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  1. Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; Taverner, M R; D'Souza, D N; Warner, R D

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80 kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7 day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3×2×2×2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White×Landrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24 h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7 days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (P<0.001) and ageing (P<0.001) for 7 days compared with Achilles-hung carcases and pork aged for 2 days, respectively. This study demonstrated that aitchbone hanging and 7 day ageing can improve eating quality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant. PMID:24013699

  2. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  3. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors CRF1 and CRF2 exert both additive and opposing influences on defensive startle behavior.

    PubMed

    Risbrough, Victoria B; Hauger, Richard L; Roberts, Amanda L; Vale, Wylie W; Geyer, Mark A

    2004-07-21

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) are crucial mediators of physiological and behavioral responses to stress. In animals, CRF1 appears to primarily mediate CRF-induced anxiety-like responses, but the role of CRF2 during stress is still unclear. Here we report the effects of CRF1 and CRF2 on the magnitude and plasticity of defensive startle responses in mice. Startle plasticity is measured by inhibition of startle by sensory stimuli, i.e., prepulse inhibition (PPI), and is disrupted in patients with panic or posttraumatic stress disorders in which CRF neurotransmission may be overactive. Pharmacological blockade of CRF1 reversed both CRF-induced increases in startle and CRF-induced deficits in PPI. CRF2 blockade attenuated high-dose but not low-dose CRF-induced increases in startle and reduced PPI. Conversely, activation of CRF2 enhanced PPI. CRF had no effect on startle and increased PPI in CRF1 knock-out mice. These data indicate that CRF receptors act in concert to increase the magnitude of defensive startle yet in opposition to regulate the flexibility of startle. These data support a new model of respective CRF receptor roles in stress-related behavior such that, although both receptors enhance the magnitude of defensive responses, CRF1 receptors contravene, whereas CRF2 receptors enhance, the impact of sensory information on defensive behavior. We hypothesize that excessive CRF1 activation combined with reduced CRF2 signaling may contribute to information processing deficits seen in panic and posttraumatic stress disorder patients and support CRF1-specific pharmacotherapy. PMID:15269266

  4. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Yiannakouris, Nikos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ordovas, Jose M; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors (ConvRFs), including smoking, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), body mass index (BMI), physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Design A case–control study. Setting The general Greek population of the EPIC study. Participants and outcome measures 477 patients with medically confirmed incident CHD and 1271 controls participated in this study. We estimated the ORs for CHD by dividing participants at higher or lower GRS and, alternatively, at higher or lower ConvRF, and calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) as a measure of deviation from additivity. Results The joint presence of higher GRS and higher risk ConvRF was in all instances associated with an increased risk of CHD, compared with the joint presence of lower GRS and lower risk ConvRF. The OR (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4) for smoking, 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8) for hypertension, 4.1 (2.8 to 6.1) for T2DM, 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) for lower physical activity, 2.0 (1.3 to 3.2) for high BMI and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In all instances, RERI values were fairly small and not statistically significant, suggesting that the GRS and the ConvRFs do not have effects beyond additivity. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to CHD, operationalised through a multilocus GRS, and ConvRFs have essentially additive effects on CHD risk. PMID:24500614

  5. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  6. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  7. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  8. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data has been "generalized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. SLM-produced IN718, tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of-experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  9. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  10. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  11. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

  12. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  13. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  14. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  15. Environmental factors influencing blackfly populations

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, G.

    1967-01-01

    Much more information is required on the distribution of blackflies in various parts of the world, and in many cases an adequate methodology for obtaining such information still has to be worked out. A detailed methodology for the collection of information about blackflies is given, which was developed for investigations mainly in the Holarctic regions but is basically applicable to other parts of the world. A brief survey of the population dynamics of various species of blackflies in various parts of the Holarctic regions is given, and the main factors influencing the population dynamics are discussed. Interspecific and intraspecific fluctuations in natural blackfly populations are attributed chiefly to abiotic environmental factors rather than to competition. Larval competition in a given microhabitat is mainly individual, though specimens belonging to a given species may have a slightly more favourable position than others. The use of parasites and in particular the replacement of one species by another are promising methods of blackfly control. Predators are not generally likely to prove useful for this purpose. PMID:5300046

  16. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  17. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    PubMed

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  18. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  19. The influence of additives on the crystal habit of gibbsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyssiecq, Isabelle; Veesler, Stéphane; Pèpe, Gérard; Boistelle, Roland

    1999-01-01

    Crystallization of gibbsite (Al(OH) 3) is an important stage of the Bayer process, production of alumina from bauxite ores. In both pure or industrial supersaturated sodium aluminate solutions, gibbsite crystals are always agglomerated. In the present paper, we present results of a study concerning the influence of different polycarboxylic acids as crystal habit modifier for gibbsite. In pure solution, agglomerated hexagonal plates are observed. Whereas acicular and tabular morphologies are found in the presence of different additives. These results are discussed referring to the crystallographic structure of gibbsite. It is found that only oxygen atoms are present on gibbsite surface. This observation leads us to propose an additive way of acting by formation of a molecular complex between the growth unit and the carboxylic groups of the additive.

  20. Factors influencing human leukocyte adherence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stepniewicz, W; Tchórzewski, H; Luciak, M

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed on factors influencing leucocyte adherence in vitro. Blood condensation was found to increase leukocyte adherence. Addition of heparin, dextran or ethanol caused a significant reduction of white blood cell count in blood samples in comparison with blood mixed with sodium EDTA or ACD solution. This suggests the existence of two granulocyte subpopulations; viz, rapidly adhering and slowly adhering. Heparin enhanced granulocyte adherence, while dextran and ethanol decreased it. Five-day storage of ACD blood led to a decrease in granulocyte adherence, while addition of heparin or histamine to ACD blood prevented this change to occur. The glucose concentration of 1,000 mg/dl augmented granulocyte adherence, while higher glucose concentrations induced its progressive fall below the control values. There was no significant change of lymphocyte adherence during the experiments. PMID:6194070

  1. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  2. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  3. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  4. Influence of nano-dispersive modified additive on cement activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonova, Natalya; Badenikov, Artem; Skripnikova, Nelli; Ivanova, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    In the work the influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the cement activity and the processes of structure formation of the hardened cement paste in different periods of hydration are studied. The changes in the kinetic curves of the sample strength growth modified with SWCNT in amount of 0.01 and 0.0005 % are stipulated by the results of differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electronic and ionic microscopy, X-ray-phase analysis. It was found that the nano-modified additive may increase in the axis compressive strength of the system by 1.4-6.3 fold relatively to the reference samples and may reach 179.6 MPa. It may intensify the hydration process of calcium silicates as well as influence on the matrix of hardened cement paste. The studies are conducted on the structural changes in the hardened cement paste, the time periods of increase and decrease of the compressive strength of the samples, the amount of the calcium hydroxide and tobermorite-like gel as well as the degree of hydration C3S and β-C2S.

  5. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  6. Improvement of modal scaling factors using mass additive technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Allemang, Randall J.; Wei, Max L.; Brown, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A general investigation into the improvement of modal scaling factors of an experimental modal model using additive technique is discussed. Data base required by the proposed method consists of an experimental modal model (a set of complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors) of the original structure and a corresponding set of complex eigenvalues of the mass-added structure. Three analytical methods,i.e., first order and second order perturbation methods, and local eigenvalue modification technique, are proposed to predict the improved modal scaling factors. Difficulties encountered in scaling closely spaced modes are discussed. Methods to compute the necessary rotational modal vectors at the mass additive points are also proposed to increase the accuracy of the analytical prediction.

  7. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  8. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  9. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  10. Factors potentially influencing aminoglycoside use and expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    DiPiro, J.T.; Kilsdonk, G.F.; Amerson, A.B.; Record, K.E.

    1982-07-01

    Factors that may have influenced aminoglycoside use and expenditure in one hospital were examined. Factors that were evaluated as to their influence on aminoglycoside-use patterns were: (1) formulary status; (2) bacterial susceptibility patterns; (3) identified or perceived differences in toxicity; (4) changes in patient population; (5) price paid by the hospital for aminoglycosides; (6) distribution of newsletters or memoranda; (7) advertising and detailing; and (8) pharmacy policies. For FY 1976-77 to 1979-80, the largest proportion of aminoglycoside expense was for gentamicin. During FY 1980-81, the expenditure for gentamicin decreased and tobramycin accounted for the largest proportion of total expenditure. Monthly gentamicin use decreased 20% during FY 1980-81 from the previous year. Tobramycin use increased from January 1979 to November 1980 and decreased from December 1980 to June 1981. Kanamycin use and amikacin use were fairly constant during the study period. Based on temporal relationships, the following factors appeared to influence aminoglycoside use and expenditure: (1) a study conducted at the institution from June 1977 to June 1979 comparing gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity; (2) a comparative nephrotoxicity study published in a widely circulated medical journal in May 1980; and (3) an intramural newsletter and memorandum distributed in March 1981 encouraging selective aminoglycoside use. The identification of factors that potentially influenced aminoglycoside use can be used to anticipate the future impact of similar events and to devise strategies to influence antimicrobial use.

  11. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  12. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  13. Additive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality: the influence of trial history and data transformations.

    PubMed

    Balota, David A; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Yap, Melvin J

    2013-09-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear mixed effects modeling to provide evidence that the additive effects were actually being driven by previous trial history. Because Masson and Kliegl also included semantic priming as a factor in their study and recent evidence has shown that semantic priming can moderate the additivity of word frequency and stimulus quality (Scaltritti, Balota, & Peressotti, 2012), we reanalyzed data from 3 published studies to determine if previous trial history moderated the additive pattern when semantic priming was not also manipulated. The results indicated that previous trial history did not influence the joint influence of word frequency and stimulus quality. More important, and independent of Masson and Kliegl's conclusions, we also show how a common transformation used in linear mixed effects analyses to normalize the residuals can systematically alter the way in which two variables combine to influence performance. Specifically, using transformed, rather than raw reaction times, consistently produces more underadditive patterns. PMID:23565779

  14. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  15. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  16. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  17. Factors Influencing the Successful Introduction of Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Erik; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Stokking, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing the successful introduction of portfolios are described. A portfolio is a purposeful collection of all kinds of documents and other artefacts that together give an impression of how tasks were fulfilled and how competence has developed. A portfolio can also contain reflections and plans for future development. Although…

  18. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  19. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  20. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  1. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  2. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  3. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  4. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle. PMID:8324609

  6. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes. PMID:21063135

  9. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  10. The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

  11. Influence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulopoulos, S.; Philippopoulos, C.

    The effect of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) addition into gasoline on the exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines was studied. A four-cylinder OPEL 1.6 l engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. Fuels containing 0.0-11.0% MTBE were used in a wide range of engine operations, and the exhaust gases were analyzed for CO, HC (total unburned hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene) and MTBE, before and after their catalytic treatment by a three-way catalytic converter. The addition of MTBE into gasoline resulted in a decrease in CO and HC emissions only at high engine loading. During cold-start up of the engine, MTBE, HC, CO emissions were significant and increased with MTBE addition into fuel. At the catalytic converter outlet MTBE was detected when its concentration in fuels was greater than 8% and only as long as the catalytic converter operates at low temperatures. Methane and ethylene emissions were comparable for all fuels tested at engine outlet, but methane emissions remained almost at the same level while ethylene emissions were significantly decreased by the catalytic converter.

  12. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

  13. Factors influencing union formation in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Philippe; Khasakhala, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Using retrospective data from the Urban Integration Survey conducted in 2001 in Nairobi, Kenya, on a sample of 955 women and men aged 25-54, this paper compares factors influencing entry into union formation for men and women. The analysis uses event history methods, specifically Cox Proportional Hazards regression, stratified by age cohort and run separately by sex. The results indicate that delay in union formation is more pronounced for women than for men. Cohabitation without formal marriage is the prominent form of union, especially among the younger generation, and appears to have increased. For men, the timing of union is more dependent upon human capital acquisition than on cultural factors. These findings show that the marriage search model, which was first applied in Western countries, can also hold in cities of developing countries. Nonetheless, neither the search model nor the integration or the independence models apply to women's union formation, which very few exogenous factors can explain. PMID:19250585

  14. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-05-01

    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  15. Influence of sewage sludge addition on coal ash fusion temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    M. Belen Folgueras; R. Maria Diaz; Jorge Xiberta; M. Purificacion Garcia; J. Juan Pis

    2005-12-01

    The ash fusion characteristics of three types of bituminous coal (A, B, and C), one type of sewage sludge (W), and the corresponding coal-sewage sludge blends (10 and 50 wt % of sludge) were studied. The ash fusibility temperatures of samples in oxidizing atmosphere were measured, and their chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined. The addition of sludge to coal in certain proportions produces blends whose ashes have lower fusibility temperatures than those of coal and sludge. This is related to the differences in chemical composition and modes of elemental combination in both types of materials. The main differences are associated to the elements P, Fe, and Ca. As the sludge is much richer in Ca than the coals, the compositions of the blend ashes pass through low-temperature eutectic regions of the ternary phase diagrams SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. As a result, for the sludge-coal blend ashes series (one for each coal), the relationships between ash fusibility temperatures and the percentage of sludge ash in blend ashes fit to second-order polynomial functions. The minima of these functions, as well as some sludge-coal blend ashes, are located in the above-mentioned low fusion regions. Differing from coal ashes, in the sludge and 50 wt % blend ashes, the minerals calcium ferrite, larnite, and chloroapatite were found. 17 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  17. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  18. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains. PMID:16521499

  19. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  20. Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Claudia; Faschingbauer, Florian; Haeberle, Lothar; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Fasching, Peter A; Goecke, Tamme W; Rajakaruna, Nadeeka; Voigt, Franziska; Bani, Mayada R; Lux, Michael P; Renner, Stefan P; Loehberg, Christian R; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bayer, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk. PMID:23022745

  1. Factors that influence engagement in collaborative practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Bainbridge, Lesley; Bickford, Julia; Baptiste, Susan; Brajtman, Susan; Dryden, Trish; Hall, Pippa; Risdon, Cathy; Solomon, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate hypotheses regarding factors that might influence engagement in collaborative practice. DESIGN Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING Participants interviewed each other in dyads. The pairing was based upon geographical location and proximity to each other. PARTICIPANTS Eight professionals from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and massage therapy. METHOD Semistructured interviews, lasting 30 to 45 minutes each, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were read by all research team members using independent content analysis for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text for key themes. At a subsequent face-to-face meeting, the team used an iterative process of comparing and contrasting key themes until consensus was reached. The transcripts were then analyzed further for subthemes using NVivo software. MAIN FINDINGS Initial findings suggest that some common characteristics grounded in family history, school experiences, social interactions, and professional training might influence collaborative practice choices. The narrative form of the interview broke down interpersonal and interprofessional barriers, creating a new level of trust and respect that could improve professional collaboration. CONCLUSION This study suggests that life experiences from childhood into later adulthood can and do influence professional choices. PMID:17872847

  2. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  3. Factors influencing the uptake of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; McComb, J L; Fox, N; Wright, J

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the factors that influenced the uptake of orthodontic treatment for patients who were referred for orthodontic treatment to two types of orthodontic treatment provider; a fee per item and hospital service. The following data were collected: (i) basic demographic data; (ii) the need for orthodontic treatment as measured by IOTN; and (iii) the outcome of the consultation. The data analysis with logistic regression revealed that the following variables had a predictive effect on the uptake of treatment: (i) the need for orthodontic treatment; and (ii) the patient's gender. Most of the patients that were referred and accepted for treatment had a definite need for orthodontic treatment. PMID:8985570

  4. Influence of Indium Addition on Whisker Mitigation in Electroplated Tin Coatings on Copper Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinshausen, L.; Bhassyvasantha, S.; Majumdar, B. S.; Dutta, I.

    2016-01-01

    Among many factors that influence whisker nucleation and growth in electroplated tin, it is now well established that small additions of Pb leads to whisker mitigation. To date, a good non-toxic elemental alternative to Pb that would mitigate whiskers remains elusive. In this work, a 50-100 nm In electroplated layer was incorporated into a 1- μm-thick electroplated Sn on a pure Cu substrate. In order to permit diffusion of In into Sn, heat treatments (HTs) between 125°C and 160°C were performed. The diffusion profile of In was altered by varying the dwell times of the HT and by utilizing two variants of In layer deposition, namely, (1) electroplating In at the top of the Sn plating, and (2) by sandwiching the In plating between two Sn layers, each approximately 500 nm thick. Appropriate control samples of pure Sn were utilized to permit valid data on the influence of In on whisker mitigation. Indium additions reduced whisker growth by at least two orders of magnitude following the 160°C treatment, independent of the location of the In layer. X-ray microanalysis of a focused ion beam cross section of the sandwich plating confirmed that In had indeed diffused into the Sn through the 160°C HT and was a likely reason for the mitigation of Sn whiskers.

  5. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated

  6. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  7. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  8. Factors Influencing Early Dental Implant Failures.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of local and systemic factors on the occurrence of dental implant failures up to the second-stage surgery (abutment connection). This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants and were consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses between 1980 and 2014 at 1 specialist clinic. Several anatomic-, patient-, health-, and implant-related factors were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used at the patient level as well as the implant level to evaluate the effect of explanatory variables on the failure of implants up to abutment connection. A generalized estimating equation method was used for the implant-level analysis to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were available for a single patient. Overall, 642 implants (6.36%) failed, of which 176 (1.74%) in 139 patients were lost up to second-stage surgery. The distribution of implants in sites of different bone quantities and qualities was quite similar between implants lost up to and after abutment connection. Smoking and the intake of antidepressants were the statistically significant predictors in the multivariate model (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02369562). PMID:27146701

  9. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  10. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  11. Factors influencing birth control habits in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Selwood, T; Leeton, J

    1981-02-01

    A survey was conducted in March 1978 for the purpose of comparing the contraceptive habits of Melbourne and ex-Melbourne populations in Victoria. Of the 1312 records of sexually active persons collected in 1978, 1254 of those persons were between the ages of 15 and 49. Recorded information included age, sex, marital status, and place of domicile (Melbourne or ex-Melbourne, Victoria). When the Melbourne population was compared with the rest of Victoria, the proportion using each method of contraception was much the same for each group. A marked difference was the proportion using withdrawal in Melbourne; this was over 3 times the proportion among the ex-Melbourne population. Over 35% of persons under age 30 used oral contraceptives (OCs), compared with 24.2 in the over 30 age range. Barrier methods and natural family planning methods and withdrawal were commonly used by the older age groups. A large proportion of the over age 30 group used sterilization and hysterectomy as forms of birth control. Individuals in "de facto" relationships showed a tendency towards more reliable forms of contraception than did other groups. Only 20.3% were not using some form of contraception. Single persons were frequent OC users and users of barrier methods. 28.1% used no form of contraception. The sex of the person interviewed in the survey revealed a bias. Males tended to report male birth control methods and female reported female methods rather than those used by partners of the opposite sex. Marital status influenced birth control choice. The choice of birth control for each marital status was influenced by the confounding factor of mean age of each group. PMID:7247847

  12. Factors Influencing Prolonged ICU Stay After Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ashouri, Nasibeh; Totonchi, Ziae; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Yaghoubi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are different risk factors that affect the intensive care unit (ICU) stay after cardiac surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible risk factors influencing prolonged ICU stay in a large referral hospital. Patients and Methods: We conducted a case-control study to determinate causes of prolonged ICU stay in 280 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center for cardiovascular patients, Tehran, Iran. These patients were divided into two groups according to ICU stay ≤ 96 and > 96 hours. We evaluated perioperative risk factors of ICU stay > 96 hours. Results: Among the 280 patients studied, 184 (65.7%) had stayed ≤ 96 hours and 96 (34.3%) had stayed > 96 hours in ICU. Frequency of prolonged ICU stay was 34.2% in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 30.8% in patients with valve surgery, and 44.8% in patients with CABG plus valve surgery. Patients with > 96 hours of ICU stay received more blood transfusion and intravenous inotropes. They also had longer anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass, and postoperative intubation time. There were higher incidence of postoperative tamponade, re-exploration, re-intubation, hemodialysis, and hypotension in this group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions: In this study, about one-third of patients had prolonged ICU stay. Factors influencing prolonged ICU stay were medical and some non-medical factors. In the present study, up to 30% of the patients had a prolonged ICU stay of > 96 hours. Additional data from well-designed investigations are needed for further assessment of the factors influencing prolonged ICU stay after cardiac surgery. PMID:25785249

  13. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  14. Factors Influencing Childhood Immunization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p<0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  15. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  16. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  17. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  18. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements for two-factor... Additional requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  19. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  20. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  1. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  2. Factors Influencing Smokeless Tobacco Use in Rural Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  3. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  4. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  5. Factors influencing informal care-giving.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann M.; Deb, Partha

    1998-07-01

    BACKGROUND: As downsizing of institutional care continues, patients discharged are likely to have more severe mental illnesses, and to have experienced longer tenures within institutions than patients who have been discharged in the past. As greater numbers of patients are removed from mental hospitals, the objective burden experienced by informal care-givers may increase, particularly if formal care levels are inadequate. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper documents who assumes informal care-giver roles, and the form such care-giving takes for patients discharged from a state hospital. Specifically, this paper identifies (i) what factors affect a person's decision to assume a care-giver role, including the participation of other network members in care-giving, (ii) what factors influence whether care-giving is provided in time or in direct purchase of care and (iii) how the patient's treatment location affects the decision of the network member to assume any care-giving role. DATA AND ANALYTICAL METHODS: Data for this paper are taken from a longitudinal study of the closure of a state mental hospital in central Indiana. Seventy-seven patients were asked to identify their community networks. Ninety-eight network members were surveyed about the informal care, both in time or through direct expenditures, they provided to these patients one year after discharge. Care-giving relationships were estimated using a multivariate probit model. Such a model estimates the extent to which the decision to provide care in either form depends on the care-giving activities assumed by other network members associated with a given patient, as well as the characteristics of individual patients and network members. RESULTS: Forty-one per cent of network members provided some level of informal care, with 13.3% providing some care in time, and 35.7% providing some care through direct expenditures. A positive relationship was found between participation in informal care-giving and the

  6. Nitrogen Addition and Warming Independently Influence the Belowground Micro-Food Web in a Temperate Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Bai, Huahua; Liang, Wenju; Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are known to influence ecosystem structure and functioning. However, our understanding of the interactive effect of these global changes on ecosystem functioning is relatively limited, especially when it concerns the responses of soils and soil organisms. We conducted a field experiment to study the interactive effects of warming and N addition on soil food web. The experiment was established in 2006 in a temperate steppe in northern China. After three to four years (2009–2010), we found that N addition positively affected microbial biomass and negatively influenced trophic group and ecological indices of soil nematodes. However, the warming effects were less obvious, only fungal PLFA showed a decreasing trend under warming. Interestingly, the influence of N addition did not depend on warming. Structural equation modeling analysis suggested that the direct pathway between N addition and soil food web components were more important than the indirect connections through alterations in soil abiotic characters or plant growth. Nitrogen enrichment also affected the soil nematode community indirectly through changes in soil pH and PLFA. We conclude that experimental warming influenced soil food web components of the temperate steppe less than N addition, and there was little influence of warming on N addition effects under these experimental conditions. PMID:23544140

  7. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  8. Factors Influencing the Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Podraza, Katherine M; Luthra, Nijee; Origitano, Thomas C; Schneck, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Deciding how to manage an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can be difficult for patients and physicians due to controversies about management. The decision as to when and how to intervene may be variable depending on physicians’ interpretation of available data regarding natural history and morbidity and mortality of interventions. Another significant factor in the decision process is the patients’ conception of the risks of rupture and interventions and the psychological burden of harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Objective  To describe which factors are being considered when patients and their physicians decide how to manage unruptured intracranial aneurysms.  Materials & methods  In a retrospective chart review study, we identified patients seen for evaluation of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Data was collected regarding patient and aneurysm characteristics. The physician note pertaining to the management decision was reviewed for documented reasons for intervention. Results  Of 88 patients included, 36 (41%) decided to undergo open or endovascular surgery for at least one unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Multiple aneurysms were present in 14 (16%) patients. Younger patients and current smokers were more likely to undergo surgery, but gender and race did not affect management. Aneurysm size and location strongly influenced management. The most common documented reasons underlying the decision of whether to intervene were the risk of rupture, aneurysm size, and risks of the procedure. For 23 aneurysms (21%), there were no factors documented for the management decision.  Conclusion  The risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be underestimated by currently available natural history data. Major factors weighed by physicians in management decisions include aneurysm size and location, the patient's age, and medical comorbidities along with the risk of procedural complications. Additional data is needed to

  9. Factors Influencing the Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Rebecca L; Podraza, Katherine M; Luthra, Nijee; Origitano, Thomas C; Schneck, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Deciding how to manage an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can be difficult for patients and physicians due to controversies about management. The decision as to when and how to intervene may be variable depending on physicians' interpretation of available data regarding natural history and morbidity and mortality of interventions. Another significant factor in the decision process is the patients' conception of the risks of rupture and interventions and the psychological burden of harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Objective  To describe which factors are being considered when patients and their physicians decide how to manage unruptured intracranial aneurysms.  Materials & methods  In a retrospective chart review study, we identified patients seen for evaluation of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Data was collected regarding patient and aneurysm characteristics. The physician note pertaining to the management decision was reviewed for documented reasons for intervention. Results  Of 88 patients included, 36 (41%) decided to undergo open or endovascular surgery for at least one unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Multiple aneurysms were present in 14 (16%) patients. Younger patients and current smokers were more likely to undergo surgery, but gender and race did not affect management. Aneurysm size and location strongly influenced management. The most common documented reasons underlying the decision of whether to intervene were the risk of rupture, aneurysm size, and risks of the procedure. For 23 aneurysms (21%), there were no factors documented for the management decision.  Conclusion  The risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be underestimated by currently available natural history data. Major factors weighed by physicians in management decisions include aneurysm size and location, the patient's age, and medical comorbidities along with the risk of procedural complications. Additional data is needed to define

  10. 34 CFR 477.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE PROGRAM ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE AND POLICY STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 477.22 What additional factors does the... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary...

  11. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  12. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  13. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  14. Factors Influencing Simultaneous Communication Behaviors in Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous communication used by four teachers in formal lessons was investigated, to determine the extent to which signs and speech matched and to delineate factors predicting communication behavior. Simultaneous communication was found to be sign-driven or speech-driven depending on factors such as student comprehension, teacher's expertise,…

  15. Factors Influencing L2 Gender Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments we explored processes underlying L2 gender retrieval. We focused on L1 interference and on the influence of the L2 noun's termination. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tried to manipulate the intensity of L1 interference. We found that L2 speakers cannot eliminate or substantially reduce the interlingual interference neither when they…

  16. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  17. FACTORS AND PRACTICES THAT INFLUENCE LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inconsistent livestock distribution in extensive rangeland pastures continues as a vexing problem for land and livestock managers. Dispersal patterns of cattle are affected by abiotic factors like degree of slope, distance from water, shade, physical barriers, temperature extremes and precipitation...

  18. Exploring Factors Influencing Smokers' Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ghee-Young; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Jounghwa

    2016-08-01

    This study addressed the factors influencing smokers' information seeking pertaining to the health risks of smoking. In particular, this study aimed to extend the risk information seeking and processing model by taking into account the role of autonomous motivations used to stimulate smokers' information-seeking behavior. The results of a Web-based survey indicated that information insufficiency was positively associated with health information-seeking behavior and that negative affective responses were positively associated with information insufficiency and health information-seeking behavior. In addition, autonomous motivations were positively associated with information insufficiency and information-seeking behavior. The results indicated that risk perception was positively related to autonomous motivations and negative affective response. Finally, informational subjective norm was positively related to autonomous motivations and negative affective responses. The implications of this study for future research are discussed. PMID:27367187

  19. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink. PMID:25953597

  20. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  1. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  2. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  3. Factors Influencing the Elimination of Dietary Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

    Recent research by Herman, Polivy, and their colleagues has been concerned with the determinants of self-control and disinhibition in dieters. The present paper summarizes a number of studies in which the reactions of dieters and nondieters to a variety of disinhibitory factors (preloading, emotional arousal, intoxication) were investigated. The…

  4. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  5. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  6. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods. PMID:24010703

  7. Diverse influences of dietary factors on cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    The major environmental risk factors for cancer are carcinogen and co-carcinogen exposure in tobacco, insufficient exercise and above all an unhealthy diet. What we eat or do not eat is exceedingly important in determining what cancers or other chronic disease we may suffer from. Carcinogens may be integral contaminants of the diet, like nitrosamines in some situations and aflatoxins, or may be generated by cooking processes, as is known to be the case for heterocyclic amine pyrolysis products. Examples of co-carcinogenic agents may include grit in bread products, salt in pickles or betel in chewing quids. Dietary insufficiencies, for example of zinc, may also act to increase sensitivity to genetic damage, for example. Influence on metabolism of carcinogens, like induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione S transferases, further directly impacts on carcinogenicity. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are typical examples of protective agents acting in this way. In addition we have dietary fibre which can decrease carcinogen exposure through accelerating passage of faeces through the gut. Other types of fibre, the soluble forms, can act to decrease uptake of glucose and thus suppress insulin exposure, an important factor for colon cancer. Natural anti-inflammatory agents like N-3 fatty acids in fish offer another example of preventive factors in the diet. Individual dietary components, like isoflavones in soy products, can interfere with hormone function to exert a beneficial action, as on the breast. Other compounds may act via stimulation of the immune system like lactoferrin and betaglucans. Perhaps the most important influence of diet on cancer, however, in a world of increasing comfort and ease of access to foodstuffs, is through over-eating and consequent obesity. Given the importance of diet to all our lives, we need to focus on all possible interactive effects in providing an evidence base to guide our choices regarding what we should eat in Asia. PMID

  8. Factors influencing the intensity of magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.; Baker, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    A definition of the substorm is presented, and it is shown that the typical isolated substorm is produced by the superposition of effects of processes directly driven by the solar wind through dayside reconnection and those driven by unloading through nighttime reconnection. The single factor that determines whether a substorm will occur or not is the clock angle of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) around the earth-sun line. Only when this field points south of the GSM equatorial plane do the auroral electrojet indices depart from their quiet values. For a given clock angle, the level of activity increases with the IMF strength and solar wind velocity.

  9. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  10. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  11. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  12. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  13. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  14. Factors influencing whether children walk to school.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  15. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  16. The influence of additives on beer stability investigated by EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezová, Vlasta; Polovka, Martin; Staško, Andrej

    2002-04-01

    In thermally-accelerated aging followed by EPR spectroscopy of beer samples of various stabilities, free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) was shown to be an effective indicator of the breakdown of a sample's stability, comparable to the commonly used spin trapping agent α-phenyl- N- tert-butylnitrone (PBN). Both indicators were then employed to investigate the influence of additives on beer stability. The addition of L-ascorbic acid (ASC) to the beer samples accelerated the radical processes and a lower stability was found. DL-α-tocopherol (α-TOC) did not influence beer stability significantly (probably due to its limited solubility). Na 2SO 3, described as a very effective stabilizer in experiments with the PBN spin trap, was found not to be effective using the TEMPOL indicator. This is probably due to inhibition in the formation of spin adducts or their degradation by Na 2SO 3.

  17. The influence of additives on beer stability investigated by EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brezová, Vlasta; Polovka, Martin; Stasko, Andrej

    2002-04-01

    In thermally-accelerated aging followed by EPR spectroscopy of beer samples of various stabilities, free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) was shown to be an effective indicator of the breakdown of a sample's stability, comparable to the commonly used spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). Both indicators were then employed to investigate the influence of additives on beer stability. The addition of L-ascorbic acid (ASC) to the beer samples accelerated the radical processes and a lower stability was found. DL-alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOC) did not influence beer stability significantly (probably due to its limited solubility). Na2SO3, described as a very effective stabilizer in experiments with the PBN spin trap, was found not to be effective using the TEMPOL indicator. This is probably due to inhibition in the formation of spin adducts or their degradation by Na2SO3. PMID:11993475

  18. Influence of modifying additives on the electronic state of supported palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestryakov, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.; Fuentes, S.; Bogdanchikova, N.; Barrera, A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of modifying additives of Ce, Zr, La and Cs oxides on the electronic state of palladium supported on γ-Al 2O 3 has been studied by IR-spectroscopy of adsorbed CO, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and H 2 chemisorption. The modified supports have been prepared using impregnation, coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. It is established that Ce and Zr oxide additives increase the effective charge of palladium ions whereas La and Cs oxides lower it. The effect of metal-support interaction is stronger in samples prepared by sol-gel than by coprecipitation

  19. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games. PMID:24633674

  20. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  1. Factors influencing STI transmission in middle-aged heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John

    2016-06-23

    Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071

  2. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  3. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

  4. Factors influencing single mother's employment status.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, J M; Brady, N R; Brooten, D; Thomas, D J

    2000-03-01

    Changes in the welfare system limit the length of time a person can receive welfare benefits, thus mandating employment for many current welfare recipients. Single mothers with young children who do not become employed will lose financial support for housing, food, clothing, and health care and place their own and their children's health and safety at risk. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences of being unemployed and to examine the barriers to employment perceived by single mothers who expressed a desire to be employed. Nine mothers were recruited from a larger sample of single mothers who had participated in a quantitative study about employment conducted 1 to 2 years earlier. Using focus group interviews, mothers were asked what it was like to be a single mother, and then what barriers to their employment they perceived. Two dimensions were identified from the mothers' statements. The first, a sense of obligation, included themes of "being there" for their own and their child's benefit and doing what it takes to optimize the child's growth and development. The second, negotiating the obstacles, referred to problems regarding child care, lack of involvement of the child's father and lack of support from relatives and friends for the mother's efforts toward securing employment. These findings have important implications for welfare reform, namely, that efforts aimed at moving nonemployed single mothers into the workforce will fail if these factors are not considered. PMID:10818834

  5. Breast cancer diagnosis and factors influencing treatment decisions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe Nat A

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in this study explored the reactions of women with breast cancer and identified factors influencing treatment decisions. A qualitative exploratory approach was employed. Participants were recruited from a tertiary hospital and a breast cancer support group. Purposive sampling recruited 12 women. It was found that women identified breast lesions accidentally or intentionally and that diagnosis was delayed. Emotional reactions to diagnosis included shock and sadness. Factors that influenced treatment were the influence of other people, alternative sources of treatment, faith and support, knowledge, "tuning the mind," and effects on intimacy. Health professionals should develop effective communication and counseling skills for clients. PMID:24750095

  6. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  7. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-05-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and their carers. Common and differentiating factors influencing the research participation of participants are identified and discussed. Factors influencing participation were found to differ both between and within participant categories. We propose a dichotomy whereby factors influencing research participation can be classified as those arising from a participant's values, which act as either a motivator or a deterrent; and those based on convenience, which act as either an enabler or inhibitor. These findings are applicable to research studies that seek to recruit adults with ASD as participants. PMID:26810436

  8. Factors Influencing Students' Achievement in Form 5 Islamic Studies Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Che Noh, Mohd Aderi; Omar, Noraini binti; bin Kasan, Hasnan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the factors influencing the achievements of students in the subject of Islamic Studies for Form 5 SPM (KBSM) in schools in the area of Samarahan, Sarawak. The factors analysed is attitude and interest. This is a survey based study and data was compiled from the survey forms which had the topic "Factors…

  9. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  10. Factors influencing visits to school nurses by pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Telleen, S; Mitchell, D R; Chen, E H

    1992-01-01

    The influence of five factors on the first visit to school nurses by pregnant adolescents and adequacy of prenatal care was analyzed. Only one factor, age of baby's father, was found to be associated with adequacy of prenatal care. PMID:1518672

  11. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  12. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  13. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  14. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  15. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  16. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  17. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  18. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  19. Influence of electrolyte co-additives on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Rozi, Evangelia; Karagianni, Chaido-Stefania; Falaras, Polycarpos

    2011-12-01

    The presence of specific chemical additives in the redox electrolyte results in an efficient increase of the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The most effective additives are 4- tert-butylpyridine (TBP), N-methylbenzimidazole (NMBI) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GuNCS) that are adsorbed onto the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface, thus shifting the semiconductor's conduction band edge and preventing recombination with triiodides. In a comparative work, we investigated in detail the action of TBP and NMBI additives in ionic liquid-based redox electrolytes with varying iodine concentrations, in order to extract the optimum additive/I2 ratio for each system. Different optimum additive/I2 ratios were determined for TBP and NMBI, despite the fact that both generally work in a similar way. Further addition of GuNCS in the optimized electrolytic media causes significant synergistic effects, the action of GuNCS being strongly influenced by the nature of the corresponding co-additive. Under the best operation conditions, power conversion efficiencies as high as 8% were obtained.

  20. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  1. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  2. Influence of PEG-12 Dimethicone addition on stability and formation of emulsions containing liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Andrade, F F; Santos, O D H; Oliveira, W P; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2007-06-01

    Oil/water emulsions, containing liquid crystals, were developed employing Andiroba oil, PEG-12 Dimethicone and Crodafos CES. It was evaluated the influence of silicone surfactants on the emulsions stability and on the formation of liquid crystalline phases and therefore, physicochemical characteristics, such as rheology and zeta potential, were evaluated. Emulsions were prepared by the emulsions phase inversion method. All the formulations presented lamellar liquid crystalline phases. The PEG-12 Dimethicone addition did not change microscopically the liquid crystalline phases. The emulsions containing silicone demonstrated lower viscosity than those without the additive. This is an important feature, as the silicone did not change the rheological profile; however, the addition of silicone still can be used as a viscosity controller. The formulations had their viscosity increased 15 and 150 days after their preparation. This characteristic shows that the emulsions have their organization increased along the storing time. In the analysis of zeta potential, we could verify that all formulations presented negative values between -39.7 and -70.0 mV. Within this range of values, the emulsion physical stability is high (Fig. 10). It was concluded that the addition of PEG-12 Dimethicone kept the liquid crystalline phase of the emulsion obtained with Crodafos CES, influencing in a positive way in the system stability. PMID:18489351

  3. Are major behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors for mortality additive or multiplicative in their effects?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths

  4. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  5. Factors influencing publication choice: why faculty choose open access

    PubMed Central

    Warlick, Stefanie E; Vaughan, KTL

    2007-01-01

    Background In an attempt to identify motivating factors involved in decisions to publish in open access and open archives (OA) journals, individual interviews with biomedical faculty members at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill) and Duke University, two major research universities, were conducted. The interviews focused on faculty identified as early adopters of OA/free full-text publishing. Methods Searches conducted in PubMed and PubMed Central identified faculty from the two institutions who have published works in OA/free full-text journals. The searches targeted authors with multiple OA citations during a specified 18 month period. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the most prolific OA authors at each university. Individual interviews attempted to determine whether the authors were aware they published in OA journals, why they chose to publish in OA journals, what factors influenced their publishing decisions, and their general attitude towards OA publishing models. Results & Discussion Fourteen interviews were granted and completed. Respondents included a fairly even mix of Assistant, Associate and Full professors. Results indicate that when targeting biomedical faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill and Duke, speed of publication and copyright retention are unlikely motivating factors or incentives for the promotion of OA publishing. In addition, author fees required by some open access journals are unlikely barriers or disincentives. Conclusion It appears that publication quality is of utmost importance when choosing publication venues in general, while free access and visibility are specifically noted incentives for selection of OA journals. Therefore, free public availability and increased exposure may not be strong enough incentives for authors to choose open access over more traditional and respected subscription based publications, unless the quality issue is also addressed. PMID:17349038

  6. Factors that influence the patient centredness of a consultation.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S A; Britten, N

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Research suggests that patients are more satisfied with patient-centred consultations than with doctor-centred consultations and that some health measures are positively influenced by this type of consultation. Research on the factors that influence the patient centredness of the consultation is sparse but suggests that women doctors are more patient centred than men doctors. AIM. A study was designed, first, to confirm or reject the suggestion that women general practitioners are more patient centred than men general practitioners and, secondly, to determine some of the factors that might influence the patient centredness of a general practitioner. METHOD. The audiotaped consultations of 41 general practitioners were analysed using an instrument designed to measure patient centredness. The general practitioners were selected from a group of volunteers to represent both sexes as well as a wide range of age and experience. RESULTS. The results of the analysis showed that women general practitioners, particularly trainers, had higher patient-centredness scores than men general practitioners. This behaviour is characterized by an increased frequency of open questions and greater attention to patient offers (anything of potential significance that a patient brings to the general practitioner consultation). Additionally, the combination of sexes in a consultation seemed to have an effect on the interaction, with woman general practitioner/female patient dyads (pairings) having the highest median patient-centredness score, woman general practitioner/male patient and man general practitioner/male patient dyads scoring the same as each other and man general practitioner/female patient dyads having the lowest median scores. CONCLUSION. The results suggest that women general practitioners, in this sample, were more patient centred than men general practitioners. The results also suggest that inherent inequalities exist, with female patients receiving a more

  7. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program. PMID:26646111

  8. Influence of Polarization on Carbohydrate Hydration: A Comparative Study Using Additive and Polarizable Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Mallajosyula, Sairam S

    2016-07-14

    Carbohydrates are known to closely modulate their surrounding solvent structures and influence solvation dynamics. Spectroscopic investigations studying far-IR regions (below 1000 cm(-1)) have observed spectral shifts in the libration band (around 600 cm(-1)) of water in the presence of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to gain atomistic insight into carbohydrate-water interactions and to specifically highlight the differences between additive (nonpolarizable) and polarizable simulations. A total of six monosaccharide systems, α and β anomers of glucose, galactose, and mannose, were studied using additive and polarizable Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) carbohydrate force fields. Solvents were modeled using three additive water models TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P in additive simulations and polarizable water model SWM4 in polarizable simulations. The presence of carbohydrate has a significant effect on the microscopic water structure, with the effects being pronounced for proximal water molecules. Notably, disruption of the tetrahedral arrangement of proximal water molecules was observed due to the formation of strong carbohydrate-water hydrogen bonds in both additive and polarizable simulations. However, the inclusion of polarization resulted in significant water-bridge occupancies, improved ordered water structures (tetrahedral order parameter), and longer carbohydrate-water H-bond correlations as compared to those for additive simulations. Additionally, polarizable simulations also allowed the calculation of power spectra from the dipole-dipole autocorrelation function, which corresponds to the IR spectra. From the power spectra, we could identify spectral signatures differentiating the proximal and bulk water structures, which could not be captured from additive simulations. PMID:27266974

  9. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  10. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  11. Influence of external factors on hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Salaberger, Theresa; Millard, Marlon; Makarem, Samy El; Möstl, Erich; Grünberger, Viktoria; Krametter-Frötscher, Reinhild; Wittek, Thomas; Palme, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Measuring hair cortisol has attracted interest as a long term parameter for chronic stress evaluation. However, some studies support the hypothesis that locally produced cortisol, originating from the hair follicle or skin cells, affects concentrations in the hair. In an animal model the influence of different treatments (extensive brushing, administration of a hyperemising fluid that enhances blood circulation or a synthetic glucocorticoid) on the local cortisol production of hair was evaluated. Therefore eight sheep were sheared and the area of the skin surface of the back was quartered, with three quarters being daily subjected to a certain treatment and one quarter remaining untreated. The skin areas were sheared again after three weeks and cortisol concentrations of all wool samples were determined by immunoassay. Systemic cortisol concentrations were additionally monitored with faecal samples, indicating a significant decline in concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites between week 1 and 2 or 3, respectively. We found no significant difference in hair cortisol concentrations between fields before treatment (p=0.310). Comparing matched fields before and after treatment, we found no significant differences in wool cortisol concentrations for fields treated with hyperemising fluid as well as for the control fields (p=0.329, p=0.097). Hairs exposed to either extensive brushing or dexamethasone fluid had significantly higher immunoreactive cortisol concentrations after three weeks of treatment (p=0.016, p=0.01). We therefore advise cautious interpretation when measuring hair cortisol concentrations as a parameter for chronic stress, because external factors may have a significant influence on the results. PMID:27167500

  12. Influence of group composition of sulfonic acids on properties of sulfonate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Katrenko, T.I.; Bessonova, R.N.; Kuznetsova, M.G.; Potolovskii, L.A.

    1983-05-01

    Three types of sulfonic acids are formed in sulfonation of petroleum oils-- oil-soluble, oil-insoluble, and water-soluble. This study investigates the influence of the different acids on neutral calcium sulfonates. Samples are recovered from As-14 oil. Oil-insoluble synthesis failed. Water-soluble acid did synthesize with a mix of oil- and water-soluble sulfonates. Neutral calcium sulfonates synthesized from oil-soluble had good properties, from oil-insoluble, bad properties. Oil-insoluble sulfonate also has an inverse effect on cleanup, and it interferes with carbonation. These findings will help with improvements in the sulfonate additive manufacturing process.

  13. An Experimental Investigation of the Influence of the Lubricant Viscosity and Additives on Gear Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    The influence of lubricant viscosity and additives on the average wear rate of spur gear pairs was investigated experimentally. The gear specimens of a comprehensive gear durability test program that made use of seven lubricants covering a range of viscosities were examined to measure gear tooth wear. The measured wear was related to the as-manufactured surface roughness, the elastohydrodynamic film thickness, and the experimentally determined contact fatigue lives of the same specimens. In general, the wear rate was found to be inversely proportional to the viscosity of the lubricant and to the lambda ratio (also sometimes called the specific film thickness). The data also show an exponential trend between the average wear rates and the surface fatigue lives. Lubricants with similar viscosities but differing additives and compositions had somewhat differing gear surface fatigue lives and wear rates.

  14. The influence of UV-irradiation on chitosan modified by the tannic acid addition.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, A; Kaczmarek, B; Gnatowska, M; Kowalonek, J

    2015-07-01

    The influence of UV-irradiation with the wavelength 254 nm on the properties of chitosan modified by the tannic acid addition was studied. Tannic acid was added to chitosan solution in different weight ratios and after solvent evaporation thin films were formed. The properties of the films such as thermal stability, Young modulus, ultimate tensile strength, moisture content, swelling behavior before and after UV-irradiation were measured and compared. Moreover, the surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements and by the use of atomic force microscopy. The results showed that UV-irradiation caused both, the degradation of the specimen and its cross-linking. The surface of the films made of chitosan modified by the addition of tannic acid was altered by UV-irradiation. PMID:26002540

  15. Influence of Biofuel Additions on the Ignition Delay of Single Diesel Fuel Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, A. K.; Golovko, V. V.; Zolotko, A. N.; Raslavičius, L.; Lubarskii, V. M.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of single drops of two- and three-component mineral diesel fuel blends with ethanol and rapeseed oil methyl ester in a heated atmosphere has been investigated. With the use of the known quasi-stationary approach, the influence of the thermal properties of fuel blend components and their composition on the ignition delay time of the drop has been investigated. It has been established that under inert heating conditions of the drop, additions of low-boiling ethanol to diesel fuel should shorten the duration of the preignition period, and additions of rapeseed oil methyl ester should, on the contrary, prolong it. Analysis of the obtained data has made it possible to determine the optimal composition of the fuel blend for the most economical operation of the diesel. The prognostic estimates made are confirmed by laboratory experiments and bench tests of fuel blends.

  16. Influence of pentavalent dopant addition to polarization and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Dhal, Jharana; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Influence of pentavalent tantalum doping in bulk hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics has been investigated for polarizability and bioactivity. Phase analysis from X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that increasing dopant concentration decreased the amount of HAp phase and increased β-TCP and/or α-TCP phases during sintering at 1250 °C in a muffle furnace. Results from thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurements showed that doping hindered charge storage ability in HAp ceramics, and doped samples stored fewer charge compared to pure HAp. However, doping enhanced wettability of HAp samples, which was improved further due to polarization. In vitro human osteoblast cell-material interaction study revealed an increase in bioactivity due to dopant addition and polarization compared to pure HAp. This increase in bioactivity was attributed to the increase in wettability due to surface charge and dopant addition. PMID:23623133

  17. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? 658.34 Section 658.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE...

  18. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION... Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  19. 34 CFR 490.22 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 490.22 Section 490.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND...

  20. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  1. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  2. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  3. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  4. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  5. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  6. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  7. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  8. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  9. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  10. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  11. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  12. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  13. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  14. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  15. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 655.32 What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  16. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 655.32 What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  17. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 655.32 What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  18. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does...

  19. 34 CFR 477.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider? 477.22 Section 477.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE PROGRAM ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE...

  20. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418

  1. Behavioral factors influencing spatial distributions of fish in contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J.; Lipton, J.

    1994-12-31

    In addition to contaminant preference/avoidance responses, contaminant-induced behavioral factors can also influence the spatial distribution of fish. The seaward migrations of smolting anadromous salmonids, can be disrupted by a variety of contaminants, including metals such as copper. This disruption can be reflected in a delay in this normal loss of positive rheotaxis, as fish orient down stream. In estuaries, the fish may fail to show preferences for salt water as well as inhibited physiological adaptations to saltwater. Competitive interactions can also be responsible for the loss of population. Brown trout, for example, appear to be more tolerant of exposure to many contaminants than native fishes, and may also be more aggressive in their interaction with native species. Thus, native fishes in marginal habitats may be driven out by brown trout. Finally predator-prey interactions may play a role in the diminishing native fish populations through increased predation-induced mortality caused by impaired anti-predator defenses. Uniform tests or protocols are required to provide reliable, reproducible results, necessary for regulatory action. Discussion will focus on issues related to generation and establishment of consensus guidelines to encourage the application of behavior in contaminant assessment and application in measures of environmental injury.

  2. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    PubMed

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members. PMID:19068258

  3. Early Life Factors Influencing the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a worldwide problem. Factors predisposing to obesity include genetics, race, socioeconomic conditions, birth by cesarean section, and perinatal antibiotic use. High protein (HP) content in infant formulas has been identified as a potential culprit predisposing to rapid weight gain in the first few months of life and leading to later obesity. In a large multicountry study the effects of lower protein (LP) formula (1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal, before and after the 5th month, respectively) were compared to those of higher protein (2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal, respectively). Results indicated that at 24 months, the weight-for-length z score of infants in the LP formula group was 0.20 (0.06, 0.34) lower than that of the HP group and was similar to that of the breastfed reference group. The authors concluded that a HP content of infant formula is associated with higher weight in the first 2 years of life but has no effect on length. LP intake in infancy might diminish the later risk of overweight and obesity. At 6 years of age HP children had a significantly higher body mass index (by 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.90; p=0.009) and a 2.43 (95% CI, 1.12-5.27; p=0.024) fold greater risk of becoming obese than those who received the LP. In conclusion, several factors may influence development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Breastfeeding should always be encouraged. An overall reduction of protein intake in formula non breastfed infants seems to be an additional way to prevent obesity. PMID:26770895

  4. Tissue-specific factors additively increase the probability of the all-or-none formation of a hypersensitive site.

    PubMed Central

    Boyes, J; Felsenfeld, G

    1996-01-01

    DNase I-hypersensitive sites lack a canonical nucleosome and have binding sites for various transcription factors. To understand how the hypersensitivity is generated and maintained, we studied the chicken erythroid-specific beta(A)/epsilon globin gene enhancer, a region where both tissue-specific and ubiquitous transcription factors can bind. Constructions containing mutations of this enhancer were stably introduced into a chicken erythroid cell line. We found that the hypersensitivity was determined primarily by the erythroid factors and that their binding additively increased the accessibility. The fraction of accessible sites in clonal cell lines was quantitated using restriction endonucleases; these data implied that the formation of each hypersensitive site was an all-or-none phenomenon. Use of DNase I and micrococcal nuclease probes further indicated that the size of the hypersensitive site was influenced by the binding of transcription factors which then determined the length of the nucleosome-free gap. Our data are consistent with a model in which hypersensitive sites are generated stochastically: mutations that reduce the number of bound factors reduce the probability that these factors will prevail over a nucleosome; thus, the fraction of sites in the population that are accessible is also diminished. Images PMID:8665857

  5. Factors Influencing the Research Participation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…

  6. Ankle Bracing and the Neuromuscular Factors Influencing Joint Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Zinder, Steven M; Granata, Kevin P; Shultz, Sandra J; Gansneder, Bruce M

    2009-01-01

    Context: Health care professionals commonly prescribe external stabilization to decrease the incidence and severity of ankle sprains. The mechanism for this decrease is not clearly understood. Examining the effects of ankle bracing on biomechanical stability and influencing factors may provide important information regarding the neuromuscular effects of bracing. Objective: To study the effects of 2 different ankle braces on the neuromuscular factors influencing ankle stiffness. Design: Mixed-model repeated-measures design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight physically active participants composing 2 groups: 14 with unilateral functional ankle instability (age  =  26.19 ± 6.46 years, height  =  166.07 ± 12.90 cm, mass  =  69.90 ± 13.46 kg) and 14 with bilaterally stable ankles (age  =  23.76 ± 5.82 years, height  =  174.00 ± 11.67 cm, mass  =  68.60 ± 13.12 kg). Intervention(s): Participants were fitted with surface electromyography electrodes over the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, and soleus muscles. Each participant received transient motion oscillations to his or her ankle on a custom-built medial-lateral swaying cradle in each of 3 conditions: no ankle brace (NB), lace-up brace (LU), and semirigid brace (SR). Main Outcome Measure(s): Ankle stiffness as measured by the cradle and preactivation levels (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) of the 4 test muscles. Results: Stiffness levels increased across brace conditions (NB  =  24.79 ± 6.59 Nm/rad, LU  =  28.29 ± 7.05 Nm/rad, SR  =  33.22 ± 8.78 Nm/rad; F2,52  =  66.185, P < .001). No differences were found between groups for rotational stiffness (stable  =  27.36 ± 6.17 Nm/rad, unstable  =  30.18 ± 8.21 Nm/rad; F1,26  =  1.084, P  =  .307). Preactivation levels did not change for any of the tested muscles with the application of an ankle brace (F2,52  =  1.326, P

  7. Influence of progressive addition lenses on reading posture in myopic children

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jinhua; Wang, Yuwen; Zhuo, Zuopao; Yang, Xianling; Tan, Renjing; Drobe, Björn; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine the influence of single-vision lenses (SVLs) and progressive addition lenses (PALs) on the near vision posture of myopic children based on their near phoria. Methods Sixty-two myopic children were assigned to wear SVLs followed by PALs. Eighteen children were esophoric (greater than +1), 18 were orthophoric (−1 to 1) and 26 were exophoric (less than −1) at near. Reading distance, head tilt and ocular gaze angles were measured using an electromagnetic system after adaptation to each lens type. Results The lens type did not influence reading distance or head tilt angle (p>0.05 for both), but ocular gaze angle decreased significantly with the PALs (F=9.25, p=0.004). With the PALs, exophoric children exhibited significantly increased head tilt angle (p=0.003) and reduced ocular gaze angle (p=0.004) compared with esophoric children. Near non-exophoric children exhibited similar eye and head postures when wearing SVLs and PALs, whereas exophoric children exhibited reduced ocular gaze angle (t=−3.18, p=0.04) with PALs compared with SVLs. Using PALs for reading, the mean addition power employed by esophoric children was significantly greater than exophoric children (p=0.04). Conclusions The lens type and the near phoria state affected near vision posture. During reading, myopic esophoric children used a lower portion of their PALs compared with exophoric children, resulting in greater addition power. These results may partially explain why myopic children with near esophoria exhibited superior treatment effects in myopia control trials using PALs. PMID:26608026

  8. Influence of Alumina Addition to Aluminum Fins for Compact Heat Exchangers Produced by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farjam, Aslan; Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    In this work, aluminum and aluminum-alumina powder mixtures were used to produce pyramidal fin arrays on aluminum substrates using cold spray as an additive manufacturing process. Using aluminum-alumina mixtures instead of pure aluminum powder could be seen as a cost-effective measure, preventing nozzle clogging or the need to use expensive polymer nozzles that wear out rapidly during cold spray. The fin geometries that were produced were observed using a 3D digital microscope to determine the flow passages width and fins' geometric details. Heat transfer and pressure drop tests were carried out using different ranges of appropriate Reynolds numbers for the sought commercial application to compare each fin array and determine the effect of alumina content. It was found that the presence of alumina reduces the fins' performance when compared to pure aluminum fins but that they were still outperforming traditional fins. Numerical simulations were performed to model the fin arrays and were used to predict the pressure loss in the fin array and compare these results with experimental values. The numerical model opens up new avenues in predicting different applicable operating conditions and other possible fin shapes using the same fin composition, instead of performing costly and time-consuming experiments.

  9. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  10. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  11. Factors Influencing the Development of PTSD in Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, Joseph J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    In this study an interactive conceptual model was utilized in an attempt to examine variables which contribute to, and influence, the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in battered women. This model considers the individual's response to trauma as being the product of the interaction between factors related to the characteristics…

  12. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  13. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  14. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  15. Police Management Training Factors Influencing DWI Arrests. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Edward W.

    The development of training material for police management personnel concerning command and supervisory actions appropriate for more effective driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) enforcement is desired. The training is based on two research studies that identified environmental and attitudinal factors influencing a patrolman's arrest decision. These…

  16. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  17. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  18. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  19. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  20. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Multimedia Cable Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Carolyn A.; Jeffres, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Integrates several mainstream research approaches to new media diffusion to explore the potential strengths and weaknesses of each. Investigates factors influencing multimedia cable service adoption interest, including demographic variables, existing media-use patterns, and personality traits such as "innovativeness." (SR)

  1. Factors Influencing Federal Employee Worker Satisfaction: A Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Wallace V.; And Others

    Utilizing data from the Federal Employee Attitude Survey, 1979, a survey was distributed to a stratified random sample of 20,000 employees to identify and analyze the factors influencing federal employee worker satisfaction. Questions on the survey ranged from demographics to personal evaluations of the work environment as recorded on a…

  2. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  3. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  4. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  5. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  6. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  7. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  8. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  9. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  10. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  11. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  12. Factors That Influence the Understanding of Good Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Kwan Eu

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that influenced the understanding of good mathematics teaching. A mixed methodology was used investigate the beliefs of beginning secondary teachers on good mathematics teaching. The two research instruments used in this study were the survey questionnaire and an interview. Beginning teachers selected Immediate…

  13. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions about Post-Year 10 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim; Hay, Ian; Watson, Jane; Allen, Jeanne; Cranston, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports pilot data from an instrument devised as part of a large ARC funded project that aims, among other things, to investigate factors that influence the decisions of students in rural and/or disadvantaged areas to continue their schooling beyond Year 10. One section of the pilot student questionnaire comprised 42 items designed to…

  14. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the ...

  15. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  16. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  17. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  18. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  19. Factors Influencing the Readability of Student-Generated Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, JoBeth

    An investigation examined student-generated texts in terms of both traditional and more theoretically valid readability to determine what factors influence comprehension when children read their own, peer, and adult-written texts. Seventy dictated stories created in an earlier study, along with 4 first-grade level stories from the "Reader's Digest…

  20. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  1. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  2. Factors influencing dissolution of carbonaceous materials in liquid iron

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H.P.

    2005-12-01

    Carbon dissolution into liquid iron was investigated by a kinetic model assuming the rate is limited by interfacial carbon dissociation and mass transfer in the liquid iron. The rate influencing factors and the inter-relations among them were discussed with the aid of the kinetic model.

  3. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  4. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  5. Analysis on Influence Factors of Adaptive Filter Acting on ANC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqun; Zou, Liang; Ni, Guangkui; Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Tao; Zhao, Quanfu

    The noise problem has become more and more serious in recent years. The adaptive filter theory which is applied in ANC [1] (active noise control) has also attracted more and more attention. In this article, the basic principle and algorithm of adaptive theory are both researched. And then the influence factor that affects its covergence rate and noise reduction is also simulated.

  6. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  7. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  8. Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Self-Evaluation of Numerical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression…

  9. Factors Influencing Consent for Electronic Data Linkage in Urban Latinos.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of patient participation in a Learning Health System, this study examined consent rates and factors associated with consent for linking survey data with electronic clinical data in a sample of 2,271 Latinos. Consent rate was 96.3%. Government insurance status and health literacy significantly influenced the odds of consent. PMID:26262286

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  11. Improving Performance Appraisals: Confronting Subjective Factors That Influence Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores implications of subjective factors that influence rating processes upon which formal performance appraisal systems are based and presents a strategy for addressing this problem which utilizes the critical incident method to focus objectively on employee behavior. A performance feedback worksheet to be utilized with this appraisal method…

  12. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  13. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  14. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  15. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  16. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  17. Factors that Influence Elementary Teachers Use of Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the ways elementary teachers use computer technology for instructional purposes and the factors that influence their use of computers. The population consisted of recent graduates from the elementary teacher preparation program at a mid-Atlantic university. Data were gathered using a survey…

  18. Some Factors Influencing Air Force Simulator Training Effectiveness. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    A study of U.S. Air Force simulator training was conducted to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of such training and to learn how its effectiveness is being determined. The research consisted of a survey of ten representative Air Force simulator training programs and a review of the simulator training research literature. A number…

  19. An investigation of factors influencing accountability and performance ratings.

    PubMed

    Roch, Sylvia G; McNall, Laurel A

    2007-09-01

    The authors explored whether accountability has implications for performance ratings and investigated factors that may influence both accountability and performance ratings. Specifically, they investigated (a) whether feelings of accountability are directly related to performance ratings, (b) whether experimental manipulations that have been proposed to manipulate accountability in fact do so, and (c) the role of motivation-related constructs. They developed and tested a model of factors proposed to influence accountability and performance ratings. Results from 334 raters in an upward feedback situation in a classroom context provide empirical support that feelings of accountability influence rating level, as do perceptions of anonymity and the importance raters place on their jobs. However, neither anonymity nor importance perceptions were related to feelings of accountability. PMID:17933404

  20. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  1. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  2. Factors influencing the international spread of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Timoney, P J

    2000-12-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, the risk of spread of infectious diseases in humans and animals, including equids, has never been greater. International movement of equids and trade in semen are the most important factors responsible for the dissemination of various equine pathogens. Other factors that can or do have the potential to influence the global distribution of equine infectious diseases include: multinational trade agreements, emergent diseases, mutation of pathogens, climate related phenomena, migration of amplifying/reservoir hosts or vectors, availability of new vectors, vaccine contamination and agroterrorism. The relative importance of each of these factors is considered in relation to the spread of equine diseases. PMID:11219348

  3. Influence of different growth factors on a rat choriocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Verstuyf, A; Goebels, J; Sobis, H; Vandeputte, M

    1993-01-01

    The influence of epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin, transforming growth factor beta 1 and transferrin on the growth of a postgestational rat choriocarcinoma was examined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The cell line was cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, beta-mercaptoethanol, glucose, sodium pyruvate and antibiotics. The experiments were done in media supplemented with 10% (optimal) or 3% (suboptimal) fetal calf serum. Among the different growth factors tested, only epidermal growth factor and to a certain extent insulin had a growth-promoting effect by themselves. The other growth factors had either an additive effect in the presence of epidermal growth factor or no effect at all. The cytotrophoblast cells expressed both epidermal growth factor and transferrin receptors whereas the more differentiated giant cells expressed only transferrin receptors. PMID:8493450

  4. Sulfur and nitrogen uptake by loblolly pine seedlings as influenced by nitrogen and sulfur addition

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-12-01

    The influence of increasing levels of nitrogen addition at several levels of sulfur input on nitrogen and sulfur uptake by loblolly pine seedlings was evaluated in a greenhouse study. All possible combinations on nitrogen and sulfur were incorporated into soil collected from the A horizon of a southeastern forest soil at rates of 0, 200, 500, and 1,000 ..mu..g/g of N, and 0, 14, 35, and 70 ..mu..g/g of S. Soil samples collected at the end of the study indicated that a similar amount of soil SO/sub 4/-S had been mineralized in all treatment combinations, compared to a general pattern of increasing soil nitrogen mineralization with increasing nitrogen input. Most mineralized sulfate appeared to come from nonprotein organic compounds as there was not a significant concomitant release of nitrogen. Both shoot and root biomass responded significantly to nitrogen addition, but there was no sulfur or nitrogen-sulfur interaction response. Nitrogen treatment generally increased shoot nitrogen concentration compared to a general decrease in shoot total-, sulfate-, and organically bound-sulfur. Organically bound-sulfur concentrations were 26 to 60 percent below sulfur values calculated from an S/N ratio of 0.03 on a gram atom basis. The results show that increased nitrogen addition affected both growth and sulfur status of loblolly pine seedlings, but not entirely in the manner predicted by theoretical considerations.

  5. Sulfur and nitrogen uptake by loblolly pine seedlings as influenced by nitrogen and sulfur addition

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-12-01

    The influence of increasing levels of nitrogen addition at several levels of sulfur input on nitrogen and sulfur uptake by loblolly pine seedlings was evaluated in a greenhouse study. All possible combinations of nitrogen and sulfur were incorporated into soil collected from the A horizon of a southeastern forest soil at rates of 0, 200, 500, and 1,000 ..mu..g/g of N, and 0, 14, 35, and 70 ..mu..g/g of S. Soil samples collected at the end of the study indicated that a similar amount of soil SO/sub 4/-S had been mineralized in all treatment combinations, compared to a general pattern of increasing soil nitrogen mineralization with increasing nitrogen input. Most mineralized sulfate appeared to come from nonprotein organic compounds as there was not a significant concomitant release of nitrogen. Both shoot and root biomass responded significantly to nitrogen addition, but there was no sulfur or nitrogen-sulfur interaction response. Nitrogen treatment generally increased shoot nitrogen concentration compared to a general decrease in shoot total-, sulfate-, and organically bound-sulfur. Organically bound-sulfur concentrations were 26 to 60 percent below sulfur values calculated from an S/N ratio of 0.03 on a gram atom basis. The results show that increased nitrogen addition affected both growth and sulfur status of loblolly pine seedlings, but not entirely in the manner predicted by theoretical considerations.

  6. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  7. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  8. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  9. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. PMID:26409145

  10. Tailoring of Boehmite-Derived Aluminosilicate Aerogel Structure and Properties: Influence of Ti Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Guo, Haiquan; Sheets, Erik J.; Miller, Derek R.; Newlin, Katy N.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminosilicate aerogels offer potential for extremely low thermal conductivities at temperatures greater than 900 C, beyond where silica aerogels reach their upper temperature limits. Aerogels have been synthesized at various Al:Si ratios, including mullite compositions, using Boehmite (AlOOH) as the Al source, and tetraethoxy orthosilicate as the Si precursor. The Boehmite-derived aerogels are found to form by a self-assembly process of AlOOH crystallites, with Si-O groups on the surface of an alumina skeleton. Morphology, surface area and pore size varies with the crystallite size of the starting Boehmite powder, as well as with synthesis parameters. Ternary systems, including Al-Si-Ti aerogels incorporating a soluble Ti precursor, are possible with careful control of pH. The addition of Ti influences sol viscosity, gelation time pore structure and pore size distribution, as well as phase formation on heat treatment.

  11. Influence of metal surface and sulfur addition on coke deposition in the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reyniers, M.F.S.G.; Froment, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Coke formation in the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons was studied in a pilot plant unit and in a microreactor with complete mixing of the gas phase, containing a hollow cylinder suspended at the arm of an electrobalance. The morphology of the coke was studied by SEM, while EDX was used to determine the concentration of metals in the coke layer. The influence of the metal surface composition, of it pretreatment, and of the addition of various sulfur compounds on the coking rate and CO production was investigated for condition typical for those in the cracking coil. The CO yield is not a measure of the coking rate. Sulfur compounds are very efficient in reducing the CO yield but promote coke formation.

  12. The influence of heat accumulation on the surface roughness in powder-bed additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidinia, Mahdi; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2015-03-01

    The influence of heat accumulation on surface roughness during powder-bed additive manufacturing was investigated. A series of Ti-6Al-4V thin plates were produced by using an identical heat input by electron beam melting® (EBM). Spacing distances of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm were used. The surface roughness of as-built thin plates was measured using a two-axis profilometer. A numerical model was developed to study the influence of spacing distance on heat accumulation. An inverse relationship between the spacing distance and surface roughness was revealed. The experimental and numerical results showed that the surface quality of buildups could be controlled not only by process parameters, but also by the arrangement of components in the buildup chamber. At a constant spacing distance, an increase in the number of powder layers resulted in the accumulation of more heat between the thin plates. An increase in the spacing distance resulted in an upward translation of the Bearing Area Curve (BAC) toward shallower depths, with a reduced core roughness depth (Rk) and peak height (Rpk). A logarithmic regression equation was established from the experimental data. This equation could be used to predict the surface roughness of parts fabricated by EBM® in the studied range of spacing distances.

  13. Improved Growth Factor Directed Vascularization into Fibrin Constructs Through Inclusion of Additional Extracellular Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Smith, JD; Melhem, ME; Magge, KT; Waggoner, AS; Campbell, PG

    2009-01-01

    Using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and a novel histological technique we investigated the ability of blood vessels to directly invade fibrin-based scaffolds. In our initial experiments utilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) we found no direct invasion. Instead, the fibrin was completely degraded and replaced with highly vascularized new tissue. Addition of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to the fibrin construct also did not result in construct vascularization. Because natural and regenerating tissues exhibit complex extracellular matrices (ECMs), we hypothesized that a more complex scaffold may improve blood vessel invasion. Addition of fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, and collagen type I within 20 mg/mL fibrin constructs resulted in no significant improvement. However, the same additive concentrations within 10 mg/mL fibrin constructs resulted in dramatic improvements, specifically with hyaluronic acid. Overall, we believe these results indicate the importance of structural and functional cues of not only in the initial scaffold but also as the construct is degraded and remodeled. Furthermore, the CAM assay may represent a useful model for understanding ECM interactions as well as for screening and designing tissue engineered scaffolds. PMID:17223139

  14. Pre-treatment factors associated with detecting additional brain metastases at stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wardak, Zabi; Augustyn, Alexander; Zhu, Hong; Mickey, Bruce E; Whitworth, Louis A; Madden, Christopher J; Barnett, Samuel L; Abdulrahman, Ramzi E; Nedzi, Lucien A; Timmerman, Robert D; Choe, Kevin S

    2016-06-01

    The number of brain metastases identified on diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key factor in consideration of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, additional lesions are often detected on high-resolution SRS-planning MRI. We investigated pre-treatment clinical characteristics that are associated with finding additional metastases at SRS. Patients treated with SRS for brain metastases between the years of 2009-2014 comprised the study cohort. All patients underwent frame-fixed, 1 mm thick MRI on the day of SRS. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed for an association with increase in number of metastases identified on SRS-planning MRI. 289 consecutive SRS cases were analyzed. 725 metastases were identified on pre-treatment MRI and 1062 metastases were identified on SRS-planning MRI. An increase in the number of metastases occurred in 34 % of the cases. On univariate analysis, more than four metastases and the diameter of the largest lesion were significantly associated with an increase in number of metastases on SRS-planning MRI. When stratified by the diameter of the largest lesion into <2, 2-3, or ≥3 cm, additional metastases were identified in 37, 29, and 18 %, respectively. While this increase in the number of metastases is largely due to the difference in imaging technique, the number and size of the metastases were also associated with finding additional lesions. These clinical factors may be considered when determining treatment options for brain metastases. PMID:26966096

  15. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  16. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian’an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55–2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22–1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12–2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21–1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04–1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48–2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01–1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64–1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41–4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended. PMID:27324884

  17. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian'an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55-2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22-1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12-2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21-1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04-1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48-2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01-1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64-1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41-4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended. PMID:27324884

  18. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

  19. [Distribution and influence factors of Anammox bacteria in sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bingyu; Peng, Yongzhen; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Anming; Zhang, Shujun

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen removal techniques based on Anammox process are developing rapidly these years. The distribution and diversity of Anammox have become important research directions. A variety of Anammox have been detected till now, of which only Kuenenia and Brocadia are often detected in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, in a single niche there is only one type of Anammox bacteria. However, the distribution mechanism and transformation of Anammox bacteria in different niches are still ambiguous. Therefore, the distribution of Anammox in various conditions was summarized and analyzed in this article. And the key factors influencing the distribution of Anammox were concluded, including substrate concentration and the specific growth rate, sludge properties and microbial niche, the joint action and influence of multiple factors. The engineering significance research on the distribution and influencing factors of Anammox bacteria in the sewage system and proposed research prospects were expounded. PMID:26016371

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  1. Factors influencing autism spectrum disorder screening by community paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    WS, Angie; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David; Sharon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most cases, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be reliably diagnosed at two to three years of age. However, Canadian data reveal a median age at diagnosis of approximately four years. OBJECTIVE: To examine general paediatricians’ practices regarding ASD screening and identify factors that influence decisions regarding the use of ASD screening tools. METHODS: Using a qualitative inquiry-based interpretive description approach, 12 paediatricians from four practice groups participated in four focus groups and one individual interview. These were conducted using semistructured interviews, digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: Five main domains of themes were identified related to screening tool use: benefits; needs not addressed; elements that limit utility; elements that encourage utility; and implementation challenges. Factors influencing practice included availability of time, comfort with screening tool use, previous use and knowledge about specific tools. Systemic factors included knowledge and access to community resources, as well as the ability to provide support to the child and family. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study identified important factors that influence paediatric practice in ASD screening. As screening tools improve, it will be important to examine the implementation and effectiveness of screening tools and strategies for increased uptake. Future research will also need to attend to the practical needs of physicians and communities in the aim of earlier diagnosis and rapid access to interventional resources. PMID:26175565

  2. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  3. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties. PMID:24750773

  4. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  5. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus_minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus_minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  6. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  7. Detonation of highly dilute porous explosives; II: Influence of inert additives on the structure of the front, the parameters, and the reaction time

    SciTech Connect

    Shvedov, K.K.; Aniskin, A.I.; Dremin, A.N.; Il'in, A.N.

    1982-06-01

    For the detonation of porous explosives with inert additives, as for the detonation of individual porous explosives, the basic postulates and conclusions of the modern gasdynamic theory of detonation are valid. The influence of solid, refractory inert additives on the decomposition mechanism of porous explosives depends on the individual properties of the explosives and mainly on the dispersity of the additives. With the elimination of pronounced heating of the additives in mixtures with TNT, a certain positive influence on the appearance of decomposition sources and the total reaction time is observed. In cases with hexogen, no such influence is observed, which is evidently the result of physical inhomogeneity of the porous structure of the charge and the sufficiently high detonation pressures of the mixtures. The basic influence of inert additives on the critical diameter, front structure, detonation parameters, and reaction time of porous explosives is exerted through processes of energy absorption in the reaction region and factors leading to energy losses may lead to ambiguity of the detonation conditions in a system with specified chemical potential energy. The state of the additive in the reaction region must be taken into account for reliable theoretical description of the detonation conditions of porous explosives with a large content of inert additives.

  8. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  9. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  10. [Seasonal variation and related influencing factors for tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Lu, Z Q; Xie, H; Duan, Q H

    2016-08-10

    Tuberculosis is recognized as a chronic respiratory infectious disease and still one of the important public health issues in the world. Douglas reported an unique seasonal pattern (summer peak) of tuberculosis, when compared with most other respiratory diseases in 1996. Since then, there had been many other researchers notified various patterns of seasonality on TB. This paper reviewed all the studies published in the last five years and analyzed the current findings on seasonal variability and influencing factors, in order to explore the risk factors to provide evidence for prevention and control strategies on tuberculosis. PMID:27539356

  11. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  12. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512

  13. Environmental factors influencing the efficacy of probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marco, Maria L; Tachon, Sybille

    2013-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria are not typical ingredients but rather living cells that can rapidly respond and adapt to changing conditions in their environment. Numerous factors from culture preparation and preservation, conditions in consumer product matrices, and genetic, dietary, cultural, and health differences between consumers can affect probiotic cell activity and probably influence the specific host-microbe interactions required for probiotic effects in the digestive tract. Understanding the impact of these factors on probiotic efficacy will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of probiotic function, improve the design of probiotic-containing consumer products, and guide the establishment of standardized procedures for clinical studies intended to evaluate probiotic effects. PMID:23102489

  14. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  15. Factors influencing the local planning of dental services.

    PubMed

    Downer, M C; Whittle, J G; Teagle, F A

    1979-10-01

    Findings from a survey of 796 high school children in four districts constituting a health administrative area were examined to ascertain the factors influencing their dental disease experience, treatment received and attendance pattern. In three of the four districts, over 60% of the children were regular attenders, enjoying the benefit of less active caries than irregular attenders. However, in the remaining district, much of which consisted of depressed, inner city areas undergoing re-development, only one third were regular attenders. Several local factors, such as availability and accessibility of services, probably influenced the numbers seeking regular care, but one of the most important appeared to be the level of provision in the salaried Community Dental Service. The implications of the findings for planning improvements in local services are discussed. PMID:295706

  16. Gender differences in how retirees perceive factors influencing unretirement.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived reasons to unretire, age-friendly human resource practices, and re-entry barriers to have greater influence on retirees' decision to unretire than retired managerial women and retired men. Both groups of retired women perceived training and development opportunities to have more influence than retired men. A major contribution of this study is the identification of pre-retirement career occupation as having an important effect on how female, but not male, retirees perceived the various factors. The findings suggest that researchers and employers need to consider the diversity that exists among retirees, not only gender differences but also differences among retired career women. PMID:23115913

  17. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  18. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  19. Synergistic and additive killing by antimicrobial factors found in human airway surface liquid.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Tack, B F; McCray, P B; Welsh, M J

    2000-11-01

    Airway surface liquid contains multiple factors thought to provide a first line of defense against bacteria deposited in the airways. Although the antimicrobial action of individual factors has been studied, less is known about how they work in combination. We examined the combined action of six antimicrobial peptides found in airway surface liquid. The paired combinations of lysozyme-lactoferrin, lysozyme-secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and lactoferrin-SLPI were synergistic. The triple combination of lysozyme, lactoferrin, and SLPI showed even greater synergy. Other combinations involving the human beta-defensins, LL-37, and tobramycin (often administered to cystic fibrosis patients by inhalation) were additive. Because the airway surface liquid salt concentration may be elevated in cystic fibrosis patients, we examined the effect of salt on the synergistic combinations. As the ionic strength increased, synergistic interactions were lost. Our data suggest that the antibacterial potency of airway surface liquid may be significantly increased by synergistic and additive interactions between antimicrobial factors. These results also suggest that increased salt concentrations that may exist in cystic fibrosis could inhibit airway defenses by diminishing these synergistic interactions. PMID:11053013

  20. Are delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase inhibition and metal concentrations additional factors for the age-related cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Göethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Fracasso, Rafael; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Campanharo, Sarah C; Rocha, Rafael C C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M; Avila, Daiana S; Gioda, Adriana; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by cognitive impairments and influenced by oxidative status and chemical imbalances. Thus, this study was conducted to examine whether age-related cognitive deficit is associated with oxidative damage, especially with inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), as well as to verify the influence of some metals in the enzyme activity and cognitive performance. Blood ALA-D activity, essential (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and non-essential metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, V) were measured in 50 elderly and 20 healthy young subjects. Cognitive function was assessed by tests from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery and other. The elderly group presented decreased ALA-D activity compared to the young group. The index of ALA-D reactivation was similar to both study groups, but negatively associated with metals. The mean levels of essential metals were within the reference values, while the most toxic metals were above them in both groups. Cognitive function impairments were observed in elderly group and were associated with decreased ALA-D activity, with lower levels of Se and higher levels of toxic metals (Hg and V). Results suggest that the reduced ALA-D activity in elderly can be an additional factor involved in cognitive decline, since its inhibition throughout life could lead to accumulation of the neurotoxic compound ALA. Toxic metals were found to contribute to cognitive decline and also to influence ALA-D reactivation. PMID:25329536

  1. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient. PMID:23914523

  2. [Factors influencing development and progression of alcoholic liver disease].

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, K; Marot, A; Deltenre, P

    2015-09-01

    Only a minority ot excessive drinkers develop cirrhosis. The main cofactors implicated in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease are obesity, diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with a higher risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent data indicate that gut microbiota could play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors that influence development and progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26502621

  3. Factors influencing veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animals.

    PubMed

    Serpell, James A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of demographic and experiential factors on first-year veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animal welfare/rights. The study surveyed 329 first-year veterinary students to determine the influence of demographic factors, farm experience, and developmental exposure to different categories of animals on their career preferences and on their attitudes to specific areas of animal welfare and/or rights. A significant male gender bias toward food-animal practice was found, and prior experience with particular types of animals--companion animals, equines, food animals--tended to predict career preferences. Female veterinary students displayed greater concern for possible instances of animal suffering than males, and prior experience with different animals, as well as rural background and farm experience, were also associated with attitude differences. Seventy-two percent of students also reported that their interactions with animals (especially pets) had strongly influenced the development of their values. Animals ranked second in importance after parents in this respect. The present findings illustrate the importance to issues of animal welfare of the cultural context of past experience and influences on attitude development. The results also suggest that previous interactions with animals play a critical role in guiding veterinary students into their chosen career, as well as in helping to determine their specific employment preferences within the veterinary profession. From an animal welfare perspective, the dearth of women choosing careers in food-animal practice is a source of concern. PMID:16421833

  4. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    PubMed

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p < .05), 38.6% higher inpatient caseloads (p < .01), and 55.9% higher emotional stress scores (p < .01). There was a trend for reported events to also be associated with less sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety. PMID:23551380

  5. Influence of crushing and additive irradiation procedures on EPR dosimetry of tooth enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Shalom, S.V.; Chumak, V.V.; Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the crushing and additive dose procedures used in EPR dosimetry of enamel was studied on the signals with g-factors of 2. 0045 and g, = 2.0018, g. = 1.9975. Eight fractions, ranging in size from <75 micrometers to 2 mm, were prepared from one tooth. Two cases were investigated: crushing of a non-irradiated sample and of a sample previously irradiated (6 Gy from `Co gamma ray source). In the non-irradiated study, the intensity of the native signal at 2.0045 in by circa 1.75 times as the grain size decreased from maximum to minimum. A small in radiation sensitivity (< 8%) was also observed with decreasing grain size. In the irradiated samples, crushing resulted in slight variations of reconstructed doses from expected values, but the worst possible case (grain sizes < 75 micron) showed that additional errors were less than 10%. The radiation sensitivity of enamel measured immediately after exposure is underestimated. It increases by about 15% in the first month. Based on the decomposition of the observed spectra, a new interpretation of transient signals 1108 is proposed which explains the above phenomena. Recommendations about how to use this interpretation in retrospective EPR dosimetry are given.

  6. Personal and situational factors influencing coaches' perceptions of stress.

    PubMed

    Knight, Camilla J; Reade, Ian L; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Rodgers, Wendy M

    2013-01-01

    Coaching has been recognised as a demanding occupation, associated with a range of stressors. The extent to which coaches perceive stress is likely to be influenced by various personal and situational factors. The purpose of this study was to identify coaches' levels of perceived stress and examine the personal and situational factors that may influence coaches' perceptions of stress. In total, 502 coaches working with university, college, Canada Games, and/or nationally identified athletes completed this study. Coaches completed an online survey, which included questions regarding demographics, work/job-related considerations, and aspects relating to their contract. Coaches also completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983). Overall coaches indicated slightly below average levels of perceived stress (M = 15.13 out of 40) compared with norm-values (Cohen & Janicki-Deverts, 2012). Demographic factors, job-related characteristics, and certain aspects of their contract were associated with coaches' perceptions of stress. In particular, unclear expectations, long-working hours (>40), lack of agreed evaluation criteria, higher salaries, and a lack of social support were related to higher perceptions of stress. As such, the findings of the current study indicate that a reduction in perceived stress is likely to be achieved through a multifaceted approach that addresses multiple factors associated with coaching. PMID:23402372

  7. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  8. Additive-Driven Assembly of Block Copolymer and Nanoparticles: Influence of Nanoparticle Size and Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Yue; Lin, Ying; Watkins, James

    2015-03-01

    Additive-driven assembly of block copolymer (BCP)/nanoparticle (NP) composites in which functionalized NPs exhibiting strong hydrogen bond interactions with one domain of the BCP has been shown to strengthen phase segregation and yield well-ordered materials at high NP loadings. Here we report a systemic study of how phase behavior and NP distribution in BCP/ Au NP composites are influenced by the NP size, NP loading and block copolymer domain size. 2nm, 5nm, 9nm and 15nm diameter Au nanoparticles at loadings ranging from 10% to 50% weight percent, in polystyrene-block-poly (2-vinyl pyridine) block copolymers with domain spacing ranging from 14 nm to 75 nm were used in the investigation. We find that strong interactions enable the incorporation of larger diameter NPs with respect to domain size as compared to systems in which interactions between the NP and BCP are weak or enthalpically neutral. This work was supported by NSF Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  9. Influence of Alumina Additions on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Lithium-iron-phosphate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huali; Yang, Ruijuan; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Shiquan

    Alumina improves the properties and depresses the devitrification of soda-lime-silicate glasses. Herein, the influence of alumina on the glass transition temperature, density, chemical durability, crystallization of lithium-iron-phosphate (LIP) glass has been investigated. As alumina was added to replace the iron oxide in a base LIP glass with the molar composition of Li2O:Fe2O3:P2O5=30:20:50, the alumina-containing glasses have increased Tg, densities and chemical stabilities than the base glass. When the amount of alumina is increased from 2 to 6 mol, the Tg value slightly increases, whereas the density decreases. However, the smallest weight loss is shown for the glass containing 3.2 mol of alumina. The variations of the properties with alumina are explained based on the infrared structure analysis results. In addition, it is found the either the base or the alumina-containing glasses have surface crystallization upon heat-treatments. Under the same treatment conditions, the base glass exhibits a thin layer of crystallization with LiFeP2O7 as the main phase. In contrast, alumina-containing glasses show much higher degree of crystallization, which is further increased with the amount of alumina. This trend is opposite to that of silicate glass. Besides the LiFeP2O7 main phase, Fe7(PO4) phase is also identified in the crystallized alumina-containing glasses.

  10. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  11. Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Bishop, Somer; Gotham, Katherine; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a parent-completed screening questionnaire often used to measure ASD severity. Although child characteristics are known to influence scores from other ASD-symptom measures, as well as parent-questionnaires more broadly, there has been limited consideration of how non-ASD-specific factors may affect interpretation of SRS scores. Previous studies have explored effects of behavior problems on SRS specificity, but have not addressed influences on the use of the SRS as a quantitative measure of ASD-symptoms. Method Raw scores (SRS-Raw) from parent-completed SRS were analyzed for 2,368 probands with ASD and 1,913 unaffected siblings. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between SRS scores and demographic, language, cognitive, and behavior measures. Results For probands, higher SRS-Raw were associated with greater non-ASD behavior problems, higher age, and more impaired language and cognitive skills, as well as scores from other parent report measures of social development and ASD-symptoms. For unaffected siblings, having more behavior problems predicted higher SRS-Raw; male gender, younger age and poorer adaptive social and expressive communication skills also showed small, but significant effects. Conclusions When using the SRS as a quantitative phenotype measure, the influence of behavior problems, age, and expressive language or cognitive level on scores must be considered. If effects of non-ASD-specific factors are not addressed, SRS scores are more appropriately interpreted as indicating general levels of impairment, than as severity of ASD-specific symptoms or social impairment. Further research is needed to consider how these factors influence the SRS’ sensitivity and specificity in large, clinical samples including individuals with disorders other than ASD. PMID:22823182

  12. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706

  13. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression. PMID:24575656

  14. Factors influencing the undergraduate general education science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, John Daniel

    The state of scientific literacy in the United States has been the focus of increasing concern in recent decades. A great deal of the blame for failing to produce citizens with a broad perspective in science has been placed on the undergraduate general education science curriculum. This was a national study designed to examine the factors that influence instructors' decision-making processes in designing the undergraduate general education science curriculum. The study also gathered information on the approaches used to present the curriculum. A mail-in questionnaire was used to collect data on the goals and factors that influence instructors' decisions related to the content of their courses, and on the associated characteristics of the instructors and programs. Questionnaires were returned by 85 instructors, representing a wide range of undergraduate programs in general education science. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-tests, and ANOVA, comparing respondents' mean ratings of factors and goals related to course content decisions. In making decisions, respondents assigned highest importance to the following factors: (a) instructor's philosophy of general education, (b) current and future needs of students, (c) demands of the discipline, and (d) the desire to incorporate an interdisciplinary perspective. Factors rated as least important were (a) recognition for tenure or promotion, (b) governmental requirements or regulations, and (c) guidance of a general education committee. As a goal for their course, respondents placed highest priority on developing students' science inquiry skills. Analysis by various groupings such as type of institution, instructor's education level, and years of teaching experience revealed few significant differences among respondents' ratings of factors and goals. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations for improving the general education science curriculum include (a) assisting instructors in developing and

  15. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gabriela L.; Bueno, Thaís B.; Tudella, Eloisa; Dionisio, Jadiane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb), and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05), with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001) for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks. PMID:25003276

  16. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results. PMID:23685235

  17. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  18. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  19. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. PMID:22850369

  20. [Factors influencing psychotherapeutic treatment outcome of various syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sebastian; Zepf, Siegfried

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated specific and unspecific factors influencing the psychotherapeutic treatment of various syndromes using a questionnaire which systematically replicated the Consumer Reports Study performed in the USA in 1994. The authors were particularly concerned with the degree to which certain psychotherapeutic methods - psychoanalysis, depth psychology-based psychotherapy and behavioral therapy - produced differing results following treatment of syndromes. Using cluster-analysis, two groups of syndromes could be distinguished: Patients with depressive symptoms, stress-related disorders and/or relationship problems (depression-group) and patients with anxiety disorders and/or eating-related disorders (anxiety-group). With the help of cart-analysis (Classification and Regression Trees) it was possible to identify factors influencing the improvement of symptoms. The method of treatment had not a specific effect on the improvement of symptoms. In both groups the most important predictor was the length of treatment. Furthermore in the depression group the sex of the patients and a possible restriction of the treatment by the health insurance companies influenced the treatment results and in the anxiety group the frequency of treatment and the age of the patients. PMID:15551189

  1. Three WRKY transcription factors additively repress abscisic acid and gibberellin signaling in aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Gu, Lingkun; Ringler, Patricia; Smith, Stanley; Rushton, Paul J; Shen, Qingxi J

    2015-07-01

    Members of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily are essential for the regulation of many plant pathways. Functional redundancy due to duplications of WRKY transcription factors, however, complicates genetic analysis by allowing single-mutant plants to maintain wild-type phenotypes. Our analyses indicate that three group I WRKY genes, OsWRKY24, -53, and -70, act in a partially redundant manner. All three showed characteristics of typical WRKY transcription factors: each localized to nuclei and yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that they all bind to W-boxes, including those present in their own promoters. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the expression levels of the three WRKY genes varied in the different tissues tested. Particle bombardment-mediated transient expression analyses indicated that all three genes repress the GA and ABA signaling in a dosage-dependent manner. Combination of all three WRKY genes showed additive antagonism of ABA and GA signaling. These results suggest that these WRKY proteins function as negative transcriptional regulators of GA and ABA signaling. However, different combinations of these WRKY genes can lead to varied strengths in suppression of their targets. PMID:26025535

  2. Effect of Addition of Chin Strap on PAP Compliance, Nightly Duration of Use, and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Shelley R.; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Zhang, Shiling; Devara, Anupama; Rowley, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A chinstrap is potentially useful to reduce unintentional air leak by preventing mouth opening during PAP treatment. This study examines whether the addition of a chinstrap to PAP therapy has any effect on adherence, nightly duration of use, air leak, and residual AHI. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed at an AASM-accredited VAMC sleep center. Clinical sleep data of veterans (n = 124) prescribed PAP therapy for sleep apnea was evaluated, and the effect of chinstrap use vs non-use on the above parameters was assessed. Results: Chinstrap users had significantly greater PAP adherence, longer nightly duration of PAP use, lower residual AHI and lower leak compared to chinstrap non-users at first follow up visit. Conclusions: The addition of a chin strap to PAP therapy is a simple and inexpensive method of increasing PAP adherence. Citation: Knowles SR; O'Brien DT; Zhang S; Devara A; Rowley JA. Effect of addition of chin strap on PAP compliance, nightly duration of use, and other factors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):377-383. PMID:24733982

  3. High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors Influencing Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school…

  4. Prelacteal feeding: influencing factors and relation to establishment of lactation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F U; Rahman, M E; Alam, M S

    1996-08-01

    This study was carried out with a view to finding out factors influencing prelacteal feeding and its relation to establishment of lactation in rural Bangladesh. 420 mothers in early post-partum period were interviewed at home. Prelacteal feeding was given to 77% of the babies, and honey was given to 72% of them. The common methods of prelacteal feeding were by finger (41%) and spoon (40%). Twelve socio-demographic and health care variables were studied for their probable influence on prelacteal feeding. Nine of them accounted for 22% of the variability in giving prelacteal feeding. Reasons of giving prelacteal feeding and the time of first breast feeding influenced the practice significantly (P < 0.05). Type and duration of prelacteal feeding had significant negative influence on "coming in" of milk (P < 0.05). Prelacteal feeding accounted for 44% of variations in coming in of milk. Prelacteal feeding and coming in of milk formed a vicious cycle: the former delayed initiation of lactation and on the other hand delay in coming in of milk encouraged prelacteal feeding. These observation emphasized the need for coordinated efforts for promotion of proper infant feeding practices in our rural community. PMID:9103657

  5. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  6. Factors influencing candidates' choice of a pediatric dental residency program.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Marcio A; Pollock, Matthew; Majewski, Robert; Tootla, Ruwaida; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the factors and program characteristics that influenced the program ranking decisions of applicants to pediatric dentistry residency programs. A questionnaire was sent to the first-year resident class in 2005 with a response rate of 69.2 percent (n=260). Approximately 55 percent were female (104/180) and 61 percent were non-His-panic white (110/180). The respondents reported that they applied to an average of nine programs, of which five were ranked. Most applicants were interested in a program that had a hospital component with a duration of two years. A program's ability to prepare the resident for an academic career was a minimal influence for 48.6 percent (87/179), and 57.5 percent (103/179) were not interested in a master's or Ph.D. degree. Factors associated with program ranking included modern clinical facilities, high ratio of dental assistants and faculty to residents, availability of assistants for sedation and general anesthesia cases, availability of a salary or stipend, and amount of clinical experience. Important non-clinical factors included hospitality during the interview, geographic location, and perceived reputation of the program. Opportunity to speak with the current residents in private, observing the interaction between residents and faculty, and touring the facilities were also highly considered. These findings may help program directors tailor their interviews and programs to suit the needs of applicants. PMID:17761626

  7. Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Zhu, Peng; Hu, Yan; Wu, Lizhi

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) additives on exploding foil initiator was performed in this paper. Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs were produced by using standard microsystem technology and RF magnetron sputtering technology, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed the distinct layer structure of the as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to ascertain the amount of heat released in the thermite reaction between Al films and CuO films, which was found to be 2024 J/g. Electrical explosion tests showed that 600 V was the most matching voltage for our set of apparatus. The explosion process of two types of films was observed by high speed camera and revealed that compared with Cu film, an extra distinct combustion phenomenon was detected with large numbers of product particles fiercely ejected to a distance of about six millimeters for Cu/Al/CuO RMFs. By using the atomic emission spectroscopy double line technique, the reaction temperature was determined to be about 6000-7000 K and 8000-9000 K for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively. The piezoelectricity of polyvinylidene fluoride film was employed to measure the average velocity of the slapper accelerated by the explosion of the films. The average velocities of the slappers were calculated to be 381 m/s and 326 m/s for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively, and some probable reasons were discussed with a few suggestions put forward for further work.

  8. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  9. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  10. Nontechnical skills in pediatric surgery: Factors influencing operative performance.

    PubMed

    Youngson, George G

    2016-02-01

    Technical competence is an essential aspect of intraoperative performance but is in itself insufficient to ensure an optimal surgical outcome. A list of other skills complement technical ability and these relate, among others, to surgical judgment and intraoperative decision-making processes as well as the role of the operating surgeon as leader of the surgical team. This article outlines the composite set of nontechnical skills (NTS) and the factors which influence surgical performance by virtue of this skill set. A framework has been developed to allow identification, teaching, and assessment of NTS known as Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS), and the relevance and influence of NOTSS during the intraoperative performance of pediatric surgery is presented. PMID:26644073

  11. Acne vulgaris: nutritional factors may be influencing psychological sequelae.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin; Logan, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a distressing skin condition which can carry with it significant psychological disability. Patients with acne are more likely to experience anger and are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation. Certain nutrients which have been implicated as influencing the pathophysiology of acne have also been identified as important mediators of human cognition, behavior and emotions. Zinc, folic acid, selenium, chromium and omega-3 fatty acids are all examples of nutrients which have been shown to influence depression, anger and/or anxiety. These same nutrients, along with systemic oxidative stress and an altered intestinal microflora have been implicated in acne vulgaris. It is our contention that certain nutritional factors, a weakened antioxidant defense system and altered intestinal microflora may interplay to increase the risk of psychological sequelae in acne vulgaris. PMID:17448607

  12. Factors influencing choice of dental treatment by private general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John

    2002-01-01

    Service rate variations have focused attention on treatment decisions. The aims of this study were to examine factors considered in choosing treatments, to classify dentists in terms of clinical decision making, and to investigate the association of decision making with services provided. From a random sample of dentists (response rate 60.3%) treatment constraints (15.0%), periodontal status (12.1%), tooth status (11.3%), mouth status (10.1%), and patient factors (9.8%) were considered important factors across six alternative treatment pair choice scenarios. Cluster analysis of the treatment choice scenarios produced one cluster that reflected patient preferences, another that reflected treatment constraints such as cost, and a third that reflected oral health factors. Compared with the oral health cluster, dentists in the constraints cluster had higher rates (p < .05) of extractions (rate ratio [RR] = 1.49), bridge work (RR = 1.77), and dentures (RR = 1.32), whereas dentists in the patient cluster had higher restoration rates for two-surface ionomers (RR = 2.45) and resins on three or more surfaces (RR = 1.50) and other preventive services (RR = 1.78) such as oral hygiene instruction. Although a range of factors influenced treatment choice, a limited set accounted for the majority of responses, with cost a major determinant, ahead of oral health status and patient preference. Decision-making style was associated with service provision. PMID:12174535

  13. Factors influencing the selection of toys for handicapped and normally developing preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fallon, M A; Harris, M B

    1989-06-01

    Factors influencing the selection and purchase of toys for children's use were investigated. Subjects were 73 parents or adult friends of normally developing or handicapped preschool children. In addition to providing demographic information about themselves, the subjects rated the importance of 17 factors influencing their selection and purchase of toys. Contrary to previous research, the sex of the child was reported to be of only minor importance in toy selection, as was the picture on the toy package. Two factors, safety and teaching new skills, were rated as extremely important. There were no significant differences in ratings as a result of sex, ethnicity, or whether or not the subjects were parents of a handicapped child. The findings suggest a substantial degree of agreement among parents about what they consider important when choosing toys for children. PMID:2527967

  14. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  15. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  16. Factors influencing evidence-based practice for community nurses.

    PubMed

    Baird, Lisa M Garland; Miller, Tess

    2015-05-01

    Factors influencing the development of evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP) were examined in Prince Edward Island, Canada. An adapted electronic questionnaire was distributed to practicing registered nurses and nurse practitioners (n=68). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between nurses' clinical practice setting and the EBNP scale. Significant differences were also found between age and education level when compared with the EBNP subscales where novice nurses were less likely to rely on experience and intuition, and expert nurses with a higher level of education reported being more skilful at synthesising and applying information from research findings into their nursing practice. PMID:25993372

  17. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. PMID:23165885

  18. Factors That Influence the Size of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Toumi, Ralf; Czaja, Arnaud; Van Kan, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) size is an important feature setting the extent of coastal flooding, the size of storm surge and area threatened by landfall. The importance of TC size is demonstrated comparing Hurricanes Sandy in 2012 and Bret in 1999. As a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale category-3 hurricane, the radius of gale-force wind of Hurricane Sandy exceeded 800 km prior to landfall, and the storm caused catastrophic storm surge into the New Jersey and New York coastlines, and damage up to an estimated total of 50 billion. Hurricane Bret, on the other hand, was a more intense category-4 hurricane with a radius of gale-force wind of only 140 km. Although Bret's intensity is considerable, damage was reported to be relatively light, totalling an estimated 60 million. The difference impacts are mainly caused by the difference in size. Despite the fact that a wide range of observed TC sizes has been recognised, the underlying factors that control both individual storm size and the climatological size variation remain mysterious. Here an idealized full-physics numerical cyclone model and a modified hurricane steady-state model (λ model) for TC wind profile are used to investigate the influence of environmental temperature and initial vortex properties on TC size. In the simulation we find that a sea surface temperature increase, a temperature decrease in the upper troposphere, a large or strong initial vortex can lead to the extension of TC size. The numerical model simulations show a Gaussian distribution with width, λ, of the moist entropy in the boundary layer. The width, λ, has good linear relationship with the size changes caused by different factors. With regards to TC size and intensity, we find that, unlike the intensity prediction based on the maximum potential intensity theory, it seems that there is no upper limit for TC size providing there is sufficient latent heat flux. The increase of TC size at the steady stage also causes a slight drop in intensity. In

  19. Factors which Limit the Value of Additional Redundancy in Human Rated Launch Vehicle Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joel M.; Stott, James E.; Ring, Robert W.; Hatfield, Spencer; Kaltz, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has embarked on an ambitious program to return humans to the moon and beyond. As NASA moves forward in the development and design of new launch vehicles for future space exploration, it must fully consider the implications that rule-based requirements of redundancy or fault tolerance have on system reliability/risk. These considerations include common cause failure, increased system complexity, combined serial and parallel configurations, and the impact of design features implemented to control premature activation. These factors and others must be considered in trade studies to support design decisions that balance safety, reliability, performance and system complexity to achieve a relatively simple, operable system that provides the safest and most reliable system within the specified performance requirements. This paper describes conditions under which additional functional redundancy can impede improved system reliability. Examples from current NASA programs including the Ares I Upper Stage will be shown.

  20. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. PMID:24349146

  1. Enhancement of antibody production by growth factor addition in perfusion and hollow-fiber culture systems.

    PubMed

    Omasa, T; Kobayashi, M; Nishikawa, T; Shioya, S; Suga, K; Uemura, S; Kitani, Y; Imamura, Y

    1995-12-20

    The effects of the high-molecular-weight growth factors, transferrin and bovine serum albumin (BSA), on antibody production were analyzed quantitatively in continuous hollow-fiber cultivation over a period of 60 days. Transferrin enhanced cell growth but had no significant effect on the specific antibody production rate, whereas BSA significantly enhanced antibody production. The antibody production rate was increased 4- and 14-fold respectively by feeding BSA at 2 and 5 g L(-1) into the EC side of the system (the side connected to the cell-containing outer part of the hollow-fiber unit) compared with the production achieved without BSA. Addition of 5 g L(1) BSA into the IC side of the system (the side connected to the inner part of the hollow-fiber unit) resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in the antibody production rate. The effect of BSA was also analyzed using the perfusion culture system with a separation unit. When fresh medium containing either 2 or 5 g L(-1) BSA was fed into the reactor, both the specific growth rate and specific death rate increased, while the specific antibody production rate was increased 2- and 25-fold, respectively, by feeding BSA at these two concentrations compared with no addition. Comparing the two systems, the increase in the antibody production rate achieved with the hollow-fiber system was threefold greater than that in the perfusion culture system with the same concentration of BSA feeding. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623537

  2. Influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Liu, Jieqiong; Gu, Ran; Hu, Yue; Liu, Fengtao; Yun, Miaomiao; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi

    2016-07-01

    Mammographic density is an independent strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, the influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. In the Southern Professional Women Breast Cancer Screening Project, we assessed the associations between mammographic density and its influential factors using multivariate logistic regression in premenopausal women adjusting for BMI, age, duration of breastfeeding, number of live births, and breast size. A total of 1699 premenopausal women aged 27 to 57 years, who had been screened by mammography, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Overall, 85.2% were categorized as having dense breasts (BI-RADS density 3 and 4) and 14.8% as having fatty breasts (BI-RADS density 1 and 2). In multivariate and logistic regression analysis, only BMI and age were significantly negatively correlated with mammographic density in premenopausal women (P<0.001). No significant associations between mammographic density and number of deliveries, breastfeeding duration, education level, family history of breast cancer, as well as breast size and sleep quality, were identified in the study. Age and BMI are negatively associated with mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women. Information on the influential factors of mammographic density in premenopausal women might provide meaningful insights into breast cancer prevention. PMID:26075657

  3. Influencing factors of hydrogen bonding intensity in beer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Xiangsheng; Li, Qi; Gu, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen bonding was prone to be formed by many components in beer. Different sorts of flavor substances can affect the Chemical Shift due to their different concentrations in beer. Several key factors including 4 alcohols, 2 esters, 6 ions, 9 acids, 7 polyphenols, and 2 gravity indexes (OG and RG) were determined in this research. They could be used to investigate the relationship between hydrogen bonding intensity and the flavor components in bottled larger beers through the Correlation Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed that ethanol content was the primary influencing factor, and its correlation coefficient was 0.629 for Correlation Analysis. Some factors had a positive correlation with hydrogen bonding intensity, including the content of original gravity, ethanol, isobutanol, Cl(-), K(+), pyruvic acid, lactic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, and Catechin in beer. A mathematic model of hydrogen bonding Chemical Shift and the content of ethanol, pyruvic acid, K(+), and gallic acid was obtained through the Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis , with the adjusted R(2) being 0.779 (P = 0.001). Ethanol content was proved to be the most important factor which could impact on hydrogen bonding association in beer by Principal Component Analysis. And then, a multiple non-linearity model could be obtained as follows: [Formula: see text]. The average error was 1.23 % in the validated experiment. PMID:26396290

  4. The influence of α-Al2O3 addition on microstructure, mechanical and formaldehyde adsorption properties of fly ash-based geopolymer products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Han, Minfang

    2011-10-15

    Fly ash-based geopolymer with α-Al(2)O(3) addition were synthesized and used to remove formaldehyde from indoor air. The microstructure, mechanical and formaldehyde adsorption properties of the geopolymer products obtained were investigated. The results showed that α-Al(2)O(3) addition with appropriate amount (such as 5 wt%) increased the geopolymerization extent, resulting in the increase of surface area and compressive strength. In addition, the improvement of structural ordering level for geopolymer sample with 5 wt% α-Al(2)O(3) addition was found through FTIR analysis. By contrast, excessive addition (such as 10 wt%) had the opposite effect. The test of formaldehyde adsorption capacity confirmed that fly ash-based geopolymer product exhibited much better property of adsorbing indoor formaldehyde physically and chemically than fly ash itself. The surface area was an important but not unique factor influencing the adsorption capacity of geopolymers. PMID:21802843

  5. Factors influencing pharmacists' selection of their first practice setting.

    PubMed

    Carter, E A; Segal, R

    1989-11-01

    Factors that influenced the choice of initial practice setting among pharmacists who had completed the majority of their experiential training in a hospital setting were determined. A questionnaire was mailed to all eligible pharmacists who successfully completed the Ohio pharmacist licensure examination in June or September 1987. Respondents were asked to (1) provide demographic data, (2) rate the importance of 23 factors that a pharmacist might consider when choosing a practice site, and (3) rate the desirability of a pharmacist position in their major hospital internship site, as well as positions they had considered in other hospitals and in community pharmacies. The predictive accuracy of four decision-making models--the weighted compensatory choice model, the unweighted compensatory choice model, the lexicographic model, and the conjunctive model--also was determined. Of 105 pharmacists surveyed, 53 returned usable questionnaires. Twenty-five had chosen to practice in hospital settings, and 28 had chosen community settings. The factor "is personally rewarding" was mentioned most often by hospital and community pharmacists as the factor that was most important when choosing their first position. The lexicographic model, which postulates that a pharmacist will choose the practice site with the highest performance rating for the most important factor, was the most accurate predictor of respondents' initial practice sites. Pharmacists' perception of how practice sites would rate in terms of the single job-related factor most important to them was the best predictor of whether they chose hospital or community practice initially and whether they chose to work in the hospital in which they served their internship, another hospital, or a community pharmacy. PMID:2589346

  6. Computer visualizations: factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J; Wilson, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension before and after instruction with different computer visualizations. Three major factors were considered: (1) visualization ability (VZ) of learners, (2) dynamism of the visual display, and (3) interactivity of the system. Participants (N = 60) of differing VZs (high, low) studied a group of anatomical structures in one of three visual conditions (control, static, dynamic) and one of two interactive conditions (interactive, non-interactive). Before and after the study phase, participants' comprehension of spatial anatomical information was assessed using a multiple-choice spatial anatomy task (SAT) involving the mental rotation of the anatomical structures, identification of the structures in 2D cross-sections, and localization of planes corresponding to given cross-sections. Results indicate that VZ had a positive influence on SAT performance but instruction with different computer visualizations could modulate the effect of VZ on task performance. PMID:22232125

  7. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    PubMed Central

    Fecho, Karamarie; Jackson, Freeman; Smith, Frances; Overdyk, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival. Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival. Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events. PMID:20057895

  8. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  9. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  10. Additional thyroid dose factor from transportation sources in Russia after the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Parshkov, E M; Chebotareva, I V; Sokolov, V A; Dallas, C E

    1997-01-01

    Beginning approximately 4 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children and adolescents of the Bryansk Oblast, which received the highest level of radionuclide contaminants in Russia. We examined the spatial relationship between the residence location of patients with identified thyroid cancer (0-18 years old at the time of the accident) and a number of geographic parameters to better account for the etiology of thyroid cancer spatial distribution. Geographic parameters analyzed included spatial distribution of 137Cs and 131I in soil, population demographics, measurements and reconstructions. of absorbed thyroid 131I doses in the population, and maps of major transportation arteries. An interesting finding is the lack of a consistent correlation between the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the soil and thyroid cancer incidence. Instead, most of the thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in settlements situated on major railways and roads. Correlating population with thyroid cancer cases and transportation arteries reveals a much higher cancer rate on or near major roads and railways than at a distance from them, again independent of radionuclide soil concentration. There are other important factors, of course, that must be considered in future evaluations of this phenomenon. These include the influence of iodine endemic zones, genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer, and duration of residence time in contaminated areas. The feasibility of radionuclide transport on railways and roads is discussed, together with the vectors for transfer of the contaminants to the human population. Developing a model to reconstruct the radiation dose to the thyroid over time in this geographic region is proposed in light of the impact of transportation arteries. Specific studies are outlined to provide the data necessary to develop this model as well as to better characterize the feasibility and

  11. Academic, social and cultural factors influencing medical school grade performance.

    PubMed

    Alfayez, S F; Strand, D A; Carline, J D

    1990-05-01

    Studies of medical student performance have focused on various factors, including premedical academics, maturity, familial background and support, and personal experiences with illness. Most studies have been conducted in countries with highly developed educational systems and similar cultural and social systems. It is not clear that these findings can be applied to developing countries, where the educational and cultural experiences may be very different, and where medical instruction is carried out in a non-native language. Information was obtained from a survey of 153 fifth- and sixth-year medical students at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. The survey measured premedical educational, social and cultural experiences that might affect medical school performance. Men performed as well as women in the medical school despite heavy familial and social commitments. Women's performance seems to be more influenced by changes in living environment. Achievement in premedical years was correlated positively with grade performance in medical school. Competence in the high-school English courses was related to medical school performance. Interest in the study of medicine prior to medical school was not related to performance. Other motivations, such as social gains, financial benefits or family wish, were related to lower performance. Current interest in clinical medicine correlated negatively with performance. Students motivated by the presence of chronic ill health in their families performed significantly lower. Factors influencing medical school performance in developed countries had similar impact on medical students in a developing country. Social factors, unique to the country, also play a role in medical student performance. PMID:2355866

  12. Influence of additions of adamantane and its derivatives on electrolytic polishing of Cr18Ni9 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorova, E.A.; Mitrofanov, E.V.; Flerov, V.N.

    1986-02-10

    The authors report the influence of additions of adamantane, hydroxadamantane, bromoadamantane, and acetylaminoadamantane on polishing of Cr18Ni9 alloys in sulfuric-phosphoric acid electrolyte. They show that replacement of adamantane by certain of its derivatives in sulfuric-phosphoric acid solutions for polishing Cr18Ni9 steel increases the technological efficiency of the process considerably; this is due to the greater influence of the new additives on the polarizability of the process and on the surface tension of the solutions.

  13. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation. PMID:23683914

  14. Patient risk factors' influence on survival of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Opdam, N J; Rodolpho, P A Da Rosa; Correa, M B; Demarco, F F; Cenci, M S

    2013-07-01

    This practice-based retrospective study evaluated the survival of resin composite restorations in posterior teeth, focusing on the influence of potential patient risk factors. In total, 306 posterior composite restorations placed in 44 adult patients were investigated after 10 to 18 yrs. The history of each restoration was extracted from the dental records, and a clinical evaluation was performed with those still in situ. The patient risk status was assessed for caries and "occlusal-stress" (bruxism-related). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression multivariate analysis. In total, 30% of the restorations failed, of which 82% were found in patients with 1 or 2 risk factors. Secondary caries was the main reason of failure within caries-risk patients, whereas fracture was the main reason in "occlusal-stress-risk" patients. The patient variables gender and age did not significantly affect survival, but risk did (p < .001). Tooth type (p < .001), arch (p = .013), and pulpal vitality (p = .003) significantly affected restoration survival. Within the limits of this retrospective evaluation, the survival of restorations is affected by patient risk factors, which should be included in survival analyses of restorations. PMID:23690354

  15. Perceptual factors that influence use of computer enhanced visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, David; Boehm-Davis, Debbie

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA/Langley contract entitled 'Perceptual Factors that Influence Use of Computer Enhanced Visual Displays.' The document consists of two parts. The first part contains a discussion of the problem to which the grant was addressed, a brief discussion of work performed under the grant, and several issues suggested for follow-on work. The second part, presented as Appendix I, contains the annual report produced by Dr. Ann Fulop, the Postdoctoral Research Associate who worked on-site in this project. The main focus of this project was to investigate perceptual factors that might affect a pilot's ability to use computer generated information that is projected into the same visual space that contains information about real world objects. For example, computer generated visual information can identify the type of an attacking aircraft, or its likely trajectory. Such computer generated information must not be so bright that it adversely affects a pilot's ability to perceive other potential threats in the same volume of space. Or, perceptual attributes of computer generated and real display components should not contradict each other in ways that lead to problems of accommodation and, thus, distance judgments. The purpose of the research carried out under this contract was to begin to explore the perceptual factors that contribute to effective use of these displays.

  16. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  17. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  18. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    D'hooghe, M B; Nagels, G; Bissay, V; De Keyser, J

    2010-07-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetanus appear to be safe. Surgery, general and epidural anaesthesia, and physical trauma are not associated with an increased risk of relapses. Factors that have been associated with a reduced relapse rate are pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, sunlight exposure and higher vitamin D levels. A number of medications, including hormonal fertility treatment, seem to be able to trigger relapses. Factors that may worsen progression of disability include stressful life events, radiotherapy to the head, low levels of physical activity and low vitamin D levels. Strong evidence suggests that smoking promotes disease progression, both clinically and on brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no evidence for an increased progression of disability following childbirth in women with multiple sclerosis. Moderate alcohol intake and exercise might have a neuroprotective effect, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:20483884

  19. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  20. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  1. Integrating products of Bessel functions with an additional exponential or rational factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deun, Joris; Cools, Ronald

    2008-04-01

    We provide two MATLAB programs to compute integrals of the form ex∏i=1kJν_i(ax)dxand 0∞xr+x∏i=1kJν_i(ax)dx with Jν_i(x) the Bessel function of the first kind and (real) order ν. The parameter m is a real number such that ∑ν+m>-1 (to assure integrability near zero), r is real and the numbers c and a are all strictly positive. The program can deliver accurate error estimates. Program summaryProgram title: BESSELINTR, BESSELINTC Catalogue identifier: AEAH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1601 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 161 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab (version ⩾6.5), Octave (version ⩾2.1.69) Computer: All supporting Matlab or Octave Operating system: All supporting Matlab or Octave RAM: For k Bessel functions our program needs approximately ( 500+140k) double precision variables Classification: 4.11 Nature of problem: The problem consists in integrating an arbitrary product of Bessel functions with an additional rational or exponential factor over a semi-infinite interval. Difficulties arise from the irregular oscillatory behaviour and the possible slow decay of the integrand, which prevents truncation at a finite point. Solution method: The interval of integration is split into a finite and infinite part. The integral over the finite part is computed using Gauss-Legendre quadrature. The integrand on the infinite part is approximated using asymptotic expansions and this approximation is integrated exactly with the aid of the upper incomplete gamma function. In the case where a rational factor is present, this factor is first expanded in a Taylor series around infinity. Restrictions: Some (and eventually all

  2. Factors Influencing the Onset of Chronic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holland, W. W.; Hall, T.; Bennett, A. E.; Elliott, A.

    1969-01-01

    To investigate the effect of different environmental and personal factors on ventilatory function 10,971 children resident and going to school in four areas of Kent were examined. Details of past respiratory illnesses were obtained by a questionary completed by the parents; the examination included measurement of height, weight, and peak expiratory flow. Area of residence, social class, family size, and a past history of pneumonia, bronchitis, or asthma were found to be associated with differing levels of peak expiratory flow. These four factors acted independently, and the effects were additive. It is suggested that environment in the early years of life can produce adverse changes which may exist throughout life and contribute to the development of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:5780426

  3. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients' decision making?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean; Sick, Brian; Anderson, Joseph; Berg, Andrea; Dehmer, Chad; Tufano, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Each year consumers make a variety of decisions relating to their healthcare. Some experts argue that stronger consumer engagement in decisions about where to obtain medical care is an important mechanism for improving efficiency in healthcare delivery and financing. Consumers' ability and motivation to become more active decision makers are affected by several factors, including financial incentives and access to information. This study investigates the set of factors that consumers consider when selecting a provider, including attributes of the provider and the care experience and the reputation of the provider. Additionally, the study evaluates consumers awareness and use of formal sources of provider selection information. Our results from analyzing data from a survey of 467 patients at four clinics in Minnesota suggest that the factors considered of greatest importance include reputation of the physician and reputation of the healthcare organization. Contractual and logistical factors also play a role, with respondents highlighting the importance of seeing a provider affiliated with their health plan and appointment availability. Few respondents indicated that advertisements or formal sources of quality information affected their decision making. The key implication for provider organizations is to carefully manage referral sources to ensure that they consistently meet the needs of referrers. Excellent service to existing patients and to the network of referring physicians yields patient and referrer satisfaction that is critical to attracting new patients. Finally, organizations more generally may want to explore the capabilities of new media and social networking sites for building reputation. PMID:21495529

  4. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. PMID:24291585

  5. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  6. Vaccine-induced antibody responses as parameters of the influence of endogenous and environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Van Loveren, H; Van Amsterdam, J G; Vandebriel, R J; Kimman, T G; Rümke, H C; Steerenberg, P S; Vos, J G

    2001-01-01

    In laboratory animals, an adequate way to assess effects of environmental exposures on the immune system is to study effects on antigen-specific immune responses, such as after sensitization to T-cell-dependent antigens. This probably also applies to testing effects in the human population. It has thus been suggested that antibody responses to vaccination might be useful in this context. Vaccination responses may be influenced by a variety of factors other than environmental ones. One factor is the vaccine itself; a second is the vaccination procedure used. In addition, the intrinsic capacity of the recipient to respond to a vaccine, which is determined by sex, genetic factors, and age, is important. Psychological stress, nutrition, and (infectious) diseases are also likely to have an impact. We reviewed the literature on vaccine response. With regard to exogenous factors, there is good evidence that smoking, diet, psychological stress, and certain infectious diseases affect vaccination titers, although it is difficult to determine to what extent. Genetic factors render certain individuals nonresponsive to vaccination. In general, in epidemiologic studies of adverse effects of exposure to agents in the environment in which vaccination titers are used, these additional factors need to be taken into consideration. Provided that these factors are corrected for, a study that shows an association of exposure to a given agent with diminished vaccination responses may indicate suboptimal function of the immune system and clinically relevant diminished immune response. It is quite unlikely that environmental exposures that affect responses to vaccination may in fact abrogate protection to the specific pathogen for which vaccination was performed. Only in those cases where individuals have a poor response to the vaccine may exogenous factors perhaps have a clinically significant influence on resistance to the specific pathogen. An exposure-associated inhibition of a

  7. Influence of polymer additives on turbulence in von Karman swirling flow between two disks. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    2016-03-01

    We present the experimental studies of the influence of polymer additives on the statistical and scaling properties of the fully developed turbulent regime in a von Karman swirling flow driven either by the smooth or bladed disks using only the global measurements of torque Γ and pressure p fluctuations in water- and water-sugar-based solutions of different viscosities, or elasticity El, and different polymer concentrations ϕ as a function of Re in the same apparatus. There are three highlights achieved and reported in the paper: (i) An observation of turbulent drag reduction (TDR) at both the inertial and viscous flow forcing, in a contradiction to a currently accepted opinion that only the viscous forcing leads to TDR, and the unexpected drastic difference in the transition to the fully developed turbulent and TDR regimes in von Karman swirling flow of water-based polymer solutions depending on the way of the forcing; (ii) a continuous transition to TDR in both the normalized torque drop and the rms pressure fluctuations drop and universality in scaling behavior of Cf in an agreement with theoretical predictions; and (iii) the dramatic differences in the appearance of the frequency power spectra of Γ and in particular p due to the different ways of the forcing are also observed. We discuss and summarize further the results in accordance with these three main achievements. The main message of these studies is that both the inertial forcing and viscous forcing of von Karman swirling flow between two counter-rotating disks lead to TDR in the sharp contrast to the currently accepted opinion [O. Cadot et al., "Turbulent drag reduction in a closed flow system: Boundary layer versus bulk effects," Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998); D. Bonn et al., "From scale scales to large scales in three-dimensional turbulence: The effect of diluted polymers," Phys. Rev. E 47, R28 (1993); and D. Bonn et al., "Turbulent drag reduction by polymers," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195

  8. Organizational, financial, and environmental factors influencing deans' tenure.

    PubMed

    Levin, R; Bhak, K; Moy, E; Valente, E; Griner, P F

    1998-06-01

    At a time when continuity of leadership in medical schools is most crucial, the tenures of deans continue to decrease. In the present study of factors influencing the tenures of 382 U.S. medical school deans from 1985 to 1994, the authors focused on issues that were likely to have had a greater impact on deans' tenures in recent years. They assumed that longer tenures are associated with less complex organizational factors and more stable environmental factors. Conversely, they assumed that deans and their tenures are adversely affected by an institution's declining financial health, a complex organizational structure, and a changing clinical marketplace where there is rapid growth of managed care. The authors compared the relationships between these factors and the length of deans' tenures during the ten-year period studied. Among the most important findings were the fact that schools that were less healthy financially, that had the same owner as the primary teaching hospital, and that had smaller numbers of faculty tended to have shorter dean's tenures and higher turnovers of deans. While the reason for shorter tenures of deans at schools that are less financially healthy is understandable, the effect of common ownership of the school and teaching hospital is less obvious, but perhaps the greater preoccupation of deans with the clinical enterprise in that circumstance is a significant constraint. The authors hope that the insights from their findings will be useful to future candidates for deanships in their negotiations with university officials and will help all parties reach more explicit agreements on such issues as expectations for financial performance of the medical school and the roles and relationships of the dean and the teaching hospital director. PMID:9653400

  9. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research. PMID:18839604

  10. Factors influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed in public.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Yvonne L

    2004-03-01

    Breastfeeding in public was a major theme that emerged in a previous Western Australian study that explored the maternal process of managing breastfeeding and subsequent weaning. This paper highlights the factors that influenced mothers' decisions to breastfeed in public. Confidence with breastfeeding, the ability to be discreet, the mother's body image, previous experience, age of the breastfeeding child, the audience, feelings of the partner, breastfeeding location and perceptions of societal expectations all impacted upon the decision of how to manage breastfeeding in public. Initiatives to promote a breastfeeding friendly community are briefly discussed as well as strategies that participants employed to manage their breastfeeding in public. These findings add to our knowledge on breastfeeding and have implications for how we support breastfeeding women. PMID:17004344

  11. [Influence of poor factors of airports on human health].

    PubMed

    Pochekaeva, E I

    2008-01-01

    The hygienic study conducted in Rostov-on-Don has shown that air transport and airports are important sources of physical and chemical pollution of the environment. Human health examinations served to illustrate the adverse impact of airports on the environmental and hygienic living conditions of the population. The performed studies provided the basis for purpose-oriented program to enhance the environment and to reduce morbidity rates in accordance with the National Environmental Hygiene Program. The developed algorithm of the assessment and reduction of a risk for diseases under the influence of poor factors associated with the activities of airports is designed to provide the authorities and concerned organizations with information, to make managerial decisions, and to work out health-improving measures. PMID:18509916

  12. Factors influencing burnout and job stress among military nurses.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, C

    1997-10-01

    Burnout among military nurses has been found to lead to job absenteeism, staff conflicts, and a high turnover of personnel. Factors influencing nurses working in smaller and often isolated military installations of the South African National Defence Force were investigated using a job-stress and burnout questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Investigation focused on registration categories, geographic location, and age. It was found that the senior registration categories experienced more burnout, and nurses in isolated areas reported almost double the number of cases of burnout than nurses in larger centers. Age played a role in the very young (19-25 years) and older (40-50 years) nurses. The lack of support from supervisors, high responsibility, long working hours, and task overload were the four most common stressors reported. Some suggestions are forwarded to manage the risk of burnout among military nurses in similar situations. PMID:9339089

  13. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  14. Factors Influencing Black Churches' Readiness to Address HIV.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Latrice C; Powell, Terrinieka Williams; Ogg, Siri A; Williams, Andrea L; Becton-Odum, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This study employed a community-based participatory research approach to understand factors that influence church readiness to engage in HIV prevention and treatment activities. A convenience sample of twenty-six Black faith leaders participated in four focus groups. Data analysis was done through qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged. First, the pastor's blessing and authority as the church's decision-maker determines readiness to engage in HIV prevention. Second, the church's purview of sexual health as part of a holistic ministry facilitates faith leader's readiness. Lastly, securing financial and human resources makes it feasible for faith leaders to implement activities. Findings suggest HIV-related stigma alone does not explain readiness to address HIV. Participants also discussed activities their churches are equipped to handle, including HIV testing events and health fairs. PMID:26345680

  15. Factors influencing equipment selection in electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. W.

    2003-08-01

    During the eighties and nineties accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high-energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain per unit costs low for treatment. This philosophy runs counter to certain present-day realities of the sterilization business as well as conditions influencing accelerator selection in other electron beam applications. Recent experience in machine selection is described and factors affecting choice are presented.

  16. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  17. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Passive Fingertip Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Camboni, Domenico; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction) with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i) the normal force of stimulus application (FN) and (ii) the stimulus temperature (TS). Methods and Results The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra) and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT) during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0), pleasant (scored 1), or unpleasant (scored 2). These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS) and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness. Conclusion Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring during fingertip

  18. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as "the ball between the man and the drawer"). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a-d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  19. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  20. Factors Influencing Challenging Colonoscopies During Anesthesiologist-Assisted Deep Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cardin; Nadia, Minicuci; Alessandra, Andreotti; Elisa, Granziera; Carmelo, Militello

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Increased demand for colon cancer screening procedures can significantly impact on routine colonoscopy management at dedicated facilities, prompting a review of the factors that can negatively affect workflow. Although potential adverse effects and impact on costs of deep sedation have been documented elsewhere, this study focuses on variables that can influence performance of colonoscopy in deep sedation and interfere with normal procedure scheduling in settings where the presence of an anesthesiologist is mandatory. Patients and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of the activities of a colonoscopy screening unit, applying Bayesian Network (BN) analysis, designed to assess interdependencies among variables that can affect a process in complex, multidimensional systems. The study was performed at a teaching hospital where endoscopists and anesthesiologists of varying work experience operate on a rota basis. During a six-month period, we analyzed 1485 consecutive colonoscopies performed under deep propofol sedation, administered by an anesthesiologist via hand-controlled syringe. The BN was constructed with the variables: Gender, age, ASA status, bowel preparation, baseline blood pressure, endoscopist's experience, anesthesiologist's experience, presence of polypectomy, and the target node, “challenging procedure.” This previously undefined category refers to any events disrupting the scheduled rota. Result and Conclusion: Two distinct networks were identified. One deals mainly with relationships among the variables, patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics (procedures with polypectomy, ASA and baseline blood pressure). The other explains relationships among the variables, “challenging procedure,” bowel preparation, and endoscopist's experience. The factors associated with the anesthesiologist's activity do not influence challenging colonoscopies. PMID:26831609

  1. [Factors influencing early extubation after open heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Varró, M; Gombocz, K; Wrana, G

    2001-06-10

    The authors have performed a retrospective study in order to review the occurrence and the influencing factors of early extubation among their patients. Those patients who had any severe complication in the immediate postoperative period (pericardial tamponade, low cardiac output syndrome, re-operation due to excessive bleeding, postperfusion lung syndrome, pulmonary edema) preventing early extubation, have been excluded from the study. In the remaining 690 patients early extubation within 8 hours and within 4 hours could be carried out in 525 (76.1%) and 164 cases (23.8%) respectively. Late (beyond 12 hours) extubation occurred in 68 cases (9.9%). Anaesthesia was governed by two different methods. Midazolam and alfentanyl (group 1) were used in 137 cases (19.9%) whilst 553 patients (80.1%) received propofol and alfentanyl (group 2). In group 1 and 2 early extubation was possible in 50.4 and 82.5% respectively (p < 0.0001). In further investigations 27 pre- and intraoperative variables of each patient have been studied and analysed. For statistical analysis authors used the SPSS software including T-test, Mann-Whitney-test, chi-square test and multivariate logistical regression analysis. On the basis of multivariate regression analysis factors influencing early extubation were as follows: age (B = 0.0775; p < 0.001), sex (B = 1.2900; p < 0.001), method of anaesthesia (B = 1.9753; p < 0.001), duration of anaesthesia (B = 0.0053; p < 0.001), re-do operation (B = 1.0482; p = 0.0469) and preoperative congestive heart failure (B = 0.9008; p = 0.0125). Pulmonary diseases known from patient history have not had a deep impact on early extubation. On the basis of our study early extubation has not resulted in an increased number of either the postoperative complications or the occurrence of perioperative myocardial infarction. PMID:11433920

  2. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  3. Influence of defatted soy flour addition on the quality and stability of pretzel type product.

    PubMed

    Naik, Haroon Rashid; Sekhon, K S

    2014-03-01

    Effect of soya flour addition to 70% extraction bread wheat flour (PBW-343) at (0, 5, 10, 20 & 30%) was investigated for physico-chemical, dough handling and pretzel making properties. Results revealed that with increasing DSF addition, farinogram characteristics; water absorption, arrival time, dough development time and dough stability increased while mixing tolerance index and degree of softening decreased. Amylogram characteristics gelatinization temperature, peak viscosity, peak temperature and viscosity at 95 °C decreased with extended rate of DSF addition. Pretzels developed with different levels of DSF addition observed decrease in moisture, fat, non reducing sugars and starch where as ash, protein, reducing and total sugars increased compared to control. Calories calculated from proximate composition showed lower values than control due to high protein and low fat soy flour addition. Minerals increased significantly with increased levels of defatted soy flour addition. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that 5% level of soy flour blended pretzels were found best with respect to texture, colour and flavor on the basis of mean acceptability scores. Pretzels recorded shelf life of 90 days in laminated pouches irrespective of the level of DSF addition. PMID:24587534

  4. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system. PMID:24140689

  5. Eroticization as a factor influencing erectile dysfunction treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kukula, K C; Jackowich, R A; Wassersug, R J

    2014-01-01

    We review both the medical and psychosocial literature on factors influencing male potency in order to better understand why erectile dysfunction (ED) treatments, PDE5 drugs in particular, are abandoned when otherwise effective. We incorporate anecdotal data from websites and list serves dedicated to helping patients deal with iatrogenic ED. Our goal is to distinguish between ED treatments that are medicalized versus eroticized, and how partner participation may influence their effectiveness. Recently it has been shown that ED treatment effectiveness is aided by the involvement of the patient's partner. This permits an erotic association between the partner and the ED 'aid'. We extend this idea to suggest that having the partner involved as early as possible in the discussion of treatment, and their presence at the time of prescription, should improve ED aid effectiveness. Eroticization of ED aids shifts the focus from a perceived disability of the patient toward the sexual pleasure provided by the partner. We further suggest that ED aids used without the partner's knowledge will undermine intimacy and ultimately the treatment's effectiveness. Unpartnered patients should be advised about the importance of informing potential partners about their use of such aids, as openness and honesty may increase intimacy in the long run. PMID:23823215

  6. Pediatric Organ Donation: What Factors Most Influence Parents’ Donation Decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Howard, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that influence parents’ decisions when asked to donate a deceased child’s organs. Design Cross-sectional design with data collection via structured telephone interviews. Setting and Participants Seventy-four parents (49 donors, 25 non-donors) of donor-eligible deceased children who were previously approached by coordinators from one organ procurement organization (OPO) in the southeastern USA. Main Results Multivariate analyses showed that organ donation was more likely when the parent was a registered organ donor (OR=1.4, CI=1.1, 2.7), the parent had favorable organ donation beliefs (OR=5.5, CI=2.7, 12.3), the parent was exposed to organ donation information prior to the child’s death (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.7, 10.3), a member of the child’s healthcare team first mentioned organ donation (OR=1.4, CI=1.2, 3.7), the requestor was perceived as sensitive to the family’s needs (OR=0.4, CI=0.2, 0.7), the family had sufficient time to discuss donation (OR=5.2, CI=1.4, 11.6), and family members were in agreement about donation (OR=2.8, CI=1.3, 5.2). Conclusions This study identifies several modifiable variables that influence the donation decision-making process for parents. Strategies to facilitate targeted organ donation education and higher consent rates are discussed. PMID:18477931

  7. Factors influencing thiocyanate toxicity in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri

    SciTech Connect

    Heming, T.A.; Blumhagen, K.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The toxicity of thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}) to fish is influenced by the level of fish activity. This is evidenced most dramatically when fish are forced to perform short bouts of strenuous swimming, such as occurs during capture avoidance. Strenuous exercise of SCN{sup {minus}}-exposed fish results in sudden death syndrome, characterized by the immediate onset of convulsions, loss of equilibrium and buoyancy, flaring of the operculum, darkening of the skin epithelium and, within minutes, cessation of ventilation and extreme rigor. The present study was undertaken to examine the accumulation and toxicity of SCN{sup {minus}} in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), in relation to exercise stress and ambient water quality. The effect of a single bout of exercise on blood SCN{sup {minus}} concentration was measured. In addition, effects of water hardness and Cl{sup {minus}} concentration on the accumulation of SCN{sup {minus}} in blood were determined.

  8. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  9. Influence of cementitious additions on rheological and mechanical properties of reactive powder concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenati, A.; Arroudj, K.; Lanez, M.; Oudjit, M. N.

    2009-11-01

    Following needs of concrete market and the economic and ecological needs, several researchers, all over the world, studied the beneficial effect which the incorporation of the mineral additions in Portland cement industry can bring. It was shown that the incorporation of local mineral additions can decrease the consumption of crushing energy of cements, and reduce the CO2 emission. Siliceous additions, moreover their physical role of filling, play a chemical role pozzolanic. They contribute to improving concrete performances and thus their durability. The abundance of dunes sand and blast furnace slag in Algeria led us to study their effect like cementitious additions. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of the incorporation of dunes sand and slag, finely ground on rheological and mechanical properties of reactive powder concretes containing ternary binders.

  10. The influence of developmental stages and protective additives on cryopreservation of surf clam (Spisula sachalinensis) larvae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Hee; Lee, Jeong Yong; Chang, Young Jin

    2008-07-01

    This study was performed to find out the optimal larval stage and the most desirable protective additives for cryopreservation of surf clam, Spisula sachalinensis larvae. The survival rates of frozen-thawed larvae increased with post developmental stage. The highest value of 96.1 +/- 1.0% was achieved using umbo stage larva as developmental stage and 0.2 M sucrose as protective additive. PMID:19195381

  11. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways. PMID:17687992

  12. Understanding the factors influencing safe and unsafe motorcycle rider intentions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliff, Deborah J; Watson, Barry C; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K; Schonfeld, Cynthia C; Wishart, Darren E

    2012-11-01

    The increasing popularity of motorcycles in Australia is a significant concern as motorcycle riders represent 15% of all road fatalities and an even greater proportion of serious injuries. This study assessed the psychosocial factors influencing motorcycle riders' intentions to perform both safe and risky riding behaviours. Using an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), motorcycle riders (n=229) from Queensland, Australia were surveyed to assess their riding attitudes, subjective norm (general and specific), perceived behavioural control (PBC), group norm, self-identity, sensation seeking, and aggression, as well as their intentions, in relation to three safe (e.g., handle my motorcycle skilfully) and three risky (e.g., bend road rules to get through traffic) riding behaviours. Although there was variability in the predictors of intention across the behaviours, results revealed that safer rider intentions were most consistently predicted by PBC, while riskier intentions were predicted by attitudes and sensation seeking. The TPB was able to explain a greater proportion of the variance for intentions to perform risky behaviours. Overall, this study has provided insight into the complexity of factors contributing to rider intentions and suggests that different practical strategies need to be adopted to facilitate safer and reduce risky rider decisions. PMID:23036390

  13. [Influence of genetic factors on human sexual orientation. Review].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Paradisi, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Human sexual orientation is a complex trait, influenced by several genes, experiential and sociocultural factors. These elements interact and produce a typical pattern of sexual orientation towards the opposite sex. Some exceptions exist, like bisexuality and homosexuality, which seem to be more frequent in males than females. Traditional methods for the genetic study of behavior multifactorial characteristics consist in detecting the presence of familial aggregation. In order to identify the importance of genetic and environmental factors in this aggregation, the concordance of the trait for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and for adopted sibs, reared together and apart, is compared. These types of studies have shown that familial aggregation is stronger for male than for female homosexuality. Based on the threshold method for multifactorial traits, and varying the frequency of homosexuality in the population between 4 and 10%, heritability estimates between 0.27 and 0.76 have been obtained. In 1993, linkage between homosexuality and chromosomal region Xq28 based on molecular approaches was reported. Nevertheless, this was not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a wide search of the genome has given significant or close to significant linkage values with regions 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, which need to be studied more closely. Deviation in the proportion of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexuals seems to favor the presence of genes related with sexual orientation in this chromosome. There is still much to be known about the genetics of human homosexuality. PMID:19961060

  14. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis. PMID:18389351

  15. Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2012-07-25

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed. PMID:22720792

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING MISTIMED AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG NEPALI WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Pawan; Gautam, Rupesh; Aro, Arja R

    2016-03-01

    This paper assesses the factors influencing mistimed and unwanted pregnancies in Nepal separately using data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Women who had given birth within the five years before the survey were interviewed about the intendedness of their last pregnancy. The data were analysed with a chi-squared test, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the total 5391 participants, 11.29% and 13.13% reported their last pregnancy as mistimed and unwanted respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that women from the hill region were more likely to report mistimed pregnancy, while women from the Western and Far-Western development regions were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Education status was positively correlated with the reporting of mistimed pregnancy. Women involved in agriculture, with full autonomy on household decision, with some exposure to mass media, belonging to higher age group and having third or higher parity were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Similarly, women from the Western development region had relatively higher odds of reporting unwanted pregnancy. Women with husbands involved in a paid job had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Women's autonomy was also positively correlated with unwanted pregnancy. Women with the intention to use contraceptive had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Interventions targeting the factors identified by this study could be useful in reduction of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among Nepali women. PMID:26008148

  17. Abiotic factors influence plant storage lipid accumulation and composition.

    PubMed

    Singer, Stacy D; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2016-02-01

    The demand for plant-derived oils has increased substantially over the last decade, and is sure to keep growing. While there has been a surge in research efforts to produce plants with improved oil content and quality, in most cases the enhancements have been small. To add further complexity to this situation, substantial differences in seed oil traits among years and field locations have indicated that plant lipid biosynthesis is also influenced to a large extent by multiple environmental factors such as temperature, drought, light availability and soil nutrients. On the molecular and biochemical levels, the expression and/or activities of fatty acid desaturases, as well as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, have been found to be affected by abiotic factors, suggesting that they play a role in the lipid content and compositional changes seen under abiotic stress conditions. Unfortunately, while only a very small number of strategies have been developed as of yet to minimize these environmental effects on the production of storage lipids, it is clear that this feat will be of the utmost importance for developing superior oil crops with the capability to perform in a consistent manner in field conditions in the future. PMID:26795146

  18. The hazard of sharp force injuries: Factors influencing outcome.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Stine; Normann, Stig-André; Morild, Inge; Lilleng, Peer Kåre; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying from sharp force injury is difficult to ascertain. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been performed in Norway regarding mortality due to sharp force injury or factors that impact survival. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate and assess mortality in subjects with sharp force injury. This retrospective study comprises data on 136 subjects (34 female, 102 male) with suspected severe sharp force injury (self-inflicted or inflicted by others) admitted to Haukeland University Hospital between 2001 and 2010. The majority of subjects were intoxicated, and the injury was most often inflicted by a knife. The incidence of sharp force injury in Western Norway is similar to the incidence in other European countries. Almost half of the subjects with self-inflicted injury died. In cases with injury inflicted by another individual, one in five died. Mortality rates were higher in those with penetrating chest injuries than those with penetrating abdominal injuries and higher in cases with cardiac injury compared to pleural or lung injury. Sharp force injury can be fatal, but the overall mortality rate in this study was 29%. Factors influencing mortality rate were the number of injuries, the topographic regions of the body injured, the anatomical organs/structures inflicted, and emergency measures performed. PMID:26599374

  19. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Wegulo, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. PMID:23202310

  20. Patients’ Perspectives on Factors that Influence Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Shakibazadeh, E; Larijani, B; Shojaeezadeh, D; Rashidian, A; Forouzanfar, MH; Bartholomew, LK

    2011-01-01

    Background Although diabetes mellitus is of high concern in Iran, and the level of control is unacceptable, few qualitative studies have been carried out to reflect the experiences of patients on the barriers and motivators to self-care. This study aimed to explore a culturally based experience of Iranian diabetic patients regarding the personal and environmental barriers to and facilitating factors for diabetes self-care. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted among type 2 diabetic patients in the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases’ diabetes clinic. Purposeful sampling was used. Newly diagnosed patients (less than six months) and all type 1 diabetic patients were excluded. Three focus groups were held on for each sex. A total of 43 patients participated in the study. Frame-work analysis was used to extract the themes from the data. Results: Data analysis showed five main barriers: physical barriers (such as physical effects of diabetes); psychological barriers (such as health beliefs); educational barriers (such as lack of knowledge about diabetes); social barriers (such as group pressure); and care system barriers (such as service availability). Along with the barriers, there were some motivators that the participants mentioned as a stimuli to control their diabetes. They include beliefs about diabetes, perceived responsibility for family, religious beliefs, and the views of significant others. Conclusion: Culturally based interventions are needed to improve diabetes care management in Iran. In addition to personal factors, diabetes health educators should pay attention to the environmental factors when they develop programs. PMID:23113114

  1. Factors influencing utilization of postdischarge cognitive rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Gummow, L J; Gregory, V R; Macnamara, S E

    1990-04-01

    A decision to add a new treatment program has widespread and long-lasting implications for both the patient and the organization. Information about the interactions among the institution, the patient, and the treatment modality are seldom available. Cognitive rehabilitation is a relatively new treatment modality that is being adopted in a number of programs. This report examined characteristics of stroke patients that (1) precluded their selection for cognitive rehabilitation treatment and (2) were associated with patient refusal to participate in cognitive rehabilitation. The records of stroke patients treated in three rehabilitation facilities were examined for their ability to participate in an outpatient cognitive rehabilitation program. Due to stringent criteria for the research project, fewer than half of the stroke patient population were cognitively able to participate. Of eligible patients, many declined postdischarge cognitive rehabilitation. Several variables influenced patient participation. Female stroke patients were much less likely to participate than were male patients. In addition, distance from the medical facility providing cognitive rehabilitation was a major barrier to treatment participation. Individuals who opted to participate were well educated, affluent or both. The sample of cognitive rehabilitation patients was not, therefore, representative of the population. These results suggest that medical facilities considering the addition of a centralized outpatient postdischarge cognitive rehabilitation program should first evaluate the characteristics of the target population. Suggestions about the institutional considerations involved in making the decision to add a cognitive rehabilitation program are made. PMID:2158490

  2. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  3. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  4. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( < 0.01). The percentage of fat in colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC. PMID:26020907

  5. Influence of oxide-based sintering additives on densification and mechanical behavior of tricalcium phosphate (TCP).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himesh A; Kalita, Samar J

    2007-05-01

    In this research, we studied and analyzed the effects of four different oxide-based sintering additives on densification, mechanical behavior, biodegradation and biocompatibility of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics. Selective sintering additives were introduced into pure TCP ceramics, in small quantities, through homogeneous mixing, using a mortar and pestle. The consequent powders of different compositions were pressed into cylindrical compacts, uniaxially and sintered at elevated temperatures, 1150 degrees C and 1250 degrees C, separately in a muffle furnace. X-ray powder diffraction technique was used to analyze the phase-purity of TCP after sintering. Hardness of these sintered specimens was evaluated using a Vickers hardness tester. Sintered cylindrical samples were tested under uniaxial compressive loading, as a function of composition to determine their failure strength. Biodegradation studies conducted using simulated body fluid under dynamic environment, revealed that these additives could control the rate of resorption and hardness degradation of TCP ceramics. PMID:17211718

  6. Addition of Dispersoid Titanium Oxide Inclusions in Steel and Their Influence on Grain Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri; Iung, Thierry

    2010-12-01

    In this article, the addition of dispersoid titanium oxide inclusions into liquid steel, the effect of additions on the inclusions found in the steel and on grain refinement, and acicular ferrite formation were studied. Different TiO2-containing materials and addition procedures into liquid steel were tested in experimental heats to obtain inclusions that promote grain refinement and acicular ferrite formation in C-Mn-Cr steel. Different additives with metallic Ti and TiO2 were added into the steel melt just before casting or into the mold during casting to create Ti-containing inclusions. The aluminum content in steel was lowered by an addition of iron oxide. The samples taken from steel melts and ingots were studied with a scanning electron microscope to find inclusions and to analyze them. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the Al content should be low (<50 ppm) to obtain Ti oxide dominating inclusions, whereas Al2O3 were formed at higher Al contents. When TiO2 was added late before casting, the oxide inclusions were Ti oxides and were mixed with Ti, Al, and Mn oxides. Small inclusions around 1 μm were detected in the samples with TiO x or TiN as the main component. It could be concluded that the additions resulted in a clearly higher number and in a smaller size of TiO x inclusions than just by adding metallic Ti. Selected samples were brought for subsequent hot rolling and heat-treatment experiments to find out the grain-refining effect and the eventual formation of acicular ferrite. Grain refinement was observed clearly, but the presence of acicular ferrite could not be confirmed definitely.

  7. Outrage Factors in Government Press Releases of Food Risk and Their Influence on News Media Coverage.

    PubMed

    Ju, Youngkee; Lim, Jeongsub; Shim, Minsun; You, Myoungsoon

    2015-08-01

    An appropriate level of risk perception should be a critical issue in modern "risk society." There have been many studies on the influences on risk perception. This study investigates whether risk communication scholar Dr. Peter Sandman's outrage factors intensify journalistic attention to health risks from food consumption. A content analysis of a health institution's press releases was conducted to examine 15 outrage factors of food risks conveyed in the governmental risk communication. In addition, the news stories covering the food risks informed by the press releases were calculated to evaluate the relation between outrage factors of a risk and the number of news stories covering the risk. Results showed that controllability was the most salient outrage factor, followed by trust, voluntariness, familiarity, and human origin; the greater the outrage score of a risk, the more news stories of the risk. For individual outrage factors, a risk with an implication of catastrophic potential was associated with an increase of news stories. Food providers' distrustful behaviors also influenced journalistic attention to the food risks. The implication of the findings to health message designers is discussed. PMID:26065830

  8. Influence of Additive and Multiplicative Structure and Direction of Comparison on the Reversal Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Calero, José Antonio; Arnau, David; Laserna-Belenguer, Belén

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of word order matching and static comparison as explanatory models of reversal error. Data was collected from 214 undergraduate students who translated a set of additive and multiplicative comparisons expressed in Spanish into algebraic language. In these multiplicative comparisons…

  9. A Phenomenological Study: The Influence of Noncognitive Factors on Academically Unprepared College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Danny Moire

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research explored the influence of noncognitive factors in four areas: early educational factors, personal factors, affective factors, and noncognitive skill factors to understand the phenomenon of college students' academic underpreparedness. Findings related to textual categories indicated personal factors such as a…

  10. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS. PMID:26739969

  11. Influence of an organic and an inorganic additive on the crystallization of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anee, T. K.; Meenakshi Sundaram, N.; Arivuoli, D.; Ramasamy, P.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2005-12-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was crystallized by single diffusion method under physiological pH, in the presence of cobalt and malic acid. The morphology, composition and microstructure of the grown crystals were analyzed using EDTA titration, UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These analyses showed that the grown crystals were Co 2+-doped DCPD. The temperature has influenced the dopant entry into DCPD crystals, but the dopant content and temperature were having not much influence on the crystal morphology. In pathological crystallization, the size and morphology are very important since they decide the mode of treatment to adopt. The morphological changes arise when the growth assay is doped with cobalt and malic acid. The effect of malic acid on the crystallization was highly specific, adsorbing on certain crystal faces during growth and producing different morphologies. At higher concentration, the morphology showed a feature frequently encountered in biomineralization, the orientational ordering in [0 0 1], leading to elongated crystals.

  12. Anatomical Factors Influencing Pneumatization of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Seunghun; Choi, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aim of the present study was to define the relationship between petrous apex pneumatization and the nearby major anatomical landmarks using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images. Methods This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study analyzed CT images of 84 patients that showed normal findings bilaterally. Pneumatization of the petrous apex was classified using two methods. Eight parameters were as follows: angle between the posterior cranial fossa and internal auditory canal, Morimitsu classification of anterior epitympanic space, distance between the carotid canal and jugular bulb, distance between the cochlear modiolus and carotid canal, distance between the tympanic segment and jugular bulb, high jugular bulb, distance between the vertical segment and jugular bulb, and distance between the lateral semicircular canals and middle cranial fossa. Results There was a significant difference in Morimitsu classification of the anterior epitympanic space between the two classification methods. Poorly pneumatic upper petrous apices were distributed uniformly in three types of Morimitsu classification, but more pneumatic upper petrous apices were found more often in anterior type. Lower petrous apex was well pneumatized regardless of the types of anterior epitympanic space, but the largest amount of pneumatization was found more frequently in the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space. Conclusion This study showed that there was no reliable anatomic marker to estimate petrous apex pneumatization and suggests that the pneumatization of the petrous apex may be an independent process from other part of the temporal bone, and may not be influenced by the nearby major anatomical structures in the temporal bone. In this study, the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space was found to be closely related to more well-pneumatized petrous apices, which implies that the anterior saccule of the saccus medius may be the main factor

  13. Factors influencing reproductive performance of northern bobwhite in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, V.; Hostetler, J.A.; Hines, T.C.; Percival, H.F.; Oli, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive success is a critical component of individual fitness, and also an important determinant of growth rates of populations characterized by early maturity and high fecundity. We used radiotelemetry data collected during 2003-2008 to estimate reproductive parameters in a declining northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population in South Florida, and to test hypotheses regarding factors influencing these parameters. The overall clutch size was 12.10 ?? 0.22, but females laid more eggs in their first clutch (12.43 ?? 0.24) than in subsequent clutches (10.19 ?? 0.53) within a nesting season. Daily nest survival was higher for first (0.966 ?? 0.003) than subsequent nests (0.936 ?? 0.011). Hatchability (proportion of laid eggs that hatched conditional upon nest survival to hatching) was 0.853 ?? 0.008, but was higher for nests incubated by females (0.873 ?? 0.009) than those incubated by males (0.798 ?? 0.018). The proportion of individuals attempting a second nest was 0.112 ?? 0.024 and 0.281 ?? 0.040 when the first nest was successful and failed, respectively. Hatchability was lower when the nesting habitat was burned the previous winter. We found no evidence that food strip density (a management practice to provide supplemental food) influenced any of the reproductive parameters. Mean summer temperature affected hatchability, nest survival, and proportion of nests incubated by males. Overall, the reproductive output in our study population was lower than that reported for most other bobwhite populations, indicating that low reproductive performance may have contributed to bobwhite population declines in our study site. These results suggest that current management practices, particularly those related to habitat and harvest management, need careful evaluation. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Factors influencing DOC leaching from terrestrial ecosystems: a database analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino Serrano, M.; Janssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Gielen, B.

    2012-04-01

    The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important process linking terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting these fluxes can lead to biased of eddy covariance-based estimates of terrestrial ecosystem carbon sequestration. The necessity for integrating DOC leaching in carbon cycle models is thus clear, especially in view of future model development aiming at directly linking terrestrial, freshwater and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed in order to better understand and predict dissolved organic carbon dynamics. DOC concentrations mainly vary by geographical location, soil and vegetation types, topography, season and climate. Within this framework, we developed a database on DOC concentrations and fluxes with the aim of better understanding how those parameters determine DOC variations. This database compiles DOC concentrations and fluxes in soil solution and creeks at site or catchment level for different ecosystems around the world, but with special focus on the Northern Hemisphere and on peatland ecosystems. The database currently includes information from around 120 sites, gathered from published literature and datasets accessible on the internet. The database contains annual, seasonal and monthly data on DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and also includes other meta-data related to the site, such as land cover, soil properties, climate, annual water balance and other soil solution parameters. This compiled dataset allows to study the influence of several physical factors that determine DOC production in soils. We will present the observed relationships between drivers, such as precipitation, drainage flows, soil pH, soil texture, and DOC concentration/ DOC fluxes at different levels, ecosystem types, temporal scales (monthly versus annual or seasonal), and soil depths. The same relations will be analysed

  15. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  16. Factors influencing α-crystallin association with phospholipid vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Brian A.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Lens lipids undergo a number of changes with age, including an overall increase in phospholipid acyl chain saturation and a decrease in length. In addition, the amount of membrane bound α-crystallin increases dramatically with age and with the onset of cataract. The aim of this study was to determine if a link exists between age and cataract associated changes in lens lipids and the changes in α-crystallin membrane association. Methods Protein-free lipid vesicles composed of a wide variety of synthetic and lens-derived lipid vesicles were formed by sonication. These vesicles were used with fluorescent native and recombinant α-crystallin conjugates in vesicle binding assays. Vesicles were collected by centrifugation and bound α-crystallin was quantified with fluorescence intensity measurements. Results α-Crystallin complexes showed remarkably similar binding profiles for all lipid vesicles tested, regardless of lipid origin, phospholipid head group, acyl chain length or saturation, and inclusion of cholesterol. In addition, recombinant α-crystallin complexes bind to these vesicles in a manner that is essentially indistinguishable from that of native human and bovine α-crystallins. Unlike α-crystallin binding to lens membranes containing intrinsic proteins, binding of α-crystallin to protein-free vesicles was very high capacity and unsaturable. Conclusions We conclude from these data that the binding of α-crystallin to lens membranes is not lipid-specific. Furthermore, protein post-translational changes, such as phosphorylation, do not appear to alter α-crystallin binding to these vesicles. Given the linearity of the binding curves, we propose that the only limiting factor for normal α-crystallin membrane binding is available surface area on the bilayer. Finally, the present data suggests that increased in vivo membrane association of α-crystallin is not a result of lipid changes, but more likely a result of non-lipid factors such as the

  17. Factors Influencing Development of Professional Values Among Nursing Students and Instructors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Parandeh, Akram; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Mohammadi, Eesa; Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Professional values are standards of behavior for performance that provide a framework for appraising beliefs and attitudes that influence behavior. Development of professional values has been a continuous and long process and it is influenced by different factors. The aim of this study is “assessing different factors influencing development of professional values among nursing students and instructors”. Method: In this systematic review, a broad research was performed to find articles from Persian and English databases: pub Med, Pro quest, Elsevier, SID, Google scholar, Ovid and Iran Doc; nursing student, instructors, ethics, professional value, ethical value and educators were used as the key words. Among 3205 achieved articles, by eliminating repeated ones, 22 articles were assessed during the period 1995–2013. Data achieved from the articles were summarized, categorized and analyzed based on the research question. Results: In this study “education and achieving professional experiences”, “Students and instructors’ perspectives on professional values”, “the role of culture in considering and developing professional special values” and “the effect of learners’ individual characteristics” were extracted as the four main themes. Conclusion: Considering the effect of educational, cultural and individual factors in developing nurses’ professional values; it is recommended to the educational and health centers to consider value-based cares in clinical environments for the patients in addition to considering the content of educational programs based on ethical values in the students’ curriculum. PMID:25716397

  18. Influence of Additional Tensile Force on Springback of Tube Under Rotary Draw Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Daxin; Guan, Zhiping; Chen, Jisheng

    2012-11-01

    According to the characteristics of tube under rotary draw bending, the formulae were derived to calculate the springback angles of tubes subjected to combined bending and additional tension. Especially, as the neutral layer (NL) moves to the inner concave surface of the bend, the analytical values agree very well with the experimental results. The analysis shows that the additional tensile force causes the movement of the NL toward the bending center and makes the deformation behavior under rotary draw bending or numerically controlled (NC) bending different with that under pure bending, and also it could enlarge the springback angle if taking the movement of the NL into consideration. In some range, the springback angle would increase slightly with larger wall thickness/diameter ratio and decrease with wall thinning. The investigation could provide reference for the analysis of rotary draw bending, the design of NC tube bender and the related techniques.

  19. Influence of nutrient additions on cadmium bioaccumulation by aquatic invertebrates in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Muir, D.C.G.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Hecky, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    Cadmium distribution and bioaccumulation were examined over a 2-year period (1991--1992) in two nutrient-enriched and two control littoral enclosures and in the littoral zone in Lake 382 (L382). Lake 382, a small oligotrophic lake, is located within the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, and received experimental Cd additions from 1987 to 1992. In the second year of this study, chlorophyll a and suspended C concentrations in the nutrient-enriched enclosures increased by 6.6 and 3.4 times, respectively, compared to the controls. As a result of increased particulate produced by the nutrient additions, Cd concentrations in water from the nutrient-enriched enclosures were higher compared to the controls. Estimated Cd/C concentrations in water were lower in the nutrient-enriched enclosures relative to the controls because of higher particle concentrations. Effects on Cd bioaccumulation were limited even though mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions were reached in the nutrient-enriched enclosures had consistently higher Cd concentrations compared to the controls, but significant differences were not detected. Enhanced accumulation of Cd-rich particulate matter by these organisms may account for this trend. Mussels and crayfish accumulated significantly more Cd when exposed in the lake compared to the enclosures. This observation is due to elevated Cd water concentrations in the lake compared to the enclosures because of continued Cd additions to the lake. These results suggest that the water route of exposure is an important pathway for Cd accumulation by these organisms.

  20. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  1. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  2. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  4. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  5. What Factors Influence Long-term Survivorship After Hip Arthroscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Bryan T.; Ojeifo, Olumide; Lee, Jo Ann; Bragdon, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hip arthroscopy is an evolving procedure. One small study suggested that a low modified Harris hip score and arthritis at the time of surgery were predictors of poor prognosis. Questions/purposes We therefore intended to confirm those findings with a large patient cohort to (1) determine the long-term nonarthritic hip score; (2) determine survivorship; (3) identify risk factors that increase the likelihood of THA; and (4) use those factors to create a usable risk assessment algorithm. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 324 patients (340 hips) who underwent arthroscopy for pain and/or catching. Of these, 106 patients (111 hips or 33%) had a minimum followup of 10 years (mean, 13 years; range, 10–20 years). The average age was 39 years (± 13) with 47 men and 59 women. We recorded patient age, gender, acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grade at surgery, and the presence of a labral tear. Followup consisted of a nonarthritic hip score or the date of a subsequent THA. We determined survivorship with the end point of THA for the acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grades. Results Overall survivorship among the 111 hips was 63% at 10 years. The average nonarthritic hip score for non-THA patients was 87.3 (± 12.1). Survivorship was greater for acetabular and femoral Outerbridge grades normal through II. Age at arthroscopy and Outerbridge grades independently predicted eventual THA. Gender and the presence of a labral tear did not influence long-term survivorship. Conclusions The long-term survivorship of labral tears with low-grade cartilage damage indicates hip arthroscopy is reasonable for treating labral tears. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:20872105

  6. The influence of riboflavin photochemistry on plasma coagulation factors

    PubMed Central

    Larrea, Luis; Calabuig, María; Roldán, Vanesa; Rivera, José; Tsai, Han-Mou; Vicente, Vicente; Roig, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Studies with riboflavin in the 1960s showed that it could be effective at inactivating pathogens when exposed to light. The principal mode of action is through electron transfer reactions, most importantly in nucleic acids. This suggested that it could act as a photosensitizer useful in the inactivation of pathogens found in blood products. Objective To study the influence of photo-inactivation with riboflavin on the coagulation factors of plasma. Methods The photo-inactivation procedure of riboflavin plus light was applied. Fifty isogroup pools of two plasmas were made from 100 U of plasma that were derived from whole blood products that had previously been held overnight. Pools were split into two bags. One of them was photo-inactivated, and post inactivation samples were obtained. The second bag was not photo-inactivated and samples were taken. Total protein, fibrinogen, FII, FV, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FX, FXI, FXIII, antithrombin III, PC, PS, α-2 antiplasmin and vWF:Ag, the multimeric structure of vWF and ADAMTS-13 were analyzed. Results In plasma, the proteins most sensitive to photo-inactivation were fibrinogen, FXI, FVIII, FV, and FIX (33%, 32%, 30%, 18% and 18% loss, respectively). Coagulation inhibitors, PS, antithrombin III and PC showed little decrease (all 2%). Retention of vWF and ADAMTS-13 were 99% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions As with other pathogen reduction procedures for plasma products, treatment with riboflavin and UV light resulted in reduction in the activity levels of several pro-coagulant factors. Coagulation inhibitors are well preserved. PMID:19782644

  7. Factors influencing the rate of job turnover among hospital pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Smith, S N; Stewart, J E; Grussing, P G

    1986-08-01

    Factors influencing the rate of job turnover among hospital pharmacists were studied. In June 1982, pharmacists and pharmacy directors in acute-care hospitals in the Chicago area with more than 100 beds were asked both open-ended and multiple-choice questions pertaining to reasons for accepting and staying at current jobs, reasons for leaving previous and possibly current jobs, career goals, and demographic data. From the sample of 529 pharmacists, 217 (41%) usable responses were received. Pharmacy directors' responses indicated that the turnover rate for pharmacists was 14.4% and that relocation and layoffs or job termination were the most common reasons for job turnover. Overall, pharmacists' pay and benefits and opportunity for promotion or advancement were the reasons pharmacists cited most frequently both for leaving a job and for staying at a job. Men ranked pay and benefits as the most important reason for taking and staying at a position and for leaving, whereas women cited hospital location as the most important reason for taking, staying at, or leaving a job. Other factors cited as important were working hours, professional challenge, job duties, and continuation of education. Pharmacists who had been in the current job for more than two years were less likely to leave. Pregnancy of the employee or spouse was not a strong reason for leaving, and relocation was a more important reason for women than for men. Approximately half the respondents indicated they had a career goal; promotion to management and continuation of education were the goals most frequently mentioned. Regional or national studies should be conducted to gain further understanding of why pharmacists accept, remain in, and change jobs. PMID:3752133

  8. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese. PMID:12222805

  9. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  10. Factors Influencing Phosphorous Cycling in Biogeochemical 'Hot Spots'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Regan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the phosphorus (P) cycle has led to subsequent soil and water quality issues. For example, P build up in soils due to historic fertilizer application may become biologically available and exacerbate eutrophication and anoxia in nearby water bodies. In the humid Northeastern United States, storm runoff transports P and also stimulates biogeochemical processes, these locations are termed biogeochemical 'hot spots'. Many studies have looked at nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesize the periodic wetting and drying of biogeochemical hot spots promotes a combination of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the mobility of P. To test this hypothesis, we took monthly soil samples (5 cm deep) from May to October in forest, pasture, and cropped land near Ithaca, NY. In-situ measurements taken with each sample included volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature. We also analyzed samples for 'runoff generated' phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate (from 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction), Fe(II), percent organic matter, pH, as well as oxalate extractable and total P, Al, and Fe. We used linear mixed effects models to test how runoff generated phosphate concentrations vary with soil moisture and whether other environmental factors strengthen/weaken this relationship. The knowledge gained from this study will improve our understanding of P cycling in biogeochemical hot spots and can be used to improve the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in the Northeastern United States.

  11. Phenotypes and enviromental factors: their influence in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Christakou, Charikleia; Marinakis, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome of unclear etiopathogenesis characterized by heterogeneity in phenotypic manifestations. The clinical phenotype of PCOS includes reproductive and hormonal aberrations, namely anovulation and hyperandrogenism, which coexist with metabolic disturbances. Reflecting the crosstalk between the reproductive system and metabolic tissues, obesity not only deteriorates the metabolic profile but also aggravates ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. Although the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear, the syndrome appears to involve environmental and genetic components. Starting from early life and extending throughout lifecycle, environmental insults may affect susceptible women who finally demonstrate the clinical phenotype of PCOS. Diet emerges as the major environmental determinant of PCOS. Overnutrition leading to obesity is widely recognized to have an aggravating impact, while another detrimental dietary factor may be the high content of food in advanced glycated end products (AGEs). Environmental exposure to industrial products, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may also exacerbate the clinical course of PCOS. AGEs and BPA may act as endocrine disruptors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. PCOS appears to mirror the harmful influence of the modern environment on the reproductive and metabolic balance of inherently predisposed individuals. PMID:22229564

  12. Factors influencing oral health in long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Weiss, R; Waxler-Morrison, N E; Morrison, B J

    1987-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 41 long term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver, 653 residents were chosen to investigate oral health needs and demands for treatment. All of the 603 dentists in the same area were questioned to assess their interest in attending the residents of the institutions. The information from each source was reviewed to identify factors influencing the oral health services to this predominantly elderly and medically compromised population. The majority (60%) of the residents were edentulous and they made infrequent demands on dentists. Two-thirds of those interviewed said that there was nothing wrong with their mouths, but most of those who were aware of a problem wanted it treated, preferably within the institution. They complained about loose or uncomfortable dentures most frequently, and many were dissatisfied with previous dental treatment. The oral mucosal lesions seen on examination were usually symptomless and associated with poor hygiene, while structurally defective dentures and deep carious lesions were not uncommon. The responding 334 dentists indicated that they enjoyed treating elderly patients, 19% had attended an LTC facility, usually to provide an emergency service, and 37% were willing to provide this service if asked. Interest, however, in the service was curtailed by pressures from private practice, concerns about inadequate training and the small demand and poor conditions in the facilities. Although the demand for treatment was not extensive from the residents, they did have problems that were not receiving care. PMID:3121247

  13. Preparation of Chitosan Nanoparticles: A Study of Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Anupama; Taranjit

    2011-12-01

    Chitosan (CS), a cationic polysaccharide, offers great advantages for ionic interactions with negatively charged species such as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) leading to the formation of biocompatible crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles In the present work, an attempt has been made to systematically study the following factors influencing the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with STPP to produce CS nanoparticles: effect of pH of solution, CS concentration, STPP concentration and CS/STPP ratio. The results show that with the increase in CS concentration, the yield of the nanoparticle decreases whereas size increases. The mean size of the prepared nanoparticles varied between 120 to 720 nm and zeta potential between +14 mV to +53 mV . Nanoparticle size and yield was found to be strongly dependent on solution pH. Nanoparticle size decreased with increase in solution pH from 4 to 5 and yield was found to be maximum at pH = 5. With increase in STPP concentration, the size and yield of the nanoparticle increased. The potential of CS nanoparticles to trap amoxicillin trihydrate, taken as the model drug, was also studied. The maximum drug loading capacity was found to be 35% at a solution pH = 5 for 0.2% CS and 0.086% STPP.

  14. Combinatorial influence of environmental parameters on transcription factor activity

    PubMed Central

    Knijnenburg, T.A.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Cells receive a wide variety of environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate specific genetic responses. Changes in transcript levels, as observed across different environmental conditions, can, to a large extent, be attributed to changes in the activity of transcription factors (TFs). However, in unraveling these transcription regulation networks, the actual environmental signals are often not incorporated into the model, simply because they have not been measured. The unquantified heterogeneity of the environmental parameters across microarray experiments frustrates regulatory network inference. Results: We propose an inference algorithm that models the influence of environmental parameters on gene expression. The approach is based on a yeast microarray compendium of chemostat steady-state experiments. Chemostat cultivation enables the accurate control and measurement of many of the key cultivation parameters, such as nutrient concentrations, growth rate and temperature. The observed transcript levels are explained by inferring the activity of TFs in response to combinations of cultivation parameters. The interplay between activated enhancers and repressors that bind a gene promoter determine the possible up- or downregulation of the gene. The model is translated into a linear integer optimization problem. The resulting regulatory network identifies the combinatorial effects of environmental parameters on TF activity and gene expression. Availability: The Matlab code is available from the authors upon request. Contact: t.a.knijnenburg@tudelft.nl Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18586711

  15. Factors Influencing Internal Phosphorus Loading in Spring Lake, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, A.; Nemeth, L.; Rediske, R.

    2005-05-01

    Spring Lake is a eutrophic, drowned river mouth lake that drains into the Grand River about 1 km upstream from Lake Michigan. In 2003, we determined that internal P loading accounted for approximately 65% of the total annual P load to this lake, and that an alum concentration of 24 mg/L effectively inactivated P release in experimental sediment core tubes. In 2004, we studied the influence of alum concentration, sediment resuspension, and bioturbation on P release rates from the sediments. Based on laboratory incubations, we determined that P release rates were no different at alum concentrations of 15 mg alum/L than at concentrations of 25 mg/L. Resuspension of sediments substantially increased TP concentrations, even at high alum concentrations, although total soluble phosphorus concentrations remained low in the water provided alum was present. Bioturbation did not appear to play a major factor with respect to P release in these sediments. Given the current concentration of phosphorus in the Spring Lake sediments, internal P loading can continue for another 40 years, even if all external P sources were immediately eliminated.

  16. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; D.Stormo, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly desired. Key inputs to such frameworks are protein residues that modulate the specificity of TF under consideration. Simple measures like mutual information (MI) to delineate specificity influencing residues (SIRs) from alignment fail due to structural constraints imposed by the three-dimensional structure of protein. Structural restraints on the evolution of the amino-acid sequence lead to identification of false SIRs. In this manuscript we extended three methods (Direct Information, PSICOV and adjusted mutual information) that have been used to disentangle spurious indirect protein residue-residue contacts from direct contacts, to identify SIRs from joint alignments of amino-acids and specificity. We predicted SIRs forhomeodomain (HD), helix-loop-helix, LacI and GntR families of TFs using these methods and compared to MI. Using various measures, we show that the performance of these three methods is comparable but better than MI. Implication of these methods in specificity prediction framework is discussed. The methods are implemented as an R package and available along with the alignments at stormo.wustl.edu/SpecPred. PMID:26753103

  17. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  18. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  19. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; Strous, M; Chandran, K; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation staining. The volume fraction occupied by precipitates was determined by computed tomography scanning. PHREEQC was used to estimate potential formation of precipitates to determine a density of the inorganic fraction. Densities of bacteria were investigated by Percoll density centrifugation. The volume fractions were then coupled with the corresponding densities and the total density of a granule was calculated. The sensitivity of the density of the entire granule on the corresponding settling velocity was evaluated by changing the volume fractions of precipitates or bacteria in a settling model. Results from granules originating from a Nereda reactor for simultaneous phosphate COD and nitrogen removal revealed that phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) had a higher density than glycogen-accumulating organisms leading to significantly higher settling velocities for PAO-dominated granules explaining earlier observations of the segregation of the granular sludge bed inside reactors. The model showed that a small increase in the volume fraction of precipitates (1-5 %) strongly increased the granular density and thereby the settling velocity. For nitritation-anammox granular sludge, mainly granular diameter and not density differences are causing a segregation of the biomass in the bed. PMID:23064481

  20. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The results showed that there is great difference of 5-HMF level in decoctions from differently processed Schisandra and unprocessed Schisandra; decocting time of 60 min has some effects on 5-HMF level in decoctions and there is certain quantity 5-HMF in processed Schisandra itself and very little 5-HMF in unprocessed Schisandra. Heating time, heating temperature and treating solvents all have effect on 5-HMF level in decoction of Schisandra. 5-HMF in Schisandra was mainly from processing course. Both long heating time and high heating temperature can increase 5-HMF level in Schisandra. The production of 5-HMF in Schisandra may have some relationships with some polar components, which can dissolve in water, ethanol and acetone, especially in ethanol. To control processing temperature, processing time and treatment with some solvent is very important for controlling 5-HMF level in Schisandra. PMID:17565516

  1. Factors influencing calcium phosphate cement shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Gbureck, Uwe; Dembski, Sofia; Thull, Roger; Barralet, Jake E

    2005-06-01

    Long-term stability during storage (shelf-life) is one major criterion for the use of a material as medical device. This study aimed to investigate the ageing process of beta-tricalcium phosphate/monocalcium phosphate cement powders when stored in sealed containers at ambient conditions. This kind of cement type is of interest because it is forming dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (brushite) when set, which is in contrast to hydroxyapatite resorbable in physiological conditions. The stability of cements was checked by either measuring the phase composition of powders as well as the setting time and compressive strength when mixed with sodium citrate as liquid. Critical factors influencing ageing were found to be temperature, humidity and the mixing regime of the powders. Mechanically mixed cement powders which were stored in normal laboratory atmosphere (22 degrees C, 60% rel. humidity) converted to dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (monetite) within a few days; this could be mechanistically related to a dissolution/precipitation process since humidity condensed on the particles' surfaces and acted as reaction medium. Various storage conditions were found to be effective in prolonging cement stability which were in order of effectiveness: adding solid citric acid retardant>dry argon atmosphere=gentle mixing (minimal mechanical energy input) low temperature. PMID:15621259

  2. Factors influencing the patient education: A qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Nooredin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The related literatures revealed that there is a lack of effective patient/family education in the health care centers. Several studies indicate that patients, while getting discharged from hospitals, receive insufficient information about their illness and self-care. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing patient education from the perspectives of nurses in Iran. Materials and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. We used a purposive sampling technique to recruit and interview 18 nurses with at least 2 years of working experience in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and post-CCU ward of two educational hospitals in Tehran related to Tehran University. Data were collected through face-to-face audio-taped interviews and field observations. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently with data collection. Results: The major theme extracted in this study was the inappropriate organizational culture which includes eight categories listed as follows: Not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignoring patient's right in education, lack of motivation, rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that according to the participants’ perspective, organizational culture is in a poor level. So, to improve the performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture. PMID:23983743

  3. Factors influencing dental students to attend for eye examination.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, R G

    1999-01-01

    This investigation sought to determine those factors influencing dental students to attend for eye examination together with the frequency of such tests and level of eyesight correction. A questionnaire was constructed and circulated to all clinical dental students attending lectures and practical classes in Dundee over a 1-week period. This ascertained the age and sex of the respondents and gathered information on what had prompted each individual to attend for eye examination. The knowledge of any visual problems and their correction was also ascertained. All 114 questionnaires that were distributed were completed. The mean elapsed time interval since the last eye examinations was 1.81 (standard deviation = 1.19) years. The frequency of attendance was not affected by gender. Those who had had their eyesight corrected were significantly (P < 0.01) more likely to attend for examination every 2 years than those without correction. Good eyesight is important for the practice of dentistry and, although this is well recognized, it is apparent that the need for regular testing has not been understood by all. Strenuous efforts should be made to ensure that this message is impressed upon dental undergraduates from an early stage in their careers so that they may undergo screening every 2 years throughout their professional careers. PMID:10080326

  4. Factors influencing Saprolegnia spp. spore numbers in Norwegian salmon hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Thoen, E; Evensen, Ø; Skaar, I

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L(-1) in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L(-1) in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. PMID:26123005

  5. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The rates at which birds visit fruiting individuals of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) differ substantially among trees. Such avian feeding preferences are well-known, but usually involve fruits and trees of different species. Factors controlling avian preferences for particular trees in a population of conspecifics are generally undocumented. To address this issue, I attempted to correlate rates at which individual birds and species fed in trees of Allophylus with 27 fruit or plant characteristics. Birds that swallow fruits whole were considered separately from those that feed in other ways. Plant characters were selected on the basis of their potential influence on feeding efficiency or predation risk, assuming that birds would select feeding trees so as to maximize the net rate of energy or nutrient intake and to minimize predation. Correlations were found between feeding visits by some groups of birds and percent water in the pulp, milligrams of mineral ash in the pulp, and crop size. No character was correlated with feeding visits by all groups of birds in both years of the study. The correlations with water and mineral ash are unexplained and may be artifacts. The correlation with crop size may represent a tactic to minimize predation.

  6. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  7. Influence of Concentration and Salinity on the Biodegradability of Organic Additives in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, P. J.; Kekacs, D.

    2014-12-01

    One of the risks associated with the use of hydraulic fracturing technologies for energy development is the potential release of hydraulic fracturing-related fluids into surface waters or shallow aquifers. Many of the organic additives used in hydraulic fracturing fluids are individually biodegradable, but little is know on how they will attenuate within a complex organic fluid in the natural environment. We developed a synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid based on disclosed recipes used by Marcellus shale operators to evaluate the biodegradation potential of organic additives across a concentration (25 to 200 mg/L DOC) and salinity gradient (0 to 60 g/L) similar to Marcellus shale injected fluids. In aerobic aqueous solutions, microorganisms removed 91% of bulk DOC from low SFF solutions and 57% DOC in solutions having field-used SFF concentrations within 7 days. Under high SFF concentrations, salinity in excess of 20 g/L inhibited organic compound biodegradation for several weeks, after which time the majority (57% to 75%) of DOC remained in solution. After SFF amendment, the initially biodiverse lake or sludge microbial communities were quickly dominated (>79%) by Pseudomonas spp. Approximately 20% of added carbon was converted to biomass while the remainder was respired to CO2 or other metabolites. Two alcohols, isopropanol and octanol, together accounted for 2-4% of the initial DOC, with both compounds decreasing to below detection limits within 7 days. Alcohol degradation was associated with an increase in acetone at mg/L concentrations. These data help to constrain the biodegradation potential of organic additives in hydraulic fracturing fluids and guide our understanding of the microbial communities that may contribute to attenuation in surface waters.

  8. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett's Oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Franzén, T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett's oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux), family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) examined at Linköping University Hospital's Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett's oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO). Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett's oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P < 0.05). Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett's oesophagus patients (62%) than in the control group (35%) (P < 0.05). Male patients with Barrett's oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38%) than male controls (65%) (P < 0.05). No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett's oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett's oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett's oesophagus rated

  9. Survey of factors influencing faculty decisions on international veterinary work.

    PubMed

    Renberg, Walter C; White, Brad J

    2012-01-01

    Faculty members at US colleges of veterinary medicine can encounter opportunities to work as a veterinarian in a foreign country. Institutions, governments, and other organizations can more effectively recruit faculty for these positions if they understand the characteristics of the individuals who are most likely to participate in these programs. The purpose of this study was to determine what characteristics influence veterinary faculty's desire to participate in foreign programs. Results illustrated that position type (tenure, clinical), rank (assistant professor, associate professor, full professor), gender, and the presence of pre-elementary aged children were significantly associated with willingness to work in a foreign country. In addition, survey respondents who indicated that the duration of the assignment was of high importance were less willing to travel than respondents who indicated that the duration of the assignment was of moderate importance or lower. The results from this survey provide important information about the characteristics of individuals more willing to participate in foreign programs. This information allows targeted recruiting by organizations, facilitating veterinary work in foreign countries. PMID:22718006

  10. Factors and Influences on High School Student's Career Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Thomas P.; Rallis, Sharon F.

    1991-01-01

    A survey (n=2213) of high school seniors from nine Rhode Island schools studied their academic and career choices related to science and engineering and the perceived influences on those choices. Gender differences are discussed for the influences of parents, pay, interest, and teachers, with the latter potentially influencing career choices of…

  11. The crystallinity of calcium phosphate powders influenced by the conditions of neutralized procedure with citric acid additions

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chengfeng

    2009-05-06

    Calcium phosphate powders with nano-sized crystallinity were synthesized by neutralization using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid with the assistance of citric acid. The influence of processing parameters, such as free or additive citric acid, synthetic temperature and ripening time, on the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction and microstructure observations showed that the crystallinity and morphology of nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles were influenced by the presence or absence of citric acid. It was found that the crystallinities and crystallite sizes of hydroxyapatite powders prepared with the additive citric acid increased with increasing synthetic temperature and ripening time. Especially, the crystallinities of (h k 0) planes were raised and more homogeneously grown particles were obtained with increasing synthetic temperature.

  12. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage. PMID:27356202

  13. Influence of additives on the structure of surfactant-free microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J; Touraud, D; Prévost, S; Diat, O; Zemb, T; Kunz, W

    2015-12-28

    We study the addition of electrolytes to surfactant-free microemulsions in the domain where polydisperse pre-Ouzo aggregates are present. As in previous studies, the microemulsion is the ternary system water/ethanol/1-octanol, where ethanol acts as co-solvent. Addition of electrolytes modifies the static X-ray and neutron scattering, and dynamic light scattering patterns, as well as the position of the miscibility gap, where spontaneous emulsification occurs upon dilution with water. All observations can be rationalized considering that electrolytes are either "salting out" the ethanol, which is the main component of the interface stabilizing the aggregates, or producing charge separation via the antagonistic ion effect discovered by Onuki et al. Amphiphilic electrolytes, such as sodium dodecylsulfate or sodium dietheylhexylphosphate, induce a gradual transition towards monodisperse ionic micelles with their characteristic broad scattering "peak". In these micelles the ethanol plays then the role of a cosurfactant. Dynamic light scattering can only be understood by combination of fluctuations of aggregate concentration due to the vicinity of a critical point and in-out fluctuations of ethanol. PMID:26593697

  14. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  15. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  16. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  17. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  18. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  19. Factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China: a multiple statistical analysis study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin-wu

    2011-04-01

    A relationship between the waste production and socio-economic factors is essential in waste management. In the present study, the factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China were investigated by multiple statistical analysis. Twelve items were chosen for investigation: GDP, per capita GDP, urban population, the proportion of urban population, the area of urban construction, the area of paved roads, the area of urban gardens and green areas, the number of the large cities, annual per capita disposable income of urban households, annual per capita consumption expenditure of urban households, total energy consumption and annual per capital consumption for households. Two methodologies from multiple statistical analysis were selected; specifically principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Three new dimensions were identified by PCA: component 1: economy and urban development; component 2: energy consumption; and component 3: urban scale. The three components together accounted for 99.1% of the initial variance. The results show that economy and urban development are important items influencing MSW generation. The proportion of urban population and urban population had the highest loadings in all factors. The relationship between growth of gross domestic product (GDP) and production of MSW was not as clear-cut as often assumed in China, a situation that is more likely to apply to developed countries. Energy consumption was another factor considered in our study of MSW generation. In addition, the annual MSW quantity variation was investigated by cluster analysis. PMID:20699292

  20. Influence of an alloy addition on the physical and clinical behaviour of glass ionomer cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abour, Mohamed Abour Bashir

    These in vitro studies compared the various properties of an experimental high powder liquid content glass ionomer cement (EXPT) with those of a metal addition GIC (Hi-Dense) and disperse phase amalgam (Dispersalloy). Bi-axial, four point flexural and compressive tests were used to evaluate strength. Six groups of ten specimens were constructed for each test for each material and allowed to set in an oven at 37°C for 60 minutes. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C until testing at one day, one week, one, three, six months and year. It was found that the strength of Hi-Dense increased and then maintained over extended time, whereas the strength of EXPT showed a declined at 3 months. The bond strengths of the materials to both enamel and dentine were also evaluated. Ten groups of ten teeth, five for each surface for each glass ionomer materials, were prepared. Teeth were aligned leaving the enamel and dentine surfaces exposed. The mixed material was condensed into a cylinder placed on the appropriate surface. These specimens were also stored in distilled water at 37°C. It was found that Hi-Dense had a higher bond strength to enamel that increased with time. The bond strength to dentine was maintained over the test period. The erosion rate of the materials was evaluated using the lactic acid erosion test. Three groups of six specimens for each material were constructed and tested after one hour, one day and at six months. Each specimen was subjected to an impinging jet of lactic acid solution. The erosion rate was determined by weight loss and dimensional change. It was found that Hi-Dense had a high erosion resistance which was slightly better than the experimental material. The microleakage, around restorations prepared, using the glass ionomer materials, was evaluated after cyclical loading the restoration-tooth complex. It was found that there was less leakage around Hi-Dense than EXPT at both the cervical and occlusal margins. In a clinical

  1. The influence of additives on coal-water mixtures prepared with beneficiated coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmann, J.M.; Wildman, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Use of coal-water mixtures (CWM) as fuels for utility and industrial applications is currently constrained by a number of factors, including the cost of compliance with environmental quality regulations. From a utilization standpoint, limiting ash and sulfur contents to levels comparable to those for residual fuel oil produces an attractive alternate fuel provided the unit cost is equal to that for the fuel oil. Reduction in the mineral matter content of the coal has been identified as a target for continued development of CWM. Changes in coal type or in the characteristics of a single coal have been shown to affect CWM properties. It appears worthwhile to examine the impact that beneficiation might have on CWM properties.

  2. Influence of biochar addition on the humic substances of composting manures.

    PubMed

    Jindo, Keiji; Sonoki, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Canellas, Luciano; Roig, Asunción; Sanchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Application of biochar (10% v/v) to a manure composting matrix was investigated to evaluate its effect on the chemical composition of humic substances during the composting process. The characteristics of the humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) fractions were analyzed in compost mixtures originating from two different manures (poultry manure (PM) and cow manure (CM)). The C contents of HA and FA from the manure compost/biochar blends (PM+B and CM+B) were higher than those from PM and CM, with an enhanced recalcitrant fraction, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Spectroscopic analysis showed that enrichment of aromatic-C and carboxylic-C occurred in the FA fractions of PM+B and CM+B to a greater extent than in PM and CM. Biochar addition into the composting mixture improved the final compost quality, especially for the light humified fraction (FA). PMID:26786401

  3. Influence of Radiation and Multivalent Cation Additions on Phase Separation and Crystallization of Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Weinberg; Donald R. Uhlmann; Gary L. Smith

    2002-08-09

    This report presents results of: (1) measurement of valence state ratios of iron in glass, and (2) a study of the effect of iron redox ratio on phase separation behavior in a glass. The redox ratio of iron in two sodium silicate (NS) glasses has been determined using a colorimetric method, Moessbauer analysis, and optical absorption. The experimental procedures were described in a previous report. We found that these three methods gave excellent agreement for the values of the Fe++/Fe+++ (redox ratio) in the glasses. Also, using the results of the colorimetric analysis we were able to find the extinction coefficients for the18.56% NS and the 13% NS glasses. We have utilized the optical absorption data that was taken for purposes of determining redox ratios to provide glass structural information. In particular, it has been suggested that the band centered near 14,500 cm-1 is indicative of Fe2+ - O2- - Fe3+ formation. In addition, the relative band intensities at 10,000 cm-1 and 4,800 cm-1 could give us information as to the environment around the Fe2+ responsible for the 4,800 cm-1 band. The Moessbauer data will provide supporting structural information. For example, the relative number of clustered and free ferric ions can be computed from the ratio of areas under the doublet and sextet in the liquid He spectra. Also, the change in shift parameter with redox ratio will provide an indication of whether there is an increase or decrease in tetrahedral site symmetry about both ferrous and ferric ions. Finally, the quadrupole splitting parameter provides information regarding the site symmetries about the Fe++ and Fe+++. Currently, we are analyzing the spectral data for these purposes. The Moessbauer work was done in conjunction with colleagues at PNNL, and a manuscript is currently in preparation. The effect of oxidation state of iron on the phase separation of xNa2O {center_dot}(100-x)SiO2 glasses, x = 18.56 and 13, containing 0.5 mole % iron oxide was studied. The

  4. Stability of gabexate mesilate products: Influence of the addition of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Miyuki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Noboru; Inoue, Yohei; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Kenji; Uchida, Takahiro; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Gabexate mesilate is a non-peptide protease inhibitor, developed in Japan, which is used in the treatment of acute pancreatitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. This compound is readily hydrolyzed as it has ester bonds in its structure. It is now out of patent in Japan and there are many generic versions on the market. The crystal structure and the hydrolysate content of the branded product and nine generic versions were evaluated by X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis and HPLC. The results showed that generic products containing mannitol as an additive had a higher content of hydrolysate as an impurity than the branded product or generic products formulated without mannitol, suggesting that the crystal structure might be altered and stability impaired in mannitol-containing drug products. PMID:20448300

  5. Influence of alumina coating on transport and recombination in DSSCs with 1-methylbenzidazole as electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xueqing; Barea, Eva Maria; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Bisquert, Juan; Xu, Gang

    2009-08-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes have been coated with alumina by being immersed into the solutions of aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum acetylacetonate respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the TiO2 and TiO2/Al2O3 electrodes with 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI) as additives in the electrolytes have been detected. It is found that the TiO2/Al2O3 electrodes immersed in the solutions of aluminum isopropoxide (acetylacetone as coordinate ligands) for 1 hour have obtained great increase of Jsc, and owned the improved cells efficiency by 17%. To discover the origins of this improved photovoltaic performance and investigate the electron properties of the cells, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used both in the dark and under illumination at different applied potentials. It is proposed that with the coating of Al2O3, the adsorption of MBI cations at the surface of TiO2 electrodes decreased with the decrease of the applied potentials, which resulted in the downwards shift of the conduction band position of the TiO2/Al2O3 electrodes at the lower potentials. As a result, the charge transfer resistance Rct decreased, and chemical capacitance Cfilms increased. Under illumination, the decrease of Rct became smaller and the conductivities became larger, which was attributed to the recombination inhibition effect of Al2O3 coating to the photoinjected electrons. As a consequence, the electron lifetime and the effective diffusion length for the TiO2/Al2O3 electrodes increased, leading to the great increase of Jsc. It is indicated that with the coating of Al2O3, the decrease of Jsc could be overcome when MBI is used as the additives of the electrolyte.

  6. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    PubMed

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm). PMID:27219645

  7. Factors Influencing Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Uptake in Emergency Medical Services Workers: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Dipti P; Baker, Elizabeth A; Zelicoff, Alan P; Elliott, Michael B

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal influenza has serious impacts on morbidity and mortality and has a significant economic toll through lost workforce time and strains on the health system. Health workers, particularly emergency medical services (EMS) workers have the potential to transmit influenza to those in their care, yet little is known of the factors that influence EMS workers' decisions regarding seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV) uptake, a key factor in reducing potential for transmitting disease. This study utilizes a modified Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model as a guiding framework to explore the factors that influence SIV uptake in EMS workers. Concept mapping, which consists of six-stages (preparation, generation, structuring, representation, interpretation, and utilization) that use quantitative and qualitative approaches, was used to identify participants' perspectives towards SIV. This study identified nine EMS-conceptualized factors that influence EMS workers' vaccination intent and behavior. The EMS-conceptualized factors align with the modified TPB model and suggest the need to consider community-wide approaches that were not initially conceptualized in the model. Additionally, the expansion of non-pharmaceutical measures went above and beyond original conceptualization. Overall, this study demonstrates the need to develop customized interventions such as messages highlighting the importance of EMS workers receiving SIV as the optimum solution. EMS workers who do not intend to receive the SIV should be provided with accurate information on the SIV to dispel misconceptions. Finally, EMS workers should also receive interventions which promote voluntary vaccination, encouraging them to be proactive in the health decisions they make for themselves. PMID:26721630

  8. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  9. A Survey of the Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Chun; Zhu, Chang; Meng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand the factors influencing international academic mobility within the Chinese higher education context. The inventory of University Students' Perceptions of Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility was developed and tested to enquire about Chinese university students' perceptions of factors influencing…

  10. 5 CFR 919.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What factors may influence the debarring...) Debarment § 919.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...

  11. 2 CFR 180.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What factors may influence the debarring...) Debarment § 180.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...

  12. 5 CFR 919.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What factors may influence the debarring...) Debarment § 919.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...

  13. 5 CFR 919.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What factors may influence the debarring...) Debarment § 919.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...

  14. Fretting Wear Properties of TiCN-Ni Cermets: Influence of Load and Secondary Carbide Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj Kumar, B. V.; Basu, Bikramjit

    2008-03-01

    The increasing demand for TiCN-based cermets in tribological applications necessitates a thorough understanding of the influence of experimental as well as material parameters on the friction and wear properties. In optimizing microstructure and properties, secondary carbides are added to baseline TiCN-Ni cermet. The present work aims at evaluating the fretting wear behavior of Ti(CN)-Ni cermets containing various secondary carbides, such as WC, NbC, TaC, and HfC, against steel at different loading (2, 6, and 10 N) conditions. The evolution of tangential frictional force for the investigated cermets was analyzed in terms of fretting logs and fretting loops. The topographical characterization of worn surfaces was performed, using laser surface profilometry and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) capability. The steady-state coefficient of friction (COF) was minimum (0.33) for a TiCN-20Ni cermet/steel tribocouple, while a maximum COF (0.47) was recorded for TiCN-20Ni-10HfC cermet/steel at a 2-N load. The wear rate of the cermets varied in the range of 1.7 × 10-6 to 3.5 × 10-6 mm3/Nm. The TiCN-20Ni-10HfC cermet exhibited poor wear resistance among investigated cermets. The dominant wear mechanisms were found as abrasion and tribolayer formation. The dominance of abrasion is explained in terms of cumulative energy dissipation.

  15. Influence of antimicrobial feed additives on broiler commensal posthatch gut microbiota development and performance.

    PubMed

    Torok, Valeria A; Allison, Gwen E; Percy, Nigel J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Hughes, Robert J

    2011-05-01

    The effects of avilamycin, zinc bacitracin, and flavophospholipol on broiler gut microbial community colonization and bird performance in the first 17 days posthatch were investigated. Significant differences in gut microbiota associated with gut section, dietary treatment, and age were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), although no performance-related differences between dietary treatments were detected. Similar age-related shifts in the gut microbiota were identified regardless of diet but varied between the ilea and ceca. Interbird variabilities in ileal bacterial communities were reduced (3 to 7 days posthatch) in chicks fed with feed containing antimicrobial agents. Avilamycin and flavophospholipol had the most consistent effect on gut microbial communities. Operational taxonomic units (OTU) linked to changes in gut microbiota in birds on antimicrobial-supplemented diets were characterized and identified. Some OTUs could be identified to the species level; however, the majority could be only tentatively classified to the genus, family, order, or domain level. OTUs 140 to 146 (Lachnospiraceae), OTU 186/188 (Lactobacillus johnsonii), OTU 220 (Lachnospiraceae), OTUs 284 to 288 (unclassified bacterial spp. or Ruminococcaceae), OTU 296/298 (unclassified bacterium or Clostridiales), and OTU 480/482 (Oxalobacteraceae) were less prevalent in the guts of chicks fed antimicrobial-supplemented diets. OTU 178/180 (Lactobacillus crispatus), OTU 152 (Lactobacillus reuteri or unclassified Clostridiales), OTU 198/200 (Subdoligranulum spp.), and OTU 490/492 (unclassified bacterium or Enterobacteriaceae) were less prevalent in the gut of chicks raised on the antimicrobial-free diet. The identification of key bacterial species influenced by antimicrobial-supplemented feed immediately posthatch may assist in the formulation of diets that facilitate beneficial gut microbial colonization and, hence, the development of alternatives to current

  16. Nanoparticles in plant extracts--factors which influence the formation of nanoparticles in black tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Gröning, R; Breitkreutz, J; Baroth, V; Müller, R S

    2001-10-01

    The influence of different factors on the formation of nanoparticles in freshly brewed tea extracts was investigated. A black tea infusion was observed during cooling using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The mean particle size and the number of the nanoparticles increase with decreasing temperature. In the presence of caffeine more particles are formed within the infusion. To study the influence of slight structural differences between methylxanthines, the effect of the addition of caffeine to solutions of freshly prepared decaffeinated tea was compared to that of theophylline and theobromine. In the case of theophylline fewer nanoparticles were formed. Molecular modelling calculations were performed to evaluate the most probable geometries for caffeine-polyphenol complexes. A parallel position and a congruent orientation of the 6-membered ring of caffeine and the aromatic galloyl group is the most probable geometry. PMID:11683125

  17. An important factor powerfully influencing the Al Ni-based alloys' glass-forming ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Zhang; Xiufang, Bian; Chunxia, Fu; Na, Han; Jiankun, Zhou; Weimin, Wang

    2005-12-01

    In order to get better glass-forming abilities (GFAs), Ni atoms are partially replaced by Cu and Co atoms in Al84Ni12Zr4 alloys. Thermal analysis shows that the reduced crystallization temperature Trx has no direct correlation with the GFA of the alloys. However, it is notable that prepeaks have been found in the total structure factors of the amorphous Al84Ni(12-x)Zr4Cux and Al84Ni(12-x)Zr4Cox alloys. In addition, the results prove that the intensity of the prepeaks influences the GFA powerfully. The amorphous alloys with larger intensity of the prepeak show better GFA. The influence of prepeaks on the GFA can be explained by the atomic configuration difference among the liquid, crystal and glass states.

  18. [Microbiological colonisation of bovine teat canal--significance and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Krömker, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The teat canal of lactating dairy cattle is of particular importance for the defence of facultative pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., staphylococci) invading the bovine udder. Furthermore the canal is usually colonized with microorganisms, too. In addition to microorganisms inhibiting mastitis pathogens the teat canal is colonized by staphylococci. The microbial colonization can be influenced by the environment of the animals, the care and disinfection of the teat skin and indirectly by the effects of forces being associated with machine milking. Because of vacuum fluctuations occurring under the teat tip microorganisms, which colonize the teat canal, can invade the bovine mammary gland and cause infections there. This paper gives a review of the microbial colonization of the bovine teat duct and of influencing factors on the microbial populations as well as of the significance of the teat canal colonization for the development of mastitis. PMID:21465768

  19. 29 CFR 1471.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during... may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? The debarring official may reduce or... debarring official finds appropriate....

  20. 29 CFR 1471.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during... may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? The debarring official may reduce or... debarring official finds appropriate....

  1. 29 CFR 1471.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during... may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? The debarring official may reduce or... debarring official finds appropriate....

  2. Analysis of factors influencing safety management for metro construction in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q Z; Ding, L Y; Zhou, C; Luo, H B

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the number and size of metro construction projects are increasing quickly. At the same time, and increasing number of accidents in metro construction make it a disturbing focus of social attention. In order to improve safety management in metro construction, an investigation of the participants' perspectives on safety factors in China metro construction has been conducted to identify the key safety factors, and their ranking consistency among the main participants, including clients, consultants, designers, contractors and supervisors. The result of factor analysis indicates that there are five key factors which influence the safety of metro construction including safety attitude, construction site safety, government supervision, market restrictions and task unpredictability. In addition, ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were performed to test the consistency of the means rating and the ranking of safety factors. The results indicated that the main participants have significant disagreement about the importance of safety factors on more than half of the items. Suggestions and recommendations on practical countermeasures to improve metro construction safety management in China are proposed. PMID:23932091

  3. Influence of cerium additions on high-temperature-impact ductility and fracture behavior of iridium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbi, A.N.; Zee, R.H.; George, E.P.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1997-10-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), used for supplying electric power to interplanetary space missions, utilize the energy liberated due to decay of the radioisotope fuel. The material used for cladding the fuel pellets is an iridium-based alloy developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which contains nominally 0.3 wt pct W, 60 wppm Th, and 50 wppm Al, generally known as DOP-26. High-temperature tensile impact testing was carried out on Ir + 0.3 wt pct W alloys doped with cerium and thorium individually, and with cerium and thorium together. Impact ductility was evaluated as a function of grain size and test temperature. Cerium by itself was not as effective as thorium in improving the grain boundary cohesion, even though it segregated more strongly than thorium to the grain boundaries. This lower grain boundary cohesion was responsible for lower impact ductility and higher brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of cerium-doped alloys compared to those of the thorium- or thorium plus cerium-doped alloys. Reduction in thorium content by a factor of 5 (from 50 to 10 appm) in the bulk did not result in any significant reduction in high-temperature impact ductility or an increase in the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature as long as sufficient cerium was added to provide grain refinement. Grain boundary strengths of thorium- and thorium plus cerium-doped alloys were almost identical.

  4. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  5. Influence of dry mixing and distribution of conductive additives in cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Werner; Nötzel, Dorit; Wenzel, Valentin; Nirschl, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Conductive additives, like carbon black or graphite, are essential components of lithium ion batteries due to the limited electrical conductivity of most electrode materials. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the optimized distribution of these materials within the electrode. A dry mixing process is used in order to prepare a conductive coating by depositing carbon black on the surface of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) cathode particles. It is demonstrated that this - from a theoretically point of view - favorable distribution does not allow the preparation of working electrodes without taking into account the role of the binder. After adding an organic binder to the slurry, the polymer deposits on top of the carbon shell during drying and inhibits the conductive contact between the particles. This can be avoided by a fraction of distributed carbon particles which are associated with the binder phase providing conductive paths through the isolating organic material. It is shown that carbon black and graphite are principally fulfilling this task, but both materials are leading to varying processing behavior and electrode properties.

  6. Influence of Lithium Additives in Small Molecule Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Yao; Bastatas, Lyndon D; Suhr, Kristin J; Moore, Matthew D; Holliday, Bradley J; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Slinker, Jason D

    2016-07-01

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs) utilizing small molecule emitters such as iridium complexes have great potential as low-cost emissive devices. In these devices, ions rearrange during operation to facilitate carrier injection, bringing about efficient operation from simple, single layer devices. Recent work has shown that the luminance, efficiency, and responsiveness of iridium-based LEECs are greatly enhanced by the inclusion of small amounts of lithium salts (≤0.5%/wt) into the active layer. However, the origin of this enhancement has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, although iridium-based devices have been the longstanding leader among small molecule LEECs, fundamental understanding of the ionic distribution in these devices under operation is lacking. Herein, we use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to measure the in situ potential profiles and electric field distributions of planar iridium-based LEECs and clarify the role of ionic lithium additives. In pristine devices, it is found that ions do not pack densely at the cathode, and ionic redistribution is slow. Inclusion of small amounts of Li[PF6] greatly increases ionic space charge near the cathode that doubles the peak electric fields and enhances electronic injection relative to pristine devices. This study confirms and clarifies a number of longstanding hypotheses regarding iridium LEECs and recent postulates concerning optimization of their operation. PMID:27299981

  7. Influence of the heterogeneous reaction HCL + HOCl on an ozone hole model with hydrocarbon additions

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Cicerone, R.J.; Turco, R.P.

    1994-02-20

    Injection of ethane or propane has been suggested as a means for reducing ozone loss within the Antarctic vortex because alkanes can convert active chlorine radicals into hydrochloric acid. In kinetic models of vortex chemistry including as heterogeneous processes only the hydrolysis and HCl reactions of ClONO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, parts per billion by volume levels of the light alkanes counteract ozone depletion by sequestering chlorine atoms. Introduction of the surface reaction of HCl with HOCl causes ethane to deepen baseline ozone holes and generally works to impede any mitigation by hydrocarbons. The increased depletion occurs because HCl + HOCl can be driven by HO{sub x} radicals released during organic oxidation. Following initial hydrogen abstraction by chlorine, alkane breakdown leads to a net hydrochloric acid activation as the remaining hydrogen atoms enter the photochemical system. Lowering the rate constant for reactions of organic peroxy radicals with ClO to 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} does not alter results, and the major conclusions are insensitive to the timing of the ethane additions. Ignoring the organic peroxy radical plus ClO reactions entirely restores remediation capabilities by allowing HO{sub x} removal independent of HCl. Remediation also returns if early evaporation of polar stratospheric clouds leaves hydrogen atoms trapped in aldehyde intermediates, but real ozone losses are small in such cases. 95 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Influence of propane additives on the detonation characteristics of H2-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanbing; Bauer, Pascal; Zitoun, Ratiba

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen is more and more considered as a potential fuel for propulsion applications. However, due to its low ignition energy and wide flammability limits, H2-air mixtures raise a concern in terms of safety. This aspect can be partly solved by adding an alkane to these mixtures, which plays the role of an inhibitor. The present paper provides data on such binary fuel-air mixtures where various amounts of propane are added to hydrogen. The behavior of the corresponding mixtures, in terms of detonation characteristics and other fundamental properties, such as the cell size of the detonation front and induction delay, are presented and discussed for a series of equivalence ratios and propane addition. The experimental detonation velocity is in good agreement with calculated theoretical Chapman-Jouguet values. Based on soot tracks records, the cell size λ is measured, whereas the induction length L i is derived from data using a GRI-Mech kinetic mechanism. These data allow providing a value of the coefficient K = λ/L i .

  9. Influencing the structure of block copolymer micelles with small molecule additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Megan; Singh, Avantika; Cooksey, Tyler; Kidd, Bryce; Piemonte, Rachele; Wang, Shu; Mai Le, Kim; Madsen, Louis

    Amphiphilic block copolymer micelles in water are under broad exploration for drug delivery applications due to their high loading capacity and targeted drug delivery. We aim to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that underlie the self-assembly of diblock copolymer micelle systems. The present work focuses on diblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene oxide) (a hydrophilic polymer) and polycaprolactone (a hydrophobic polymer), which spontaneously self-assemble into spherical micelles in water. Addition of a common good solvent (a co-solvent) for both of the constituting blocks, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), reduces the interfacial tension at the core-corona interface. We are currently investigating the effect of this phenomenon on the micelle structural properties, using small-angle scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. We have characterized the hydrodynamic radius, core radius, corona thickness, aggregation number, degree of swelling of the micelle core with the co-solvent, and unimer (free chain) concentration, as a function of the co-solvent concentration. Fundamental knowledge from these studies will inform design of drug delivery systems by allowing us to tailor micelle properties for optimal cargo loading.

  10. Effect of ferrite addition above the base ferrite on the coupling factor of wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, T.; Schaltz, E.; Ahn, S.

    2015-05-01

    Power transfer capability of wireless power transfer systems is highly dependent on the magnetic design of the primary and secondary inductors and is measured quantitatively by the coupling factor. The inductors are designed by placing the coil over a ferrite base to increase the coupling factor and reduce magnetic emissions to the surroundings. Effect of adding extra ferrite above the base ferrite at different physical locations on the self-inductance, mutual inductance, and coupling factor is under investigation in this paper. The addition can increase or decrease the mutual inductance depending on the placement of ferrite. Also, the addition of ferrite increases the self-inductance of the coils, and there is a probability for an overall decrease in the coupling factor. Correct placement of ferrite, on the other hand, can increase the coupling factor relatively higher than the base ferrite as it is closer to the other inductor. Ferrite being a heavy compound of iron increases the inductor weight significantly and needs to be added judiciously. Four zones have been identified in the paper, which shows different sensitivity to addition of ferrite in terms of the two inductances and coupling factor. Simulation and measurement results are presented for different air gaps between the coils and at different gap distances between the ferrite base and added ferrite. This paper is beneficial in improving the coupling factor while adding minimum weight to wireless power transfer system.

  11. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  12. Calcifying nanoparticles (nanobacteria): an additional potential factor for urolithiasis in space flight crews.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey A; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Josef F; Barr, Yael R; Griffith, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi, resulting in urolithiasis during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, multiply more rapidly in simulated microgravity and create external shells of calcium phosphate. The question arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are nidi for calculi and contribute to the development of clinically significant urolithiasis in those who are predisposed to the development of urinary calculi because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors. This case report describes a calculus recovered after flight from an astronaut that, on morphologic and immunochemical analysis (including specific monoclonal antibody staining), demonstrated characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles. PMID:18718644

  13. Factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of numerical competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-04-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression analyses, revealed that undergraduates exhibiting greater confidence in their mathematical and numeracy skills, as evidenced by their higher self-evaluation scores and their higher scores on the confidence sub-scale contributing to the measurement of attitude, possess more cohesive, rather than fragmented, conceptions of mathematics, and display more positive attitudes towards mathematics/numeracy. They also exhibit lower levels of mathematics anxiety. Students exhibiting greater confidence also tended to be those who were relatively young (i.e. 18-29 years), whose degree programmes provided them with opportunities to practise and further develop their numeracy skills, and who possessed higher pre-university mathematics qualifications. The multiple regression analysis revealed two positive predictors (overall attitude towards mathematics/numeracy and possession of a higher pre-university mathematics qualification) and five negative predictors (mathematics anxiety, lack of opportunity to practise/develop numeracy skills, being a more mature student, being enrolled in Health and Social Care compared with Science and Technology, and possessing no formal mathematics/numeracy qualification compared with a General Certificate of Secondary Education or equivalent qualification) accounted for approximately 64% of the variation in students' perceptions of their numerical competence. Although the results initially suggested that male students were significantly more confident than females, one compounding variable was almost certainly the students' highest pre-university mathematics or numeracy qualification, since a higher

  14. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Yund, E. William; Herron, Timothy J.; Reed, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the minimal time needed to respond to a stimulus, is a basic measure of processing speed. SRTs were first measured by Francis Galton in the 19th century, who reported visual SRT latencies below 190 ms in young subjects. However, recent large-scale studies have reported substantially increased SRT latencies that differ markedly in different laboratories, in part due to timing delays introduced by the computer hardware and software used for SRT measurement. We developed a calibrated and temporally precise SRT test to analyze the factors that influence SRT latencies in a paradigm where visual stimuli were presented to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined a community sample of 1469 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 65. Mean SRT latencies were short (231, 213 ms when corrected for hardware delays) and increased significantly with age (0.55 ms/year), but were unaffected by sex or education. As in previous studies, SRTs were prolonged at shorter SOAs and were slightly faster for stimuli presented in the visual field contralateral to the responding hand. Stimulus detection time (SDT) was estimated by subtracting movement initiation time, measured in a speeded finger tapping test, from SRTs. SDT latencies averaged 131 ms and were unaffected by age. Experiment 2 tested 189 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in a different laboratory using a larger range of SOAs. Both SRTs and SDTs were slightly prolonged (by 7 ms). SRT latencies increased with age while SDT latencies remained stable. Precise computer-based measurements of SRT latencies show that processing speed is as fast in contemporary populations as in the Victorian era, and that age-related increases in SRT latencies are due primarily to slowed motor output. PMID:25859198

  15. Thinning factors influence on custom-made mouthguards thermoforming.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Ichiro; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Narimatsu, Keishiro; Konno, Michiyo; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify and quantify factors influencing thinning during a thermoforming using a special simulation model that has three different flat surfaces such as 0 degree, 45 degree and 90 degree against a pressurizing force. Air pressure type samples were made by EVA and acrylic resin blank. Vacuum type samples were also made by EVA. Thickness gauge was employed to measure the thickness. As results, pressure forming showed significantly larger thinning at 45 and 90 degree surfaces and smaller thinning at 0 degree surface, 36% in thinning rate by vacuum forming and 66% by the pressure forming at 90 degree surface, and 17% and 20% at 45 degree surface, and 11% and 2% at 0 degree surfaces. Thinning was increased with the increase in distance from the centre in 0 degree surface and increased with the decrease in height in the vertical surface significantly. The air pressure, the material thickness in EVA (Drufosoft) and difference in material colour did not affect thinning rate. An acrylic resin material showed approximately 10% smaller thinning than EVA (Drufosoft). To retain enough thickness of 3 mm on 90 degree surface corresponding to an incisal labial aspect for pressure laminate type, over 55% reduction is taken into consideration and at least two 3-mm-thickness materials should be laminated. 0 degree surface showed at most 2 % reduction in pressure lamination; post thermoforming occlusal thickness became almost 6 mm with a usual 3 mm plus 3 mm lamination. Therefore, careful occlusal adjustment in an actual mouthguard fabrication to achieve an appropriate 2 mm thickness on this surface should be requested. PMID:25336334

  16. Diabetes and cancer II: role of diabetes medications and influence of shared risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2014-01-01

    An association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer has long been postulated, but the biological mechanism responsible for this association has not been defined. In part one of this review, we discussed the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. Here we review the risk factors shared by cancer and DM and how DM medications play a role in altering cancer risk. Hyperinsulinemia stands out as a major factor contributing to the association between DM and cancer, and modulation of circulating insulin levels by DM medications appears to play an important role in altering cancer risk. Drugs that increase circulating insulin, including exogenous insulin, insulin analogs, and insulin secretagogues, are generally associated with an increased cancer risk. In contrast, drugs that regulate insulin signaling without increasing levels, especially metformin, appear to be associated with a decreased cancer risk. In addition to hyperinsulinemia, the effect of DM medications on other shared risk factors including hyperglycemia, obesity, and oxidative stress as well as demographic factors that may influence the use of certain DM drugs in different populations are described. Further elucidation of the mechanisms behind the association between DM, cancer, and the role of DM medications in modulating cancer risk may aid in the development of better prevention and treatment options for both DM and cancer. Additionally, incorporation of DM medication use into cancer prediction models may lead to the development of improved risk assessment tools for diabetic patients. PMID:22527174

  17. Influence of the addition of rosemary essential oil on the volatiles pattern of porcine frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Ramírez, Rosario; Cava, Ramón

    2005-10-19

    The effect of the addition of increasing levels of rosemary essential oil (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) on the generation of volatile compounds in frankfurters from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes (hexanal, octanal, nonanal) and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace (HS) of porcine frankfurters. Frankfurters from different pig breeds presented different volatile profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a likely result of their fatty acid composition and vitamin E content. Rosemary essential oil showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles depending on the type of frankfurter in which they were added. In frankfurters from Iberian pigs, the antioxidant effect of the essential oil improved with increasing levels, showing the highest activity at 600 mg/kg. In contrast, 150 mg/kg of the essential oil improved the oxidative stability of frankfurters from white pigs, whereas higher levels led to no effect or a prooxidant effect. The activity of the essential oil could have been affected by the different fatty acid compositions and vitamin E contents between types of frankfurters. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of volatile terpenes from frankfurters with added rosemary essential oil including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, l-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of frankfurters. PMID:16218682

  18. Nanoclay addition to a conventional glass ionomer cements: Influence on physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Muhammad A.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate the reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGN nanoclay) on physical properties of glass ionomer cement (GIC). Materials and Methods: The PGN nanoclay was dispersed in the liquid portion of GIC (HiFi, Advanced Healthcare, Kent, UK) at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify the polymer liquid of GICs after dispersion of nanoclay. The molecular weight (Mw) of HiFi liquid was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The compressive strength (CS), diametral-tensile strength, flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (Ef) of cements (n = 20) were measured after storage for 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. Fractured surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The working and setting time (WT and ST) of cements was measured by a modified Wilson's rheometer. Results: The FTIR results showed a new peak at 1041 cm−1 which increased in intensity with an increase in the nanoclay content and was related to the Si-O stretching mode in PGN nanoclay. The Mw of poly (acrylic acid) used to form cement was in the range of 53,000 g/mol. The nanoclay reinforced GICs containing <2% nanoclays exhibited higher CS and FS. The Ef cement with 1% nanoclays was significantly higher. The WT and ST of 1% nanoclay reinforced cement were similar to the control cement but were reduced with 2% and 4% nanoclay addition. Conclusion: The dispersion of nanoclays in GICs was achieved, and GIC containing 2 wt% nanoclay is a promising restorative materials with improved physical properties. PMID:25512724

  19. Factors influencing weight changes in callitrichids at the Bronx Zoo.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Elena; Shelmidine, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Callitrichids are small monkeys with high metabolic rates who appear to be susceptible to spontaneous diseases and possibly to environmental changes creating challenges in maintaining them in captivity. This study investigates whether life events (i.e. medical, social and housing changes) can influence weight. In previous research, body mass has been shown to be correlated with periods of illness, group composition changes and stress. Weights of 56 individual callitrichid monkeys (20 marmosets, 26 tamarins and 11 lion tamarins) at the WCS's Bronx Zoo were examined over approximately 2½ years. Weight fluctuations were scored based on 5%, 10% and 1 standard deviation criteria during periods of medical (illness and injury), social (introductions and separations), housing (movement within or between buildings) events and during periods when no-events occurred. Additionally, weights were examined for 3 months before and after periods of illness to look for trends in weight changes for 47 medical events (14 marmosets, 21 tamarins and 12 lion tamarins). Moreover, in five alloparenting males (four tamarins and one lion tamarin), weights were examined to determine if weight loss occurred after births as observed in earlier studies. The results show that a 5% and 1SD criterion may be too sensitive a criterion. We therefore deemed that a 10% weight loss may be the best criterion. For marmosets, a 10% weight loss occurred in association with all events. For tamarins, weight loss occurred with housing events. In lion tamarins, weight loss was observed with medical events. No significant weight loss was observed in alloparenting males. PMID:19890903

  20. Environmental factors influencing cyanobacteria community structure in Dongping Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuetang; Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Xie, Jun

    2013-11-01

    The present study was conducted to provide a detailed understanding of the variation in cyanobacterial communities of Dongping Lake, which is the final water volume adjusting and storing lake in the east route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. The spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria was assessed from May 2010 to October 2012 based on monthly samples collected from three stations. Over the 30-month survey, 15 genera and 25 species of cyanobacteria were identified, with cyanobacterial abundance at each monitoring station ranging from undetected to 3.04x10(7) cells/L, average of 4.27x10(6) cells/L. The dominant cyanobacterial species were Pseudanabaena limnetica and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi and not the usual bloom-forming genera such as Microcystis and Anabaena. Cyanobacterial community structure and water quality variables exhibited substantial changes over the period of survey. Redundancy analysis, Pearson correlations, and regression analysis were applied to analyze the relationships among the variables. The results suggested that temperature and chemical oxygen demand were key drivers of the cyanobacterial community composition in Dongping Lake. In addition, the concentration of inorganic nitrogen in the lake had a profound effect on the cyanobacterial abundance as a non-limiting factor in warm periods. PMID:24552047

  1. The influence of social factors on gender health.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Male births exceed female births by 5-6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05-1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health. PMID:27334335

  2. Factors that influence rural African American males' aspirations to attend college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Alesia K.

    This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial

  3. The influence of polyaspartate additive on the growth and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Laurie Anne

    The addition of low levels of polyaspartate to a supersaturated calcium carbonate (CaCOsb3) solution leads to unusual morphologies in the inorganic phase. Spherulitic vaterite aggregates with helical protrusions, and distorted calcite crystals that contain spiral pits, have been produced. The helical particles are coated with an inorganic membrane that appears to be responsible for the helical twist. The polymer also causes deposition of thin CaCOsb3 tablets and films on the glass substrate. Two distinct types of films are deposited; the first is a mosaic of calcite crystals, and the second is spherulitic vaterite. In situ observations of the crystallization reaction have determined that the thin-film morphology is a result of the phase separation of a hydrated CaCOsb3/polymer liquid-precursor, whereby accumulation of isotropic droplets creates a coating on the substrate, and subsequent dehydration and crystallization yields birefringent CaCOsb3 films. During the amorphous to crystalline transition, incremental growth steps lead to "transition bars" and sectored calcite tablets. This in vitro system was originally modeled after certain aspects of CaCOsb3 biomineralization, in which the soluble proteins extracted from biominerals tend to have high levels of aspartic acid residues. Based on the similarities between features exhibited by the products of this system and those in biominerals, an argument has been presented to suggest that this polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process is involved in the morphogenesis of CaCOsb3 biominerals. These features include the following: thin CaCOsb3 tablets that grow laterally; tablets that express unstable crystallographic faces; non-faceted single crystals with curved surfaces; spatially-delineated single crystals; sectored calcite tablets; hollow-shell spheres; calcium carbonate cements; and magnesium-bearing calcites. This work has demonstrated that a means of morphological control can be accomplished through non

  4. White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T; Morina, Daniel L; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

  5. Influence of salt additives on phase transformation of guanosine 5-monophosphate disodium in anti-solvent crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Kang, Jeongki; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2013-06-01

    The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) as an additive on the anti-solvent crystallization of guanosine 5-monophosphate disodium (GMP-2Na) was investigated in continuous Couette-Taylor (CT) and batch mixing tank (MT) crystallizers. The anti-solvent crystallization initially precipitated amorphous solids of GMP-2Na, which then slowly transformed into hydrate crystals in the solution. However, the phase transformation of GMP-2Na was markedly promoted by the sodium chloride additive due to the common ion effect. While the normal phase transformation in the batch MT crystallizer required over 120 min of crystallization time without using the sodium chloride additive, the process was completed within 60 min when a small amount of the salt additive was added. The phase transformation was also significantly accelerated in the continuous CT crystallizer. Without using the sodium chloride additive, 7 min of the mean residence time was required for the production of 100% hydrate GMP crystals. However, when using the sodium chloride additive, a mean residence time of only 2 min was sufficient to completely transform the amorphous solids of GMP-2Na into hydrate crystals due to the common ion effect combined with the effective fluid motion of the Taylor vortex for the mass transfer.

  6. Influence of Psychosocial Factors and Habitual Behavior in Temporomandibular Disorder–Related Symptoms in a Working Population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akira; Kino, Koji; Sugisaki, Masashi; Tsukagoshi, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are directly influenced by numerous factors, and it is thought that additional factors exert indirect influences. However, the relationships between TMD-related symptoms (TRS) and these contributing factors are largely unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate influences on TRS in a working population by determining the prevalence of TRS, analyzing contributing factors, and determining their relative influences on TRS. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were 2203 adults who worked for a single company. Subjects completed a questionnaire assessing TRS, psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depressed mood, and chronic fatigue), tooth-contacting habit, and sleep bruxism-related morning symptoms, using a 5-point numeric rating scale. Our analysis proceeded in 2 phases. First, all variables of the descriptor were divided into parts by using an exploratory factor analysis. Second, this factorial structure was verified by using a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling. Results: Of 2203 employees, 362 reported experiencing TRS (16.4%). Structural equation modeling generated a final model with a goodness of fit index of 0.991, an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.984, and a root mean square error of approximately 0.021. These indices indicate a strong structural model. The standardized path coefficients for “habitual behavioral factors and TRS,” “psychosocial factors and habitual behavioral factors,” “psychosocial factors and TRS,” and “gender and habitual behavior factors” were 0.48, 0.38, 0.14, and 0.18, respectively. Conclusions: Habitual behavioral factors exert a stronger effect on TRS than do psychosocial factors. PMID:23346261

  7. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy. PMID:26693997

  8. Influences of environmental factors on bacterial extracellular polymeric substances production in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Peng, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Bioclogging of natural porous media occurs frequently under a wide range of conditions. It may influence the performance of permeable reactive barrier and constructed wetland. It is also one of the factors that determine the effect of artificial groundwater recharge and in situ bioremediation process. In this study, a series of percolation column experiments were conducted to simulate bioclogging process in porous media. The predominant bacteria in porous media which induced clogging were identified to be Methylobacterium, Janthinobacterium, Yersinia, Staphylococcus and Acidovorax, most of which had been shown to effectively produce viscous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The column in which EPS production was maximized also coincided with the largest reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media. In addition, carbon concentration was the most significant factor to affect polysaccharide, protein and EPS secretion, followed by phosphorus concentration and temperature. The coupled effect of carbon and phosphorus concentration was also very important to stimulate polysaccharide and EPS production.

  9. Factor analysis models for structuring covariance matrices of additive genetic effects: a Bayesian implementation

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Gianola, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate linear models are increasingly important in quantitative genetics. In high dimensional specifications, factor analysis (FA) may provide an avenue for structuring (co)variance matrices, thus reducing the number of parameters needed for describing (co)dispersion. We describe how FA can be used to model genetic effects in the context of a multivariate linear mixed model. An orthogonal common factor structure is used to model genetic effects under Gaussian assumption, so that the marginal likelihood is multivariate normal with a structured genetic (co)variance matrix. Under standard prior assumptions, all fully conditional distributions have closed form, and samples from the joint posterior distribution can be obtained via Gibbs sampling. The model and the algorithm developed for its Bayesian implementation were used to describe five repeated records of milk yield in dairy cattle, and a one common FA model was compared with a standard multiple trait model. The Bayesian Information Criterion favored the FA model. PMID:17897592

  10. Large-scale spatial variation in parasite communities influenced by anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Altman, Irit; Byers, James E

    2014-07-01

    Parasites are integral members of natural communities, but large-scale determinants of their abundance and diversity, including the importance of biotic and abiotic factors, both natural and anthropogenic, are often not well understood. Here, we examine which factors best predict larval trematode communities in the mudsnail host Ilyanassa obsoleta across a regional landscape. At 15 salt marsh sites spanning 200 km, we quantified the diversity of trematodes and the prevalence (i.e., proportion) of infected hosts and sampled a broad array of potential parasite predictors including abundance of intermediate and definitive hosts, habitat, nutrients, metals, roads, and sediment characteristics. We identified the set of best performing models to explain variability associated with five metrics of trematode prevalence and diversity using an information-theoretic approach. Results indicate that several anthropogenic factors associate with this trematode community and that the direction of their influence differs. Road density around sites was a strong negative predictor of all trematode prevalence and species richness metrics. Nitrogen, another human influenced variable, was a strong positive predictor for the most abundant trematode species in the system. In addition, the abundance of definitive fish hosts was a positive predictor in several models, confirming the importance of this direct biological link to parasites. Other influential variables included sediment composition and heavy metals (arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc). We discuss possible direct and indirect mechanisms to explain these findings including that anthropogenic factors may be directly influencing free-living stages of trematodes, or be acting as proxies of hard-to-measure hosts. PMID:25163120

  11. Elucidating biotic factors that influence assembly of fungal endophyte communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most plants harbor a diverse assemblage of non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. These fungi can directly influence the host plant, and can instigate trophic cascades that affect surrounding communities of herbivores, plants, and animals. Despite this, biotic mechanisms that influence assembly of funga...

  12. Factors Influencing the Interstate Distribution of Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu'min, Ridgely A.

    The interstate distribution of defense contract awards may both influence and be influenced by regional differences in educational attainment levels. Data from the 1980 census indicate that the level of educational attainment of adult workers was lowest in Kentucky and highest in Alaska. Statistical analysis of the relationships between this…

  13. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. PMID:21376767

  14. Scatter factor influences the formation of prostate epithelial cell colonies on bone marrow stroma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lang, S H; Clarke, N W; George, N J; Testa, N G

    1999-06-01

    Prostate cancer metastases form selectively in the bone marrow. Previously we demonstrated motility was important for the formation of primary prostatic epithelial cell colonies in bone marrow stroma (BMS) co-culture. In this study we looked at the influence of motility factors on the colony formation of epithelial cells derived from benign (bPEC) or malignant (mPEC) prostate tissue. After 7 days co-culture we found that anti-scatter factor consistently inhibited prostate epithelial cell colony formation on BMS (7/7 mPEC and 4/7 bPEC samples showed significant inhibition). Antibodies against bFGF and 5T4 did not significantly affect colony formation. Addition of fibroblast conditioned media (derived from benign prostates) to co-cultures stimulated the colony formation of bPEC (170%) and mPEC (252%). This stimulation was eliminated by depletion of SF from the conditioned media. Immunohistochemical staining found c-Met expression in 5/6 bPEC cultures and 7/9 mPEC cultures. When grown in BMS co-culture expression of c-Met was positive in 3/6 bPEC and 2/7 mPEC samples. In conclusion, scatter factor influences the in vitro formation of prostate epithelial cell colonies on BMS co-culture. PMID:10545020

  15. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France.

    PubMed

    Raboisson, D; Maigne, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G; Cahuzac, E

    2014-01-01

    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The same associations were reported for 2005 and 2006. The mortality risks or rates for calves and heifers were positively associated with the proportion of purchased cows or being a Milk Control Program member and negatively associated with adhering to the Good Breeding Practices charter and having an autumn calving peak. The associations between mortality and the breeds or the production areas were positive or negative, depending on the classes of animal. Mortality and having a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd were negatively associated for noncrossed birth to 2-d-old calves, noncrossed 3-d- to 1-mo-old calves, and 3-d- to 1-mo-old heifers. Having a beef herd probably provides specific know-how related to newborn and young calf management that makes it easier to attain low mortality in pure-breed dairy calves. The proportion of males born was positively associated with mortality for the birth to 2-d-old calves (all classes) and for the 3-d- to 1-mo-old beef-crossed calves, but negatively for all classes of heifers. This indicates that heifer management was improved when the availability of newborn heifers decreased, resulting in low mortality. This lower mortality is apparent for all classes of heifers present on the farm during the year when the proportion of males was low, and demonstrates an anticipatory effect. In conclusion, this study shows that the presence of a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd within a farm is associated with decreased dairy calf mortality. It

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...

  17. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. X.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity.

  18. Migration of additive molecules in a polymer filament obtained by melt spinning: Influence of the fiber processing steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesta, E.; Skovmand, O.; Espuche, E.; Fulchiron, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of the yarn processing on the migration of additives molecules, especially insecticide, within polyethylene (PE) yarns. Yarns were manufactured in the laboratory focusing on three key-steps (spinning, post-stretching and heat-setting). Influence of each step on yarn properties was investigated using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The post-stretching step was proved to be critical in defining yarn mechanical and structural properties. Although a first orientation of polyethylene crystals was induced during spinning, the optimal orientation was only reached by post-stretching. The results also showed that the heat-setting did not significantly change these properties. The presence of additives crystals at the yarn surface was evidenced by scanning-electron microscopy. These studies performed at each yarn production step allowed a detailed analysis of the additives' ability to migrate. It is concluded that while post-stretching decreased the migration rate, heat-setting seems to boost this migration.

  19. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  20. Additive relationship between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 level and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expression and activity of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 hormone-like protein are associated with development of several metabolic disorders. This study was designed to investigate whether serum FGF21 level was also associated with the metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and its clinical features in a Chinese cohort. Methods Two-hundred-and-fifty-three subjects visiting the Cardiology Department (Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University) were examined by coronary arteriography (to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD)) and hepatic ultrasonography (to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)). Serum FGF21 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed for correlation to subject and clinical characteristics. The independent factors of CAD were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Subjects with NAFLD showed significantly higher serum FGF21 than those without NAFLD (388.0 pg/mL (253.0-655.4) vs. 273.3 pg/mL (164.9-383.7), P < 0.01). Subjects with CAD showed significantly higher serum FGF21, regardless of NAFLD diagnosis (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 level significantly elevated with the increasing number of metabolic disorders (P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment of age, sex, and BMI, FGF21 was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P < 0.05) and triglyceride (P < 0.01). FGF21 was identified as an independent factor of CAD (odds ratio = 2.984, 95% confidence interval: 1.014-8.786, P < 0.05). Conclusions Increased level of serum FGF21 is associated with NAFLD, metabolic disorders and CAD. PMID:23981342