the climax of the cell cycle, not only deepens our understanding of how life continues, but it will also open up new possibilities of diagnosis/prognosis of cancer cells. Although fluorescence-based methods have been widely employed to address this challenge, they require a fluorophore to be designed for a specific known biomolecule and introduced into the cell. Here, we present a label-free spectral imaging approach based on multivariate curve resolution analysis of Raman hyperspectral data that enables exploratory untargeted studies of mammalian cell cytokinesis. We derived intrinsic vibrational spectra and intracellular distributions of major biomolecular components (lipids and proteins) in dividing and nondividing human colon cancer cells. In addition, we discovered an unusual autofluorescent lipid component that appears predominantly in the vicinity of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. This autofluorescence signal could be utilized as an endogenous probe for monitoring and visualizing cytokinesis in vivo. PMID:26632877

  17. Results of exploratory drilling for water in Waihanau Valley, Molokai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three exploratory wells, located in lower Waihanau Valley on Molokai, were drilled and tested for their yields during the period May to October 1983. The first well, 582 ft deep, tapped the main water body in a basaltic aquifer intruded by scattered near-parallel volcanic dikes. Water in this water body is impounded by the dikes and has a head of about nine feet above sea level. A 48-hour pumping test was conducted on this well. The well was pumped at various rates ranging from 144 to 455 gal/min for nine hours. Thereafter, the well was pumped for 39 hours at a rate of 156 gal/min approximating the planned operational rate of 150 gal/min. The specific capacities of the well at the rates pumped averaged about 30 gal/min/ft of drawdown. The temperature of the pumped water remained nearly constant at 69 F (20.5 C). The chloride concentration ranged from 19 to 22 mg/L during the test. Analyses of the chemical constituents and trace metals of the water pumped indicated that it was of excellent quality. Based on these results, the well was finished as a production well. A shallow water body perched about 30 ft below ground surface and more than 400 ft above the main water body was discovered during the drilling of the first well when about 50 gal/min of water cascaded down the well. Two wells were drilled to depths of 200 and 150 ft, respectively, to explore this perched water. The yields obtained from this perched water body were low and indicated that its development was not feasible. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Posture and mobility of the upper body quadrant and pulmonary function in COPD: an exploratory study *

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Nuno; Cruz, Joana; Marques, Alda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background There is limited evidence regarding interactions between pulmonary (dys)function, posture, and mobility of the upper body quadrant in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives This exploratory study aimed to investigate whether postural alignment and mobility of the upper quadrant are related to changes in pulmonary function and compare such variables between patients with COPD and healthy individuals. Method Fifteen patients with COPD (67.93±9.71yrs) and 15 healthy controls (66.80±7.47yrs) participated. Pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC) was assessed with spirometry. Alignment and mobility of the head, thoracic spine, and shoulder were assessed using digital photographs. Pectoralis minor muscle (PmM) length and thoracic excursion were assessed with a measuring tape. Groups were compared and linear regression analyses were used to assess potential relationships between postural and mobility variables and pulmonary function. Results Patients with COPD were more likely to have a forward head position at maximal protraction (28.81±7.30º vs. 35.91±8.56º, p=0.02) and overall mobility of the head (21.81±10.42º vs. 13.40±7.84º, p=0.02) and a smaller range of shoulder flexion (136.71±11.91º vs. 149.08±11.58º, p=0.01) than controls. Patients’ non-dominant PmM length and maximal head protraction were predictors of FEV1 (r2 adjusted=0.34). These variables, together with the upper thoracic spine at maximal flexion and thoracic kyphosis at maximal extension, were predictors of FVC (r2 adjusted=0.68). Conclusion Our findings suggest that impaired pulmonary function is associated with muscle length and mobility adaptations. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms and clinical value of these relationships. PMID:27556391

  19. [Exploratory study on the positive participation in the DMP Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Westphalia Lippe].

    PubMed

    Weller, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study, carried out on behalf of an association of German health insurers, the AOK Bundesverband, examined the positive, subjective effects on patients participating in the Westphalia Lippe DMP Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus ('Curaplan', started June 2003) in terms of coping with diabetes and handling the disease. A two-stage qualitative method was selected: First, 250 respondents were questioned using 15-20 minutes half-structured telephone interviews; approximately 40% of the interviewed reported a subjective improvement related to participation in the Curaplan program. In a second step, in-depth interviews were then carried out with 50 of the respondents who had reported a profit from the program. Analyses proceeded in a phenomenon-oriented fashion according to a differentiation and a general psychological-coping perspective. At a differentiation level, eight modes of coping with the illness were reconstructed, for each of which respondents identified a specific improvement. These were: "Consistent/rational commitment", "Discovery-oriented acceptance of challenge", "Search for illness-mediated compromise", "Anxious quest for increased control", "Blinkered denial", "Hopelessness", "Inability to cope and insecurity", "Selfless low prioritization of disease". At a general level, five central positive dimensions of participation were observed: "Relationship/not being alone", "Meaning/importance", "Knowledge/consciousness", "Ability to manage/competence gain", as well as "Happiness/optimism". These dimensions complemented and supported one another. The results are not statistically representative but contribute to optimized implementation through psychological understanding of the best cases. Further studies should examine correlations of subjective processes with objective variables. PMID:15999584

  20. Incorporating uncertainties into risk assessment with an application to the exploratory studies facilities at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Fathauer, P.M.

    1995-08-01

    A methodology that incorporates variability and reducible sources of uncertainty into the probabilistic and consequence components of risk was developed. The method was applied to the north tunnel of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. In this assessment, variability and reducible sources of uncertainty were characterized and propagated through the risk assessment models using a Monte Carlo based software package. The results were then manipulated into risk curves at the 5% and 95% confidence levels for both the variability and overall uncertainty analyses, thus distinguishing between variability and reducible sources of uncertainty. In the Yucca Mountain application, the designation of the north tunnel as an item important to public safety, as defined by 10 CFR 60, was determined. Specifically, the annual frequency of a rock fall breaching a waste package causing an off-site dose of 500 mrem (5x10{sup -3} Sv) was calculated. The annual frequency, taking variability into account, ranged from 1.9x10{sup -9} per year at the 5% confidence level to 2.5x10{sup -9} per year at the 95% confidence level. The frequency range after including all uncertainty was 9.5x10{sup -10} to 1.8x10{sup -8} per year. The maximum observable frequency, at the 100% confidence level, was 4.9x10{sup -8} per year. This is below the 10{sup -6} per year frequency criteria of 10 CFR 60. Therefore, based on this work, the north tunnel does not fall under the items important to public safety designation for the event studied.

  1. Causes of Health Care Workers’ Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Abusitta, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The exposure of health care workers to antineoplastic drugs is associated with several adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicities and mutagenic effects. Recent studies have confirmed that Canadian health care workers are at risk of exposure to these agents. However, the causes leading to occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs are unknown. Objective: To perform an exploratory study to ascertain the immediate and contributing causes of health care workers’ exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Methods: Participants were recruited from 6 acute care facilities in Vancouver, British Columbia. Those agreeing to participate were asked to complete a questionnaire about previous exposure to antineoplastic drugs while at work and to describe the circumstances of each exposure incident. Responses were qualitatively analyzed, and the causes of each incident were classified as immediate (unsafe work acts and/or unsafe working conditions) or contributing (related to the management of the organization, the environment, and/or the physical and mental status of the worker). Results: Completed questionnaires were received from 120 participants, 18 (15.0%) of whom reported having had previous occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Qualitative analysis of the responses showed 4 categories of immediate causes (needlestick injury, spill, direct contact, and other unintended exposure) and 3 categories of contributing causes (poor communication, inadequate controls, and lack of training). Some incidents had multiple immediate and/or contributing causes. Conclusions: According to a review of the immediate and contributing causes identified in this study, many of the exposure incidents were deemed preventable. A “hierarchy of controls” should be implemented, including (in the following order) engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment. The findings of this study can be used to develop job safety analyses

  2. MethVisual - visualization and exploratory statistical analysis of DNA methylation profiles from bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exploration of DNA methylation and its impact on various regulatory mechanisms has become a very active field of research. Simultaneously there is an arising need for tools to process and analyse the data together with statistical investigation and visualisation. Findings MethVisual is a new application that enables exploratory analysis and intuitive visualization of DNA methylation data as is typically generated by bisulfite sequencing. The package allows the import of DNA methylation sequences, aligns them and performs quality control comparison. It comprises basic analysis steps as lollipop visualization, co-occurrence display of methylation of neighbouring and distant CpG sites, summary statistics on methylation status, clustering and correspondence analysis. The package has been developed for methylation data but can be also used for other data types for which binary coding can be inferred. The application of the package, as well as a comparison to existing DNA methylation analysis tools and its workflow based on two datasets is presented in this paper. Conclusions The R package MethVisual offers various analysis procedures for data that can be binarized, in particular for bisulfite sequenced methylation data. R/Bioconductor has become one of the most important environments for statistical analysis of various types of biological and medical data. Therefore, any data analysis within R that allows the integration of various data types as provided from different technological platforms is convenient. It is the first and so far the only specific package for DNA methylation analysis, in particular for bisulfite sequenced data available in R/Bioconductor enviroment. The package is available for free at http://methvisual.molgen.mpg.de/ and from the Bioconductor Consortium http://www.bioconductor.org. PMID:21159174

  3. Sensitivity to gaze-contingent contrast increments in naturalistic movies: An exploratory report and model comparison

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Thomas S. A.; Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to luminance contrast is a prerequisite for all but the simplest visual systems. To examine contrast increment detection performance in a way that approximates the natural environmental input of the human visual system, we presented contrast increments gaze-contingently within naturalistic video freely viewed by observers. A band-limited contrast increment was applied to a local region of the video relative to the observer's current gaze point, and the observer made a forced-choice response to the location of the target (≈25,000 trials across five observers). We present exploratory analyses showing that performance improved as a function of the magnitude of the increment and depended on the direction of eye movements relative to the target location, the timing of eye movements relative to target presentation, and the spatiotemporal image structure at the target location. Contrast discrimination performance can be modeled by assuming that the underlying contrast response is an accelerating nonlinearity (arising from a nonlinear transducer or gain control). We implemented one such model and examined the posterior over model parameters, estimated using Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods. The parameters were poorly constrained by our data; parameters constrained using strong priors taken from previous research showed poor cross-validated prediction performance. Atheoretical logistic regression models were better constrained and provided similar prediction performance to the nonlinear transducer model. Finally, we explored the properties of an extended logistic regression that incorporates both eye movement and image content features. Models of contrast transduction may be better constrained by incorporating data from both artificial and natural contrast perception settings. PMID:26057546

  4. Exploratory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Response-Guided Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Retèl, Valesca P.; Lederer, Bianca; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Steuten, Lotte M. G.; van Harten, Wim H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guiding response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (guided-NACT) allows for an adaptative treatment approach likely to improve breast cancer survival. In this study, our primary aim is to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of guided-NACT using as a case study the first randomized controlled trial that demonstrated effectiveness (GeparTrio trial). Materials and Methods As effectiveness was shown in hormone-receptor positive (HR+) early breast cancers (EBC), our decision model compared the health-economic outcomes of treating a cohort of such women with guided-NACT to conventional-NACT using clinical input data from the GeparTrio trial. The expected cost-effectiveness and the uncertainty around this estimate were estimated via probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), from a Dutch societal perspective over a 5-year time-horizon. Results Our exploratory CEA predicted that guided-NACT as proposed by the GeparTrio, costs additional €110, but results in 0.014 QALYs gained per patient. This scenario of guided-NACT was considered cost-effective at any willingness to pay per additional QALY. At the prevailing Dutch willingness to pay threshold (€80.000/QALY) cost-effectiveness was expected with 78% certainty. Conclusion This exploratory CEA indicated that guided-NACT (as proposed by the GeparTrio trial) is likely cost-effective in treating HR+ EBC women. While prospective validation of the GeparTrio findings is advisable from a clinical perspective, early CEAs can be used to prioritize further research from a broader health economic perspective, by identifying which parameters contribute most to current decision uncertainty. Furthermore, their use can be extended to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of alternative guided-NACT scenarios that combine the use of promising imaging techniques together with personalized treatments. PMID:27124410

  5. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  6. Development of a mechanical alcove excavator for the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Study Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Roennkvist, E.; Ozdemir, L.; Friant, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    A 25 ft (7.6 m) diameter tunnel, bored nearly 26,000 ft (8 km) long, is planned as the initial opening into a rather thick strata of welded tuff rock, known as Topopah Springs (TSw2). The near term purpose of the tunnel is to examine the geology to determine if the selected formation is suitable to be used as a nuclear waste repository. In addition to the tunnel, some 30 to 40 alcoves are envisioned along the tunnel which will serve as rooms in and from which the various scientists can conduct their analytical experiments. In addition, a series of rooms and hallways are planned in an area set aside as {open_quotes}the main test facility{close_quotes}. The overall site is known as The Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The mission of this study program was to determine if a mechanical means of constructing the alcoves, rooms and hallways was feasible. Of particular interest were the alcoves which exit directly off of the main tunnel. The work for this study included determining a somewhat standard size for the initial alcove, determining whether existing equipment and/or technology was available, and determining if such equipment could be transported and launched from the main tunnel with minimum to no interruption to the main TBM operation. The study determined that no off the shelf equipment was both capable of effectively cutting welded tuff, and sufficiently mobile to meet the minimum interruption requirements. The study did determine that suitable technology was available, and that a special purpose machine was feasible. This paper describes the trade off studies conducted on various excavation methods, the system selected for conceptual design and the potential performance of a mobile alcove excavator.

  7. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  8. Mitogenomic analyses of caniform relationships.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Ulfur; Gullberg, Anette; Janke, Axel; Kullberg, Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Extant members of the order Carnivora split into two basal groups, Caniformia (dog-like carnivorans) and Feliformia (cat-like carnivorans). In this study we address phylogenetic relationships within Caniformia applying various methodological approaches to analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes. Pinnipeds are currently well represented with respect to mitogenomic data and here we add seven mt genomes to the non-pinniped caniform collection. The analyses identified a basal caniform divergence between Cynoidea and Arctoidea. Arctoidea split into three primary groups, Ursidae (including the giant panda), Pinnipedia, and a branch, Musteloidea, which encompassed Ailuridae (red panda), Mephitidae (skunks), Procyonidae (raccoons) and Mustelidae (mustelids). The analyses favored a basal arctoid split between Ursidae and a branch containing Pinnipedia and Musteloidea. Within the Musteloidea there was a preference for a basal divergence between Ailuridae and remaining families. Among the latter, the analyses identified a sister group relationship between Mephitidae and a branch that contained Procyonidae and Mustelidae. The mitogenomic distance between the wolf and the dog was shown to be at the same level as that of basal human divergences. The wolf and the dog are commonly considered as separate species in the popular literature. The mitogenomic result is inconsistent with that understanding at the same time as it provides insight into the time of the domestication of the dog relative to basal human mitogenomic divergences.

  9. Introduction to Project Materials Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Frances

    1972-01-01

    The author introduces twenty-six analyses, describes the method of analysis, includes a selection policy for this issue, and lists ten analysts. Each project, analyzed by the combined criteria of the CMAS and the NCSS Guidelines, is examined for background information, product characteristics, rationale and objectives, content, methodology,…

  10. Analysing Children's Drawings: Applied Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This article centres on a research project in which freehand drawings provided a richly creative and colourful data source of children's imagined, ideal learning environments. Issues concerning the analysis of the visual data are discussed, in particular, how imaginative content was analysed and how the analytical process was dependent on an…

  11. Pharmacogenetics Biomarkers and Their Specific Role in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Treatments: An Exploratory Study on Rectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dreussi, Eva; Cecchin, Erika; Polesel, Jerry; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Agostini, Marco; Boso, Caterina; Belluco, Claudio; Buonadonna, Angela; Lonardi, Sara; Bergamo, Francesca; Gagno, Sara; De Mattia, Elena; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; De Paoli, Antonino; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is still ascribed to a minority of patients. A pathway based-approach could highlight the predictive role of germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The primary aim of this study was to define new predictive biomarkers considering treatment specificities. Secondary aim was to determine new potential predictive biomarkers independent from radiotherapy (RT) dosage and cotreatment with oxaliplatin. Methods: Thirty germ-line SNPs in twenty-one genes were selected according to a pathway-based approach. Genetic analyses were performed on 280 LARC patients who underwent fluoropyrimidine-based CRT. The potential predictive role of these SNPs in determining pathological tumor response was tested in Group 1 (94 patients undergoing also oxaliplatin), Group 2 (73 patients treated with high RT dosage), Group 3 (113 patients treated with standard RT dosage), and in the pooled population (280 patients). Results: Nine new predictive biomarkers were identified in the three groups. The most promising one was rs3136228-MSH6 (p = 0.004) arising from Group 3. In the pooled population, rs1801133-MTHFR showed only a trend (p = 0.073). Conclusion: This exploratory study highlighted new potential predictive biomarkers of neoadjuvant CRT and underlined the importance to strictly define treatment peculiarities in pharmacogenetic analyses. PMID:27608007

  12. [Using arts therapies in psycho-oncology: evaluation of an exploratory study implemented in an out-patient setting].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Zimoch, A

    2013-01-01

    According to the state-of-the-art in health psychology and psycho-oncology, a cancerous disease, as well as the accompanying medical treatments, is a source ofintense emotional stress. As feelings of insecurity and anxiety are likely to induce negative effects on immune defences, those effects may overlap with the cancerous disease and complicate its evolution. As arts therapies tend to favour the imaginary and symbolic elaboration of the tensions of daily life, as well as the re appropriation of one's body and personal history, different artistic mediations may occupy an important function in the psychological follow-up of the patient. Following an exploratory study in a hospital, we carried out an action-research in an out-patient setting during six moths. The arts therapeutic treatment comprehended alternatively drawing and writing sessions while listening to music, opening tracks for a thorough verbal elaboration. The evaluation was based on psychometric scales (HADS and MDBF), rating scales for the pictorial and literary production and a semi-structured interview. According to the results of the quantitative analyses, based on non parametric statistical procedures for small groups and non metric data, as well as to the qualitative content analyses, arts therapies could become a valuable treating measure within a multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social approach.

  13. Constructing the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.; Replogle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), approximately 160 km (100 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This facility is being used to obtain geological, hydrological, geomechanical, thermomechanical and geochemical information to characterize, Yucca Mountain as a potential site to isolate High-Level Radioactive Waste from the accessible environment. The ESF, when completed, will consist of two ramps from surface (North and South ramp) to the potential repository horizon formations, a drift connecting the two ramps, test alcoves, and above and below ground operational support facilities. The ramps and connecting drift are being mined by a 7.62 m (25 ft) diameter, fully shielded, Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). This paper describes the current status of the construction of the ESF and test alcoves. At the time of this writing, the following has been accomplished: North Ramp excavation is complete; four test alcoves have been excavated and are in use for scientific experiments; the excavation has reached the potential repository horizon; the drift connecting the two ramps is being excavated, and the excavation of a test alcove for thermal testing is in progress. The mining operations are ahead of schedule, and to date March 26, 1996, the TBM has excavated over 4623 m(15,160 ft.) without any major breakdowns or accidents. The average advance for a three shift (two mining shifts) production day has been 33.46 m (110 ft.). Maximum advance for a week was 218.3 m (716 ft.). An Alpine Miner (AM 75) roadheader is being used to excavate test alcoves. The major ground support system consists of Supper Swellex rock bolts, steel sets as required, Williams rock bolts and channels, and welded wire fabric. Various sections of the tunnel have been instrumented, and the entire excavation has been geologically mapped. To date, the site conditions have been those predicted.

  14. Ventilation design for Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jurani, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, located in Southern Nevada approximately 160 km northwest of Las Vegas, is currently the site of intensive surface-based and underground investigations. The investigations are required to determine if the site is suitable for long term isolation of the Nation`s high level nuclear waste inventory. A major component of the program is the Exploratory Studies Facility, or ESF. The ESF, when completed, will consist of approximately 25,600 meters of tunnels and drifts. The network of tunnels and drifts will house and support a wide array of testing programs conceived to provide physical information about the site. Information on geologic, geomechanical, and hydrologic data will be used in the repository design if the site is found suitable. Besides a few special requirements, the general ESF ventilation criteria during construction are similar to that of commercial tunneling and mining operations. The minimum air velocity at the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) and other active mining faces is 0.51 meter per second (m/s) (100 feet per minute [fpm]). Airways, estimated leakages and ventilation controls are converted into equivalent resistances for input to mine ventilation network computer simulations. VNETPC Version 3.1 computer software is used to generate the ventilation models for optimized system design and component selection. Subsequently, actual performance of the ventilation system will be verified and validated to comply with applicable nuclear regulatory quality assurance requirements. Dust control in the ESF is dependent on effective dust collection, enclosure, and airflow dilution. Minimum use of water, as feasible, is necessary to avoid adding moisture to the potential repository horizon. The limitation of water use for test drilling and TBM operation, and the rigid compliance with applicable federal and state regulations, make the ESF a ventilation design challenge.

  15. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV's). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the FIR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EV's. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  16. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Kim

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EV's). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EV's. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  17. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1992-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles. The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems Development (EVABS) Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on several candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scaleup. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in FY 1991.

  18. Diet and acne: an exploratory survey study of patient beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh-Giao; Markus, Ramsey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past, medical literature reflected that diet was not a proven cause of acne. However, studies in recent years have substantiated a link between certain dietary factors and acne. It is unclear whether patients are aware of recent research findings. Objectives: Acne patients were surveyed to explore beliefs regarding the link between diet and acne, to determine whether these beliefs translated into behavior change and to identify health information sources. Patients/Methods: Upon Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, surveys were administered to 50 acne patients at an academic dermatology clinic in 2014, with 49 completed in full and included in this analysis. Results: Ninety-two percent of respondents believed that diet could affect acne. Seventy-one percent attempted to change their diet to improve acne. Seventy-one percent believed acne to be caused by fried or greasy foods, although chocolate (53%), dairy (47%), and soda drinks (35%) were highly implicated. Patients obtained information from Google searches (49%), dermatologists (43%), family members and TV (41% each), and medical websites (31%). Conclusions: In this exploratory study, patients reported utilizing a diversity of information sources, a majority from the Internet. In those surveyed, there was a persistence of long-held belief that fried/greasy foods and chocolate may serve as acne triggers, and less belief in trigger foods supported by recent research, including refined carbohydrates and sugar. Given the multiplicity of beliefs and utilized sources among acne patients in our survey, there is a need to establish up-to-date and reliable methods to educate patients on diet and acne. PMID:27222768

  19. An exploratory numerical model of rocky shore profile evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Dickson, Mark E.; Kench, Paul S.

    2016-09-01

    Rocky shores occur along much of the world's coastline and include a wide range of coastal morphologies, such as intertidal shore platforms. Considerable research effort has been placed on trying to understand developmental processes on rocky shores, but progress has been forestalled because these landscapes develop slowly and preserve little evidence of evolution through time. This paper presents a new exploratory numerical model developed to study long-term shore profile evolution on rock coasts. The model purposely considers only a limited number of processes, each represented in a highly abstracted way. Despite these simplifications, the model exhibits a large range of emergent shore profile shapes. This behavior is enabled both by broader spatial representation of the driving erosion forces and the flexibility provided by a grid discretization scheme. Initial model testing shows the development of varied rocky profile geometries, ranging from steep plunging cliffs, cliffs with narrow benches, and cliffs with a variety of shore platform shapes. Most of the model geometries are similar to those observed in the field, and model behavior is robust and internally consistent across a relatively large parameter space. This paper provides a detailed description of the new model and its subsequent testing. Emphasis is placed on comparison of model results with published field observations in which morphometric relationships are described between shore platform gradient and tidal range, and platform elevation and platform width. The model adequately simulates these morphometric relationships, while retaining its ability to simulate a wide range of profile shapes. The simplicity of process representations, and the limited number of processes implemented, means that model outputs can be interpreted reasonably easily. Hence, an opportunity is now provided, following the testing described in this paper, to use the model to systematically investigate the broader controlling

  20. Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-12-31

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures.

  1. [Detection of food additives by enzyme immunoassay].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A; Takagaki, Y

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of synthesized food additives is generally performed by chromatography or spectrophotometry. However, the analytical procedures for natural food additives have been little reported so far because they are difficult to analyse chemically. We have attempted to apply enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to the analysis of natural food additives. Hen egg white lysozyme, as a food preservative, was determined by the competitive EIA, using mouse anti-HEL ascites. Carminic acid (CA), which is the main component of cochineal color, was determined by the competitive EIA, using monoclonal anti-CA antibody. Phycocyanin, which is the main component of spirulina color, was determined by the avidin-biotin sandwich EIA, using double monoclonal anti-phycocyanin antibodies. PMID:7474399

  2. Does finger sense predict addition performance?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of fingers on numerical and mathematical cognition has received a great deal of attention recently. However, the precise role that fingers play in numerical cognition is unknown. The current study explores the relationship between finger sense, arithmetic and general cognitive ability. Seventy-six children between the ages of 5 and 12 participated in the study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that while general cognitive ability including language processing was a predictor of addition performance, finger sense was not. The impact of age on the relationship between finger sense, and addition was further examined. The participants were separated into two groups based on age. The results showed that finger gnosia score impacted addition performance in the older group but not the younger group. These results appear to support the hypothesis that fingers provide a scaffold for calculation and that if that scaffold is not properly built, it has continued differential consequences to mathematical cognition. PMID:26993292

  3. Older Patients' Perceptions of Medication Importance and Worth: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Denys T.; Briesacher, Becky; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D.; Halpern, Leslie; Osterberg, E. Charles; Jarzebowski, Mary; McKoy, June M.; Mazor, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cost-related medication non-adherence may be influenced by patients' perceived importance of their medications. This exploratory study addresses three related but distinct questions: Do patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications? What factors influence perceptions of medication importance? Is perceived importance associated with medications' worth, and does expense impact that association? METHODS Study participants included individuals aged 60 and older who were taking three or more prescription drugs. Semi-structured, in-person interviews were conducted to measure how patients rated their medications in terms of importance, expense, and worth. Factors that influence medication importance were identified using qualitative analysis. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between perceived importance and worth of medications, and the impact of expense on that association. RESULTS Among 143 prescription drugs reported among 20 participants, the weighted mean rating of medication importance was 8.2 (SD=1.04) on a scale from 0 (not important at all) to 10 (most important). Of all medications, 38% were considered expensive. The weighted mean rating of worth was 8.4 (SD=1.46) on a scale from 0 (not worth it at all) to 10 (definitely worth it). Three major factors influenced medication importance: drug-related (characteristics, indications, effects, and alternatives); patient-related (knowledge, attitudes, and health); and external (the media, healthcare and family caregivers, and peers). Regression analyses showed an association between perceived importance and worth for inexpensive medications (OR=2.23; p=0.002) and an even greater association between perceived importance and worth for expensive medications (OR=4.29; p<0.001). DISCUSSION This study provides preliminary evidence that elderly patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications based on factors beyond

  4. Results of Chemical Analyses for Alcove 8/Niche 3 Tracer Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeanette

    2006-02-23

    This is the final report detailing the analyses performed under ORD-FY04-011 "Chemical Analyses for Alcove 8/Niche 3 Tracer Studies." The work was performed under the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC28-04RW12232. This task provided method development and analytical support for the Alcove 8/Niche 3 Tracer Studies in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Concentrations of tracers, as well as major anions and cations, were reported for samples provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). Samples were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Ion Chromatography (IC). Samples were analyzed and controlled according to Implementing Procedures (IP's) written and approved in accordance with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) approved Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program.

  5. Workload analyse of assembling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  6. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    PubMed

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology.

  7. Biological aerosol warner and analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, Harry; Kürbitz, Gunther; Miethe, Peter; Spieweck, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The development of an integrated sensor device BiSAM (Biological Sampling and Analysing Module) is presented which is designed for rapid detection of aerosol or dust particles potentially loaded with biological warfare agents. All functional steps from aerosol collection via immuno analysis to display of results are fully automated. The core component of the sensor device is an ultra sensitive rapid analyser PBA (Portable Benchtop Analyser) based on a 3 dimensional immuno filtration column of large internal area, Poly HRP marker technology and kinetic optical detection. High sensitivity despite of the short measuring time, high chemical stability of the micro column and robustness against interferents make the PBA an ideal tool for fielded sensor devices. It is especially favourable to combine the PBA with a bio collector because virtually no sample preparation is necessary. Overall, the BiSAM device is capable to detect and identify living micro organisms (bacteria, spores, viruses) as well as toxins in a measuring cycle of typically half an hour duration. In each batch up to 12 different tests can be run in parallel together with positive and negative controls to keep the false alarm rate low.

  8. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  9. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  10. CLEANing the Reward: Counterfactual Actions to Remove Exploratory Action Noise in Multiagent Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HolmesParker, Chris; Taylor, Mathew E.; Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Learning in multiagent systems can be slow because agents must learn both how to behave in a complex environment and how to account for the actions of other agents. The inability of an agent to distinguish between the true environmental dynamics and those caused by the stochastic exploratory actions of other agents creates noise in each agent's reward signal. This learning noise can have unforeseen and often undesirable effects on the resultant system performance. We define such noise as exploratory action noise, demonstrate the critical impact it can have on the learning process in multiagent settings, and introduce a reward structure to effectively remove such noise from each agent's reward signal. In particular, we introduce Coordinated Learning without Exploratory Action Noise (CLEAN) rewards and empirically demonstrate their benefits

  11. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  12. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-11-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Forest Service was analyzed along with other long-term eco-climatic data (1961 to 1991) including precipitation, air temperature, slope, aspect, elevation, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. In addition, the existing eco-region framework established by Environment Canada was evaluated for mapping SOC distribution. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, including spatial autocorrelation analysis, were employed to examine how forest SOC is spatially distributed in Canada. Correlation analysis and spatial regression modelling were applied to determine the dominant ecological factors influencing SOC patterns at the eco-region level. At the national scale, a spatial error regression model was developed to account for spatial dependency and to estimate SOC patterns based on ecological and ecosystem factors. Based on the significant variables derived from the spatial error model, a predictive SOC map in Canadian forest areas was generated. Although overall SOC distribution is influenced by climatic and topographic variables, distribution patterns are shown to differ significantly between eco-regions. These findings help to validate the eco-region classification framework for SOC zonation mapping in Canada.

  13. Exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial of shared care development for long-term mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Byng, Richard; Jones, Roger; Leese, Morven; Hamilton, Blake; McCrone, Paul; Craig, Tom

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care clinicians have a considerable amount of contact with patients suffering from long-term mental illness. The United Kingdom's National Health Service now requires general practices to contribute more systematically to care for this group of patients. AIMS: To determine the effects of Mental Health Link, a facilitation-based quality improvement programme designed to improve communication between the teams and systems of care within general practice. Design of study: Exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-three urban general practices and associated community mental health teams. METHOD: Practices were randomised to service development as usual or to the Mental Health Link programme. Questionnaires and an audit of notes assessed 335 patients' satisfaction, unmet need, mental health status, processes of mental and physical care, and general practitioners' satisfaction with services and beliefs about service development. Service use and intervention costs were also measured. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' perception of their unmet need, satisfaction or general health. Intervention patients had fewer psychiatric relapses than control patients (mean = 0.39 versus 0.71, respectively, P = 0.02) but there were no differences in documented processes of care. Intervention practitioners were more satisfied and services improved significantly for intervention practices. There was an additional mean direct cost of pound 63 per patient with long-term mental illness for the intervention compared with the control. CONCLUSION: Significant differences were seen in relapse rates and practitioner satisfaction. Improvements in service development did not translate into documented improvements in care. This could be explained by the intervention working via the improvements in informal shared care developed through better link working. This type of facilitated intervention tailored to context has the potential

  14. Exploratory technology research program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.

    1997-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Technologies provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid systems. The program centers on advanced electrochemical systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electric Vehicle Technology Program is divided into two project areas: the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Advanced Battery R&D which includes the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program managed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The USABC, a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for EVs. In addition, DOE is actively involved in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) Program which seeks to develop passenger vehicles with a range equivalent to 80 mpg of gasoline. The role of the ETR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and the PNGV Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or other Government agencies for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1996. This is a continuing program, and reports for prior years have been published; they are listed at the end of this Executive Summary.

  15. Exploratory Causal Analysis in Bivariate Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, James M.

    sets, but little research exists of how these tools compare to each other in practice. This work introduces and defines exploratory causal analysis (ECA) to address this issue along with the concept of data causality in the taxonomy of causal studies introduced in this work. The motivation is to provide a framework for exploring potential causal structures in time series data sets. ECA is used on several synthetic and empirical data sets, and it is found that all of the tested time series causality tools agree with each other (and intuitive notions of causality) for many simple systems but can provide conflicting causal inferences for more complicated systems. It is proposed that such disagreements between different time series causality tools during ECA might provide deeper insight into the data than could be found otherwise.

  16. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  17. Assessing Consumer Health Vocabulary Familiarity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Tse, Tony; Crowell, Jon; Browne, Allen; Ngo, Long

    2007-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the difficulty of consumer health texts is a prerequisite for improving readability. General purpose readability formulas based primarily on word length are not well suited for the health domain, where short technical terms may be unfamiliar to consumers. To address this need, we previously developed a regression model for predicting “average familiarity” with consumer health vocabulary (CHV) terms. Objective The primary goal was to evaluate the ability of the CHV term familiarity model to predict (1) surface-level familiarity of health-related terms and (2) understanding of the underlying meaning (concept familiarity) among actual consumers. Secondary goals involved exploring the effect of demographic factors (eg, health literacy) on surface-level and concept-level familiarity and describing the relationship between the two levels of familiarity. Methods Survey instruments for assessing surface-level familiarity (45 items) and concept-level familiarity (15 items) were developed. All participants also completed a demographic survey and a standardized health literacy assessment, S-TOFHLA. Results Based on surveys completed by 52 consumers, linear regression suggests that predicted CHV term familiarity is a statistically significantly predictor (P < .001) of participants’ surface-level and concept-level familiarity performance. Health literacy was a statistically significant predictor of surface-level familiarity scores (P < .001); its effect on concept-level familiarity scores warrants further investigation (P = 0.06). Educational level was not a significant predictor of either type of familiarity. Participant scores indicated that conceptualization lagged behind recognition, especially for terms predicted as “likely to be familiar” (P = .006). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the CHV term familiarity model is predictive of consumer recognition and understanding of terms in the health domain. Potential uses

  18. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  19. Analysing photonic structures in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    The outer layers of a range of plant tissues, including flower petals, leaves and fruits, exhibit an intriguing variation of microscopic structures. Some of these structures include ordered periodic multilayers and diffraction gratings that give rise to interesting optical appearances. The colour arising from such structures is generally brighter than pigment-based colour. Here, we describe the main types of photonic structures found in plants and discuss the experimental approaches that can be used to analyse them. These experimental approaches allow identification of the physical mechanisms producing structural colours with a high degree of confidence. PMID:23883949

  20. Connecting Performance to Social Structure and Pedagogy as a Pathway to Scaling Learning Analytics in MOOCs: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggins, S. P.; Galyen, K. D.; Petakovic, E.; Laffey, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study focuses on the design and evaluation of teaching analytics that relate social learning structure with performance measures in a massive open online course (MOOC) prototype environment. Using reflexive analysis of online learning trace data and qualitative performance measures we present an exploratory empirical study that:…