Science.gov

Sample records for additional factors related

  1. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, G D; Whitney, G S; Neubauer, M G; Green, J M; McDonald, V L; Todaro, G J; Shoyab, M

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and amphiregulin are structurally and functionally related growth regulatory proteins. These secreted polypeptides all bind to the 170-kDa cell-surface EGF receptor, activating its intrinsic kinase activity. However, amphiregulin exhibits different activities than EGF and TGF-alpha in a number of biological assays. Amphiregulin only partially competes with EGF for binding EGF receptor, and amphiregulin does not induce anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney cells (NRK) in the presence of TGF-beta. Amphiregulin also appears to abrogate the stimulatory effect of TGF-alpha on the growth of several aggressive epithelial carcinomas that overexpress EGF receptor. These findings suggest that amphiregulin may interact with a separate receptor in certain cell types. Here we report the cloning of another member of the human EGF receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which we have named "HER3/ERRB3." The cDNA was isolated from a human carcinoma cell line, and its 6-kilobase transcript was identified in various human tissues. We have generated peptide-specific antisera that recognizes the 160-kDa HER3 protein when transiently expressed in COS cells. These reagents will allow us to determine whether HER3 binds amphiregulin or other growth regulatory proteins and what role HER3 protein plays in the regulation of cell growth. Images PMID:2164210

  3. Are delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase inhibition and metal concentrations additional factors for the age-related cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Göethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Fracasso, Rafael; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Campanharo, Sarah C; Rocha, Rafael C C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Bordignon, Suelen; Zibetti, Murilo; Trentini, Clarissa M; Avila, Daiana S; Gioda, Adriana; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by cognitive impairments and influenced by oxidative status and chemical imbalances. Thus, this study was conducted to examine whether age-related cognitive deficit is associated with oxidative damage, especially with inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), as well as to verify the influence of some metals in the enzyme activity and cognitive performance. Blood ALA-D activity, essential (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and non-essential metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, V) were measured in 50 elderly and 20 healthy young subjects. Cognitive function was assessed by tests from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery and other. The elderly group presented decreased ALA-D activity compared to the young group. The index of ALA-D reactivation was similar to both study groups, but negatively associated with metals. The mean levels of essential metals were within the reference values, while the most toxic metals were above them in both groups. Cognitive function impairments were observed in elderly group and were associated with decreased ALA-D activity, with lower levels of Se and higher levels of toxic metals (Hg and V). Results suggest that the reduced ALA-D activity in elderly can be an additional factor involved in cognitive decline, since its inhibition throughout life could lead to accumulation of the neurotoxic compound ALA. Toxic metals were found to contribute to cognitive decline and also to influence ALA-D reactivation. PMID:25329536

  4. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  5. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  6. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  7. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food... food additives. (b) Tolerances established for such related food additives may limit the amount of...

  8. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological...

  9. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological...

  10. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological...

  11. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological...

  12. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  13. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  14. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  15. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will...

  16. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible. PMID:23954169

  17. 21 CFR 570.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18 Section 570.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18...

  18. 78 FR 6272 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ..., December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72268). The proposed regulations are relating to Additional Hospital Insurance Tax... proposed rulemaking and notice of public hearing (REG-130074-11), that was the subject of FR Doc. 2012... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax;...

  19. Improvement of modal scaling factors using mass additive technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Allemang, Randall J.; Wei, Max L.; Brown, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A general investigation into the improvement of modal scaling factors of an experimental modal model using additive technique is discussed. Data base required by the proposed method consists of an experimental modal model (a set of complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors) of the original structure and a corresponding set of complex eigenvalues of the mass-added structure. Three analytical methods,i.e., first order and second order perturbation methods, and local eigenvalue modification technique, are proposed to predict the improved modal scaling factors. Difficulties encountered in scaling closely spaced modes are discussed. Methods to compute the necessary rotational modal vectors at the mass additive points are also proposed to increase the accuracy of the analytical prediction.

  20. 78 FR 6273 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax Correction In proposed rule document 2012-29237, appearing on pages 72268- 72277 in the issue of...

  1. Are major behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors for mortality additive or multiplicative in their effects?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths

  2. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Paul P.; Keane, Pearse A.; O'Neill, Evelyn C.; Altaie, Rasha W.; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M.; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:20339564

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - TRANSPORTABILITY FACTORS FOR FUGITIVE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a table of factors, one for each county in the US, reflecting the portion of fugitive dust removed very close to the source via impaction on vegetation and similar mechanisms. Factors were based on land cover in area (county or grid cell) A praft final product was...

  5. Family Factors Related to Adolescent Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, Jean A.; Pardeck, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes role that the family plays in the development of adolescent autonomy. Three family factors are analyzed in relation to the development of adolescent autonomy: parenting styles, family interaction, and transitions related to the family life cycle. (Author/NB)

  6. Relative Stabilities of Organic Compounds Using Benson's Additivity Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Dale E.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the structure-energy principle can be presented in organic chemistry (without having to resort to quantum mechanics) by use of Benson's Additive Rules. Examples of the application to several major classes of organic compounds are given.

  7. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  8. MTHFR homozygous mutation and additional risk factors for cerebral infarction in a large Italian family.

    PubMed

    Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto; Perla, Massimo; Properzi, Enrico; Iannetti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Several cases with cerebral infarctions associated with the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been reported. Given the large number of asymptomatic individuals with the MTHFR mutation, additional risk factors for cerebral infarction should be considered. This study describes a large family with the MTHFR mutation and a combination of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutations and different additional exogenous and endogenous thrombogenic risk factors. Psychomotor retardation and a left fronto-insular infarct associated with the MTHFR mutation together with diminished factor VII and low level of protein C was documented in the first patient. In the second patient, generalized epilepsy and a malacic area in the right nucleus lenticularis was associated with the MTHFR mutation and a low level of protein C. In the third patient, right hemiparesis and a left fronto-temporal porencephalic cyst were documented, together with the MTHFR mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. An extensive search of additional circumstantial and genetic thrombogenic risk factors should be useful for prophylaxis and prognosis of infants with cerebral infarctions associated with the MTHFR mutation and of their related family members. PMID:19068258

  9. Factors Related to Job Satisfaction among Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Donald Bob

    This document reviews, synthesizes, and critiques research on factors related to job satisfaction among psychotherapists. A sample of burnout literature is also reviewed, especially as it relates to job satisfaction. The impact of training on job satisfaction is considered, with sections examining the need to match training with job descriptions,…

  10. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements for two-factor... Additional requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  11. Factors Related to College Enrollment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerhielm, Karen; Berger, Jacqueline; Hooker, Marianne; Wise, Donald

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study examined factors related to postsecondary education enrollment, focusing on the impact of early indicators and financial aid. Major findings of the report indicated the following: (1) a majority of students, 63 percent by 1994, attended some type of postsecondary…

  12. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  13. A relational database of transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, D

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation have produced an extensive body of transcriptionally-related sequence information in the biological literature, and have created a need for computing structures that organize and manage this information. The 'relational model' represents an approach that is finding increasing application in the design of biological databases. This report describes the compilation of information regarding eukaryotic transcription factors, the organization of this information into five tables, the computational applications of the resultant relational database that are of theoretical as well as experimental interest, and possible avenues of further development. PMID:2186365

  14. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jia; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-03-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investment per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investment.

  15. DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NONPROLIFERATION FACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf

    2009-07-01

    Methodologies to determine the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear facilities often rely on either expert elicitation, a resource-intensive approach without easily reproducible results, or numeric evaluations, which can fail to take into account the institutional knowledge and expert experience of the nonproliferation community. In an attempt to bridge the gap and bring the institutional knowledge into numeric evaluations of PR, a survey was conducted of 33 individuals to find the relative importance of a set of 62 nonproliferation factors, subsectioned into groups under the headings of Diversion, Transportation, Transformation, and Weaponization. One third of the respondents were self-described nonproliferation professionals, and the remaining two thirds were from secondary professions related to nonproliferation, such as industrial engineers or policy analysts. The factors were taken from previous work which used multi-attribute utility analysis with uniform weighting of attributes and did not include institutional knowledge. In both expert and non-expert groups, all four headings and the majority of factors had different relative importance at a confidence of 95% (p=0.05). This analysis and survey demonstrates that institutional knowledge can be brought into numeric evaluations of PR, if there is a sufficient investment of resources made prior to the evaluation.

  16. 34 CFR 477.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE PROGRAM ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE AND POLICY STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 477.22 What additional factors does the... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary...

  17. Factoring Algebraic Error for Relative Pose Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M

    2009-03-09

    We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.

  18. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  19. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  20. Factors which Limit the Value of Additional Redundancy in Human Rated Launch Vehicle Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joel M.; Stott, James E.; Ring, Robert W.; Hatfield, Spencer; Kaltz, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has embarked on an ambitious program to return humans to the moon and beyond. As NASA moves forward in the development and design of new launch vehicles for future space exploration, it must fully consider the implications that rule-based requirements of redundancy or fault tolerance have on system reliability/risk. These considerations include common cause failure, increased system complexity, combined serial and parallel configurations, and the impact of design features implemented to control premature activation. These factors and others must be considered in trade studies to support design decisions that balance safety, reliability, performance and system complexity to achieve a relatively simple, operable system that provides the safest and most reliable system within the specified performance requirements. This paper describes conditions under which additional functional redundancy can impede improved system reliability. Examples from current NASA programs including the Ares I Upper Stage will be shown.

  1. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    PubMed

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration. PMID:22622279

  2. Complement factor H related proteins (CFHRs).

    PubMed

    Skerka, Christine; Chen, Qian; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T

    2013-12-15

    Factor H related proteins comprise a group of five plasma proteins: CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4 and CFHR5, and each member of this group binds to the central complement component C3b. Mutations, genetic deletions, duplications or rearrangements in the individual CFHR genes are associated with a number of diseases including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathies (C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), dense deposit disease (DDD) and CFHR5 nephropathy), IgA nephropathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although complement regulatory functions were attributed to most of the members of the CFHR protein family, the precise role of each CFHR protein in complement activation and the exact contribution to disease pathology is still unclear. Recent publications show that CFHR proteins form homo- as well as heterodimers. Genetic abnormalities within the CFHR gene locus can result in hybrid proteins with affected dimerization or recognition domains which cause defective functions. Here we summarize the recent data about CFHR genes and proteins in order to better understand the role of CFHR proteins in complement activation and in complement associated diseases. PMID:23830046

  3. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  4. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  5. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  6. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? In addition to applying the selection criteria in, as appropriate §§ 658.31, 658.32, and 658.33, the Secretary, to the extent practicable and... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  7. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as "the ball between the man and the drawer"). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a-d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  8. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  9. 78 FR 17612 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... public hearing that appeared in the Federal Register on Wednesday, December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72268... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 31 RIN 1545-BK54 Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax...; relating to the Additional Hospital Insurance Tax on income above threshold amounts as added by...

  10. 31 CFR 561.204 - Additional petroleum-related sanctions on certain foreign financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional petroleum-related sanctions... TREASURY IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.204 Additional petroleum-related... Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-172) (50 U.S.C. 1701 note), as amended, are refined...

  11. 31 CFR 561.204 - Additional petroleum-related sanctions on certain foreign financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional petroleum-related sanctions... TREASURY IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.204 Additional petroleum-related... Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-172) (50 U.S.C. 1701 note), as amended, are refined...

  12. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause...

  13. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause...

  14. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause...

  15. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause...

  16. 48 CFR 1337.110-71 - Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. 1337.110-71 Section 1337.110-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....110-71 Additional DOC clauses related to service contracting. (a) Insert a clause...

  17. Factors Related to Intimidation During Oxytocin Administration.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Claudia A; Cannella, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Patient's safety and quality are foremost issues in healthcare today and are often adversely influenced by communication and issues of perceived intimidation. Labor and delivery nurses are responsible for managing oxytocin infusions, but disagreements between providers and nurses related to the administration have been shown to cause tension and affect patient's care. The purpose of this study was to survey registered nurses in labor and delivery about perceived intimidation and how intimidation influenced actions and decisions. A total of 913 registered nurses who were members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses and identified labor and delivery comprised the sample as their clinical focus. Nurses who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the survey via e-mail invitation. An online survey assessing workplace intimidation by providers while managing oxytocin inductions, as well as demographic information was completed. Participants reported past issues with intimidation that influenced how they administered oxytocin. Nurses reported that past experiences with intimidation influenced their care and that they had been involved with medication errors where intimidation played a role. Organizational factors perceived supportive management, presence of an organizational code of conduct, and environment where collaboration was encouraged were associated with decreased reports of intimidation. PMID:26505847

  18. Organizational factors related to occupational accidents in construction.

    PubMed

    Filho, J M Jackson; Fonseca, E D; Lima, F P A; Duarte, F J C M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of organizational factors on occupational accident causation. A field study was undertaken and focused on the phase of concreting the floors of a residential block in a building project in Brazil. The methodological approach was based on the analysis of carpenters' work practices and of the workers' accounts of minor falls. Observations were noted on work practices over this stage. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the workers hired by the subcontractors and with professionals working for the main contractor. The results show that falls were related to the introduction of new building technology and its use by the workforce. The production planning and organization of activities by the subcontracted firms also led to temporary demands that were additional determining factors for falls on site. The work analysis reveals the need to consider organizational factors in prevention practices. PMID:22317355

  19. Effect of ferrite addition above the base ferrite on the coupling factor of wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, T.; Schaltz, E.; Ahn, S.

    2015-05-01

    Power transfer capability of wireless power transfer systems is highly dependent on the magnetic design of the primary and secondary inductors and is measured quantitatively by the coupling factor. The inductors are designed by placing the coil over a ferrite base to increase the coupling factor and reduce magnetic emissions to the surroundings. Effect of adding extra ferrite above the base ferrite at different physical locations on the self-inductance, mutual inductance, and coupling factor is under investigation in this paper. The addition can increase or decrease the mutual inductance depending on the placement of ferrite. Also, the addition of ferrite increases the self-inductance of the coils, and there is a probability for an overall decrease in the coupling factor. Correct placement of ferrite, on the other hand, can increase the coupling factor relatively higher than the base ferrite as it is closer to the other inductor. Ferrite being a heavy compound of iron increases the inductor weight significantly and needs to be added judiciously. Four zones have been identified in the paper, which shows different sensitivity to addition of ferrite in terms of the two inductances and coupling factor. Simulation and measurement results are presented for different air gaps between the coils and at different gap distances between the ferrite base and added ferrite. This paper is beneficial in improving the coupling factor while adding minimum weight to wireless power transfer system.

  20. Enhancement of aluminum tolerance in wheat by addition of chromosomes from the wild relative Leymus racemosus

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Yasir Serag Alnor; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 μM), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24399913

  1. Enhancement of aluminum tolerance in wheat by addition of chromosomes from the wild relative Leymus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Yasir Serag Alnor; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2013-12-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 μM), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24399913

  2. [Lifestyle-related risk factors for dementia].

    PubMed

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Kjeld; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2006-10-01

    Emerging knowledge about modifiable risk factors for dementia has given rise to interventions that can potentially prevent or delay the onset of dementia and the possible target periods for intervention extend from prenatal period to old age. Factors during early life such as nutrition, education, and parental socioeconomic status can influence the development of dementia later in life. From mid to late life, a physically, socially, and intellectually active lifestyle is associated with reduced risk for dementia. Moreover, modification of cardiovascular risk factors during this period can potentially reduce risk for dementia. PMID:17032603

  3. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  4. 34 CFR 658.34 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider in selecting grant recipients? 658.34 Section 658.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE...

  5. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION... Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider...

  6. 34 CFR 490.22 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 490.22 Section 490.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LIFE SKILLS FOR STATE AND...

  7. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  8. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  9. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  10. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  11. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  12. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  13. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  14. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  15. 34 CFR 401.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 401.22 Section 401.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INDIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM...

  16. 34 CFR 411.22 - What additional factors may the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors may the Secretary consider? 411.22 Section 411.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL EDUCATION RESEARCH...

  17. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  18. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  19. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  20. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  1. 34 CFR 472.23 - What additional factor does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What additional factor does the Secretary consider? 472.23 Section 472.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL WORKPLACE LITERACY PROGRAM...

  2. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 655.32 What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  3. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 655.32 What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  4. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 655.32 What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? Except for 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 661, to the extent... making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  5. 34 CFR 655.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grant awards? 655.32 Section 655.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS How Does...

  6. 34 CFR 477.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider? 477.22 Section 477.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE PROGRAM ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE...

  7. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  8. FACTORS RELATED TO ATTRITION AMONG DOCTORAL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TUCKER, ALLAN; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DISCOVER SOME OF THE POSSIBLE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR ATTRITION AMONG DOCTORAL STUDENTS. ARRANGEMENTS WERE MADE WITH ABOUT 20 REPRESENTATIVE GRADUATE SCHOOLS TO OBTAIN NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF ALL STUDENTS WHO WERE ENROLLED IN POST-MASTER OR DOCTORAL PROGRAMS BETWEEN 1950 AND 1954. A LENGTHY QUESTIONNAIRE WAS MAILED TO…

  9. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Market-related contract term... Provisions § 223.52 Market-related contract term additions. (a) Contract provision. (1) Except as provided in... the Forest Service has determined that adverse wood products market conditions have resulted in...

  10. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  11. Improved Growth Factor Directed Vascularization into Fibrin Constructs Through Inclusion of Additional Extracellular Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Smith, JD; Melhem, ME; Magge, KT; Waggoner, AS; Campbell, PG

    2009-01-01

    Using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and a novel histological technique we investigated the ability of blood vessels to directly invade fibrin-based scaffolds. In our initial experiments utilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) we found no direct invasion. Instead, the fibrin was completely degraded and replaced with highly vascularized new tissue. Addition of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), or platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to the fibrin construct also did not result in construct vascularization. Because natural and regenerating tissues exhibit complex extracellular matrices (ECMs), we hypothesized that a more complex scaffold may improve blood vessel invasion. Addition of fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, and collagen type I within 20 mg/mL fibrin constructs resulted in no significant improvement. However, the same additive concentrations within 10 mg/mL fibrin constructs resulted in dramatic improvements, specifically with hyaluronic acid. Overall, we believe these results indicate the importance of structural and functional cues of not only in the initial scaffold but also as the construct is degraded and remodeled. Furthermore, the CAM assay may represent a useful model for understanding ECM interactions as well as for screening and designing tissue engineered scaffolds. PMID:17223139

  12. Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosocial measures were assessed at each of the first three waves of the study, and CUDs were assessed at the fourth and final wave of the study. Multivariate logistic regression and a cumulative risk analysis were conducted. Increased psychological symptoms (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.39; p<.01), problems resulting from cannabis use (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.33–5.46; p<.01), frequent arguments with one’s partner (OR=1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10; p<.05), high levels of deviance (OR=1.81; 95% CI, 1.21–2.71; p<.01), and frequent acts of violence directed toward the participant (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42; p<.05) were all associated with an increased risk for CUDs. An increase in the number of risks was associated with an increase in the probability of having CUDs at the fourth wave (again, at a mean age of 29.2). A decrease in the number of risk factors may lead to a decrease in CUDs. PMID:22014255

  13. Factors related to planned and unplanned pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J A; Everett, K D

    1996-08-01

    In the summers of 1994 and 1995 in northeastern Tennessee, 110 pregnant women 16-37 years old were interviewed either before or after their prenatal care appointment at an outpatient family practice clinic in Bristol. The researchers aimed to identify factors associated with planned and unplanned pregnancies. 39 (35%) women had planned their pregnancy while the remaining 71 (65%) women did not. Divorced or never married women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy than a planned pregnancy (47% vs. 19%; p 0.01). Women with an unplanned pregnancy were more likely to have been using contraception at time of conception than women with a planned pregnancy (23% vs. 3%). They were also more likely to use no contraception or to practice withdrawal before the index pregnancy than women with a planned pregnancy (31% vs. 13%; p 0.05). All the women in both groups had no problem with availability of their choice of family planning method. Women with an unplanned pregnancy were much more likely than those with a planned pregnancy to be influenced by their partner in terms of contraceptive choice (37% vs. 19%; p = 0.04). Women with a planned pregnancy were more likely to be satisfied or very satisfied with their contraception than those with an unplanned pregnancy (62% vs. 43%). The differences in satisfaction only approached statistical significance, however (p = 0.065). Based on these findings, the family practice researchers suggested that, in order to reduce unplanned pregnancies, clinicians should provide women counseling on their contraception expectations and a careful explanation of the side effects of their contraceptive choice. Male partners or sexually active men should also receive counseling about contraceptive options. Another important step is further research to better understand factors that contribute to satisfaction with contraception. PMID:8708626

  14. Pre-treatment factors associated with detecting additional brain metastases at stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wardak, Zabi; Augustyn, Alexander; Zhu, Hong; Mickey, Bruce E; Whitworth, Louis A; Madden, Christopher J; Barnett, Samuel L; Abdulrahman, Ramzi E; Nedzi, Lucien A; Timmerman, Robert D; Choe, Kevin S

    2016-06-01

    The number of brain metastases identified on diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key factor in consideration of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, additional lesions are often detected on high-resolution SRS-planning MRI. We investigated pre-treatment clinical characteristics that are associated with finding additional metastases at SRS. Patients treated with SRS for brain metastases between the years of 2009-2014 comprised the study cohort. All patients underwent frame-fixed, 1 mm thick MRI on the day of SRS. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed for an association with increase in number of metastases identified on SRS-planning MRI. 289 consecutive SRS cases were analyzed. 725 metastases were identified on pre-treatment MRI and 1062 metastases were identified on SRS-planning MRI. An increase in the number of metastases occurred in 34 % of the cases. On univariate analysis, more than four metastases and the diameter of the largest lesion were significantly associated with an increase in number of metastases on SRS-planning MRI. When stratified by the diameter of the largest lesion into <2, 2-3, or ≥3 cm, additional metastases were identified in 37, 29, and 18 %, respectively. While this increase in the number of metastases is largely due to the difference in imaging technique, the number and size of the metastases were also associated with finding additional lesions. These clinical factors may be considered when determining treatment options for brain metastases. PMID:26966096

  15. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  16. Factors Related to Successful Engineering Team Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.; Zang, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The perceptions of a sample of 49 engineers and scientists from NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. The respondents rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also completed a profile of their own perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses as team members. Behaviors related to team success are discussed in terms of those involving the organizational culture and commitment to the team and those dealing with internal team dynamics. The latter behaviors included the level and extent of debate and discussion regarding methods for completing the team task and the efficient use of team time to explore and discuss methodologies critical to the problem. Successful engineering teams may find their greatest challenges occurring during the early stages of their existence. In contrast to the prototypical business team, members on an engineering design share expertise and knowledge which allows them to deal with task issues sooner. However, discipline differences among team members can lead to conflicts regarding the best method or approach to solving the engineering problem.

  17. Synergistic and additive killing by antimicrobial factors found in human airway surface liquid.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Tack, B F; McCray, P B; Welsh, M J

    2000-11-01

    Airway surface liquid contains multiple factors thought to provide a first line of defense against bacteria deposited in the airways. Although the antimicrobial action of individual factors has been studied, less is known about how they work in combination. We examined the combined action of six antimicrobial peptides found in airway surface liquid. The paired combinations of lysozyme-lactoferrin, lysozyme-secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and lactoferrin-SLPI were synergistic. The triple combination of lysozyme, lactoferrin, and SLPI showed even greater synergy. Other combinations involving the human beta-defensins, LL-37, and tobramycin (often administered to cystic fibrosis patients by inhalation) were additive. Because the airway surface liquid salt concentration may be elevated in cystic fibrosis patients, we examined the effect of salt on the synergistic combinations. As the ionic strength increased, synergistic interactions were lost. Our data suggest that the antibacterial potency of airway surface liquid may be significantly increased by synergistic and additive interactions between antimicrobial factors. These results also suggest that increased salt concentrations that may exist in cystic fibrosis could inhibit airway defenses by diminishing these synergistic interactions. PMID:11053013

  18. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Market-related contract term additions. 223.52 Section 223.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  19. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Market-related contract term additions. 223.52 Section 223.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  20. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Market-related contract term additions. 223.52 Section 223.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  1. 36 CFR 223.52 - Market-related contract term additions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Market-related contract term additions. 223.52 Section 223.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  2. The transcription factor NF-E2-related Factor 2 (Nrf2): a protooncogene?

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Phillip; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is responsible for regulating a battery of antioxidant and cellular protective genes, primarily in response to oxidative stress. A member of the cap 'n' collar family of transcription factors, Nrf2 activation is tightly controlled by a series of signaling events. These events can be separated into the basal state, a preinduction response, gene induction, and finally a postinduction response, culminating in the restoration of redox homeostasis. However, despite the immensely intricate level of control the cellular environment imposes on Nrf2 activity, there are many opportunities for perturbations to arise in the signaling events that favor carcinogenesis and, therefore, implicate Nrf2 as both a tumor suppressor and a protooncogene. Herein, we highlight the ways in which Nrf2 is regulated, and discuss some of the Nrf2-inducible antioxidant (NQO1, NQO2, HO-1, GCLC), antiapoptotic (Bcl-2), metabolic (G6PD, TKT, PPARγ), and drug efflux transporter (ABCG2, MRP3, MRP4) genes. In addition, we focus on how Nrf2 functions as a tumor suppressor under normal conditions and how its ability to detoxify the cellular environment makes it an attractive target for other oncogenes either via stabilization or degradation of the transcription factor. Finally, we discuss some of the ways in which Nrf2 is being considered as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment.—Shelton, P., Jaiswal, A. K. The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2): a protooncogene? PMID:23109674

  3. The effects of primary nursing on work-related factors.

    PubMed

    Melchior, M E; Halfens, R J; Abu-Saad, H H; Philipsen, H; van den Berg, A A; Gassman, P

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a primary nursing care delivery system on some work-related factors of nurses in long-stay psychiatric care settings. In a quasi-experimental research design a cohort of 176 nurses was followed for 2.5 years. Results showed that as a result of primary nursing the primary nurses found more autonomy in their work and experienced it to be less complex. Furthermore, primary nurses performed personal care tasks less frequently and worked more according to a patient-oriented care model. Several additional analyses were performed owing to the two main problems encountered in this study, namely a high dropout due to job turnover among nurses and the imitation of the intervention by the control group. PMID:10064286

  4. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  5. An Additional Motor-Related Field in the Lateral Frontal Cortex of Squirrel Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Vanja; Barbay, Scott; Frost, Shawn B.; Stylianou, Antonis; Nudo, Randolph J.

    2008-01-01

    Our earlier efforts to document the cortical connections of the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) revealed dense connections with a field rostral and lateral to PMv, an area we called the frontal rostral field (FR). Here, we present data collected in FR using electrophysiological and anatomical methods. Results show that FR contains an isolated motor representation of the forelimb that can be differentiated from PMv based on current thresholds and latencies to evoke electromyographic activity using intracortical microstimulation techniques. In addition, FR has a different pattern of cortical connections compared with PMv. Together, these data support that FR is an additional, previously undescribed motor-related area in squirrel monkeys. PMID:18424778

  6. Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hume, Amanda E.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with sustainability of school-based interventions and the relative contributions of those factors to predicting sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). Participants were respondents from 217 schools across 14 U.S. states. Sustainability factors were…

  7. 48 CFR 14.201-8 - Price-related factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Price-related factors. 14.201-8 Section 14.201-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-8 Price-related factors....

  8. 48 CFR 14.201-8 - Price-related factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Price-related factors. 14.201-8 Section 14.201-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.201-8 Price-related factors....

  9. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  10. Three WRKY transcription factors additively repress abscisic acid and gibberellin signaling in aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Gu, Lingkun; Ringler, Patricia; Smith, Stanley; Rushton, Paul J; Shen, Qingxi J

    2015-07-01

    Members of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily are essential for the regulation of many plant pathways. Functional redundancy due to duplications of WRKY transcription factors, however, complicates genetic analysis by allowing single-mutant plants to maintain wild-type phenotypes. Our analyses indicate that three group I WRKY genes, OsWRKY24, -53, and -70, act in a partially redundant manner. All three showed characteristics of typical WRKY transcription factors: each localized to nuclei and yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that they all bind to W-boxes, including those present in their own promoters. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the expression levels of the three WRKY genes varied in the different tissues tested. Particle bombardment-mediated transient expression analyses indicated that all three genes repress the GA and ABA signaling in a dosage-dependent manner. Combination of all three WRKY genes showed additive antagonism of ABA and GA signaling. These results suggest that these WRKY proteins function as negative transcriptional regulators of GA and ABA signaling. However, different combinations of these WRKY genes can lead to varied strengths in suppression of their targets. PMID:26025535

  11. Effect of Addition of Chin Strap on PAP Compliance, Nightly Duration of Use, and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Shelley R.; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Zhang, Shiling; Devara, Anupama; Rowley, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A chinstrap is potentially useful to reduce unintentional air leak by preventing mouth opening during PAP treatment. This study examines whether the addition of a chinstrap to PAP therapy has any effect on adherence, nightly duration of use, air leak, and residual AHI. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed at an AASM-accredited VAMC sleep center. Clinical sleep data of veterans (n = 124) prescribed PAP therapy for sleep apnea was evaluated, and the effect of chinstrap use vs non-use on the above parameters was assessed. Results: Chinstrap users had significantly greater PAP adherence, longer nightly duration of PAP use, lower residual AHI and lower leak compared to chinstrap non-users at first follow up visit. Conclusions: The addition of a chin strap to PAP therapy is a simple and inexpensive method of increasing PAP adherence. Citation: Knowles SR; O'Brien DT; Zhang S; Devara A; Rowley JA. Effect of addition of chin strap on PAP compliance, nightly duration of use, and other factors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):377-383. PMID:24733982

  12. Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Pluske, John R

    2013-01-01

    The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of

  13. Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of

  14. Career Goals and Retention-Related Factors among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull-Blanks, Elva; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.; Befort, Christie; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The relationships of four types of career goals (job related, school related, value related, and unknown) with factors of school retention, academic performance, self-esteem, educational self-efficacy, and school and career commitment are studied among 401 first-semester college freshmen. Differences in types of goals based on gender are also…

  15. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  16. Future Antidepressant Targets: Neurotrophic Factors and Related Signaling Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Heath D.; Banasr, Mounira; Duman, Ronald S.

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that neurotrophic factors play critical roles in the etiology and treatment of depression. While the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants remain unknown, increasing evidence supports a role for increased trophic support in the treatment of depression. Furthermore, antidepressants block or reverse stress-induced down regulation of neurotrophic factor expression in limbic and cortical nuclei involved in the underlying pathophysiology of depression. Thus, components of neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling cascades or the signal transduction pathways that regulate neurotrophic factor expression may provide additional targets for the development of novel, more efficacious antidepressant drugs. PMID:19802372

  17. Enhancement of antibody production by growth factor addition in perfusion and hollow-fiber culture systems.

    PubMed

    Omasa, T; Kobayashi, M; Nishikawa, T; Shioya, S; Suga, K; Uemura, S; Kitani, Y; Imamura, Y

    1995-12-20

    The effects of the high-molecular-weight growth factors, transferrin and bovine serum albumin (BSA), on antibody production were analyzed quantitatively in continuous hollow-fiber cultivation over a period of 60 days. Transferrin enhanced cell growth but had no significant effect on the specific antibody production rate, whereas BSA significantly enhanced antibody production. The antibody production rate was increased 4- and 14-fold respectively by feeding BSA at 2 and 5 g L(-1) into the EC side of the system (the side connected to the cell-containing outer part of the hollow-fiber unit) compared with the production achieved without BSA. Addition of 5 g L(1) BSA into the IC side of the system (the side connected to the inner part of the hollow-fiber unit) resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in the antibody production rate. The effect of BSA was also analyzed using the perfusion culture system with a separation unit. When fresh medium containing either 2 or 5 g L(-1) BSA was fed into the reactor, both the specific growth rate and specific death rate increased, while the specific antibody production rate was increased 2- and 25-fold, respectively, by feeding BSA at these two concentrations compared with no addition. Comparing the two systems, the increase in the antibody production rate achieved with the hollow-fiber system was threefold greater than that in the perfusion culture system with the same concentration of BSA feeding. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623537

  18. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  19. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...

  20. Age-Related Factors in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyford, Charles William

    The convergence of several lines of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic research suggests possible explanations for age-related influences on language acquisition. These factors, which include cognitive development, sociocultural context, affective factors, and language input, can be helpful to language educators. By being alert to the cognitive…

  1. Asian Indian Immigrants in America: Factors Related to Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar; Carey, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines unique adjustment problems faced by Asian Indian immigrants to the United States. Looks at the impact of higher education; pretransition factors of religion and family roles; posttransition factors related to social adjustment (middle class status, voluntary migration, ethnic social support, assimilation, intergenerational conflict); and…

  2. Additive relationship between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 level and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expression and activity of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 hormone-like protein are associated with development of several metabolic disorders. This study was designed to investigate whether serum FGF21 level was also associated with the metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and its clinical features in a Chinese cohort. Methods Two-hundred-and-fifty-three subjects visiting the Cardiology Department (Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University) were examined by coronary arteriography (to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD)) and hepatic ultrasonography (to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)). Serum FGF21 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed for correlation to subject and clinical characteristics. The independent factors of CAD were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Subjects with NAFLD showed significantly higher serum FGF21 than those without NAFLD (388.0 pg/mL (253.0-655.4) vs. 273.3 pg/mL (164.9-383.7), P < 0.01). Subjects with CAD showed significantly higher serum FGF21, regardless of NAFLD diagnosis (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 level significantly elevated with the increasing number of metabolic disorders (P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment of age, sex, and BMI, FGF21 was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P < 0.05) and triglyceride (P < 0.01). FGF21 was identified as an independent factor of CAD (odds ratio = 2.984, 95% confidence interval: 1.014-8.786, P < 0.05). Conclusions Increased level of serum FGF21 is associated with NAFLD, metabolic disorders and CAD. PMID:23981342

  3. Integrating products of Bessel functions with an additional exponential or rational factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deun, Joris; Cools, Ronald

    2008-04-01

    We provide two MATLAB programs to compute integrals of the form ex∏i=1kJν_i(ax)dxand 0∞xr+x∏i=1kJν_i(ax)dx with Jν_i(x) the Bessel function of the first kind and (real) order ν. The parameter m is a real number such that ∑ν+m>-1 (to assure integrability near zero), r is real and the numbers c and a are all strictly positive. The program can deliver accurate error estimates. Program summaryProgram title: BESSELINTR, BESSELINTC Catalogue identifier: AEAH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1601 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 161 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab (version ⩾6.5), Octave (version ⩾2.1.69) Computer: All supporting Matlab or Octave Operating system: All supporting Matlab or Octave RAM: For k Bessel functions our program needs approximately ( 500+140k) double precision variables Classification: 4.11 Nature of problem: The problem consists in integrating an arbitrary product of Bessel functions with an additional rational or exponential factor over a semi-infinite interval. Difficulties arise from the irregular oscillatory behaviour and the possible slow decay of the integrand, which prevents truncation at a finite point. Solution method: The interval of integration is split into a finite and infinite part. The integral over the finite part is computed using Gauss-Legendre quadrature. The integrand on the infinite part is approximated using asymptotic expansions and this approximation is integrated exactly with the aid of the upper incomplete gamma function. In the case where a rational factor is present, this factor is first expanded in a Taylor series around infinity. Restrictions: Some (and eventually all

  4. Understanding the relative importance of global dengue risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies. PMID:26311416

  5. The Prevalence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, O; Mohajeri-Tehrani, MR; Madani, SP; Heshmat, R; Larijani, B

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) accounts for 80% of diabetic foot ulceration; therefore neurologic examination plays a critical role in screening at risk patients. Our objective was assessment the prevalence of DPN and related factors based on clinical findings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 124 diabetics who were randomly recruited from Diabetes Clinic of Dr. Shariati University Hospital (Tehran/Iran) in 2004. After gathering demographic data and blood sampling for fasting blood sugar (FBS), the questionnaires United Kingdom (UK), Michigan, Diabetic Neuropathy Score (DNS), and 10-g monofilament testing were administered. Analysis tests were chi-square, pearson correlation and logistic regression. Results: The patient’s age ranged 17–75 years; with 44% male. Ninety one percent suffered from type two diabetes and the mean duration of diabetes was 10 years. The mean FBS level was 181.5 mg/dl. While the prevalence of DPN based on Michigan, DNS, and monofilament testing was about 32–38%, some 54% were diagnosed by UK test. Tingling in the lower extremity was the most frequent complaint (42%). The strongest linear correlation was reported between Michigan and DNS (r= 0.7), and then between monofilament test and DNS (r= 0.6). The age > 50 years, length of diabetes > 10 years, and FBS >200 mg/dl were the main risk factors for DPN based on DNS. Conclusion: It seems that the combination of Michigan and monofilament test can provide an accurate screening tool for detecting DPN. In addition, tight glucose control, regular assessment of the lower extremity, and to educate diabetics is urged in elderly diabetics, longer duration of diabetes, and those with high FBS. PMID:23113086

  6. Factors Relating to Faculty Engagement in Cooperative Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Bernadette J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that may relate to engineering faculty engagement in Cooperative Education (Co-op). My intent was to identify specific personal attributes and environmental conditions that relate to faculty engagement in cooperative education. I compared the engagement level of engineering faculty from programs…

  7. Factors related to job turnover in physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Harkson, D G; Unterreiner, A S; Shepard, K F

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of personal and work-related factors in relation to job turnover in the physical therapy profession. A survey questionnaire was mailed to a nationwide sample of 820 physical therapists, and 567 responses (69%) were used in the data analyses. The two most important reasons for leaving a job were "desire to pursue a different area of physical therapy" and "insufficient salary to meet financial needs." Significant differences were found in the relative importance of job-turnover factors when the sample was stratified according to physical therapy education level, percentage of time in direct patient care, years in the physical therapy profession, and sex. A careful look at the factors contributing to job turnover will help physical therapy administrators retain staff members. PMID:7122704

  8. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  9. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  10. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  11. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus_minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus_minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  12. Job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees.

    PubMed

    Manshor, Amat Taap; Abdullah, Adilah

    2002-12-01

    This study identified job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees in several telecommunication companies. Responses were obtained from 1,179 employees at all levels up to senior managers and six different functional divisions, sales and marketing, human resources, finance, technical, information, technology, and support division. All employees were asked to rate the importance of Kovach's 10 job-motivational factors. These factors were good wages, job security, opportunity for career growth in the organization, good working conditions, interesting work, company loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, full appreciation of work done, sympathetic help with personal problems, and feeling of being involved in the organization. The top five factors employees identified as motivating them in their jobs were good wages, job security, company loyalty to employees, good working conditions, and full appreciation for work done. Findings were in accordance with Kovach for U.S. employees, in which the top motivational factors were good wages and job security. PMID:12585535

  13. Exploring Sleep Quality and Related Factors in Chinese Midlife Women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qunyan; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Hui; Jing, Jianling

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the percentage of women with poor sleep quality and its related factors among mainland Chinese women. Sleep quality and menopausal status were self-reported. We explored the contribution of possible risk factors, including sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, lifestyle, psychological status, stressful life events, and vasomotor symptoms. We found that 38.6% of midlife Chinese women were poor sleepers. This percentage was higher in comparison with women from other Asian countries. Our multiple logistic regression showed that anxiety, comorbidities, perceived stress, and vasomotor symptoms were risk factors for poor sleep quality. PMID:25868869

  14. Relative risk factors in detecting adolescent drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Swadi, H

    1992-02-01

    Detecting adolescent drug abuse remains to be a difficult proposition because of its secret nature. This paper investigates the significance of other factors as indicators of possible drug use by an adolescent. Peer drug use, suspension at school, law infringements, truancy, conflict with parents, alcohol use and cigarette smoking were the relative risk factors investigated among 953 adolescents. The most predictive of those was peer drug use. The more of those factors were present in an adolescent, the higher the risk of possible drug use. PMID:1559431

  15. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: association with disease-related, behavioural and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Trojan, D A; Arnold, D; Collet, J-P; Shapiro, S; Bar-Or, A; Robinson, A; Le Cruguel, J-P; Ducruet, T; Narayanan, S; Arcelin, K; Wong, A N; Tartaglia, M C; Lapierre, Y; Caramanos, Z; Da Costa, D

    2007-09-01

    We determined biopsychosocial correlates of general, physical, and mental fatigue in MS patients, by evaluating the additional contribution of potentially modifiable factors after accounting for non-modifiable disease-related factors. Fifty-three ambulatory MS patients, along with 28 normal controls were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Subjects completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and Fatigue Severity Scale. Potential correlates evaluated were: disease-related factors (disease duration and type, immunomodulating treatment, muscle strength, pain, forced vital capacity (FVC), respiratory muscle strength, body mass index, disability, fibromyalgia), behavioural factors (physical activity, sleep quality) and psychosocial factors (depression, stress, self-efficacy). Multivariate models were calculated for MFI General, Physical, and Mental Fatigue. Age-adjusted multivariate models with non-modifiable factors included the following predictors (P < or = 0.10) of 1) MFI General and Mental Fatigue: none; and 2) MFI Physical Fatigue: FVC and disability. The following potentially modifiable predictors (P < or = 0.10) made an additional contribution to the models 1) MFI General Fatigue: sleep quality, self-efficacy, pain; 2) MFI Physical Fatigue: self-efficacy, physical activity; and 3) MFI Mental Fatigue: stress, self-efficacy. Fatigue in MS is multidimensional. Correlates of general and physical fatigue are disease-related, behavioural and psychosocial factors. Correlates of mental fatigue are psychosocial factors. Potentially modifiable factors account for a considerable portion of fatigue. PMID:17468448

  16. Assessing Relations between PTSD’s Dysphoria and Reexperiencing Factors and Dimensions of Rumination

    PubMed Central

    Claycomb, Meredith A.; Wang, Li; Sharp, Carla; Ractliffe, Kendra C.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between posttraumatic stress disorder’s (PTSD) dysphoria and reexperiencing factors and underlying dimensions of rumination. 304 trauma-exposed primary care patients were administered the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire, PTSD Symptom Scale based on their worst traumatic event, and Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted to determine the dysphoria and reexperiencing factors’ relationships with the four factors of rumination. Results revealed that both the dysphoria and reexperiencing factors related more to problem-focused thinking and anticipatory thoughts than counterfactual thinking. Additionally, the reexperiencing factor related more to anticipatory thinking than repetitive thinking. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:25738868

  17. Modifying factors in sports-related concussion: dangerous style of play.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Alex B; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-09-01

    In its third iteration, the Concussion in Sport Group identified 10 modifying factors that were presumed clinically to influence the investigation and management of concussions in sports. "Dangerous style of play" was delineated as one of these factors, most likely based on clinical lore. These modifying factors were retained in a more recent Concussion in Sport Group statement. To date, there has been no concerted effort to support or refute the inclusion of this constellation of behaviors as a modifying factor in sports-related concussion. This article reviews and summarizes the limited evidence related to a dangerous style of play in sports-related concussion, offers a preliminary assessment of its relevance as a modifying factor, and provides additional information on other aspects of player, coach, and governing body behavior and their potential effect(s) on reducing concussive injuries. PMID:25295762

  18. A systematic review of patient-related risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Amy; Heal, Clare; Perera, Marlon; Pretorius, Casper

    2015-10-01

    To identify patient-related risk factors for venous thrombosis in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) or peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We performed a systematic review of the literature assessing patient-related risk factors for thrombosis related to CVC or PICC. The databases PubMed, Ovid and the Cochrane library were searched for observational studies pertaining to patient-related risk factors for CVC and PICC-related thrombosis. The initial search through PubMed, Ovid and the Cochrane library yielded 516 results. After 71 duplicates were removed, 445 articles were assessed for eligibility based on title and abstract. Four hundred and eleven articles were then excluded and 33 full text articles were manually assessed for eligibility. Eight articles were eliminated as they did not contain content relevant to the review. Twenty-five studies were then selected to assess 20 risk factors. There were no consistent significant associations for catheter-related thrombosis across the twenty-five studies. Multiple studies identified age, malignancy, diabetes, obesity, chemotherapy, thrombophilia and a history of thrombosis as significant risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis. Inconsistent findings among studies make it difficult to establish which patient-related risk factors are associated with catheter-related thrombosis. Future studies could include larger sample sizes and more cases of catheter-related thrombosis to produce more significant results. Identification of patient-related risk factors could lead to early recognition of upper limb deep vein thrombosis in patients with catheters, thereby preventing complications. PMID:25680892

  19. Uncovering Factors Related to Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Aoife M.; Ryan, Miriam F.; Drummond, Elaine; Gibney, Eileen R.; Gibney, Michael J.; Roche, Helen M.; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Aim The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly on a global scale. Beta-cell dysfunction contributes to the overall pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, factors contributing to beta-cell function are not clear. The aims of this study were (i) to identify factors related to pancreatic beta-cell function and (ii) to perform mechanistic studies in vitro. Methods Three specific measures of beta-cell function were assessed for 110 participants who completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of the Metabolic Challenge Study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed as potential modulators of beta-cell function. Subsequent in vitro experiments were performed using the BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta-cell line. Validation of findings were performed in a second human cohort. Results Waist-to-hip ratio was the strongest anthropometric modulator of beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.33 (p = 0.001) and -0.30 (p = 0.002) for beta-cell function/homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and disposition index respectively. Additionally, the resistin-to-adiponectin ratio (RA index) emerged as being strongly associated with beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.24 (p = 0.038) and -0.25 (p = 0.028) for beta-cell function/HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Similar results were obtained using a third measure for beta-cell function. In vitro experiments revealed that the RA index was a potent regulator of acute insulin secretion where a high RA index (20ng ml-1 resistin, 5nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly decreased insulin secretion whereas a low RA index (10ng ml-1 resistin, 10nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly increased insulin secretion. The RA index was successfully validated in a second human cohort with beta-coefficients of -0.40 (p = 0.006) and -0.38 (p = 0.008) for beta-cell function/ HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Conclusions Waist-to-hip ratio and RA index were identified

  20. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  1. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  2. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.115 - Additional requirements for two-factor authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authentication. 1311.115 Section 1311.115 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... requirements for two-factor authentication. (a) To sign a controlled substance prescription, the electronic... authentication protocol that uses two of the following three factors: (1) Something only the practitioner...

  4. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Armijo, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    A continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS2 electrochemical couple is reported. The results relate to the long shelf life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10(-7) w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. Conclusions relevant to long term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi2 additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  5. Factors Related to Sleep Disorders among Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders in male firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form, Psychosocial Well-Being Index-Short Form, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Beck-Depression Inventory-2 as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 730 male firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 657 male firefighters were included, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for the work-related factors, psychosocial factors, and general risk factors were used to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and associated factors. Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 48.7%. Shift work (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.45), musculoskeletal symptoms (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI = 2.02-4.14), and depression (adjusted OR 7.04 95% CI = 4.03-12.30) were associated with sleep disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms, shift work, and depression are associated with sleep disorders. Integrated health management is needed to promote good sleep quality among firefighters. PMID:24864191

  6. Factors Related to Amount and Type of Leisure Time Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent; Quinn, John

    Diaries showing how 920 Irish fifth graders spent their leisure time on three designated days within one week augmented data about the children's personal, school, and home characteristics to aid in determining the primary factors related to the amount and type of leisure time reading. The children reported spending a median time of 60 minutes per…

  7. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  8. Factors Related to Premenstrual Syndrome in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Charmaine; Young, Michael

    A study sought to determine the incidence of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and identify factors related to PMS among college women. Responses were received from a questionnaire sent to 293 subjects. Questions briefly touched upon life-style (taking the pill, having received a gynecological exam, amount of daily exercise and provided a checklist of…

  9. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  10. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  11. Factors Related to Eating Disorders in Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele, Jill; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identified factors related to eating disorders in young adolescent girls. Findings revealed significant differences among the girls based on intact versus broken family; subjects' actual and preferred weight; whether the family ate meals together; average grades; age and grade in school; fathers' occupation; future career plans; place of…

  12. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  13. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  14. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  15. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  16. Drug Abusers' Perceptions of Factors Related to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billips, Kathleen; And Others

    Researchers surveyed 78 clients in drug abuse treatment facilities to determine their perceptions regarding factors related to their use and abuse of drugs. About 40% of the sample began using drugs between 11 and 15 years of age. Males tended to begin using drugs at an earlier age than did females. Over 90% of participants reported using drugs…

  17. Psychological Distress and Related Factors in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia; Diaz, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the psychological distress in Spanish college women and analyzed it in relation to sociodemographic and academic factors. Participants and Methods: The authors selected a stratified random sampling of 1,043 college women (average age of 22.2 years). Sociodemographic and academic information were collected, and…

  18. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  19. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  20. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  1. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  2. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  3. 34 CFR 377.22 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary considers the following factors in making grants under this program: (a) The diversity of... funded projects. (b) The diversity of clients to be served, in order to ensure that a variety...

  4. Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Guymer, Robyn H; Chong, Elaine Wei-Tinn

    2006-05-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in Australia and other Western countries. As there is no cure for AMD, and treatments to stop its progression have met with limited success, there is an interest in identifying modifiable risk factors to prevent or slow disease progression. To date, smoking is the only proven modifiable risk factor for AMD. Other factors under study include (i) cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, body mass index, and atherosclerosis; and (ii) dietary risk factors including fat and antioxidant intake, but so far these studies have produced conflicting results. Dietary fat in relation to AMD has recently attracted media attention. Despite very limited work supporting an association between vegetable fat and AMD, widespread publicity advocating margarine as a cause of AMD and encouraging use of butter instead has caused confusion and anxiety among sufferers of AMD and the general public, as well as concern among health professionals. The antioxidant carotenoids--lutein and zeaxanthin--found in dark green or yellow vegetables exist in high concentrations in the macula and are hypothesised to play a protective role. Of nine controlled trials of supplementation with carotenoids and other antioxidants, three suggested that various combinations of antioxidants and carotenoids were protective. While a low-fat diet rich in dark green and yellow vegetables is advocated in general, any specific recommendations regarding certain fats or antioxidant supplementation and AMD are not based on consistent findings at this stage. PMID:16646746

  5. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  6. Comparison of four factors related to embarrassment in nontypical situations.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Masataka; Fukada, Hiromi

    2008-02-01

    To assess the particularities of four factors in assessing embarrassment (i.e., apprehension of social evaluation, inconsistency with self-image, disruption of social interaction, and loss of self-esteem) in four nontypical situations in Japan (i.e., nervousness about others, uneasiness with others, self-consciousness, and sexual circumstances), 109 university students were presented descriptions of 8 scenes and rated 17 items to measure factors related to embarrassment. Analysis indicated that disruption of social interaction was rated as characteristic of every situation. This result suggests that disruption of social interaction model is a valid premise of embarrassment in nontypical situations. PMID:18481694

  7. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Frank J.; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11–15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  8. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  9. Soybean root growth in acid subsoils in relation to magnesium additions and soil solution ionic strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroponic studies with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] have shown that µM additions of Mg2+ were as effective in ameliorating Al rhizotoxicity as additions of Ca2+ in the mM concentration range. The objectives of this study were to assess ameliorative effects of Mg on soybean root growth in acidic...

  10. Factors related to presenteeism among employees of the private sector.

    PubMed

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Bolukbas, Osman; Demirel, Mehmet; Gumeli, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to explore the relationship between person-based variables and work-related variables of presenteeism in four different private sector workplaces. Employees (N=413) filled in a questionnaire related to demographic and socio-economic characteristics, social networks, work-related factors, lifestyle factors and state of health. Presenteeism was assessed using the Stanford Presenteeism Scale 6 (SPS-6). The majority of respondents were male (77.2%), and mean age was 34.7±8.1 years. The prevalence of chronic conditions was 15.9%. The mean score for the SPS-6 was 19.9 (SD, 3.3). The female score was higher than the male score on the SPS-6 in this study. Total score was higher among workers who reported working at high speed. SPS-6 score was higher among individuals with a chronic health problem. Understanding of the workplace and personal factors related to presenteeism may support the health and well-being of workers. PMID:26327266

  11. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  12. Educational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies: Relation to Socioeconomic and Academic Risk-Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Goldstein, Sara E.; DeLorenzo, Tahlia; Savoy, Sarah; Mercado, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether disconnection between educational aspirations and expectations is associated with socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic risk-related behaviors and related psychosocial factors in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of early adolescents from a public middle school (N = 761). Results suggest that…

  13. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  14. Calcifying nanoparticles (nanobacteria): an additional potential factor for urolithiasis in space flight crews.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey A; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Josef F; Barr, Yael R; Griffith, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi, resulting in urolithiasis during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, multiply more rapidly in simulated microgravity and create external shells of calcium phosphate. The question arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are nidi for calculi and contribute to the development of clinically significant urolithiasis in those who are predisposed to the development of urinary calculi because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors. This case report describes a calculus recovered after flight from an astronaut that, on morphologic and immunochemical analysis (including specific monoclonal antibody staining), demonstrated characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles. PMID:18718644

  15. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  16. [Protective and family risk factors related to adolescent drug use].

    PubMed

    Cid-Monckton, Patricia; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional and quantitative study aimed to verify the family's protective and risk factors related to drugs use in adolescents, considering the interaction patterns developed in the family, their degree of adaptability and vulnerability. Participants in this study were 80 female adolescents, from the 1st to 4th grade of high school, who answered a questionnaire. The most relevant risk and protective factors that would influence the situation were established, such as patterns of interaction, degree of adaptability, way of coping with problems, family resources and values. The major risk factors that emerged were the way people confront problems and, within these, lack of religious support and professional support, besides communication difficulties within families. The lowest risks were values, such as personal effort. The results highlight that nurses should assume psychosocial interventions as part of their role, especially among school-age children as, thus, they would be acting as agents in the prevention of drugs use. PMID:21739055

  17. Modelling the factors related to the seatbelt use by the young drivers of Athens.

    PubMed

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Gnardellis, C; Drakou, I; Darviri, C; Sboukis, V

    2000-11-01

    Road traffic accidents in Greece are one of the major problems of the public health sector and the first cause of death in the ages 18-24. However, there are no records available for defining the determinants of road accidents and seatbelt wearing rates. The main objective of this study is to determine and clarify the relationship between young drivers' intentions (motivation to use/non use seatbelt) and their behaviour (self-reported use). Additionally, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the seatbelt wearing rates among young drivers in relation to their trip-type. The sample consisted of 200 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The seatbelt use was measured in relation with seven trip-types. Through factor analysis, a seven factor scale of seatbelt use and a four factor scale of seatbelt non use were created which included Greek young drivers' basic motivations for wearing or not wearing a seatbelt. A model, constructed by the multiple regression analysis, revealed the factors related with the seatbelt use. The factors positively related were 'imitation', 'self-protection', and 'legality'. The factor of 'discomfort' is negatively associated with the seatbelt use. Furthermore, mileage was negatively related with seatbelt use. Finally, some preliminary suggestions on how prevention strategies should be implemented in Greece are discussed. PMID:10994609

  18. Nuclear Factor-Erythroid-2-Related Factor 2 in Aging and Lung Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Shobha M; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Thannickal, Victor J

    2016-07-01

    Aging and age-related diseases have been associated with elevated oxidative stress, which may be related to increased production of reactive species and/or a deficiency in antioxidant defenses. The nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response pathway maintains cellular reduction-oxidation homeostasis by inducing the transcription of an array of cytoprotective genes. However, there is evidence of impaired Nrf2 response in aging contributing to age-related fibrotic diseases. Herein, we review mechanisms for the dysregulation of Nrf2 signaling in aging. This understanding will pave the way for the design of novel therapeutic strategies that restore Nrf2 signaling to reestablish cellular homeostasis in aging and age-related fibrotic diseases. PMID:27338106

  19. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Lebriz; Lechanteur, Yara T.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, P = 0.014) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, P = 8.22 × 10−6; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, P = 7.98 × 10−5) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, P = 0.005; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, P = 0.035). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD. PMID:25101280

  20. Factors relating to patient visit time with a physician.

    PubMed

    Migongo, Alice W; Charnigo, Richard; Love, Margaret M; Kryscio, Richard; Fleming, Steven T; Pearce, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors that increase or decrease patient time with a physician, determine which combinations of factors are associated with the shortest and longest visits to physicians, quantify how much physicians contribute to variation in the time they spend with patients, and assess how well patient time with a physician can be predicted. Data were acquired from a modified replication of the 1997-1998 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, administered by the Kentucky Ambulatory Network to 56 primary care clinicians at 24 practice sites in 2001 and 2002. A regression tree and a linear mixed model (LMM) were used to discover multivariate associations between patient time with a physician and 22 potentially predictive factors. Patient time with a physician was related to the number of diagnoses, whether non-illness care was received, and whether the patient had been seen before by the physician or someone at the practice. Approximately 38% of the variation in patient time with a physician was accounted for by predictive factors in the tree; roughly 33% was explained by predictive factors in the LMM, with another 12% linked to physicians. Knowledge of patient characteristics and needs could be used to schedule office visits, potentially improving patient flow through a clinic and reducing waiting times. PMID:21393556

  1. Factor analysis models for structuring covariance matrices of additive genetic effects: a Bayesian implementation

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Gianola, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate linear models are increasingly important in quantitative genetics. In high dimensional specifications, factor analysis (FA) may provide an avenue for structuring (co)variance matrices, thus reducing the number of parameters needed for describing (co)dispersion. We describe how FA can be used to model genetic effects in the context of a multivariate linear mixed model. An orthogonal common factor structure is used to model genetic effects under Gaussian assumption, so that the marginal likelihood is multivariate normal with a structured genetic (co)variance matrix. Under standard prior assumptions, all fully conditional distributions have closed form, and samples from the joint posterior distribution can be obtained via Gibbs sampling. The model and the algorithm developed for its Bayesian implementation were used to describe five repeated records of milk yield in dairy cattle, and a one common FA model was compared with a standard multiple trait model. The Bayesian Information Criterion favored the FA model. PMID:17897592

  2. Prognosis factors in the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw - Prognostic factors in the treatment of BRONJ

    PubMed Central

    Nakamichi, Ikuo; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Mitsugi, Sho; Tanaka, Kenkou; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Sakurai, Takuma; Kiyomiya, Hiroyasu; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a relatively rare but serious side effect of bisphosphonate (BP)-based treatments. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the risk factors and predictive markers in cases where patients were refractory to a recommended conservative treatment offered in our hospital. Patients and Methods: This single-center study collated the medical records of all patients treated for BRONJ between 2004 and 2011. A complete medical history, including detailed questionnaires, was collected for all patients, focusing on identifying underlying risk factors, clinical features, location and bone marker levels of BRONJ. Results: The mean BRONJ remission rate was 57.6%, and the median duration of remission was seven months. Eighteen patients (34.6%) had persistent or progressive disease with a recommended conservative treatment for BRONJ. Notably, urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX) levels in those resistant to conservative treatment tended to be lower than in patients that healed well. Conclusions: We confirm that a significant proportion of BRONJ sufferers are refractory to a recommended conservative treatment and find that anticancer drugs, periodontal disease, the level of bone exposure and the dosage of intravenous BPs (e.g. zoledronate) represent specific risk factors in BRONJ that may determine the success of a recommended conservative treatment. Additionally, the NTX levels might be able to be a prognostic factor for the conservative treatment of BRONJ; additional research is necessary. Key words:Bisphosphonate, osteonecrosis, jaw, prognostic, retrospective. PMID:24596631

  3. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  4. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Virendra C.; Parale, G. P.; Kulkarni, P. M.; Patil, Harsha V.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21584164

  5. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  6. 47 CFR 5.311 - Additional requirements related to safety of the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... safety of the public. In addition to the notification requirements of § 5.309, for experiments that may... bands and geographic area as the planned experiment and, as appropriate, their end users; (b) Rapid identification, and elimination, of any harm the experiment may cause; and (c) Identifying an alternate means...

  7. 34 CFR 359.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making a grant under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making a grant under this program? 359.32 Section 359.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND...

  8. 34 CFR 359.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making a grant under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making a grant under this program? 359.32 Section 359.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND...

  9. 34 CFR 359.32 - What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making a grant under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional factors does the Secretary consider in making a grant under this program? 359.32 Section 359.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND...

  10. Occupational stress and related factors among surgical residents in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sanghee; Jo, Hye Sung; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The application rate for surgical residents in Korea has continuously decreased over the past few years. The demanding workload and the occupational stress of surgical training are likely causes of this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational stress and its related factors in Korean surgical residents. Methods With the support of the Korean Surgical Society, we conducted an electronic survey of Korean surgical residents related to occupational stress. We used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) to measure occupational stress. We analyzed the data focused on the stress level and the factors associated with occupational stress. Results The mean KOSS score of the surgical residents was 55.39, which was significantly higher than that of practicing surgeons (48.16, P < 0.001) and the average score of specialized professionals (46.03, P < 0.001). Exercise was the only factor found to be significantly associated with KOSS score (P = 0.001) in univariate analysis. However, in multiple linear regression analysis, the mean number of assigned patients, resident occupation rate and exercise were all significantly associated with KOSS score. Conclusion Surgical residents have high occupational stress compared to practicing surgeons and other professionals. Their mean number of assigned patients, resident recruitment rate and exercise were all significantly associated with occupational stress for surgical residents. PMID:26576407

  11. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers.

    PubMed

    Machado, Flávia Christiane de Azevedo; Silva, Janmille Valdevino; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC) have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums). They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity) were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance. PMID:25923626

  12. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  13. Factors related to curved femur in elderly Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchie, Hiroyuki; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Senma, Seietsu; Narita, Yuichiro; Miyamoto, Seiya; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sasaki, Kana; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple factors are involved in the development of atypical femoral fractures, and excessive curvature of the femur is thought to be one of them. However, the pathogenesis of femoral curvature is unknown. We evaluated the influence of factors related to bone metabolism and posture on the development of femoral curvature. Methods A total of 139 women participated in the present study. Curvatures were measured using antero-posterior and lateral radiography of the femur. We evaluated some bone and vitamin D metabolism markers in serum, the bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar spine alignment, and pelvic tilt. Results We divided the women into two groups, curved and non-curved groups, based on the average plus standard deviation as the cut-off between the groups. When univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect factors affecting femoral curvature, the following were identified as indices significantly affecting the curvature: age of the patients, serum concentrations of calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, pentosidine, homocysteine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and BMD of the proximal femur (P < 0.05) both in the lateral and anterior curvatures. When we used multivariate analyses to assess these factors, only 25(OH)D and age (lateral and anterior standardized odds ratio: 0.776 and 0.385, and 2.312 and 4.472, respectively) affected the femoral curvature (P < 0.05). Conclusion Femoral curvature is strongly influenced by age and serum vitamin D. PMID:27228191

  14. Additional thyroid dose factor from transportation sources in Russia after the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Parshkov, E M; Chebotareva, I V; Sokolov, V A; Dallas, C E

    1997-01-01

    Beginning approximately 4 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children and adolescents of the Bryansk Oblast, which received the highest level of radionuclide contaminants in Russia. We examined the spatial relationship between the residence location of patients with identified thyroid cancer (0-18 years old at the time of the accident) and a number of geographic parameters to better account for the etiology of thyroid cancer spatial distribution. Geographic parameters analyzed included spatial distribution of 137Cs and 131I in soil, population demographics, measurements and reconstructions. of absorbed thyroid 131I doses in the population, and maps of major transportation arteries. An interesting finding is the lack of a consistent correlation between the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the soil and thyroid cancer incidence. Instead, most of the thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in settlements situated on major railways and roads. Correlating population with thyroid cancer cases and transportation arteries reveals a much higher cancer rate on or near major roads and railways than at a distance from them, again independent of radionuclide soil concentration. There are other important factors, of course, that must be considered in future evaluations of this phenomenon. These include the influence of iodine endemic zones, genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer, and duration of residence time in contaminated areas. The feasibility of radionuclide transport on railways and roads is discussed, together with the vectors for transfer of the contaminants to the human population. Developing a model to reconstruct the radiation dose to the thyroid over time in this geographic region is proposed in light of the impact of transportation arteries. Specific studies are outlined to provide the data necessary to develop this model as well as to better characterize the feasibility and

  15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Kim, Jungeun; Chen, Grace A; Alvarez, Alvin N

    2012-03-01

    The authors conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) to further examine the underlying factor structure in a total sample of 1,273 Asian American participants. In the first step of analysis, an exploratory factor analysis with 651 participants yielded a 13-item two-factor solution to the data. In the second step, a confirmatory factor analysis with 622 participants supported both the 13-item two-factor model and the original 29-item three-factor model in the cross-validation sample and generational and ethnicity analyses. The two-factor and three-factor models produced internal consistency estimates ranging from .81 to .95. In addition, the authors examined convergent and criterion related evidence for 13-item and 29-item versions of the AARRSI. Given its brief nature and generally good fit across generational status and ethnicity, the authors suggest that the 13-item AARRSI might be advantageous for research and assessment endeavors. PMID:21208976

  16. Complement Factor H Polymorphism in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Robert J.; Zeiss, Caroline; Chew, Emily Y.; Tsai, Jen-Yue; Sackler, Richard S.; Haynes, Chad; Henning, Alice K.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Mane, Shrikant M.; Mayne, Susan T.; Bracken, Michael B.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Ott, Jurg; Barnstable, Colin; Hoh., Josephine

    2006-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the elderly. We report a genome-wide screen of 96 cases and 50 controls for polymorphisms associated with AMD. Among 116,204 single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped, an intronic and common variant in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is strongly associated with AMD (nominal P value <10−7). In individuals homozygous for the risk allele, the likelihood of AMD is increased by a factor of 7.4 (95% confidence interval 2.9 to 19). Resequencing revealed a polymorphism in linkage disequilibrium with the risk allele representing a tyrosine-histidine change at amino acid 402. This polymorphism is in a region of CFH that binds heparin and C-reactive protein. The CFH gene is located on chromosome 1 in a region repeatedly linked to AMD in family-based studies. PMID:15761122

  17. Complement factor H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Albert O; Ritter, Robert; Abel, Kenneth J; Manning, Alisa; Panhuysen, Carolien; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2005-04-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common, late-onset, and complex trait with multiple risk factors. Concentrating on a region harboring a locus for AMD on 1q25-31, the ARMD1 locus, we tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with AMD in two independent case-control populations. Significant association (P = 4.95 x 10(-10)) was identified within the regulation of complement activation locus and was centered over a tyrosine-402 --> histidine-402 protein polymorphism in the gene encoding complement factor H. Possession of at least one histidine at amino acid position 402 increased the risk of AMD 2.7-fold and may account for 50% of the attributable risk of AMD. PMID:15761121

  18. Problems Related to the Use of Food Additives in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Bernard L.

    1966-01-01

    Major problems encountered by enforcement agencies and by regulated industries, respectively, in implementing and conforming to recent food additive laws are reviewed. Decisions as to which substances fall within the broad terms of the legal definition, and which escape by virtue of “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) status, are often difficult and complex. Distinctions cannot be made solely on the basis of whether substances are old or new, natural or synthetic. Registration of pesticides on a “no residue” basis and establishment of “zero tolerances” for food additives have created an anomalous situation as a result of improvements in sensitivity of analytical techniques which revealed the presence of minute amounts of substances where none were believed to exist. A solution has been recommended by a specially appointed committee of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (U.S.A.). Enforcement of the new food additive laws warrants revision of present labelling requirements to provide for designating chemical ingredients by functional categories rather than by confusing chemical terminology.

  19. A study of factors related to commercial space platform services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    In the past four years, the issue of the commercial development of space has come to the forefront of the U. S. national space policy. Though the Administration, Congress and NASA have all shown strong support for encouraging the private sector to become more actively involved in the commercial utilization of space, the question remains whether they must do more to foster the creation and development of a viable U. S. commercial space industry. Marketing aspects, insurance and risk loss, tax related factors, space transportation, termination liability, institutional barriers, and procurement laws and regulations are discussed.

  20. ["Osteo-neural" related factors - bridge over bone homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Sato, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Bone tissues including bone marrow are comprised of various cells. A growing body of evidence suggests that nerve cells which exist in and around bone such as periosteal and bone marrow build a close relationship with bone cells. Namely, it was revealed that central nervous system governs bone tissues via peripheral nervous system and neurotransmitters or cytokines play a role for the communication between bone and nerve in the last decade. In this paper, I would like to review "osteo-neural" related factors which has been well-documented so far. PMID:27461495

  1. Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; Taverner, M R; D'Souza, D N; Warner, R D

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80 kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7 day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3×2×2×2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White×Landrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24 h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7 days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (P<0.001) and ageing (P<0.001) for 7 days compared with Achilles-hung carcases and pork aged for 2 days, respectively. This study demonstrated that aitchbone hanging and 7 day ageing can improve eating quality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant. PMID:24013699

  2. 36 CFR 1237.14 - What are the additional scheduling requirements for audiovisual, cartographic, and related records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... creation (see also 36 CFR part 1235). See § 1235.42 of this subchapter for specifications and standards for... scheduling requirements for audiovisual, cartographic, and related records? 1237.14 Section 1237.14 Parks..., CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.14 What are the additional scheduling requirements...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6033-3 - Additional provisions relating to private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foundations. 1.6033-3 Section 1.6033-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... provisions relating to private foundations. (a) In general. The foundation managers (as defined in section... treated as) a private foundation (as defined in section 509) the assets of which are at least $5,000...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6033-3 - Additional provisions relating to private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... foundations. 1.6033-3 Section 1.6033-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... provisions relating to private foundations. (a) In general. The foundation managers (as defined in section... treated as) a private foundation (as defined in section 509) the assets of which are at least $5,000...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6033-3 - Additional provisions relating to private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... foundations. 1.6033-3 Section 1.6033-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... provisions relating to private foundations. (a) In general. The foundation managers (as defined in section... treated as) a private foundation (as defined in section 509) the assets of which are at least $5,000...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6033-3 - Additional provisions relating to private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... foundations. 1.6033-3 Section 1.6033-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... provisions relating to private foundations. (a) In general. The foundation managers (as defined in section... treated as) a private foundation (as defined in section 509) the assets of which are at least $5,000...

  7. EFFECT OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND ADDITIVES ON THE REACTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE WITH CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the reaction of SO2 with Ca(OH)2 at conditions similar to those of commercial-scale bag filters: 19-74 percent relative humidity (RH), 30.4-95 C, and 300-4000 ppm SO2. The study was carried out in a bench-scale reactor with powder reagent Ca(...

  8. Electrical inhibition of lens epithelial cell proliferation: an additional factor in secondary cataract?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Entong; Reid, Brian; Lois, Noemi; Forrester, John V.; McCaig, Colin D.; Zhao, Min

    2005-01-01

    Cataract is the most common cause of blindness but is at least curable by surgery. Unfortunately, many patients gradually develop the complication of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract. This arises from stimulated cell growth within the lens capsule and can greatly impair vision. It is not fully understood why residual lens epithelial cell growth occurs after surgery. We propose and show that cataract surgery might remove an important inhibitory factor for lens cell growth, namely electric fields. The lens generates a unique pattern of electric currents constantly flowing out from the equator and entering the anterior and posterior poles. We show here that cutting and removing part of the anterior capsule as in cataract surgery significantly decreases the equatorial outward electric currents. Application of electric fields in culture inhibits proliferation of human lens epithelial cells. This inhibitory effect is likely to be mediated through a cell cycle control mechanism that decreases entry of cells into S phase from G1 phase by decreasing the G1-specific cell cycle protein cyclin E and increasing the cyclin-Cdk complex inhibitor p27kip1. Capsulorrhexis in vivo, which reduced endogenous lens electric fields, significantly increased LEC growth. This, together with our previous findings that electric fields have significant effects on the direction of lens cell migration, points to a controlling mechanism for the aberrant cell growth in posterior capsule opacification. A novel approach to control growth of lens epithelial cells using electric fields combined with other controlling mechanisms may be more effective in the prevention and treatment of this common complication of cataract surgery. PMID:15764648

  9. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors. PMID:25568884

  10. Contributing factors to methadone-related deaths in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Albion, Caroline; Shkrum, Michael; Cairns, James

    2010-12-01

    To identify factors contributing to methadone-related deaths in Ontario in 2004, demographic factors, methadone blood levels, evidence of concurrent drug use, the source of methadone (prescribed or illicit), and its contribution in exacerbating preexistent disease were studied to identify users at risk for methadone toxicity and death. This retrospective study reviewed postmortem data, autopsy reports, police reports, hospital data, and postmortem toxicological analyses available in the Ontario Chief Coroner's Information System. There were 54 cases with methadone detected in postmortem blood samples. Of total, 9 cases were not included in the study because of incomplete documentation. About 11 deaths were due to methadone toxicity alone; 25 deaths were due to combined methadone and other drug toxicity (notably cocaine and alcohol); 7 deaths were due to the exacerbation of a preexisting disease by methadone; 1 death was due to disease alone, and 1 death was due to trauma sustained in a motor vehicle collision. A significant number of methadone-related deaths were due to illicit methadone ingestion, which exceeded the opioid tolerance level. The source of methadone in these cases was unknown. Drug addicts, unaware of the hazard of consuming other illicit or prescription drugs concurrently, are at risk. This study demonstrated that methadone toxicity is enhanced by underlying disease, especially in individuals with underlying cardiac and pulmonary pathology. PMID:20081524

  11. Factors affecting the relative age effect in NHL athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE. PMID:24869606

  12. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause.

  13. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability. PMID:26816159

  14. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  15. Clinicopathological Analysis of Factors Related to Colorectal Tumor Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Arana, Vicente; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Rodríguez-González, Diana; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Álvarez-Argüelles, Hugo; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Salido-Ruiz, Eduardo; Fernández-Peralta, Antonia M.; González-Aguilera, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal tumor perforation is a life-threatening complication of this disease. However, little is known about the anatomopathological factors or pathophysiologic mechanisms involved. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of factors related with tumoral neo-angiogenesis, which could influence tumor perforation are assessed in this study. A retrospective study of patients with perforated colon tumors (Group P) and T4a nonperforated (controls) was conducted between 2001 and 2010. Histological variables (differentiation, vascular invasion, and location) and immunohistochemical (CD31, Growth Endothelial Vascular Factor (VEGF) and p53) related with tumor angiogenesis were analyzed. Of 2189 patients, 100 (4.56%) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 49 patients had nonperforated (2.23%) and 51 had perforated tumors (2.32%). The P group had lower number of right-sided tumors (7/51, 13.7%) compared with controls (13/49, 36.7%) (P = .01). The high-grade tumors (undifferentiated) represented only 3.9% of the perforated tumors; the remaining 96.1% were well differentiated (P = .01). No differences between groups in the frequency of TP53 mutation or VEGF and CD31 expression were found. In the P group, only 2 (3.9%) had vascular invasion (P = .01). Of the 12 tumors with vascular invasion, only 2 were perforated (16.6%). The median number of metastatic lymph-nodes in P Group was 0 versus 3 in controls (Z = −4.2; P < .01). Pathological analysis of variables that indirectly measure the presence of tumor angiogenesis (differentiation, vascular invasion, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes) shows a relationship between this and the perforation, location, and tumor differentiation. We could not directly validate our hypothesis, by immunohistochemistry of TP53, VEGF, and CD31, that perforated tumors exhibit less angiogenesis. PMID:25881846

  16. RECENT ADDITIONS OF CRITICALITY SAFETY RELATED INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA TO THE ICSBEP AND IRPHEP HANDBOOKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Sartori

    2009-09-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Benchmark data have been added to these two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee (September 2005). This paper highlights these additions.

  17. Hot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 ± 0.20 MJup and eccentricity 0.29 ± 0.02, and it orbits in 421 ± 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 ± 0.22 MJup and eccentricity 0.13 ± 0.10, and it orbits in 572 ± 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems that include a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long-period planet located at only ~1 au from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect induced by the second planet, we used the emission in the Hα line and find this indicator well suited to detecting the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for understanding planetary migration. Using data collected at ESO's La Silla Observatory, Chile: HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m (Prog ID 087.C-0649 & 089.C-0151), the Swiss Euler Telescope, TRAPPIST, the 1.54-m Danish telescope (Prog CN2013A-159), and at the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South.Photometric lightcurve and RV tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A93

  18. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring. PMID:25532352

  19. Casein synthesis is independently and additively related to individual essential amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Arriola Apelo, S I; Singer, L M; Ray, W K; Helm, R F; Lin, X Y; McGilliard, M L; St-Pierre, N R; Hanigan, M D

    2014-05-01

    Specific AA affect rates of milk protein synthesis in the mammary glands of lactating cows. The objective of this study was to quantify the rate of αS1-casein synthesis in response to Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr supplementation, and to test the single-limiting AA theory for milk protein synthesis by exploring interactions among these AA. Effects of Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr were studied in vitro with a composite design containing a central point repeated 4 times, with 2 axial points per AA and a complete 2(4) factorial. Other AA were at the concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM). The experiment was replicated with mammary tissue from 5 lactating cows. Mammary tissue slices (0.12 ± 0.02 g) were incubated for 4h at 37°C in 5 mL of treatment medium containing (2)H5-Phe. Caseins were precipitated from cell homogenate supernatants. Enrichment with (2)H5-Phe of the N[34]LLRFFVAPFPE αS1 peptide was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF), which was used to determine enrichment of Phe in the transfer (t)RNA pool and αS1-casein fractional synthesis rates (CFSR). Data were analyzed with a polynomial mixed model containing linear, quadratic, and 2-factor interactions for Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr, and cow and residual as random factors. Interactions were not significant at P<0.1 and were removed from the model. Increasing concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr simultaneously increased CFSR curvilinearly with a predicted maximum response of 4.32 ± 0.84%/h at 63% of DMEM concentrations. The maximum response to each of the 4 AA was at 71, 49, 60, and 32% of the concentration in DMEM, for Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr, respectively. These values correspond to 270, 120, 440, and 140% the plasma concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, and Thr observed in lactating cows fed to meet National Research Council requirements, respectively. The CFSR estimated at those maxima were similar among AA (3.6 ± 0.6%/h

  20. [Decisive factors relating to workload in a primary healthcare unit].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nilson Rogério

    2011-08-01

    Work-related diseases o either physical or emotional origin have been on the increase in contemporary society in the different work sectors. They have had a profound impact on health professionals, such as physicians, dentists, nurses, nursing assistants and administrative assistants in the primary healthcare units. This study aimed to establish the decisive factors relating to workload, seeking to identify possible relations between the working conditions and their potential impact on worker health. Thirty-one individuals comprised the sample, namely 12 physicians, 3 dentists, 1 nurse, 9 nursing assistants, 3 dental assistants and 3 business assistants at a PHU (Primary Healthcare Unit) in a city in the interior of the State of São Paulo. For the data collection, structured interviews were conducted through meetings with the specific groups of workers, such that a detailed description of the activities performed by each group could be drafted, as well as a survey of the problems and desirable features involved. The results indicated the presence of physical, cognitive and psychological demands; inadequate communication processes; obsolete equipment; excessive number of users and an inefficient structure to deal with absenteeism. PMID:21860938

  1. Tissue-specific factors additively increase the probability of the all-or-none formation of a hypersensitive site.

    PubMed Central

    Boyes, J; Felsenfeld, G

    1996-01-01

    DNase I-hypersensitive sites lack a canonical nucleosome and have binding sites for various transcription factors. To understand how the hypersensitivity is generated and maintained, we studied the chicken erythroid-specific beta(A)/epsilon globin gene enhancer, a region where both tissue-specific and ubiquitous transcription factors can bind. Constructions containing mutations of this enhancer were stably introduced into a chicken erythroid cell line. We found that the hypersensitivity was determined primarily by the erythroid factors and that their binding additively increased the accessibility. The fraction of accessible sites in clonal cell lines was quantitated using restriction endonucleases; these data implied that the formation of each hypersensitive site was an all-or-none phenomenon. Use of DNase I and micrococcal nuclease probes further indicated that the size of the hypersensitive site was influenced by the binding of transcription factors which then determined the length of the nucleosome-free gap. Our data are consistent with a model in which hypersensitive sites are generated stochastically: mutations that reduce the number of bound factors reduce the probability that these factors will prevail over a nucleosome; thus, the fraction of sites in the population that are accessible is also diminished. Images PMID:8665857

  2. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  3. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  4. Factors Related to Gait Function in Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Kun Jae; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait function after a stroke is an important factor for determining a patient’s ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with gait function in post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-nine stroke patients (16 females and 23 males; average age 67.82 ± 10.96 years; post-onset duration: 200.18 ± 27.14 days) participated in this study. [Methods] Their gait function, motor function (Manual Muscle Test [MMT] and Brünnstrom stage), level of cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination score [MMSE], and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for the Geriatric Population [LOTCA-G]), and ADL (Korean modified Barthel index [K-MBI]) were assessed. [Results] The degree of gait function showed significant positive correlations with the following variables: MMT of the elbow, knee, ankle and wrist; Brünnstrom stage; MMSE; LOTCA-G subscores except motor praxis; K-MBI. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the Brünnstrom stage was the only explanatory variable closely associated with gait level. [Conclusion] Gait function of post-stroke patients was related to motor function, cognition, and ADL. In particular, there is a significant association between gait level and the Brünnstrom stages, reflecting the importance of monitoring the motor recovery of gait function in post-stroke patients. PMID:25540503

  5. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  6. Factors related to susceptibility and recruitment by cults.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J M; Curtis, M J

    1993-10-01

    Unprecedented escalation of secular and religious cults has necessitated further inquiry into more precise conditions under which individuals develop vulnerability and become converted by these groups. The present discussion focuses on a number of factors which seem to influence individuals' susceptibility and recruitment by cults. These variables include (a) generalized ego-weakness and emotional vulnerability, (b) propensities toward dissociative states, (c) tenuous, deteriorated, or nonexistent family relations and support systems, (d) inadequate means of dealing with exigencies of survival, (e) history of severe child abuse or neglect, (f) exposure to idiosyncratic or eccentric family patterns, (g) proclivities toward or abuse of controlled substances, (h) unmanageable and debilitating situational stress and crises, and (i) intolerable socioeconomic conditions. Also presented are methods utilized by cults, e.g., intimidation, coercion, and indoctrination, for systematically recruiting, initiating, and influencing inductees. More careful attention to these factors might help health care providers, educators, clergy, and concerned family and friends determine more precisely individuals at greater risk for recruitment into cults. PMID:8234595

  7. Personal factors related to compassion fatigue in health professionals.

    PubMed

    Zeidner, Moshe; Hadar, Dafna; Matthews, Gerald; Roberts, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the role of some personal and professional factors in compassion fatigue among health-care professionals. Research participants included 182 (89 mental and 93 medical) health-care professionals who completed an assessment battery measuring compassion fatigue, emotion management, trait emotional intelligence, situation-specific coping strategies, and negative affect. Major findings indicate that both self-report "trait" emotional intelligence and ability-based emotion management are inversely associated with compassion fatigue; adaptive coping is inversely related to compassion fatigue; and differences exist between mental and medical professions in emotional intelligence, coping strategies, and negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping appears to mediate the association between trait emotional intelligence and compassion fatigue. These findings shed light on the role of emotional factors in compassion fatigue among health-care professionals. Beyond enhancing our knowledge of practitioners' professional quality of life, the current study serves as a basis for the early identification of groups of practitioners at risk for compassion fatigue. PMID:23614527

  8. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  9. Factors related to choosing oral contraception at age 15.

    PubMed

    Kosunen, E; Laippala, P

    1996-12-01

    This report aims to identify factors which are related to use of oral contraceptives at an early age. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at schools in 1988 and 1992 in southern and western Finland (N = 1339). Sexually experienced girls (mean age 15.8 years) who had answered the question concerning their oral contraceptive use were included (N = 389). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare oral contraceptive users (N = 121) with the group of non-users. Total number of coital experiences was associated with oral contraceptive use: the odds ratio for those having at least 10 coital experiences was 6.30 compared with those with only one intercourse. The proportion was 73% among oral contraceptive users and 30% among non-users. Girls using oral contraceptives perceived more often (67%) that parents accept their sexual relationship (30% among non-users). Oral contraceptive users were less afraid of getting pregnant (9% compared with 31% among non-users) and felt more often that sex was very important in their life (31 and 13%, respectively). Other factors that entered the model were age at menarche, having a steady partner and frequency of disco visits. When a young girl asks for oral contraceptives, she is probably at true risk of pregnancy, and regular contraception should be considered both in view of effective prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:10163954

  10. Factors Related to Self-perceived Health in Rural Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Pickett, William; King, Nathan; Trask, Catherine; Michaelson, Valerie; Marlenga, Barbara L; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-perceived health status among men and women who live on farms, as well as variations in factors related to negative health status observed by gender. Data were collected in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2013 through the use of a cross-sectional survey. A multistage sample was developed consisting of farms nested within rural municipalities and then agricultural soil zones. The response rate was 48.8% at the farm level, with a final sample of 2,353 (1,416 men, 937 women) from 1,119 farms. Variables under study included self-reports of health status, as well as demographic, behavioral, and farm operational factors that could influence perceived health status. The analysis was initially descriptive followed by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Self-reports of diagnosed comorbidities were strongly associated with negative health status among both men and women. Daytime sleepiness was more modestly associated with negative health status in both genders. Among men, additional risk factors tended to be functional, and included older age, part-time work status, and binge drinking. Among women, additional risk factors included cigarette smoking, overweight or obesity, and lower levels of education. The study demonstrated that there were both similarities and differences between men and women on farms in the factors related to negative self-perceived health status. These findings should inform the content and targeting of health promotion programs aimed at rural populations. PMID:25906276

  11. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series. PMID:26561493

  12. [Early discharge following major thoracic surgery: identification of related factors].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Nuno Fevereiro Ferreira; Carvalho, André Luís de Aquino

    2003-01-01

    There is a direct relation between hospital costs and hospital length of stay after the operation. In the other hand, reduced stay increases the productivity of the public hospitals with high service demanding. The objective of this study was to identify factors determining the decrease in hospital stay after major thoracic surgery. A two-phase retrospective study was conducted on analysis of medical records. In the first phase, data on length of hospital stay and related factors were collected from a consecutive series of 169 patients divided into group I (n=81)--patients operated on between June 1990 and 1995, and group II (n=88)--1996 through May 2000. In the second phase, data were collected from a consecutive series of 20 patients (group III) starting backwards from March 2002, for analysis and comparison with a internet survey sent to 21 thoracic surgeons. Intensive care unit was avoided for most patients in the immediate post operative period. The mean hospital stay decreased from 7.6 days (median 7) in group I to 5.1 days (median 4) in group II (p<0.001). The more frequent utilization of epidural analgesia and less traumatic thoracotomy in group II reached statistic significance (p<0.001). In group III, the mean hospital stay was 4.2 days (median 4), and there was a more effective use of epidural analgesia (75%) and muscle-sparing thoracotomy (90%). Eight thoracic surgeons answered the survey: the mean hospital stay varied from 5 to 9 days and all patients were sent to intensive care or similar units. Only two surgeons utilize muscle-sparing thoracotomy. This study confirms that pain control and less traumatic surgical approach are important for faster functional recovery of the patients. It suggests that the IC units may be used only for selected patients. PMID:14685631

  13. Predicting preschool pain-related anticipatory distress: the relative contribution of longitudinal and concurrent factors.

    PubMed

    Racine, Nicole M; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Taddio, Anna; Garfield, Hartley; Greenberg, Saul

    2016-09-01

    Anticipatory distress prior to a painful medical procedure can lead to negative sequelae including heightened pain experiences, avoidance of future medical procedures, and potential noncompliance with preventative health care, such as vaccinations. Few studies have examined the longitudinal and concurrent predictors of pain-related anticipatory distress. This article consists of 2 companion studies to examine both the longitudinal factors from infancy as well as concurrent factors from preschool that predict pain-related anticipatory distress at the preschool age. Study 1 examined how well preschool pain-related anticipatory distress was predicted by infant pain response at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. In study 2, using a developmental psychopathology framework, longitudinal analyses examined the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and present factors that led to the development of anticipatory distress during routine preschool vaccinations. A sample of 202 caregiver-child dyads was observed during their infant and preschool vaccinations (the Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt cohort) and was used for both studies. In study 1, pain response during infancy was not found to significantly predict pain-related anticipatory distress at preschool. In study 2, a strong explanatory model was created whereby 40% of the variance in preschool anticipatory distress was explained. Parental behaviours from infancy and preschool were the strongest predictors of child anticipatory distress at preschool. Child age positively predicted child anticipatory distress. This strongly suggests that the involvement of parents in pain management interventions during immunization is one of the most critical factors in predicting anticipatory distress to the preschool vaccination. PMID:27276117

  14. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk…

  15. The relation of leptin and insulin with obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in US adults.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Macera, Caroline A; Wingard, Deborah L; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Lindsay, Suzanne P; Marshall, Simon J

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies of leptin with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been limited by clinical samples or lack of representation of the general population. This cross-sectional study, designed to examine whether leptin or insulin may mediate the endogenous relation of obesity with metabolic, inflammatory, and thrombogenic cardiovascular risk factors, included 522 men and 514 women aged >or=40 years who completed a physical examination during the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of existing CVD, cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer), diabetes, or respiratory disease. In multivariable analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity and lifestyle factors, waist circumference (WC) was positively associated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen concentrations, and negatively associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels. The associations of WC with the metabolic CVD risk factors were largely attenuated after adjustment for insulin levels, while the associations of WC with the inflammatory and thrombogenic factors (CRP and fibrinogen, respectively) were largely explained by adjustment for leptin concentrations. However, leptin levels were not independently associated with CRP and fibrinogen in men and CRP in women when adjusted for WC. Positive associations of leptin and insulin with fibrinogen in women, independent of WC, were noted. These results suggest that insulin may be an important mediator of the association of obesity with metabolic but not inflammatory or thrombogenic CVD risk factors, while leptin does not appear to influence cardiovascular risk through a shared association with these risk factors. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that leptin and insulin influence cardiovascular risk in women through independent effects on fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:18160070

  16. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  17. Endoscopic and Clinical Factors Affecting the Prognosis of Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection-Related Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong-Uk; Choi, Yunsik; Lee, Ho-Su; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Park, Sang Hyoung; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Soon Man; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Although colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)-related perforation is not uncommon, the factors affecting clinical outcomes after perforation have not been investigated. This study was designed to investigate the factors influencing the clinical course of ESD-related colon perforation. Methods Forty-three patients with colorectal ESD-related perforation were evaluated. The perforations were classified as endoscopic or radiologic perforations. The patients’ medical records and endoscopic pictures were analyzed. Results The clinical outcomes were assessed by the duration of nil per os, intravenous antibiotics administration, and hospital stays, which were 2.7±1.5, 4.9±2.3, and 5.1±2.3 days, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that a larger tumor size, ESD failure, specific endoscopists, and abdominal pain were independently related to a poorer outcome. The time between perforation and clipping was 15.8±25.4 minutes in the endoscopic perforation group. The multivariate analysis of this group indicated that delayed clipping, specific endoscopists, and abdominal pain were independently associated with poorer outcomes. Conclusions Tumor size, ESD failure, abdominal pain, and the endoscopist were factors that affected the clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal ESD-related perforation. The time between the perforation and clipping was an additional factor influencing the clinical course of endoscopic perforation. Decreasing this time period may improve outcomes. PMID:26780090

  18. Social Anxiety Factors: Relation to Introversion and Neuroticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Larry W.; Gilliland, Jack C.

    In order to place research on social anxiety in proper perspective, the factors actually measured by social anxiety scales must be examined. Five social anxiety scales and four personality questionnaires were administered to college undergraduates (N=78). Factor analyses of the data revealed two distinct factors. The first factor, to which…

  19. Assessment of the Electronic Factors Determining the Thermodynamics of "Oxidative Addition" of C-H and N-H Bonds to Ir(I) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, David Y; Choliy, Yuriy; Haibach, Michael C; Hartwig, John F; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S

    2016-01-13

    A study of electronic factors governing the thermodynamics of C-H and N-H bond addition to Ir(I) complexes was conducted. DFT calculations were performed on an extensive series of trans-(PH3)2IrXL complexes (L = NH3 and CO; X = various monodentate ligands) to parametrize the relative σ- and π-donating/withdrawing properties of the various ligands, X. Computed energies of oxidative addition of methane to a series of three- and four-coordinate Ir(I) complexes bearing an ancillary ligand, X, were correlated with the resulting (σ(X), π(X)) parameter set. Regression analysis indicates that the thermodynamics of addition of methane to trans-(PH3)2IrX are generally strongly disfavored by increased σ-donation from the ligand X, in contradiction to widely held views on oxidative addition. The trend for oxidative addition of methane to four-coordinate Ir(I) was closely related to that observed for the three-coordinate complexes, albeit slightly more complicated. The computational analysis was found to be consistent with the rates of reductive elimination of benzene from a series of isoelectronic Ir(III) phenyl hydride complexes, measured experimentally in this work and previously reported. Extending the analysis of ancillary ligand energetic effects to the oxidative addition of ammonia to three-coordinate Ir(I) complexes leads to the conclusion that increasing σ-donation by X also disfavors oxidative addition of N-H bonds to trans-(PH3)2IrX. However, coordination of NH3 to the Ir(I) center is disfavored even more strongly by increasing σ-donation by X, which explains why the few documented examples of H-NH2 oxidative addition to transition metals involve complexes with strongly σ-donating ligands situated trans to the site of addition. An orbital-based rationale for the observed results is presented. PMID:26652221

  20. Factor structure of PTSD, and relation with gender in trauma survivors from India

    PubMed Central

    Charak, Ruby; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Angmo, Disket; Elhai, Jon D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively studied in Western countries. Some studies have assessed its factor structure in Asia (China, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia), but few have directly assessed the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian adult sample. Furthermore, in a largely patriarchal society in India with strong gender roles, it becomes imperative to assess the association between the factors of PTSD and gender. Objective The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian sample of trauma survivors based on prevailing models of PTSD defined in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), and to assess the relation between PTSD factors and gender. Method The sample comprised of 313 participants (55.9% female) from Jammu and Kashmir, India, who had experienced a natural disaster (N=200) or displacement due to cross-border firing (N=113). Results Three existing PTSD models—two four-factor models (Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria), and a five-factor model (Dysphoric Arousal)—were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with addition of gender as a covariate. The three competing models had similar fit indices although the Dysphoric Arousal model fit significantly better than Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. Gender differences were found across the factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Conclusions Findings indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal model of PTSD was the best model; albeit the fit indices of all models were fairly similar. Compared to males, females scored higher on factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Gender differences found across two factors of PTSD are discussed in light of the social milieu in India. PMID:25413575

  1. Factors related to the presence of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Redon, J; Liao, Y; Lozano, J V; Miralles, A; Baldo, E; Cooper, R S

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors related to the presence of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension. Ninety-five patients with essential hypertension (58 males and 37 females, mean age 38.6 +/- 6.1 years) who had never been treated previously for hypertension were included in the study. Patients with nephropathy or diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia > 120 mg/dL, glomerular filtration rate < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2, urinary tract infection, or positive dipstick for albumin or glucose were excluded. Blood pressure, echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass, serum biochemistry, and lipid profile were obtained. Twenty-four-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was measured on two separate days using an immunonephelometric assay. Microalbuminuria (UAE 30 to 300 mg/24 h) occurred in 26% of patients and was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and hyperapolipoproteinemia B (apo-B). Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of microalbuminuria was independently related to diastolic blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, LVMI, and apo-B. Multiple regression analysis likewise confirmed that both DBP and LVMI were linearly related to UAE independent of age, sex, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apo-B. In conclusion, our study indicates that among hypertensive patients with elevated excretion rates of urinary albumin, even at the subclinical level, an increased cardiovascular risk exists compared to normoalbuminuric patients with a similar blood pressure. Assessment of the presence of microalbuminuria may be useful in the evaluation and management of hypertension. PMID:7811438

  2. 78 FR 57505 - World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of Prostate Cancer to the List of WTC-Related Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...On May 2, 2013, the Administrator of the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program received a petition (Petition 002) requesting the addition of prostate cancer to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions (List) covered in the WTC Health Program. In this final rule, the Administrator adds malignant neoplasm of the prostate (prostate cancer) to the List in the WTC Health Program...

  3. Seismic, structural, and individual factors associated with earthquake related injury

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Ramirez, M; Seligson, H; Shoaf, K

    2003-01-01

    Background: Earthquakes cause thousands of deaths worldwide every year, and systematic study of the causes of these deaths can lead to their prevention. Few studies have examined how multiple types of risk factors are related to physical injury during an earthquake. Methods: A population based case-control study was conducted to examine how individual characteristics, building characteristics, and seismic features of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake contributed to physical injury. Cases included fatal and hospital-admitted injuries caused by the earthquake. Controls were drawn from a population based phone survey of county residents. Cases were individually matched to two sets of controls: one matched by age and gender and one matched by location at the time of the earthquake. Results: Individuals over age 65 had 2.9 times the risk of injury as younger people (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 7.4) and women had a 2.4 times greater risk than men (95% CI 1.2 to 5.1). Location in multiple unit residential and commercial structures each led to increased injury risk compared with single unit residential structures, but the exact estimate varied depending on the control group used. With every increase in ground motion of 10%g, injury risk increased 2.2 times (95% CI 1.6 to 3.3). Conclusions: Controlling for other factors, it was found that individual, building, and seismic characteristics were independently predictive of increased injury risk. Prevention and preparedness efforts should focus on each of these as potential points of intervention. PMID:12642562

  4. Craniosynostosis and Risk Factors Related to Thyroid Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, S. L.; Ma, C.; Rasmussen, S. A.; Cunningham, M. L.; Browne, M. L.; Dosiou, C.; Lammer, E. J.; Shaw, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid disease is a common problem among women of reproductive age but often goes undiagnosed. Maternal thyroid disease has been associated with increased risk of craniosynostosis. We hypothesized that known risk factors for thyroid disease would be associated with risk of craniosynostosis among women not diagnosed with thyroid disease. Analyses included mothers of 1,067 cases and 8,494 population-based controls who were interviewed for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). After excluding women with diagnosed thyroid disease, younger maternal age (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6–0.9, for <25 years versus 25–29), black or other race-ethnicity (AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.4 and AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.8, respectively, relative to non-Hispanic whites), fertility medications or procedures (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–2.0), and alcohol consumption (AOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9) were associated with risk of craniosynostosis, based on confidence intervals that excluded 1.0. These associations with craniosynostosis are consistent with the direction of their association with thyroid dysfunction (i.e., younger age, black race-ethnicity and alcohol consumption are associated with reduced risk and fertility problems are associated with increased risk of thyroid disease). This study thus provides support for the hypothesis that risk factors associated with thyroid dysfunction are also associated with risk of craniosynostosis. Improved understanding of the potential association between maternal thyroid function and craniosynostosis among offspring is important given that craniosynostosis carries significant morbidity and that thyroid disease is under-diagnosed and potentially modifiable. PMID:25655789

  5. Reproductive factors related to childbearing and mammographic breast density.

    PubMed

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the associations of reproductive factors related to childbearing with percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas, by menopausal status. This study included 4110 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. Percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas were measured from digitized mammography film images with computerized techniques. All density measures were square root-transformed in all the analyses to improve normality. The data on reproductive variables and other breast cancer risk factors were obtained from biennial questionnaires, at the time of the mammogram date. As compared to nulliparous women, parous postmenopausal women had lower percent density (β = -0.60, 95 % CI -0.84; -0.37), smaller absolute dense area (β = -0.66, 95 % CI -1.03; -0.29), and greater nondense area (β = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.27; 1.16). Among parous women, number of children was inversely associated with percent density in pre- (β per one child = -0.12, 95 % CI -0.20; -0.05) and postmenopausal women (β per one child = -0.07, 95 % CI -0.12; -0.02). The positive associations of breastfeeding with absolute dense and nondense areas were limited to premenopausal women, while the positive association of the age at first child's birth with percent density and the inverse association with nondense area were limited to postmenopausal women. Women with greater number of children and younger age at first child's birth have more favorable breast density patterns that could explain subsequent breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:27351801

  6. Gait speed and related factors in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Goksenoglu, Goksen; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Kesiktas, Nur; Ince, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gait speed and various factors in ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] Fifty ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease who were admitted to an outpatient clinic were included in this cross-sectional study. [Methods] The Hoehn and Yahr Scale was used for measurement of the disease severity. Gait speed was measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test. Mobility status was assessed by Timed Up and Go Test. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for evaluation of emotional state. Cognitive status was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The Downton Index was used for fall risk assessment. Balance was evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale. Comorbidity was measured with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was completed for measurement of quality of life. [Results] The mean age was 66.7 (47–83) years. Twenty-eight (56%) patients were men. Gait speed was correlated positively with height, male gender, Mini-Mental Examination score, Berg Balance Scale score and physical summary scores of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between gait speed and age, disease severity, TUG time, Downton Index, fear of falling, previous falls and the anxiety and depression scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. There was no correlation between gait speed and comorbidity. [Conclusion] The factors related with the slower gait speed are, elder age, clinically advanced disease, poor mobility, fear of falling, falling history, higher falling risk, and mood disorder. PMID:26834330

  7. Gender-related Factors Associated with Upper Extremity Function in Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Gi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to find gender distinctions in terms of the sociology of the population; to determine work-related factors; to analyze gender differences in daily living, work, sports, and art performances; and to identify gender-related factors that limited performance of daily living and work activities. Methods A questionnaire was designed that included disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH), accident history, disease history, work duration at current workplace, marital status, job satisfaction, job autonomy, and physical demands of the job. Out of 1,853 workers surveyed, 1,173 questionnaires (63.3%; 987 males, 186 females) included responses to DASH disability and DASH optional work and were judged acceptable for analysis. Results Upper extremity functional limitation during work and daily living was higher for females than males. The limitations for males increased according to their household work time, accident history, work duration, job satisfaction, physical demand, and job autonomy. Meanwhile, female workers' upper extremity discomfort was influenced by their disease history, job satisfaction, and physical demands. In addition, the size of the company affected male workers' upper extremity function, while marriage and hobbies influenced that of female workers. Conclusion This study addressed sociodemographic factors and work-related factors that affect each gender's upper extremity function during daily living and working activities. Each factor had a different influence. Further studies are needed to identify the effect that role changes, not being influenced by risks at work, have on musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:22953176

  8. Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Deficiency Results in Amplification of the Liver Fat-Lowering Effect of Estrogen.

    PubMed

    Rui, Wenjuan; Zou, Yuhong; Lee, Joonyong; Nambiar, Shashank Manohar; Lin, Jingmei; Zhang, Linjie; Yang, Yan; Dai, Guoli

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates multiple biologic processes, including hepatic lipid metabolism. Estrogen exerts actions affecting energy homeostasis, including a liver fat-lowering effect. Increasing evidence indicates the crosstalk between these two molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Nrf2 modulates estrogen signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was induced in wild-type and Nrf2-null mice fed a high-fat diet and the liver fat-lowering effect of exogenous estrogen was subsequently assessed. We found that exogenous estrogen eliminated 49% and 90% of hepatic triglycerides in wild-type and Nrf2-null mice with NAFLD, respectively. This observation demonstrates that Nrf2 signaling is antagonistic to estrogen signaling in hepatic fat metabolism; thus, Nrf2 absence results in striking amplification of the liver fat-lowering effect of estrogen. In addition, we found the association of trefoil factor 3 and fatty acid binding protein 5 with the liver fat-lowering effect of estrogen. In summary, we identified Nrf2 as a novel and potent inhibitor of estrogen signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism. Our finding may provide a potential strategy to treat NAFLD by dually targeting Nrf2 and estrogen signaling. PMID:27189962

  9. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results…

  10. Optical Quality and Related Factors in Ocular Hypertension: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-jing; Yang, Yan-ning; Huang, Lin-ying; Wang, Bo; Han, Yu-can; Yan, Jiang-bo

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the optical quality and related factors in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 12 eyes with OHT and 20 control eyes underwent testing with Optical Quality Analysis System II (OQAS II) to evaluate the modulation transfer function cut off frequency (MTF cutoff), the Strehl 2D ratio (SR), objective scatter index (OSI), tear-film mean OSI (TFOSI), and the OQAS values (OV100%,OV20%, and OV9%). Results. The optical quality of patients with OHT declined, with lower MTF cutoff (OHT 36.86 ± 7.11 cpd , controls 48.50 ± 4.04 cpd, t = −4.60, P < 0.05), lower SR (OHT 0.22 ± 0.04, controls 0.27 ± 0.05, t = −2.72, P < 0.05), lower OV100% (OHT 1.26 ± 0.25, controls 1.61 ± 0.14, t = −4.03, P < 0.05), lower OV20% (OHT 1.27 ± 0.27, controls 1.72 ± 0.20, t = −4.00, P < 0.05), and lower OV9% (OHT 1.30 ± 0.25, controls 1.69 ± 0.32, t = −2.28, P < 0.05). There were not any statistically significant differences in OSI and TFOSI. The MTF cutoff in patients with OHT was correlated significantly with age (r = −0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Optical quality of patients with OHT is reduced, with lower MTF cutoff, SR, OV100%, OV20%, and OV9%. MTF cutoff is negatively related to age. PMID:27293874

  11. Properties of peatlands in relation to environmental factors in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of peatland morphology and distribution to environmental factors was investigated in northern and central Minnesota by field sampling of vegetation, soils, and water, and by remote sensing. Maps of peatlands made by machine classification of Landsat data six classes matched field data in 56% of all cases; maps drawn by hand on 1:80,000 scale aerial photographs were 72% correct. Peatland sites fall into two natural groups: ombrotrophic (bogs; pH less than 4.4) and minerotrophic (fens and swamps: pH 4.4 or more and usually greater than 5.6). The presence of certain common vascular-plant taxa can be used to classify sites into these trophic classes with over 90% accuracy. The structure of peatland vegetation is controlled by the soil-water regime, the disturbance history, and, to a less degree, by trophic conditions. Sites that have relatively well-aerated soils and have not been recently disturbed support dense forests. Vegetation structure is weakly related to the degree of decomposition of peat; hence vegetation is a poor indicator for taxonomic units of organic soils. Peatlands are common in Minnesota on surfaces glaciated during the Wisconsin Stage and where the mean annual potential evapotranspiration roughly equals or exceeds the mean annual precipitation. Bogs occur most often on sites where a high water table can be maintained without groundwater discharge, such as in depressions on low-permeability substrates and near local watershed divides on plains. Fens apparently occur in or below areas of groundwater discharge. Swamps (densely forested minerotrophic peatlands) occur in a wide variety of settings where the soil is aerated during the growing season.

  12. An Integrative Model of Factors Related to Computing Course Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, John P.; Birkett, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    A path-modeling approach is adopted to examine interrelationships between factors influencing computing behavior and computer course performance. Factors considered are gender, personality, intellect and computer attitudes, ownership, and experience. Intrinsic motivation is suggested as a major factor which can explain many variables' relationship…

  13. Factors affecting science-related attitudes in academically talented youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Kristen Renee

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the criterion variables of science-related attitudes and the predictor variables of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, and achievement in academically talented students. One hundred and sixty-seven students in grades 11 and 12 from a residential math and science high school in Alabama were administered the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA; Fraser, 1981), the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers & Harris, 1969), and a general information questionnaire. Multiple linear regression consisting of canonical correlation, semi-partial correlation, and Manova were used to test the hypotheses of this study. Results indicate that students had favorable attitudes towards science. Significant interactions were found between gender and achievement for the Adoption of Scientific Attitude subtest with high achieving females having more favorable attitudes on this variable followed by low achieving males. Additionally, significant interactions were found between self-concept and achievement and between mother's occupation and father's occupation on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientists subtest. High achievers with high self-concept obtained the highest scores while low achievers with low self-concept obtained the lowest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest. Subjects with fathers and mothers in science occupations obtained the highest scores on the Attitude Toward Normality of Scientist subtest while subjects with a father in a nonscience occupation and a mother in a science occupation obtained the lowest scores. The lowest scores were found in Leisure Interest in Science regardless of gender, self-concept, ethnic origin, mother's occupation, father's occupation, socioeconomic status, or achievement.

  14. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    van Rhenen, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD–R) model as theoretical framework. Results Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. Conclusions The JD–R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance. PMID:26872050

  15. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment.

    PubMed

    Nolan, John M; Stack, Jim; O' Donovan, Orla; Loane, Edward; Beatty, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Macular pigment (MP) is composed of the two dietary carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and is believed to protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). This study was undertaken to investigate MP optical density with respect to risk factors for ARM, in 828 healthy subjects from an Irish population. MP optical density was measured psychophysically using heterochromatic flicker photometry, serum L and Z were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of L and Z was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Clinical and personal details were also recorded, with particular attention directed towards risk factors for ARM. We report a statistically significant age-related decline in MP optical density (r2=0.082, p<0.01). Current and past smokers had lower average MP optical density than never smokers and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). Subjects with a confirmed family history of ARM had significantly lower levels of MP optical density than subjects with no known family history of disease (p<0.01). For each of these established risk factors, their statistically significant negative association with MP persisted after controlling for the other two, and also after controlling for other potentially confounding variables such as sex, cholesterol, dietary and serum L (p<0.01). In the absence of retinal pathology, and in advance of disease onset, the relative lack of MP seen in association with increasing age, tobacco use and family history of ARM supports the hypothesis that the enhanced risk that these variables represent for ARM may be attributable, at least in part, to a parallel deficiency of macular carotenoids. PMID:17083932

  16. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  17. Prelacteal feeding: influencing factors and relation to establishment of lactation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F U; Rahman, M E; Alam, M S

    1996-08-01

    This study was carried out with a view to finding out factors influencing prelacteal feeding and its relation to establishment of lactation in rural Bangladesh. 420 mothers in early post-partum period were interviewed at home. Prelacteal feeding was given to 77% of the babies, and honey was given to 72% of them. The common methods of prelacteal feeding were by finger (41%) and spoon (40%). Twelve socio-demographic and health care variables were studied for their probable influence on prelacteal feeding. Nine of them accounted for 22% of the variability in giving prelacteal feeding. Reasons of giving prelacteal feeding and the time of first breast feeding influenced the practice significantly (P < 0.05). Type and duration of prelacteal feeding had significant negative influence on "coming in" of milk (P < 0.05). Prelacteal feeding accounted for 44% of variations in coming in of milk. Prelacteal feeding and coming in of milk formed a vicious cycle: the former delayed initiation of lactation and on the other hand delay in coming in of milk encouraged prelacteal feeding. These observation emphasized the need for coordinated efforts for promotion of proper infant feeding practices in our rural community. PMID:9103657

  18. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  19. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended. PMID:19570279

  20. Environmental Factors Related to Multiple Sclerosis in Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    D’Cunha, Anita; Mustafa, Sharik

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence. Aims To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS. Material and Methods 139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01. Results In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p <0.007), vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p <0.0001) and urban living (p <0.0001). An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p <0.001). Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21- 34.668, p< 0.029) and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212- 7.872, p< 0.018) were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p <0.005). Conclusions Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence. PMID:25902359

  1. Factors Related to Continuation of Health Behaviours among Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This study investigated stroke survivors' perspectives of health behaviours after stroke. We aimed to explore the actual process by which stroke survivors changed their health behaviours. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 people in a 1-year prospective study in the regional city of Chiba, Japan. Interviews covered views of health behaviours in order to explore why patients change their risk factors. Data were analysed using the principles of modified grounded theory. Results: Six categories related to practising health behaviours were identified: cause of stroke, antithetic thinking, awareness of the body, fear of disease progression, view of health, and psychological meaning of practise. Stroke survivors constructed a meaning of practise for each health behaviour. The recognition of previous lifestyle as cause of stroke, hope for recovery, and fear of future progression influenced health behaviours. Conclusions: The key finding of this study is that when cognitive behavioural therapy principles are enforced, an important aspect is that stroke survivors recognize the possibility that previous lifestyle was a cause of stroke and appreciate the necessity of preventing a new stroke. PMID:25792892

  2. Medical error and related factors during internship and residency.

    PubMed

    Ahmadipour, Habibeh; Nahid, Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine the real incidence of medical errors due to the lack of a precise definition of errors, as well as the failure to report them under certain circumstances. We carried out a cross- sectional study in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2013. The participants were selected through the census method. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of questions on the participants' demographic data and questions on the medical errors committed. The data were analysed by SPSS 19. It was found that 270 participants had committed medical errors. There was no significant difference in the frequency of errors committed by interns and residents. In the case of residents, the most common error was misdiagnosis and in that of interns, errors related to history-taking and physical examination. Considering that medical errors are common in the clinical setting, the education system should train interns and residents to prevent the occurrence of errors. In addition, the system should develop a positive attitude among them so that they can deal better with medical errors. PMID:26592783

  3. Mitochondrial Factors and VACTERL Association-Related Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Siebel, S.; Solomon, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    VACTERL/VATER association is a group of congenital malformations characterized by at least 3 of the following findings: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities. To date, no unifying etiology for VACTERL/VATER association has been established, and there is strong evidence for causal heterogeneity. VACTERL/VATER association has many overlapping characteristics with other congenital disorders that involve multiple malformations. In addition to these other conditions, some of which have known molecular causes, certain aspects of VACTERL/VATER association have similarities with the manifestations of disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction can result from a number of distinct causes and can clinically manifest in diverse presentations; accurate diagnosis can be challenging. Case reports of individuals with VACTERL association and confirmed mitochondrial dysfunction allude to the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in the pathogenesis of VACTERL/VATER association. Further, there is biological plausibility involving mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible etiology related to a diverse group of congenital malformations, including those seen in at least a subset of individuals with VACTERL association. PMID:23653577

  4. Characterization of NERF, a novel transcription factor related to the Ets factor ELF-1.

    PubMed Central

    Oettgen, P; Akbarali, Y; Boltax, J; Best, J; Kunsch, C; Libermann, T A

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the gene for a novel Ets-related transcription factor, new Ets-related factor (NERF), from human spleen, fetal liver, and brain. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of NERF with those of other members of the Ets family reveals that the level of homology to ELF-1, which is involved in the regulation of several T- and B-cell-specific genes, is highest. Homologies are clustered in the putative DNA binding domain in the middle of the protein, a basic domain just upstream of this domain, and several shorter stretches of homology towards the amino terminus. The presence of two predominant NERF transcripts in various fetal and adult human tissues is due to at least three alternative splice products, NERF-1a, NERF-1b, and NERF-2, which differ in their amino termini and their expression in different tissues. Only NERF-2 and ELF-1, and not NERF-1a and NERF-1b, function as transcriptional activators of the lyn and blk gene promoters, although all isoforms of NERF bind with affinities similar to those of ELF-1 to a variety of Ets binding sites in, among others, the blk, lck, lyn, mb-1, and immunoglobulin H genes and are expressed at similar levels. Since NERF and ELF-1 are coexpressed in B and T cells, both might be involved in the regulation of the same genes. PMID:8756667

  5. The effects of genotype and infant weight on adult plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and LDL cholesterol are additive.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, J A; Bolla, M; Osmond, C; Fall, C; Barker, D J; Humphries, S E

    1997-01-01

    High circulating levels of cholesterol, particularly low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the clotting factors fibrinogen and factor VII, are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Variations in the plasma levels of these factors are determined in part by polymorphisms in the genes concerned and also by weight at 1 year (infant weight). We have looked at the possibility of interactions between these genetic factors and infant weight in a sample of 290 men and 192 women from Hertfordshire using the beta-fibrinogen G/A-455, factor VII R353Q, and ApoE polymorphisms. The rare allele frequencies of the three polymorphisms were 0.19 for beta-fibrinogen, 0.10 for factor VII, and 0.07 and 0.13 for the 2 and 4 alleles of ApoE, and these frequencies were not different in subjects of different infant weight. In this sample, the polymorphisms showed the expected effects on plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and LDL cholesterol. The A-455 allele was associated with higher fibrinogen levels but the effect was only statistically significant in women (p = 0.003). The R353 allele was associated with higher factor VII activity in both men and women (p < 0.0001 for both). The ApoE2 allele was associated with lower levels of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.03 in men, p = 0.006 in women), while the ApoE4 allele was associated with higher levels (p < 0.001 in men, not significant in women). In this sample of men and women the effect of low infant weight was only associated with significant effects on fibrinogen and LDL cholesterol in the group of men (p = 0.005 and p = 0.008 respectively). Compared with the E3E3 subjects, the LDL lowering effect of the E2 allele and the raising effect of the E4 allele was greater in those with low infant weight compared with those with high infant weight (low v high infant weight for E2: 12.7% v 9.4%; for E4 12.7% v 8.5%). Although in this sample the interactive effect did not reach statistical significance, the additive effect

  6. Educational aspiration-expectation discrepancies: relation to socioeconomic and academic risk-related factors.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Goldstein, Sara E; DeLorenzo, Tahlia; Savoy, Sarah; Mercado, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    This study examines whether disconnection between educational aspirations and expectations is associated with socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic risk-related behaviors and related psychosocial factors in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of early adolescents from a public middle school (N = 761). Results suggest that students who aspire to achieve more than they expect to achieve also are likely to have more economically disadvantaged backgrounds and poorer academic performance. These students also show a variety of academic and social risks. Specifically, students whose aspirations exceeded their expectations reported lower levels of school bonding, higher levels of test/performance anxiety, and elevated behavioral/emotional difficulties. Results are discussed in terms of social-cognitive theory as well as applications for promoting student social and academic success. PMID:21036390

  7. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  8. A Role of Myocardin Related Transcription Factor-A (MRTF-A) in Scleroderma Related Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shiwen, Xu; Stratton, Richard; Nikitorowicz-Buniak, Joanna; Ahmed-Abdi, Bahja; Ponticos, Markella; Denton, Christopher; Abraham, David; Takahashi, Ayuko; Suki, Bela; Layne, Matthew D.; Lafyatis, Robert; Smith, Barbara D.

    2015-01-01

    In scleroderma (systemic sclerosis, SSc), persistent activation of myofibroblast leads to severe skin and organ fibrosis resistant to therapy. Increased mechanical stiffness in the involved fibrotic tissues is a hallmark clinical feature and a cause of disabling symptoms. Myocardin Related Transcription Factor-A (MRTF-A) is a transcriptional co-activator that is sequestered in the cytoplasm and translocates to the nucleus under mechanical stress or growth factor stimulation. Our objective was to determine if MRTF-A is activated in the disease microenvironment to produce more extracellular matrix in progressive SSc. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrate that nuclear translocation of MRTF-A in scleroderma tissues occurs in keratinocytes, endothelial cells, infiltrating inflammatory cells, and dermal fibroblasts, consistent with enhanced signaling in multiple cell lineages exposed to the stiff extracellular matrix. Inhibition of MRTF-A nuclear translocation or knockdown of MRTF-A synthesis abolishes the SSc myofibroblast enhanced basal contractility and synthesis of type I collagen and inhibits the matricellular profibrotic protein, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF). In MRTF-A null mice, basal skin and lung stiffness was abnormally reduced and associated with altered fibrillar collagen. MRTF-A has a role in SSc fibrosis acting as a central regulator linking mechanical cues to adverse remodeling of the extracellular matrix. PMID:25955164

  9. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. PMID:26388123

  10. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors. PMID:26922697

  11. Prospective analysis of factors related to migraine attacks: the PAMINA study.

    PubMed

    Wöber, C; Brannath, W; Schmidt, K; Kapitan, M; Rudel, E; Wessely, P; Wöber-Bingöl, C

    2007-04-01

    Migraine is related to numerous factors such as hormones, stress or nutrition, but information about their actual importance is limited. Therefore, we analysed prospectively a wide spectrum of factors related to headache in migraineurs. We examined 327 migraineurs recruited via newspapers who kept a comprehensive diary for 3 months. Statistical analysis comprising 28 325 patient days and 116 dichotomous variables was based on the interval between two successive headache attacks. We calculated univariate Cox regression analyses and included covariables with a P-value of <0.05 in two stepwise multivariate Cox regression analyses, the first accounting for a correlation of the event times within a subject, the second stratified by the number of headache-free intervals. We performed similar analyses for the occurrence of migraine attacks and for the persistence of headache and migraine. Menstruation had the most prominent effect, increasing the hazard of occurrence or persistence of headache and migraine by up to 96%. All other factors changed the hazard by <35%. The two days before menstruation and muscle tension in the neck, psychic tension, tiredness, noise and odours on days before headache onset increased the hazard of headache or migraine, whereas days off, a divorced marriage, relaxation after stress, and consumption of beer decreased the hazard. In addition, three meteorological factors increased and two others decreased the hazard. In conclusion, menstruation is most important in increasing the risk of occurrence and persistence of headache and migraine. Other factors increase the risk less markedly or decrease the risk. PMID:17376107

  12. 78 FR 39670 - World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of Prostate Cancer to the List of WTC-Related Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...On May 2, 2013, the Administrator of the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program received a petition (Petition 002) requesting the addition of prostate cancer to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions (List) covered in the WTC Health Program. The Administrator has determined to publish a proposed rule adding malignant neoplasm of the prostate (prostate cancer) to the List in the WTC Health......

  13. Cosmological General Relativity with Scale Factor and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Firmin J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper the four-dimensional (4-D) space-velocity Cosmological General Relativity of Carmeli is developed by a general solution of the Einstein field equations. The Tolman metric is applied in the form where g μν is the metric tensor. We use comoving coordinates x α = ( x 0, x 1, x 2, x 3) = ( τv, r, θ, ϕ), where τ is the Hubble-Carmeli time constant, v is the universe expansion velocity and r, θ and ϕ are the spatial coordinates. We assume that μ and R are each functions of the coordinates τv and r. The vacuum mass density ρ Λ is defined in terms of a cosmological constant Λ, where the Carmeli gravitational coupling constant κ = 8 πG/ c 2 τ 2, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. This allows the definitions of the effective mass density and effective pressure where ρ is the mass density and p is the pressure. Then the energy-momentum tensor where u μ = (1,0,0,0) is the 4-velocity. The Einstein field equations are taken in the form where R μν is the Ricci tensor, κ = 8 πG/ c 2 τ 2 is Carmeli's gravitation constant, where G is Newton's constant and the trace T = g αβ T αβ . By solving the field equations (6) a space-velocity cosmology is obtained analogous to the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time cosmology. We choose an equation of state such that with an evolving state parameter where R v = R v ( v) is the scale factor and w 0 and w a are constants. Carmeli's 4-D space-velocity cosmology is derived as a special case.

  14. Factors related to student performance in statistics courses in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccache, Hiba Salim

    The purpose of the present study was to identify factors that may contribute to business students in Lebanese universities having difficulty in introductory and advanced statistics courses. Two statistics courses are required for business majors at Lebanese universities. Students are not obliged to be enrolled in any math courses prior to taking statistics courses. Drawing on recent educational research, this dissertation attempted to identify the relationship between (1) students’ scores on Lebanese university math admissions tests; (2) students’ scores on a test of very basic mathematical concepts; (3) students’ scores on the survey of attitude toward statistics (SATS); (4) course performance as measured by students’ final scores in the course; and (5) their scores on the final exam. Data were collected from 561 students enrolled in multiple sections of two courses: 307 students in the introductory statistics course and 260 in the advanced statistics course in seven campuses across Lebanon over one semester. The multiple regressions results revealed four significant relationships at the introductory level: between students’ scores on the math quiz with their (1) final exam scores; (2) their final averages; (3) the Cognitive subscale of the SATS with their final exam scores; and (4) their final averages. These four significant relationships were also found at the advanced level. In addition, two more significant relationships were found between students’ final average and the two subscales of Effort (5) and Affect (6). No relationship was found between students’ scores on the admission math tests and both their final exam scores and their final averages in both the introductory and advanced level courses. On the other hand, there was no relationship between students’ scores on Lebanese admissions tests and their final achievement. Although these results were consistent across course formats and instructors, they may encourage Lebanese universities

  15. Protective role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the hemorrhagic shock-induced inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, HAIGE; HAO, SIJING; XU, HONGFEI; MA, LIANG; ZHANG, ZHENG; NI, YIMING; YU, LUYANG

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following trauma or major surgery significantly contributes to mortality. However, the mechanisms through which HS activates the inflammatory response are not yet fully understood. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a bZIP transcription factor, is a master regulator of robust cytoprotective defenses. The present study investigated the role of Nrf2 in the pathophysiology of HS. Nrf2 expression in peripheral leukocytes obtained from patients with surgery-associated hemorrhage subjected to resuscitation treatment (termed HS patients) or healthy donors was examined by RT-qPCR. A marked increase in Nrf2 expression was detected in the leukocytes obtained from the HS patients, which indicates a correlation between Nrf2 expression and the development of HS. Wild-type (WT; Nrf2+/+) and Nrf2-deficient [Nrf2−/− or Nrf2-knockout (KO)] mice were subjected to surgery to induce HS. Systemic inflammation was significantly elevated in the Nrf2-KO mice compared with the WT mice following HS, as assessed by an increase in serum cytokine levels [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β], as well as high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) expression. The Nrf2-KO mice exhibited more severe lung and liver injury following HS as evidenced by increased tissue damage, increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, Nrf2 deficiency augmented cytokine production induced by the exposure of peritoneal mouse macrophages to lipopolysaccha-ride (LPS) following HS. Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2 is a critical host factor which limits immune dysregulation and organ injury following HS. PMID:26935388

  16. Protective role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the hemorrhagic shock-induced inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haige; Hao, Sijing; Xu, Hongfei; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Ni, Yiming; Yu, Luyang

    2016-04-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following trauma or major surgery significantly contributes to mortality. However, the mechanisms through which HS activates the inflammatory response are not yet fully understood. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a bZIP transcription factor, is a master regulator of robust cytoprotective defenses. The present study investigated the role of Nrf2 in the pathophysiology of HS. Nrf2 expression in peripheral leukocytes obtained from patients with surgery-associated hemorrhage subjected to resuscitation treatment (termed HS patients) or healthy donors was examined by RT-qPCR. A marked increase in Nrf2 expression was detected in the leukocytes obtained from the HS patients, which indicates a correlation between Nrf2 expression and the development of HS. Wild-type (WT; Nrf2+/+) and Nrf2-deficient [Nrf2-/- or Nrf2‑knockout (KO)] mice were subjected to surgery to induce HS. Systemic inflammation was significantly elevated in the Nrf2-KO mice compared with the WT mice following HS, as assessed by an increase in serum cytokine levels [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β], as well as high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) expression. The Nrf2-KO mice exhibited more severe lung and liver injury following HS as evidenced by increased tissue damage, increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, Nrf2 deficiency augmented cytokine production induced by the exposure of peritoneal mouse macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following HS. Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2 is a critical host factor which limits immune dysregulation and organ injury following HS. PMID:26935388

  17. Transcription factor Ets1, but not the closely related factor Ets2, inhibits antibody-secreting cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    John, Shinu; Russell, Lisa; Chin, Shu Shien; Luo, Wei; Oshima, Robert; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann

    2014-02-01

    B cell differentiation into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) is a tightly regulated process under the control of multiple transcription factors. One such transcription factor, Ets1, blocks the transition of B cells to ASCs via two separate activities: (i) stimulating the expression of target genes that promote B cell identity and (ii) interfering with the functional activity of the transcription factor Blimp1. Ets1 is a member of a multigene family, several members of which are expressed within the B cell lineage, including the closely related protein Ets2. In this report, we demonstrate that Ets1, but not Ets2, can block ASC formation despite the fact that Ets1 and Ets2 bind to apparently identical DNA sequence motifs and are thought to regulate overlapping sets of target genes. The DNA binding domain of Ets1 is required, but not sufficient by itself, to block ASC formation. In addition, less conserved regions within the N terminus of Ets1 play an important role in inhibiting B cell differentiation. Differences between the N termini of Ets1 and Ets2, rather than differences in the DNA binding domains, determine whether the proteins are capable of blocking ASC formation or not. PMID:24277931

  18. Factors Related to Female Adolescent Initiation into Violent Street Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Ira; Baskin, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Studied when and how adolescent girls become involved in violent street crime as well as the explanatory factors for this criminal behavior. Subjects were 85 incarcerated women in New York City. Results suggest a need to better understand the impact of neighborhood, peer, and addiction factors in female adolescent criminal violence. (GLR)

  19. Methamphetamine oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and functional deficits are modulated by nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Annmarie; Wells, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors like nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) can enhance the transcription of cytoprotective genes during oxidative stress. We investigated whether Nrf2 is activated by methamphetamine (METH) thereby altering neurotoxicity in Nrf2 +/+ and -/- adult mouse brain. A single dose of METH can induce the mRNA levels of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and cytoprotective proteins in mouse brain. Multiple-day dosing with METH enhanced DNA oxidation and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter staining in the striatum, indicating dopaminergic nerve terminal toxicity, which was more severe in -/- mice, as were deficits in motor coordination and olfactory discrimination. These Nrf2-dependent effects were independent of changes in METH metabolism or the induction of hyperthermia. Similarly, METH increased striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein, indicating neurotoxicity. METH neurotoxicity was also observed in the glial cells and in the GABAergic system of the olfactory bulbs and was enhanced in -/- mice, whereas dopaminergic parameters were unaffected. With one-day dosing of METH, there were no differences between +/+ and -/- mice in either basal or METH-enhanced DNA oxidation and neurotoxicity markers. Nrf2-mediated pathways accordingly may protect against the neurodegenerative effects and functional deficits initiated by METH and perhaps other reactive oxygen species-enhancing neurotoxicants, when there is time for transcriptional activation and protein induction. In human users of METH, this mechanism may be essential when differences in drug abuse patterns may alter the induction and duration of Nrf2 activation thereby modulating susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of METH. PMID:26427884

  20. A Computer Program to Relate Factors Across Separately Factor Analyzed Variable Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.; Guertin, Wilson H.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV program is presented which will cross-correlate least squares estimated factor scores across separately factor analyzed variable domains without the tedious necessity of actually calculating the factor scores. (RC)

  1. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them. PMID:27095987

  2. Factors Related to Coital Frequency of Women in Their Thirties.

    PubMed

    da Silva Lara, Lúcia Alves; Dos Santos Lima, Maria Lucia; Romão, Gustavo Salata; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; de Albuquerque Salles Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify factors related to coital frequency (CF) among 254 women in their 30s using a semistructured interview to collect sociodemographic, anthropometric, reproductive, clinical, and relationship data. CF was characterized as (a) never, (b) rarely (≤1 times/month), (c) occasionally (≤1 times /week), (d) regularly (2-3 times/week), or (e) frequently (>3 times/week). The mean age was 34.38 ± 0.43 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.86 ± 6.52 kg, mean family income was US$1,044.18 ± 796.19, mean number of children was 1.71 ± 0.89, and mean relationship duration was 8.87 ± 5.11 years. Eighty-seven women (35.2%) were taking hormonal contraceptives, 143 (98.0%) were employed, 239 (96.48%) had a secondary or higher education, and 9 (3.62%) had primary schooling. CF was classified as >3 times/week in 22 (8.66%), 2-3 times/week for 98 (38.58%), ≤1 times/week in 40 (15.75%), ≤1 times/month in 14 (5.51%), and never in 5 (1.97%). Women who reported having coitus >3 times/week a week had significantly higher body mass index (BMI; 32.72 ± 7.42 kg/m(2)) than those who had coitus 2-3 times/week (28.45 ± 6.76 kg/m(2)) and ≤1 times /week (26.81 ± 5.39 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.01 for both comparisons). Thus, coital frequency varies in women in their 30s. Obese women had a higher CF than normal-weight and overweight women. PMID:26036273

  3. Lentiviral hepatitis B pseudotype entry requires sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and additional hepatocyte-specific factors.

    PubMed

    Meredith, L W; Hu, K; Cheng, X; Howard, C R; Baumert, T F; Balfe, P; van de Graaf, K F; Protzer, U; McKeating, J A

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the world's major unconquered infections, resulting in progressive liver disease, and current treatments rarely cure infection. A limitation to discovering new therapies is our limited knowledge of HBV entry and dissemination pathways that hinders the development of in vitro culture systems. To address this gap in our understanding we optimized the genesis of infectious lentiviral pseudoparticles (HBVpps). The recent discovery that the bile salt transporter sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) acts as a receptor for HBV enabled us to assess the receptor dependency of HBVpp infection. HBVpps preferentially infect hepatoma cells expressing NTCP, whereas other non-liver cells engineered to express NTCP do not support infection, suggesting that additional hepatocyte-specific factors are required for HBVpp internalization. These results highlight the value of the HBVpp system to dissect the pathways of HBV entry and dissemination. PMID:26474824

  4. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    musculoskeletal symptoms. Conclusion This study focused on structural risk factors in the working environment, such as the gender-based division of labor, shift work and labor intensity, that demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the work-related musculoskeletal symptoms of hotel workers. Both men and women reported different prevalence rates of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among different departments. This could indicate that a gender-based division of labor produces different ergonomic risk factors for each gender group. However, only females displayed a statistically significant correlation between shift work and labor intensity and musculoskeletal symptoms. Thus, minimizing ergonomic risk factors alone does not suffice to effectively prevent musculoskeletal diseases among hotel workers. Instead, work assignments should be based on gender, department, working hours and work intensity should be adjusted to address multi-dimensional musculoskeletal risk factors. In addition, an approach that seeks to minimize shift work is needed to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:24472690

  5. Insulin receptor isoform A and insulin-like growth factor II as additional treatment targets in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avnet, Sofia; Sciacca, Laura; Salerno, Manuela; Gancitano, Giovanni; Cassarino, Maria Francesca; Longhi, Alessandra; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Carboni, Joan M; Gottardis, Marco; Giunti, Armando; Pollak, Michael; Vigneri, Riccardo; Baldini, Nicola

    2009-03-15

    Despite the frequent presence of an insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR)-mediated autocrine loop in osteosarcoma (OS), interfering with this target was only moderately effective in preclinical studies. Here, we considered other members of the IGF system that might be involved in the molecular pathology of OS. We found that, among 45 patients with OS, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 serum levels were significantly lower, and IGF-II serum levels significantly higher, than healthy controls. Increased IGF-II values were associated with a decreased disease-free survival. After tumor removal, both IGF-I and IGF-II levels returned to normal values. In 23 of 45 patients, we obtained tissue specimens and found that all expressed high mRNA level of IGF-II and >IGF-I. Also, isoform A of the insulin receptor (IR-A) was expressed at high level in addition to IGFIR and IR-A/IGFIR hybrids receptors (HR(A)). These receptors were also expressed in OS cell lines, and simultaneous impairment of IGFIR, IR, and Hybrid-Rs by monoclonal antibodies, siRNA, or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-536924, which blocks both IGFIR and IR, was more effective than selective anti-IGFIR strategies. Also, anti-IGF-II-siRNA treatment in low-serum conditions significantly inhibited MG-63 OS cells that have an autocrine circuit for IGF-II. In summary, IGF-II rather than IGF-I is the predominant growth factor produced by OS cells, and three different receptors (IR-A, HR(A), and IGFIR) act complementarily for an IGF-II-mediated constitutive autocrine loop, in addition to the previously shown IGFIR/IGF-I circuit. Cotargeting IGFIR and IR-A is more effective than targeting IGF-IR alone in inhibiting OS growth. PMID:19258511

  6. What Factors Shape "by" Ratings in Relation to Landmarks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Alycia M.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated how absolute and relative distance shape adults' and young children's ratings concerning the extent to which the term "by" describes the relation between locations. Three- and 4-year-old children and adults were asked to rate how well the word "by" described the relation between several blocks and a landmark. The…

  7. Visual Angle as Determinant Factor for Relative Distance Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsushima, Elton H.; de Oliveira, Artur P.; Ribeiro-Filho, Nilton P.; Da Silva, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    Visual angles are defined as the angle between line of sight up to the mean point of a relative distance and the relative distance itself. In one experiment, we examined the functional aspect of visual angle in relative distance perception using two different layouts composed by 14 stakes, one of them with its center 23 m away from the observation…

  8. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men.

    PubMed

    Zembron-Lacny, A; Dziubek, W; Rynkiewicz, M; Morawin, B; Woźniewski, M

    2016-06-20

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  9. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Zembron-Lacny, A.; Dziubek, W.; Rynkiewicz, M.; Morawin, B.; Woźniewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  10. Nuclear Control of Respiratory Chain Expression by Nuclear Respiratory Factors and PGC-1-Related Coactivator

    PubMed Central

    Scarpulla, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the respiratory apparatus depends on both nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Although these genes are sequestered in distinct cellular organelles, their transcription relies on nucleus-encoded factors. Certain of these factors are directed to the mitochondria, where they sponsor the bi-directional transcription of mitochondrial DNA. Others act on nuclear genes that encode the majority of the respiratory subunits and many other gene products required for the assembly and function of the respiratory chain. The nuclear respiratory factors, NRF-1 and NRF-2, contribute to the expression of respiratory subunits and mitochondrial transcription factors and thus have been implicated in nucleo-mitochondrial interactions. In addition, coactivators of the PGC-1 family serve as mediators between the environment and the transcriptional machinery governing mitochondrial biogenesis. One family member, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC), is an immediate early gene product that is rapidly induced by mitogenic signals in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. Like other PGC-1 family members, PRC binds NRF-1 and activates NRF-1 target genes. In addition, PRC complexes with NRF-2 and HCF-1 (host cell factor-1) in the activation of NRF-2-dependent promoters. HCF-1 functions in cell-cycle progression and has been identified as an NRF-2 coactivator. The association of these factors with PRC is suggestive of a role for the complex in cell growth. Finally, shRNA-mediated knock down of PRC expression results in a complex phenotype that includes the inhibition of respiratory growth on galactose and the loss of respiratory complexes. Thus, PRC may help integrate the expression of the respiratory apparatus with the cell proliferative program. PMID:19076454

  11. 25 CFR 39.1101 - Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in fiscal year 1982. 39.1101 Section 39.1101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Programs § 39.1101 Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School...

  12. 25 CFR 39.1101 - Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in fiscal year 1982. 39.1101 Section 39.1101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Programs § 39.1101 Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School...

  13. 25 CFR 39.1101 - Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in fiscal year 1982. 39.1101 Section 39.1101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Programs § 39.1101 Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School...

  14. 25 CFR 39.1101 - Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in fiscal year 1982. 39.1101 Section 39.1101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Programs § 39.1101 Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School...

  15. 25 CFR 39.1101 - Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School Equalization Formula in fiscal year 1982. 39.1101 Section 39.1101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Programs § 39.1101 Addition of pre-kindergarten as a weight factor to the Indian School...

  16. Factors related to coercive sexual behavior in a nonclinical sample of males.

    PubMed

    Murphy, W D; Coleman, E M; Haynes, M R

    1986-01-01

    The sexual coercion literature has suggested numerous factors related to aggressive sexual behavior. The present investigation explores a number of these factors in a community sample. Data collected from 189 volunteers from the community included measures of sexual arousal, social perception, personality variables, attitudes toward women, and self-reported likelihood to rape. Multiple-regression analyses were used to determine the relative association of these factors to coercive sexual behavior. The present findings suggested that social perception, Extraversion and Neuroticism from the Eysenck Personality Inventory, sexual arousal, and self-reported likelihood to rape all contributed to the multiple regression. Rape Myth Acceptance, although not contributing significantly to the multiple regression, did show a significant zero-order correlation with coercive sexual behavior. Additional analyses were performed in an attempt to replicate an earlier predictive study by Malamuth and Check (1983) that found self-reported sexual arousal to be predicted by a combination of self-reported likelihood to rape, Psychoticism and Neuroticism from the Eysenck Personality Inventory, power motivation, and sexual experience. In the present study, both self-reported sexual arousal and penile tumescence measures were significantly related to attitudinal measures, social perception measures, and self-reported likelihood to rape. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:3154152

  17. [Seasonal variation and related influencing factors for tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Lu, Z Q; Xie, H; Duan, Q H

    2016-08-10

    Tuberculosis is recognized as a chronic respiratory infectious disease and still one of the important public health issues in the world. Douglas reported an unique seasonal pattern (summer peak) of tuberculosis, when compared with most other respiratory diseases in 1996. Since then, there had been many other researchers notified various patterns of seasonality on TB. This paper reviewed all the studies published in the last five years and analyzed the current findings on seasonal variability and influencing factors, in order to explore the risk factors to provide evidence for prevention and control strategies on tuberculosis. PMID:27539356

  18. School Climate Factors Relating to Teacher Burnout: A Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Jessica L.; Alvarez, Heather K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated components of school climate (i.e. parent/community relations, administration, student behavioral values) and assessed their influence on the core burnout dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and feelings of low Personal Accomplishment. The study weighed the relative contributions of demographic…

  19. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in age-related lung disease.

    PubMed

    Sauler, Maor; Bucala, Richard; Lee, Patty J

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of many common respiratory disorders, including pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer, increases with age. Little is known of the host factors that may predispose individuals to such diseases. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a potent upstream regulator of the immune system. MIF is encoded by variant alleles that occur commonly in the population. In addition to its role as a proinflammatory cytokine, a growing body of literature demonstrates that MIF influences diverse molecular processes important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and may influence the incidence or clinical manifestations of a variety of chronic lung diseases. This review highlights the biological properties of MIF and its implication in age-related lung disease. PMID:25957294

  20. Which Psychosocial Factors Are Related to Drinking among Rural Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Spoth, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors with alcohol use for adolescents residing in rural Iowa. This association was also tested separately for boys and girls. Seventh graders (N = 1673) self-reported alcohol use, peer drinking norms, adult drinking norms, drug refusal assertiveness, drug refusal techniques, life skills,…

  1. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  2. Transcription factors in late megakaryopoiesis and related platelet disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tijssen, M R; Ghevaert, C

    2013-01-01

    Cell type-specific transcription factors regulate the repertoire of genes expressed in a cell and thereby determine its phenotype. The differentiation of megakaryocytes, the platelet progenitors, from hematopoietic stem cells is a well-known process that can be mimicked in culture. However, the efficient formation of platelets in culture remains a challenge. Platelet formation is a complicated process including megakaryocyte maturation, platelet assembly and platelet shedding. We hypothesize that a better understanding of the transcriptional regulation of this process will allow us to influence it such that sufficient numbers of platelets can be produced for clinical applications. After an introduction to gene regulation and platelet formation, this review summarizes the current knowledge of the regulation of platelet formation by the transcription factors EVI1, GATA1, FLI1, NFE2, RUNX1, SRF and its co-factor MKL1, and TAL1. Also covered is how some platelet disorders including myeloproliferative neoplasms, result from disturbances of the transcriptional regulation. These disorders give us invaluable insights into the crucial role these transcription factors play in platelet formation. Finally, there is discussion of how a better understanding of these processes will be needed to allow for efficient production of platelets in vitro. PMID:23311859

  3. Factors Related to Rural School Administrators' Satisfaction with Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; de la Varre, Claire; Farmer, Thomas W.; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rural school district administrators' satisfaction with distance education in the United States and to identify factors that may contribute to their satisfaction. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators in randomly selected rural districts across the country. Analyses revealed that students'…

  4. Factors Related to Pedagogical Beliefs of Teachers and Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shih-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    In Taiwan, teachers are expected to integrate technology into instruction with learner-centered beliefs; however, teacher beliefs and practices may differ. The contextual factors influencing this inconsistency must be identified. This study first examines the relationship between pedagogical beliefs of teachers and teaching activities, and further…

  5. Corticotropin-releasing factor-related peptides, serotonergic systems, and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James H.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a 41-amino acid neuropeptide that is involved in stress-related physiology and behavior, including control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Members of the CRF family of neuropeptides, including urocortin 1 (UCN 1), UCN 2, and UCN 3, bind to the G protein-coupled receptors, CRF type 1 (CRF1) and CRF2 receptors. In addition, CRF binding protein (CRFBP) binds both CRF and UCN 1 and can modulate their activities. There are multiple mechanisms through which CRF-related peptides may influence emotional behavior, one of which is through altering the activity of brainstem neuromodulatory systems, including serotonergic systems. CRF and CRF-related peptides act within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), the major source for serotonin (5-HT) in the brain, to alter the neuronal activity of specific subsets of serotonergic neurons and to influence stress-related behavior. CRF-containing axonal fibers innervate the DR in a topographically organized manner, which may contribute to the ability of CRF to alter the activity of specific subsets of serotonergic neurons. CRF and CRF-related peptides can either increase or decrease serotonergic neuronal firing rates and serotonin release, depending on their concentrations and on the specific CRF receptor subtype(s) involved. This review aims to describe the interactions between CRF-related peptides and serotonergic systems, the consequences for stress-related behavior, and implications for vulnerability to anxiety and affective disorders. PMID:24065880

  6. Type 1 Diabetes in the Spanish Population: additional factors to Class II HLA-DR3 and -DR4

    PubMed Central

    Urcelay, Elena; Santiago, José L; de la Calle, Hermenegildo; Martínez, Alfonso; Méndez, Julián; Ibarra, José M; Maluenda, Carlos; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; de la Concha, Emilio G

    2005-01-01

    Background The Major Histocompatibility Complex is the main genetic contributor to susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D); genome-wide scans have consistently mapped increased predisposition to this region. The highest disease risk has been associated with HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4. In particular, the DR3-positive ancestral haplotype 18.2 was reported as highly diabetogenic. We aimed to corroborate whether this haplotype increases the susceptibility conferred by the DQ2-DR3 alleles in a Mediterranean population. We also searched for additional susceptibility factors to the classic DQ2-DR3 and DQ8-DR4. Results Genetic MHC markers were analysed in a case-control study with 302 T1D patients and 529 ethnically matched controls. DR3-TNFa1b5 carrier rate was significantly higher in DR3-positive heterozygous T1D patients than in DR3-positive heterozygous controls (p = 0.0019; odds ratio OR [95% confidence interval CI] = 2.26 [1.3–3.93]). This data was confirmed analysing the allelic frequency, which includes the information corresponding to the DR3-homozygous individuals (p = 0.001; OR = 2.09) and by using the Arlequin software to check the DR3-positive haplotypes (p = 0.004;OR = 1.93). The present results provide strong evidence of a second susceptibility region in the ancestral haplotype 18.2 in the Spanish population. Moreover, we searched for T1D susceptibility factors in addition to the MHC classical ones, within the DR2-DQ6/DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 negative population. Several genetic markers in both MHC class II (DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501 [p = 0.007;OR = 2.81], DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202 [p = 0.03; OR = 2.35]) and III (TNFa2b1 [p = 0.01 OR = 2.74], BAT-2*2 [p = 0.004; OR = 3.19]) were found. These different alleles associated with T1D were not independent and we observed linkage disequilibrium among them leading us to describe two new risk haplotypes (DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501-TNFa2b1 and DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202- BAT-2*2). Finally, we studied a T1D susceptibility/protection marker located in

  7. Physiological and environmental factors related to carbon isotopic variations in mollusc shell carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, D.E.; Williams, D.F.; Jones, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of mollusc shell carbonate has been used as a general environmental indicator in numerous studies, but relatively little is known of the factors which affect within-shell variation. Primary control of delta/sup 13/C values in shell carbonate comes from the dissolved bicarbonate source, particularly as related to marine versus fresh water. Present models explain cyclic variations in the delta/sup 13/C profiles of mollusc shells due to upwelling, phytoplankton productivity and stratification, disequilibrium with rapid shell growth, and infaunal versus epifaunal habitat. Carbon and oxygen isotopic profiles in this study were obtained from specimens of Spisula solidissima (surf clam) and Placopecten magellanicus (sea scallop) collected alive from 14 to 57 m water depths off the Virginia coast. Three main factors appear to affect the delta/sup 13/C profiles in these specimens. Isotopically light values commonly associated with the spring and occasionally the fall correspond with seasonal phytoplankton productivity. A significant negative delta/sup 13/C offset of the infaunal Spisula relative to the epifaunal Placopecten probably relates to the inclusion of isotopically more negative pore-water bicarbonate by Spisula. Additionally, occasional transient spikes in both the delta/sup 18/O and delta/sup 13/C profiles correspond to intrusion of reduced-salinity water.

  8. Sodium Benzoate, a Metabolite of Cinnamon and a Food Additive, Upregulates Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-11-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:26399250

  9. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Factors Related to Achievement in Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronna C.; Lindsay, Harriet A.

    2003-05-01

    For many college students in the sciences, organic chemistry poses a difficult challenge. Indeed, success in organic chemistry has proven pivotal in the careers of a vast number of students in a variety of science disciplines. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to achievement in this course should contribute to efforts to increase the number of students in the science disciplines. Further, an awareness of gender differences in factors associated with achievement should aid efforts to bolster the participation of women in chemistry and related disciplines. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of several cognitive variables and noncognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. Cognitive variables included the second-semester general chemistry grade, the ACT English, math, reading, and science-reasoning scores, and scores from a spatial visualization test. Noncognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. The second-semester general chemistry grade was found to be the best indicator of performance in organic chemistry, while the effectiveness of other predictors varied between instructors. In addition, gender differences were found in the explanations of organic chemistry achievement variance provided by this study. In general, males exhibited stronger correlations between predictor variables and organic chemistry achievement than females.

  10. Immunoregulatory activity of peptides related to platelet factor 4.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, M B; Katz, I R; Thorbecke, G J; Milot, D C; Holt, J

    1989-01-01

    Platelet factor 4 (PF4), a secreted platelet protein, alleviates concanavalin A-induced immunosuppression in mice. We now find that activity also resides in (i) the C-terminal tridecapeptide of PF4 (P13S), (ii) an analog of this in which arginine replaces the lysine residues and in which the last two amino acids are absent, (iii) the C-terminal 18 amino acids of low-affinity platelet factor 4, which is very similar to P13S, and (iv) peptide fragments of P13S that contain only 5-9 amino acids. P13S treated with fluorescamine to derivatize the free amino groups retained immunoregulatory activity but did not bind to heparin-agarose. The N-terminal and middle portions of PF4, polylysine, protamine, and three unrelated peptides were inactive in this assay. PMID:2678107

  11. Obesity and Related Factors in Iran: The STEPS Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Seifi, Behjat; Rafei, Ali; Biglarian, Akbar; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Bidhendi Yarandi, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, no study has addressed the association between race/ethnicity and obesity considering other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to study lifestyle and the environmental factors affecting obesity in the Iranian subjects of the STEPS Survey, 2011. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 8639 subjects (aged ≥ 20 years) in the STEPS Survey 2011 in Iran under supervision of the World Health Organization (WHO). Height and body weight were measured following the standardized procedures. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used to examine factors associated with obesity. The examined variables were age, gender, race/ethnicity, place of residence, employment status, physical activity, smoking status, and educational level. Results: Overall, 22.3% of the subjects were obese. In a GEE model, a healthy weight status among adults was associated with being younger, male, in a rural residence, employees, spending more time engaged in physical activity, being a smoker and having a moderate or high level of education. These associations were statistically significant after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions: The study results suggest a need for targeted interventions and continued surveillance for the Iranian adults. PMID:26328062

  12. Dietary Factors in Relation to Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mard, Seyyed Ali; Khadem Haghighian, Hossein; Sebghatulahi, Vahid; Ahmadi, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Helicobacter pylori (HP) and diet are both risk factors for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary habits common in Khuzestan province. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011–2013 on 374 patients. Participants were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire and tissue sample of the antrum was sent for pathology lab. The histopathological major variables were graded on a scale of 3 (mild, moderate, and severe) and data analyzed using nonparametric tests. Results. In this study, of 160 patients (43%) that were determined, 8.1 percent had severe contamination. Among dietary patterns, relationship between energy intake and carbohydrate with H. pylori was significant. A direct association was found between mean daily intakes of sausage (P = 0.001) and burgers (P < 0.05) with HP infection. Low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits was the most significant risk factors (P < 0.05). Conclusion. There is a possibility that some dietary factors such as consumption of fast foods and low intake of fresh vegetables may increase the chance of HP and severity of this infection. PMID:25574164

  13. Psychosocial Factors Related to Smoking: The Midlife Study

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited research on the correlates of cigarette smoking in women in late midlife. Objectives The present study examined the associations between risk factors in several psychosocial domains and current cigarette smoking among women in their mid-60s. These domains included risks in personal attributes, family relationships, negative life events, financial stressors, contextual factors, and problematic alcohol use. Methods Data were from a cohort of women originally living in two upstate New York counties (N=511) in late midlife (x̄ age = 65). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The results supported our hypotheses. The cumulative psychosocial risk index was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of cigarette smoking [A.O.R.=1.53; 95% C.I. (1.3-.181); p<.001] after controlling for age and educational level. Conclusions and Scientific Significance It is important to reduce the number of psychosocial risk factors faced by women in their 60s in order to reduce the likelihood of continued cigarette smoking. PMID:25065534

  14. Use of a Generalized Additive Model to Investigate Key Abiotic Factors Affecting Microcystin Cellular Quotas in Heavy Bloom Areas of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

  15. Use of a generalized additive model to investigate key abiotic factors affecting microcystin cellular quotas in heavy bloom areas of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

  16. Additional diagnostic and clinical value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies compared with rheumatoid factor isotypes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Vallbracht, Inka; Helmke, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    In the past decade significant advantages have been made in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and therapeutic strategies have changed a lot. These days, highly effective disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs enable intervention early in the disease process, in order to prevent major joint damage. For years, serological support in the diagnosis of RA has been limited to the presence of rheumatoid factors, although not very specific for RA. During the last years a variety of circulating non-RF antibodies have been discovered and reported to be of potential diagnostic value. CCP2 proved to be a very disease-specific and even sensitive marker for RA. In addition to the diagnostic properties, CCP showed to be a good prognostic marker, CCP helps to predict the erosive or nonerosive progression of the disease, and CCP is already present early in the disease. This diagnostic tool enables the clinician to choose the optimal therapeutic management for each single RA patient. PMID:16081030

  17. Diabetes as a risk factor for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Peer, A; Khamaisi, M

    2015-02-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe devastating complication for which the exact pathogenesis is not completely understood. Multiple systemic and local factors may contribute to the development of MRONJ. A growing body of evidence supports diabetes mellitus (DM) as an important risk factor for this complication; however, the exact mechanism by which DM may promote MRONJ has yet to be determined. The current review elucidates the role of DM in the pathogenesis of MRONJ and the mechanisms by which DM may increase the risk for MRONJ. Factors related to DM pathogenesis and treatment may contribute to poor bone quality through multiple damaged pathways, including microvascular ischemia, endothelial cell dysfunction, reduced remodeling of bone, and increased apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes. In addition, DM induces changes in immune cell function and promotes inflammation. This increases the risk for chronic infection in the settings of cancer and its treatment, as well as antiresorptive medication exposure, thus raising the risk of developing MRONJ. A genetic predisposition for MRONJ, coupled with CYP 450 gene alterations, has been suggested to affect the degradation of medications for DM such as thiazolidinediones and may further increase the risk for MRONJ. PMID:25477311

  18. Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Peer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe devastating complication for which the exact pathogenesis is not completely understood. Multiple systemic and local factors may contribute to the development of MRONJ. A growing body of evidence supports diabetes mellitus (DM) as an important risk factor for this complication; however, the exact mechanism by which DM may promote MRONJ has yet to be determined. The current review elucidates the role of DM in the pathogenesis of MRONJ and the mechanisms by which DM may increase the risk for MRONJ. Factors related to DM pathogenesis and treatment may contribute to poor bone quality through multiple damaged pathways, including microvascular ischemia, endothelial cell dysfunction, reduced remodeling of bone, and increased apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes. In addition, DM induces changes in immune cell function and promotes inflammation. This increases the risk for chronic infection in the settings of cancer and its treatment, as well as antiresorptive medication exposure, thus raising the risk of developing MRONJ. A genetic predisposition for MRONJ, coupled with CYP 450 gene alterations, has been suggested to affect the degradation of medications for DM such as thiazolidinediones and may further increase the risk for MRONJ. PMID:25477311

  19. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

  20. Alliance for a Healthy Border: factors related to weight reduction and glycemic success.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia; Pagán, José A; Balboa, Marvelia

    2012-04-01

    We examined the factors related to success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control in Alliance for a Healthy Border (AHB), a chronic disease prevention program implemented from 2006 to 2009 through 12 federally qualified community health centers serving primarily Hispanics in communities located along the US-Mexico border region. We analyzed data from Phase I of AHB using logistic regression to examine the determinants of success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control among the participants in AHB programs. Factors affecting weight reduction success were sex, age, employment status, income, insurance, diabetes, baseline body mass index (BMI), smoking status, family history of diabetes, session type, program duration, and physical activity changes. Factors affecting achievement of glycemic success included sex, age, employment status, diabetes, baseline BMI, family history of diabetes, program duration, and physical activity changes. We found that the AHB interventions were more successful in reducing participants' HbA1c level than BMI. In addition to sociodemographic factors, participants with better baseline health conditions (ie, participants without diabetes or family history of diabetes, normal BMI, former smokers) were more likely to achieve success after the interventions. Of the 4 key features defining each of the 12 interventions, session type and program duration were associated with success. Within a relatively short time period, physical activity improvements had a stronger effect on weight reduction and glycemic success than improvements in dietary habits. The effectiveness of diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention programs can be improved substantially by considering these factors during program design and structure. PMID:22506803

  1. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. Methods In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results According to parents’ rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study revealed that children's family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child's potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies. PMID:24454423

  2. Breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast density (United States)

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Kasales, Claudia; Weiss, Julia; Goodrich, Martha; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Carney, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate known breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast density. Methods We examined factors in relation to breast density in 144,018 New Hampshire (NH) women with at least one mammogram recorded in a statewide mammography registry. Mammographic breast density was measured by radiologists using the BI-RADS classification; risk factors of interest were obtained from patient intake forms and questionnaires. Results Initial analyses showed a strong inverse influence of age and body mass index (BMI) on breast density. In addition, women with late age at menarche, late age at first birth, premenopausal women, and those currently using hormone therapy (HT) tended to have higher breast density, while those with greater parity tended to have less dense breasts. Analyses stratified on age and BMI suggested interactions, which were formally assessed in a multivariable model. The impact of current HT use, relative to nonuse, differed across age groups, with an inverse association in younger women, and a positive association in older women (p < 0.0001 for the interaction). The positive effects of age at menarche and age at first birth, and the inverse influence of parity were less apparent in women with low BMI than in those with high BMI (p = 0.04, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively, for the interactions). We also noted stronger positive effects for age at first birth in postmenopausal women (p = 0.004 for the interaction). The multivariable model indicated a slight positive influence of family history of breast cancer. Conclusions The influence of age at menarche and reproductive factors on breast density is less evident in women with high BMI. Density is reduced in young women using HT, but increased in HT users of age 50 or more. PMID:17111260

  3. Faculty Perceptions of Policy-Related Factors in Academic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toombs, William; Friedman, Renee

    Similarities and differences in attitudes and values among research faculty on items related to the nature of their work, the criteria sets for evaluating it, and the social and physical conditions under which it is performed are examined. Patterns of research activity are found to fall along lines that do not exactly correspond to the…

  4. After Divorce: Personality Factors Related to the Process of Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra Paul

    1982-01-01

    Considered personality variables related to postdivorce adjustment using a sample of 58 females and 31 males. Found persons with the best adjustment scored significantly higher on dominance/assertiveness, self-assurance, intelligence, creativity/imagination, social boldness, liberalism, self-sufficiency, ego strength and tranquility. (Author/JAC)

  5. Physical Activity among Older People and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Ann; While, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the duration, intensity and type of physical activity undertaken by people aged 60 years and over in relation to their reported levels of participation in social activities and their perceptions of their neighbourhood. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of older people attending two luncheon and eight social…

  6. Factors Related to the Pronunciation of Vowel Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.

    This research report examines the pronunciation that children give to synthetic words containing vowel-cluster spellings and analyzes the observed pronunciations in relation to common English words containing the same vowel clusters. The pronunciations associated with vowel-cluster spellings are among the most unpredictable letter-sound…

  7. Factors Related to Adolescent's Expectations of Marital Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, Joye E.; Bollman, Stephen R.

    1970-01-01

    The Marriage Role Expectation Inventory developed by Marie Dunn was used to show the degree that adolescent marriage role expectations were traditional or equalitarian. Inventory scores were found to be related to grade average, social status, and age. The findings and their use in counseling and teaching are discussed. (Author)

  8. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  9. Mor-Dalphos-Pd (II) oxidative addition complexes and related NH3 adducts: Insights into bonding and nonbonding interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Batista, Ana P.; Braga, Ataualpa A. C.

    2016-09-01

    The stabilizing effects and bonding properties of the Pd metallic center in [(κ2 -P,N-Mor-Dalphos)Pd(Ar)Cl] complexes and related NH3 adducts were investigated by density functional theory (DFT), the intrinsic bond orbital (IBO) approach and the Su-Li energy decomposition method (Su-Li EDA). The IBO analysis showed that the P atom from the P,N-Mor-Dalphos structure has stabilizing contributions in all Pd-Cl and Pd-NH3 bonds in the complexes. According to the Su-Li energy decomposition analysis, the main energy that drives the interaction between the [Mor-Dalphos-Pd(Ar)] moiety and Cl- is the electrostatic term, therefore, the electrostatic energy interaction between them might be an important factor for taking into account when designing other [Mor-Dalphos-Pd(Ar)]-Cl precatalysts.

  10. 26 CFR 1.864-8T - Treatment of related person factoring income (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of related person factoring income... December 30, 1996 § 1.864-8T Treatment of related person factoring income (temporary). (a) Applicability—(1... the factoring business. Y resells the receivable to FPHC. Because FPHC has indirectly acquired...

  11. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    PubMed

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. PMID:27262214

  12. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A.; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 year-1 (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013–2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration. PMID:26629695

  13. Outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothorax with small-caliber chest tubes: factors affecting the need for prolonged drainage and additional interventions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay; Hicks, Marshall E; Wallace, Michael J; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions. We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001). We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path. PMID:18074173

  14. Outpatient Management of Postbiopsy Pneumothorax with Small-Caliber Chest Tubes: Factors Affecting the Need for Prolonged Drainage and Additional Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay Hicks, Marshall E.; Wallace, Michael J.; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions.We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001).We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path.

  15. Factors influencing estimation of pesticide-related wildlife mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.

    1999-01-01

    Free-ranging wildlife is regularly exposed to pesticides and can serve as a sentinel for human and environmental health. Therefore a comprehensive pesticide hazard assessment must incorporate the effects of actual applications on free-ranging wildlife. Mortality is the most readily reported wildlife effect, and the significance of these data can be realized only when placed in context with the factors that affect the gathering of this type of information. This paper reviews the variables that affect the collection of wildlife mortality data. Data show that most effects on wildlife are not observed, and much of observed mortality is not reported. Delays in reporting or in the response to a report and exposure to multiple stressors distort the exposure-effect relationship and can result in uncertainty in determining the cause of death. The synthesis of information strongly indicates that the actual number of affected animals exceeds the number recovered

  16. [Relation of a suicidal behaviour with the heliogeophysical factors].

    PubMed

    Rozanov, V A; Hryhor'iev, P Ie; Vaĭserman, O M; Vladymyrs'kyĭ, B M

    2010-01-01

    Heliogeophysical parameters of the environment at the time of realization of suicidal behaviours using the data of four independent cohorts from different Ukrainian regions, separately for men (totally 7585 cases) and women (totally 4023 cases) for interval of 1989-2008 were analysed. A suicidal behaviour of men is actualized when geomagnetic activity decreases after its maximum. Heliogeophysical factors have smaller influence on women's suicidal behaviour. Suicide bombing attacks in Israel, Iraq and Afghanistan (for the period from 1994 to 2008) tend to take place by the maximal values of geomagnetic activity or during changes in interplanetary magnetic field polarity from negative to positive. These findings promote future discussion regarding unifying psychological or psycho-physiological mechanisms in suicides and suicidal terroristic acts and have some predicting potential. PMID:20799631

  17. Inflammation and cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, contributing factors, and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.; Lamkin, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Guided by basic research on neuro-immune interactions, a growing body of research has examined the hypothesis that cancer-related fatigue is driven by activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine network. In this review, we examine the current state of the evidence linking inflammation and cancer-related fatigue, drawing from recent human research and from experimental animal models probing effects of cancer and cancer treatment on inflammation and fatigue. In addition, we consider two key questions that are currently driving research in this area: what are the neural mechanisms of fatigue, and what are the biological and psychological factors that influence the onset and/or persistence of inflammation and fatigue in cancer patients and survivors? Identification of the mechanisms driving cancer-related fatigue and associated risk factors will facilitate the development of targeted interventions for vulnerable patients. PMID:22776268

  18. Young systemic factors as a medicine for age-related neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Katsimpardi, Lida; Rubin, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that neurogenesis, brain function and cognition decline with aging. Increasing evidence suggests that cerebrovascular dysfunction is a major cause of cognitive impairment in the elderly but is also involved in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Finding ways and molecules that reverse this process and ameliorate age- and disease-related cognitive impairment by targeting vascular and neurogenic deterioration would be of great therapeutic value. In Katsimpardi et al. we reported that young blood has a dual beneficial effect in the aged brain by restoring age-related decline in neurogenesis as well as inducing a striking remodeling of the aged vasculature and restoring blood flow to youthful levels. Additionally, we identified a youthful systemic factor, GDF11 that recapitulates these beneficial effects of young blood. We believe that the identification of young systemic factors that can rejuvenate the aged brain opens new roads to therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting both neural stem cells and neurogenesis as well as at the vasculature.

  19. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery. PMID:27024992

  20. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kämppi, Leena; Ritvanen, Jaakko; Mustonen, Harri; Soinila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE). Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years) diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p = 0.027), onset-to-burst-suppression (p = 0.005), and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p = 0.035) delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated. PMID:26347816

  1. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kämppi, Leena; Ritvanen, Jaakko; Mustonen, Harri; Soinila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE). Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years) diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p = 0.027), onset-to-burst-suppression (p = 0.005), and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p = 0.035) delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated. PMID:26347816

  2. Alcoholism prevalence and some related factors in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekuklu, Galip; Deveci, Serol; Eskiocak, Muzaffer; Berberoglu, Ufuk; Saltik, Ahmet

    2004-04-30

    The aim of this research was to estimate the community prevalence of alcoholism and the potential risk factors that affect it in the Edirne provincial centre by using a scanning test. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Edirne provincial centre. A sample population composed of 500 women and 200 men was selected randomly after the categorisation of the population according to ethnicity, age and sex. Through face-to-face interviews, data collection sheets, which were prepared to analyse potential factors affecting alcoholism frequency, were filled in by the sample population. The Michigan Alcoholism Scanning Test (MAST) was employed. According to MAST's normal grading, individuals with 5 or more points are evaluated as alcoholics. Accordingly, 8.2% of the sample population fit the definition of alcoholic. Alcoholism frequency was considerably higher in gypsies, the self-employed, smokers, and people with higher income. From logistic regression analysis alcoholism frequency was 12.4 times higher in men than in women, 3.2 times higher in gypsies than in others, 1.9 times higher in people who earned an income in the preceding week than in the unemployed, and 3.7 times higher in individuals who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their life or those who had smoked at least 1 cigarette for 3 months or for a longer period than in those who hadn't smoked any cigarettes. The prevalence of alcoholism in the Edirne provincial centre was similar to that in other countries in Europe. The most important finding was that alcohol consumption decreased in the unemployed, a finding that differs from that in other parts of the world. Gypsies, who differ in tradition, way of life, and job compared to the other strata of society, also suffered from higher alcohol consumption. This group usually consumed wine and generally did not eat while drinking. PMID:15118990

  3. How therapeutic communities work: Specific factors related to positive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Steve; Pickard, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic communities (TCs) are becoming increasingly widespread as a form of treatment for entrenched mental health problems, particularly addictions and personality disorders, and are equally used in educational, prison and learning disability settings. Despite growing evidence for their effectiveness, little research has been conducted to establish how TCs work to produce positive outcomes. We hypothesize that there are two specific factors that in combination contribute to TC effectiveness: the promotion of a sense of belongingness and the capacity for responsible agency. Although both factors are found in other therapeutic approaches and are important to the psychosocial aspects of psychiatric care more generally, we argue that their combination, extent and emphasis are unique to TCs. Material Drawing on social and experimental psychology, we: (1) review research on a sense of belongingness and the capacity for responsible agency; (2) establish the mechanisms by which TCs appear to promote them; (3) draw lessons for TC practice; and (4) suggest why they may contribute to positive outcome. Discussion A sense of belongingness is correlated with improved self-esteem and overall well-being. The capacity for responsible agency is central to behavioural change. TCs are typically used in fields where positive outcome requires both personal growth and behavioural change. We suggest that TCs are uniquely placed to demand such growth and change of their members because the sense of belongingness engendered by TC methods protects against the risks engendered by this demand. Conclusion Empirically informed, evidence-driven research is necessary to understand how TCs work and how TC practice can be improved. This understanding may offer lessons for the improvement of psychosocial aspects of psychiatric care more generally. PMID:22820178

  4. Neuropsychological factors related to college ice hockey concussions.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Heather A; Ferraro, F Richard; Himle, Michael; Schultz, Caitlin; Poolman, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed data from 74 male collegiate hockey players. Each athlete's season began with a baseline administration of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychology test battery. Fourteen athletes sustained a sport-related head injury and were readministered the test to assess the impact of the injury. A significant decrease in performance (compared to baseline) on immediate and delayed word recall and designs followed the first concussion. Following a second sport-related concussion, the 4 affected athletes showed significant decrease in visual motor speed. Performance improved on 2 response speed measures (Ps < .01). More errors occurred during a visual processing/discrimination task and immediate recall of designs declined (Ps < .05). We discuss the results in light of recent work related to the impact of early-life concussions and head injury on late-life consequences, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and more immediate issues such as return-to-play decisions for athletes. PMID:24370620

  5. Risk factor analysis for long-term tunneled dialysis catheter-related bacteremias.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Charra, B; Chazot, C; Vanel, T; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M; Laurent, G

    2002-07-01

    Infection, mainly related to vascular access, is one of the main causes of morbidity and a preventable cause of death in hemodialysis patients. From January 1994 to April 1998 we conducted a prospective study to assess the incidence and risk factors of catheter-related bacteremia. One hundred and twenty-nine tunneled dual-lumen hemodialysis catheters were inserted percutaneously into the internal jugular vein in 89 patients. Bacteremia (n = 56) occurred at least once with 37 (29%) of the catheters (an incidence of 1.1/1,000 catheter-days); local infection (n = 45, 1/1,000 catheter-days) was associated with bacteremia in 18 cases. Death in 1 case was directly related to Staphylococcus aureus (SA) septic shock, and septicemia contributed to deaths in 2 additional cases. Catheters were removed in 48% of the bacteremic episodes. Treatment comprised intravenous double antimicrobial therapy for 15-20 days. Bacteriological data of bacteremia showed 55% involvement of SA. Nasal carriage of SA was observed in 35% of the patients with catheters. Bacteremic catheters were more frequently observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03), peripheral atherosclerosis (p = 0.001), a previous history of bacteremia (p = 0.05), nasal carriage of SA (p = 0.0001), longer catheter survival time (p = 0.001), higher total intravenous iron dose (p = 0.001), more frequent urokinase catheter infusion (p < 0.01), and local infection (p < 0.001) compared with non-bacteremic catheters. Monovariate survival analysis showed that significant initial risk factors for bacteremia were nasal carriage of SA (p = 0.00001), previous bacteremia (p = 0.0001), peripheral atherosclerosis (p = 0.005), and diabetes (p = 0.04). This study confirms the relatively high incidence of bacteremia with tunneled double-lumen silicone catheters and its potential complications. Possible preventive actions are discussed according to the risk factors. PMID:12119469

  6. Supplementing High-Density SNP Microarrays for Additional Coverage of Disease-Related Genes: Addiction as a Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    SacconePhD, Scott F; Chesler, Elissa J; Bierut, Laura J; Kalivas, Peter J; Lerman, Caryn; Saccone, Nancy L; Uhl, George R; Li, Chuan-Yun; Philip, Vivek M; Edenberg, Howard; Sherry, Steven; Feolo, Michael; Moyzis, Robert K; Rutter, Joni L

    2009-01-01

    Commercial SNP microarrays now provide comprehensive and affordable coverage of the human genome. However, some diseases have biologically relevant genomic regions that may require additional coverage. Addiction, for example, is thought to be influenced by complex interactions among many relevant genes and pathways. We have assembled a list of 486 biologically relevant genes nominated by a panel of experts on addiction. We then added 424 genes that showed evidence of association with addiction phenotypes through mouse QTL mappings and gene co-expression analysis. We demonstrate that there are a substantial number of SNPs in these genes that are not well represented by commercial SNP platforms. We address this problem by introducing a publicly available SNP database for addiction. The database is annotated using numeric prioritization scores indicating the extent of biological relevance. The scores incorporate a number of factors such as SNP/gene functional properties (including synonymy and promoter regions), data from mouse systems genetics and measures of human/mouse evolutionary conservation. We then used HapMap genotyping data to determine if a SNP is tagged by a commercial microarray through linkage disequilibrium. This combination of biological prioritization scores and LD tagging annotation will enable addiction researchers to supplement commercial SNP microarrays to ensure comprehensive coverage of biologically relevant regions.

  7. Supplementing High-Density SNP Microarrays for Additional Coverage of Disease-Related Genes: Addiction as a Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Scott F.; Bierut, Laura J.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Kalivas, Peter W.; Lerman, Caryn; Saccone, Nancy L.; Uhl, George R.; Li, Chuan-Yun; Philip, Vivek M.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Feolo, Michael; Moyzis, Robert K.; Rutter, Joni L.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial SNP microarrays now provide comprehensive and affordable coverage of the human genome. However, some diseases have biologically relevant genomic regions that may require additional coverage. Addiction, for example, is thought to be influenced by complex interactions among many relevant genes and pathways. We have assembled a list of 486 biologically relevant genes nominated by a panel of experts on addiction. We then added 424 genes that showed evidence of association with addiction phenotypes through mouse QTL mappings and gene co-expression analysis. We demonstrate that there are a substantial number of SNPs in these genes that are not well represented by commercial SNP platforms. We address this problem by introducing a publicly available SNP database for addiction. The database is annotated using numeric prioritization scores indicating the extent of biological relevance. The scores incorporate a number of factors such as SNP/gene functional properties (including synonymy and promoter regions), data from mouse systems genetics and measures of human/mouse evolutionary conservation. We then used HapMap genotyping data to determine if a SNP is tagged by a commercial microarray through linkage disequilibrium. This combination of biological prioritization scores and LD tagging annotation will enable addiction researchers to supplement commercial SNP microarrays to ensure comprehensive coverage of biologically relevant regions. PMID:19381300

  8. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  9. Eating Attitudes and Related Factors in Turkish Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Ugur, Bayram Ali; Aykurt, Fethi Ahmet; Bektas, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing eating behaviors might trigger obesity, deficiency, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and reactive eating disorders. Objectives: This study aimed to determine eating attitudes of nursing students in the western Black-Sea region of Turkey as well as to examine the effects of demographic features, self-esteem, body image, income level, and family structure on their eating attitudes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 nursing students between January and February 2014. Data were collected using the personal information form, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Body-Cathexis Scale (BCS), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: About 30.0% of Turkish nursing students had negative eating attitudes. There was a significant positive correlation between the BDS and EAT scores (P < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between RSES scores and EAT scores of nursing students (P < 0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between the father’s occupation (P < 0.05) and mother’s working condition (P < 0.05), and the students’ eating attitudes. Conclusions: Psychological status, self-esteem, economic level, and place of residence of nursing students may be the potential factors for eating disorders. PMID:26339662

  10. Finnish nurses' attitudes towards nursing research and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2005-02-01

    This study was concerned with Finnish nurses' attitudes to nursing research and with the associations of different background factors with these attitudes. The data were collected with a purpose-designed, structured questionnaire. The study was carried out in one central hospital, one central university hospital and 10 community health centres in Finland. A total of 400 nurses took part. The response rate was 67%. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. Attitudes to nursing research were generally quite positive, although over half of the nurses felt their own relationship to nursing science was quite distant. There were also shortfalls with respect to the information value and utilisation of research results. Only one-third took the view that doing research is an important part of the nurse's job. Age, the frequency of reading the professional literature, participation in training courses, training received in research and development, and the type of workplace were associated with attitudes. The results underline the importance of paying closer attention to the choice of research objects in the field of nursing science. Greater effort should also be invested in supporting and developing the application of research results. It is recommended that more courses on research methodology and other relevant training be made available to practical nurses. PMID:15680617

  11. Phthalate levels in nursery schools and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won; Choi, Inja; Jung, Yeonhee; Lee, Jihye; Min, Sungjae; Yoon, Chungsik

    2013-01-01

    Phthalate esters, which are known endocrine disruptors, are ubiquitously present throughout indoor environments. Leaching from building materials may be a major source of phthalate esters. In this study, we evaluated phthalate ester concentrations in dust samples from 64 classrooms located in 50 nursery schools and explored the critical factors affecting phthalate concentrations, especially with regard to building materials. Dust was sampled by a modified vacuuming method, and building materials were assessed using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to determine whether they contained polyvinyl chloride. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were the most frequently detected phthalates. Of these, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 3170 μg/g dust, and concentrations were significantly correlated with the area of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-verified flooring. DINP, which has not been well-reported in other studies, was the second-most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 688 μg/g dust, and showed a critical relationship with the number of children in the institution and the agency operating the nursery school. This is the first study to verify the sources of phthalates with an XRF analyzer and to evaluate the relationship between phthalate concentrations and PVC-verified materials. PMID:24073890

  12. [Factors related to perineal trauma in normal births in nulliparous].

    PubMed

    Scarabotto, Leila Barreto; Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez

    2006-09-01

    Many studies have been undertaken with the purpose of contributing towards the prevention of perineal trauma in normal birth. The objective of this study was to relate height of the perineum, duration of the second stage of labor, variation of the position of the head detaching, kind of effort, presence of the umbilical cord around the babies' neck, birth weight and vulva's ardor to urinate with the occurrence of perineal laceration. The study was undertaken in 2003 at the Normal Birth Center of the Amparo Maternal, with a sample consisting of 67 women in labor without previous vaginal births. The results demonstrated that there were no significant statistical differences between the variables verified. PMID:17094323

  13. Host and microbiological factors related to dental caries development.

    PubMed

    De Soet, J J; van Gemert-Schriks, M C M; Laine, M L; van Amerongen, W E; Morré, S A; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2008-01-01

    Studies on dental caries suggest that in severe cases it may induce a systemic immune response. This occurs particularly when caries progresses into pulpal inflammation and results in abscess or fistula formation (AFF). We hypothesized that severe dental caries will affect the general health of children. The acute phase proteins alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-reactive protein (CRP) and the cytokine neopterin were chosen as parameters to monitor general health. Also, a polymorphism in the bacterial ligand CD14 (-260) was studied to investigate the relationship between genotype sensitivity for bacterial infections and AFF. In Suriname, children aged 6 years were recruited and enrolled into a dental care scheme, randomly assigned to 4 groups with different treatment strategies and monitored longitudinally. 348 children were included in the present study. Blood and saliva samples were taken at baseline and 1 year, and concentrations of serum AGP, CRP, neopterin, salivary Streptococcus mutans and CD14-260 C>T polymorphism were determined. There was no significant association between different treatment strategies and the serum parameters. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed a significant association between AFF as the outcome variable and the CD14 genotype and the concentrations of CRP and of neopterin as factors (p < 0.05). A significant negative association was found between the CD14-260 TT and AFF (p = 0.035, OR = 3.3) for the whole population. For children who had 4 or more carious lesions at baseline, the significance increased (p = 0.005, OR = 4.8), suggesting that the CD14-260 TT genotype was protective for AFF as a consequence of dental caries. PMID:18701824

  14. Obesity-Related Factors in Turkish School Children

    PubMed Central

    Dündar, Cihad; Öz, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of obesity and its risk factors in Turkish children. Method. This cross-sectional survey was conducted on students including 1271 boys and 1206 girls selected from 20 secondary schools in Samsun, Turkey. A predesigned questionnaire was used to elicit the information on individual characteristics. The height and weight of students were measured in their classroom. Obesity was defined as body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age of the sex-specific CDC growth charts. Result. The mean age was 12.8 ± 0.9 years, and the prevalence of obesity was found at 10.3%. There were higher numbers of obese students in boys than in girls (X2 = 53.4; P < 0.001). The prevalence of obesity was 10.0% and 16.8% in public and private school students, respectively. The percentage of obese children in students who skipped breakfast was found to be higher than that in the group that consumed 3 meals a day regularly. There was no difference at time spent in sedentary behavior except watching TV, and prevalence of obesity in the group of students watching television over 3 hours per day was higher than that in their counterparts (X2 = 13.6; P < 0.01). The time of engagement in sports was lower in obese group statistically (F = 8.9; P < 0.001). Conclusion. In order to prevent childhood obesity, monitoring children's lifestyle by parents is necessary. PMID:22547980

  15. Quality of Working Life of Nurses and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Azizi-Fini, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses as the largest group of health care providers should enjoy a satisfactory quality of working life to be able to provide quality care to their patients. Therefore, attention should be paid to the nurses’ working life. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the quality of nurses' working life in Kashans' hospitals during 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 nurses during 2012. The data-gathering instrument consisted of two parts. The first part consisted of questions on demographic information and the second part was the Walton’s quality of work life questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. For statistical analysis T test and one way ANOVA were used. Results: The results of the study showed that 60% of nurses reported that they had moderate level of quality of working life while 37.1% and 2% had undesirable and good quality of working life, respectively. Nurses with associate degrees reported a better quality of working life than others. A significant relationship was found between variables such as education level, work experience, and type of hospital with quality of working life score (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between quality of working life score of nurses with employment status (P = 0.061), salary (P = 0.052), age, gender and marital status (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Nurses' quality of work life was at the moderate level. As quality of work life has an important impact on attracting and retaining employees, it is necessary to pay more attention to the nurses’ quality of work life and its affecting factors. PMID:25414904

  16. Influence of Psychosocial Factors and Habitual Behavior in Temporomandibular Disorder–Related Symptoms in a Working Population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akira; Kino, Koji; Sugisaki, Masashi; Tsukagoshi, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are directly influenced by numerous factors, and it is thought that additional factors exert indirect influences. However, the relationships between TMD-related symptoms (TRS) and these contributing factors are largely unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate influences on TRS in a working population by determining the prevalence of TRS, analyzing contributing factors, and determining their relative influences on TRS. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were 2203 adults who worked for a single company. Subjects completed a questionnaire assessing TRS, psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depressed mood, and chronic fatigue), tooth-contacting habit, and sleep bruxism-related morning symptoms, using a 5-point numeric rating scale. Our analysis proceeded in 2 phases. First, all variables of the descriptor were divided into parts by using an exploratory factor analysis. Second, this factorial structure was verified by using a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling. Results: Of 2203 employees, 362 reported experiencing TRS (16.4%). Structural equation modeling generated a final model with a goodness of fit index of 0.991, an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.984, and a root mean square error of approximately 0.021. These indices indicate a strong structural model. The standardized path coefficients for “habitual behavioral factors and TRS,” “psychosocial factors and habitual behavioral factors,” “psychosocial factors and TRS,” and “gender and habitual behavior factors” were 0.48, 0.38, 0.14, and 0.18, respectively. Conclusions: Habitual behavioral factors exert a stronger effect on TRS than do psychosocial factors. PMID:23346261

  17. Smoking-induced changes in cancer-related factors in patients with upper tract urothelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    MIYATA, YASUYOSHI; MITSUNARI, KENSUKE; AKIHIRO, ASAI; WATANABE, SHIN-ICHI; MOCHIZUKI, YASUSHI; SAKAI, HIDEKI

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for urothelial cancer (UC) development. However, the associations between smoking and changes in the pathological characteristics and molecular expression of cancer-related molecules in upper tract (UT) UC have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the associations between smoking status and cancer-related factors, including cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and -C, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and −9, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in patients with UTUC. A total of 134 patients who underwent nephroureterectomy were retrospectively investigated. Proliferation index (PI), microvessel density and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) were measured using anti-Ki-67, anti-CD105 and anti-D2-40 antibodies in formalin-fixed specimens. The apoptotic index was evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. Other cancer-related molecules were investigated by immunohistochemistry in similar specimens. The patients were divided into three groups; non-smoker (n=54, 40.3%), former smoker (n=46, 34.3%) and current smoker (n=34, 25.4%). The PI and the apoptotic index were not found to be correlated with smoking status; however, the mean/standard deviation level of LVD in current smokers (40.9/12.9) was significantly higher (P=0.034) compared to that in patients who had never smoked (34.4/10.6). In addition, smoking status was positively correlated with the presence of intratumoral lymphatic vessels (iLV) (P=0.010) and the expression of COX-2 and MMP-9 (P=0.032). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that current smoking was independently associated with all the abovementioned smoking-related factors. However, former smoking was correlated with LVD and the presence of iLV. In the survival analysis, LVD, the presence of iLV and the expression of COX-2 and MMP-9

  18. Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Asthma Related Outcomes in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Hofman, Albert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Few studies have analyzed the association of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with asthma related outcomes in early childhood, including Fraction of exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) and airway resistance (Rint). We examined the association of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with wheezing, asthma, FeNO and Rint at age 6 years. Additionally, the role of potential mediating factors was studied. Methods The study included 6717 children participating in The Generation R Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Data on socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, wheezing and asthma were obtained by questionnaires. FeNO and Rint were measured at the research center. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression models. Results At age 6 years, 9% (456/5084) of the children had wheezing symptoms and 7% (328/4953) had asthma. Children from parents with financial difficulties had an increased risk of wheezing (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.18–2.24). Parental low education, paternal unemployment and child's male sex were associated with asthma, independent of other socioeconomic or sociodemographic factors (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.24–2.15, aOR = 1.85, 95% CI:1.11–3.09, aOR = 1.58, 95% CI:1.24–2.01, respectively). No socioeconomic or gender differences in FeNO were found. The risks of wheezing, asthma, FeNO and Rint measurements differed between ethnic groups (p<0.05). Associations between paternal unemployment, child's sex, ethnicity and asthma related outcomes remained largely unexplained. Conclusions This study showed differences between the socioeconomic and sociodemographic correlates of wheezing and asthma compared to the correlates of FeNO and Rint at age 6 years. Several socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with wheezing and asthma. Child's ethnicity was the only factor independently associated with FeNO. We

  19. Protective Role of Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 against Acute Oxidative Stress-Induced Pancreatic β -Cell Damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingqi; Zheng, Hongzhi; Wang, Huihui; Yang, Bei; Zhao, Rui; Lu, Chunwei; Liu, Zhiyuan; Hou, Yongyong; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Weidong; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator in the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. The present study found that MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf2 (Nrf2-KD) and islets isolated from Nrf2-knockout mice expressed substantially reduced levels of antioxidant enzymes in response to a variety of stressors. In scramble MIN6 cells or wild-type islets, acute exposure to oxidative stressors, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, resulted in cell damage as determined by decrease in cell viability, reduced ATP content, morphology changes of islets, and/or alterations of apoptotic biomarkers in a concentration- and/or time-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 sensitized MIN6 cells or islets to the damage. In addition, pretreatment of MIN6 β-cells with NRF2 activators, including CDDO-Im, dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), protected the cells from high levels of H2O2-induced cell damage. Given that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and persistent activation of NRF2 blunts glucose-triggered ROS signaling and GSIS, the present study highlights the distinct roles that NRF2 may play in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that occurs in different stages of diabetes. PMID:25949772

  20. Factors related to sleep apnea syndrome in sleep clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Dealberto, M J; Ferber, C; Garma, L; Lemoine, P; Alpérovitch, A

    1994-06-01

    We examined 129 patients recruited from two sleep clinics to study the sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > or = 10. Information was registered from a self-administered questionnaire, basal physical measurements, and polysomnography. In 68 subjects recorded for two consecutive nights, a high correlation was found between first- and second-night AHIs (r = 0.89). Habitual loud snoring and breathing arrests during sleep were associated with AHI > or = 10. A model including these two variables, sex, age, and body mass index was created in order to predict AHI > or = 10 and with which it was possible to successfully classify almost three of four patients. Among subjective sleep questionnaire items, only daytime sleepiness was related to drops of transcutaneous oxygen tension. These discrepancies in the observed relationship between sleep parameters and subjective sleep items reduce the questionnaire value in epidemiologic settings where it aimed to detect SAS, as defined solely by the AHI value. PMID:8205872

  1. Recipient Clinical Risk Factors Predominate in Possible Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Pearl; Bacchetti, Peter; Grimes, Barbara; Gajic, Ognjen; Murphy, Edward L.; Winters, Jeffrey L.; Gropper, Michael A.; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Matthay, Michael A.; Wilson, Gregory; Koenigsberg, Monique; Lee, Deanna C.; Hirschler, Nora V.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Schuller, Randy M.; Gandhi, Manish J.; Norris, Philip J.; Mair, David C.; Rosen, Rosa Sanchez; Looney, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (pTRALI) cases by definition have a clear temporal relationship to an alternative recipient risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We questioned whether transfusion factors are important for the development of pTRALI. Study Design and Methods In this nested case-control study, we prospectively identified 145 consecutive patients with pTRALI and randomly selected 163 transfused controls over a 4-year period at the University of California, San Francisco and the Mayo Clinic, Rochester. Results For pTRALI, we found evidence against transfusion being important: receipt of plasma from female donors (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.29 – 2.3, p=0.70), total number of units transfused (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.10, p=0.86), and number of red blood cell and whole blood units transfused (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.59 –1.03, p=0.079). In contrast, we found that risk for pTRALI was associated with additional recipient factors: chronic alcohol abuse (OR 12.5, 95% CI 2.8 – 55, p<0.001), current smoker (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.67 – 10.8, p=0.0024), shock before transfusion (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.0 – 10.7, p<0.001), and positive fluid balance before transfusion (OR 1.32 per liter, 95% CI 1.20 – 1.44, p<0.001). Conclusion Recipient risk factors for ARDS rather than transfusion risk factors predominate in pTRALI. PMID:25488517

  2. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Yiannakouris, Nikos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ordovas, Jose M; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors (ConvRFs), including smoking, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), body mass index (BMI), physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Design A case–control study. Setting The general Greek population of the EPIC study. Participants and outcome measures 477 patients with medically confirmed incident CHD and 1271 controls participated in this study. We estimated the ORs for CHD by dividing participants at higher or lower GRS and, alternatively, at higher or lower ConvRF, and calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) as a measure of deviation from additivity. Results The joint presence of higher GRS and higher risk ConvRF was in all instances associated with an increased risk of CHD, compared with the joint presence of lower GRS and lower risk ConvRF. The OR (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4) for smoking, 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8) for hypertension, 4.1 (2.8 to 6.1) for T2DM, 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) for lower physical activity, 2.0 (1.3 to 3.2) for high BMI and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In all instances, RERI values were fairly small and not statistically significant, suggesting that the GRS and the ConvRFs do not have effects beyond additivity. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to CHD, operationalised through a multilocus GRS, and ConvRFs have essentially additive effects on CHD risk. PMID:24500614

  3. Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Carlos Borelli; Appenzeller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by immune cell activation, inflammation driven plaque formation and subsequent destabilization. In other disorders of an inflammatory nature, the chronic inflammatory state per se has been linked to acceleration of the atherosclerotic process which is underlined by an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphopholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect any organ. Premature coronary heart disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to mortality, cardiovascular morbidity is also markedly increased in these patients, compared with the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk can be explained only partially by an increased prevalence of classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease; it also appears to be related to inflammation. Inflammation is increasingly being considered central to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an important risk factor for vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic and pathogenesis studies have suggested a great deal in common between the pathogenesis of prototypic autoimmune disease such as SLE and that of atherosclerosis. We will review traditional risk factors for CVD in SLE. We will also discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, as well as possible treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19936286

  4. Effects of atosiban on stress-related neuroendocrine factors.

    PubMed

    Babic, S; Pokusa, M; Danevova, V; Ding, S T; Jezova, D

    2015-04-01

    Atosiban, an oxytocin/vasopressin receptor antagonist, is used to decrease preterm uterine activity. The risk of preterm delivery is undoubtedly associated with stress, but potential side effects of atosiban on neuroendocrine functions and stress-related pathways are mostly unknown. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the chronic treatment of rats with atosiban modulates neuroendocrine functions under stress conditions. Male rats were treated (osmotic minipumps) with atosiban (600 μg/kg per day) or vehicle and were restrained for 120 min/day for 14 days. All animals were treated with a marker of cell proliferation 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Anxiety-like behavior was measured using an elevated plus-maze. Treatment with atosiban failed to modify plasma concentrations of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, but led to a rise in circulating copeptin. Atosiban increased prolactin levels in the non-stressed group. Oxytocin receptor mRNA levels were increased in rats exposed to stress. Treatment with atosiban, in both control and stressed animals, resulted in a decrease in oxytocin receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus. No changes were observed in vasopressin receptor 1A and 1B gene expression. The decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation induced by stress exposure was not modified by atosiban treatment. This study provides the first data, to our knowledge, revealing the effect of atosiban on gene expression of oxytocin receptors in the brain. Atosiban-induced enhancement of plasma copeptin indicates an elevation in vasopressinergic tone with potential influence on water-electrolyte balance. PMID:25609735

  5. Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zinat Motlagh, Sayed Fazel; Chaman, Reza; Sadeghi, Erfan; Eslami, Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background An assessment of an individual’s hypertension self-care behavior may provide clinicians and practitioners with important information regarding how to better control hypertension. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors of hypertensive patients. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in a sample of 1836 patients of both genders who had been diagnosed with hypertension in urban and rural health centers in the Kohgiluyeh Boyerahmad Province in southern Iran. They were randomly selected and were invited to participate in the study. Self-care activities were measured using the H-hypertension self-care activity level effects. Results The mean age of the respondents was 63 (range: 30 - 92), and 36.1% reported adherence to the recommended levels of medication; 24.5% followed the physical activity level guidelines. Less than half (39.2%) met the criteria for practices related to weight management, and adherence to low-salt diet recommendations was also low (12.3%). Overall, 86.7% were nonsmokers, and 100% abstained from alcohol. The results of a logistic regression indicated that gender was significantly associated with adherence to physical activity (OR = 0.716) and non-smoking (OR = 1.503) recommendations; that is, women were more likely to take part in physical activity than men. There was also a significant association between age and adherence to both a low-salt diet (OR = 1.497) and medication (OR = 1.435). Conclusions Based on our findings, it is crucial to implement well-designed educational programs to improve hypertension self-care behaviors.

  6. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors CRF1 and CRF2 exert both additive and opposing influences on defensive startle behavior.

    PubMed

    Risbrough, Victoria B; Hauger, Richard L; Roberts, Amanda L; Vale, Wylie W; Geyer, Mark A

    2004-07-21

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) are crucial mediators of physiological and behavioral responses to stress. In animals, CRF1 appears to primarily mediate CRF-induced anxiety-like responses, but the role of CRF2 during stress is still unclear. Here we report the effects of CRF1 and CRF2 on the magnitude and plasticity of defensive startle responses in mice. Startle plasticity is measured by inhibition of startle by sensory stimuli, i.e., prepulse inhibition (PPI), and is disrupted in patients with panic or posttraumatic stress disorders in which CRF neurotransmission may be overactive. Pharmacological blockade of CRF1 reversed both CRF-induced increases in startle and CRF-induced deficits in PPI. CRF2 blockade attenuated high-dose but not low-dose CRF-induced increases in startle and reduced PPI. Conversely, activation of CRF2 enhanced PPI. CRF had no effect on startle and increased PPI in CRF1 knock-out mice. These data indicate that CRF receptors act in concert to increase the magnitude of defensive startle yet in opposition to regulate the flexibility of startle. These data support a new model of respective CRF receptor roles in stress-related behavior such that, although both receptors enhance the magnitude of defensive responses, CRF1 receptors contravene, whereas CRF2 receptors enhance, the impact of sensory information on defensive behavior. We hypothesize that excessive CRF1 activation combined with reduced CRF2 signaling may contribute to information processing deficits seen in panic and posttraumatic stress disorder patients and support CRF1-specific pharmacotherapy. PMID:15269266

  7. Autonomic Functioning Moderates the Relations between Contextual Factors and Externalizing Behaviors among Inner-city Children

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jennifer L.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Breiner, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has identified various child-specific and contextual risk factors associated with externalizing behaviors, there is a dearth of literature examining child × context interactions in the prospective prediction of externalizing behaviors. To address this gap, we examined autonomic functioning as a moderator of the relation between contextual factors (i.e., neighborhood cohesion and harsh parental behaviors) and externalizing behaviors. Participants were an ethnic minority, inner-city sample of first through fourth grade children (N = 57, 50% male) and their primary caregivers who participated in two assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results indicated that baseline sympathetic functioning moderated the relation between (a) neighborhood cohesion and externalizing behaviors and (b) harsh parental behaviors and externalizing behaviors. Post-hoc probing of these interactions revealed that higher levels of neighborhood cohesion prospectively predicted (a) higher levels of externalizing behaviors among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, and (b) lower levels of externalizing behaviors among children with attenuated baseline sympathetic functioning. In addition, among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, higher levels of harsh parental behaviors prospectively predicted higher levels of externalizing behaviors. PMID:19685985

  8. Multiple Factors Related to the Secretion of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XingChun; Liu, Huan; Chen, Jiaqi; Li, Yan; Qu, Shen

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 is secreted by intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. It regulates the secretion and sensitivity of insulin while suppressing glucagon secretion and decreasing postprandial glucose levels. It also improves beta-cell proliferation and prevents beta-cell apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. Additionally, glucagon-like peptide-1 delays gastric emptying and suppresses appetite. The impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 has negative influence on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance related diseases. Thus, glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) are now well accepted in the management of type 2 diabetes. The levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 are influenced by multiple factors including a variety of nutrients. The component of a meal acts as potent stimulants of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. The levels of its secretion change with the intake of different nutrients. Some drugs also have influence on GLP-1 secretion. Bariatric surgery may improve metabolism through the action on GLP-1 levels. In recent years, there has been a great interest in developing effective methods to regulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. This review summarizes the literature on glucagon-like peptide-1 and related factors affecting its levels. PMID:26366173

  9. Age-related differences in emotion regulation strategies: Examining the role of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-09-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and young adults. Forty-eight older adults and forty-nine young adults completed a retrospective survey inquiring about the use of emotion regulation strategies in emotion-eliciting situations experienced over the preceding 2 weeks. We used factor analysis to establish clusters of emotion regulation strategies, resulting in cognitive strategies, acceptance, and maladaptive strategies. Overall, we found context-dependent age-related differences in emotion regulation strategy use. Specifically, older adults reported greater use of acceptance than young adults in situations of moderate intensity and in situations that evoke anxiety and sadness. In addition, older adults reported using maladaptive strategies to a lesser extent in high- and moderate-intensity situations and in situations that elicit anxiety and sadness when compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences in the use of cognitive strategies across contexts. Older adults, compared to young adults, reported less use of maladaptive strategies and greater use of acceptance than young adults, which suggests that the enhanced emotional functioning observed later in life may be due to a shift in strategy implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570980

  10. Stereoacuity and Related Factors: The Shandong Children Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Wei; Lv, Tai-liang; Jiang, Wen-jun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Xing-rong; Bi, Hong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). Conclusions Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at

  11. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger. PMID:25224182

  12. The Role of Nuclear Factor-E2-Related Factor 1 in the Oxidative Stress Response in MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Koo; Yim, Chang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants are associated with maintenance of cellular function and metabolism. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 1 (NFE2L1, Nrf1) is known to regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NFE2L1 on the response to oxidative stress in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Methods The murine calvaria-derived MC3T3-E1 cell line was exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for oxidative stress induction. NFE2L1 effects were evaluated using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for NFE2L1 mRNA. ROS generation and the levels of known antioxidant enzyme genes were assayed. Results NFE2L1 expression was significantly increased 2.4-fold compared to the control group at 10 µg/mL LPS in MC3T3-E1 cells (P<0.05). LPS increased formation of intracellular ROS in MC3T3-E1 cells. NFE2L1 knockdown led to an additional increase of ROS (20%) in the group transfected with NFE2L1 siRNA compared with the control group under LPS stimulation (P<0.05). RNA interference of NFE2L1 suppressed the expression of antioxidant genes including metallothionein 2, glutamatecysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and glutathione peroxidase 1 in LPS-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that NFE2L1 may have a distinct role in the regulation of antioxidant enzymes under inflammation-induced oxidative stress in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. PMID:27118276

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-α and adenosine in endotoxin shockleading related cardiovascular symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seres, T.; Dinya, Z.; Szekanecz, Z.; Szentmiklósi, J.; Bodolay, E.; Szegedi, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have observed uncontrollable cardiogenic shock as a cardiovascular manifestation of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) leading to death in a 62-year-old woman. The diagnosis of SIRS was based on the demonstration of endotoxinaemia, and highly elevated plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-10. We suggest that these cytokines may contribute to the terminal SIRS-related arrythmias, impaired myocardial contractility, as well as increased vascular permeability. In addition, the increased production of adenosine, a counter-regulatory mediator of inflammation, may also play a role in cardiodepression. We suggest a relationship between the action of TNF-α , IL-10 and adenosine in the pathogenesis of circulatory symptoms described above. PMID:18475680

  14. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  15. Frailty prevalence and related factors in the older adult-FrailTURK Project.

    PubMed

    Eyigor, S; Kutsal, Y G; Duran, E; Huner, B; Paker, N; Durmus, B; Sahin, N; Civelek, G M; Gokkaya, K; Doğan, A; Günaydın, R; Toraman, F; Cakir, T; Evcik, D; Aydeniz, A; Yildirim, A G; Borman, P; Okumus, M; Ceceli, E

    2015-06-01

    Frailty is one of the geriatric syndromes and has an important relationship with mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to present the characteristics, prevalence, and related factors of frailty in older adults in our country. The study included 1126 individuals over 65 years of age from 13 centers. Frailty was evaluated using the Fried Frailty criteria, and patients were grouped as "frail," "pre-frail," and "non-frail." Nutritional status was assessed with "Mini Nutritional Test," psychological status with the "Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-CES-D," and additional diseases with the "Charlson Comorbidity index." Approximately 66.5 % of the participants were between 65 and 74 years of age and 65.7 % were women. Some 39.2 and 43.3 % of the participants were rated as frail and pre-frail, respectively. The multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with frailty. It was observed that age, female gender, low education level, being a housewife, living with the family, being sedentary, presence of an additional disease, using 4 or more drugs/day, avoiding to go outside, at least one visit to any emergency department within the past year, hospitalization within the past year, non-functional ambulation, and malnutrition increased the risk of frailty (p < 0.05). Establishing the factors associated with frailty is highly important for both clinical practice and national economy. This is the first study on this subject in our country and will provide guidance in determining treatment strategies. PMID:25948502

  16. Different changes in cortical tumor necrosis factor-α-related pathways in schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Dean, B; Gibbons, A S; Tawadros, N; Brooks, L; Everall, I P; Scarr, E

    2013-07-01

    The growing body of evidence implicating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders led us to measure levels of that protein in the cortex of subjects with major depressive disorders (MDD). Having reported an increase (458%) in the levels of the transmembrane (tmTNFα), but not the soluble (sTNFα), form of the protein in Brodmann's area (BA) 46, but not 24, in people with the disorder, we decided to examine additional components of TNFα-related pathways in the same regions in people with MDD and extend our studies to the same cortical regions of people with schizophrenia (Sz) and bipolar disorders (BD). Using postmortem tissue, western blots and quantitative PCR, we have now shown there is a significant increase (305%) in tmTNFα in Brodmann's area 24, but not 46, from subjects with BD, and that levels of the protein were not altered in Sz. Levels of sTNFα were not altered in BD or Sz. In addition, we have shown that levels of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) mRNA are increased in BA 24 (53%) and BA 46 (82%) in people with Sz, whereas levels of TNFR2 mRNA was decreased in BA 46 in people with mood disorders (MDD=-51%; BD=-67%). Levels of proteins frequently used as surrogate markers of neuronal, astrocytic and microglia numbers, as well as levels of the pro-inflammatory marker (interleukin 1β), were not changed in the cortex of people with mood disorders. Our data suggest there are differential changes in TNFα-related markers in the cortex of people with MDD, BD and Sz that may not be related to classical inflammation and may cause changes in different TNFα-related signaling pathways. PMID:22801413

  17. Cultural Factors Related to the Hidden Curriculum for Students with Autism and Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyo Jung

    2011-01-01

    The hidden curriculum, the unwritten rules and standards for social conduct that most people take for granted and learn more or less automatically, poses a challenge for many individuals on the autism spectrum because of deficits in social cognition and social interaction skills. Compounding challenges are cultural factors, such as age, ethnicity,…

  18. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Kim, Jungeun; Chen, Grace A.; Alvarez, Alvin N.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) to further examine the underlying factor structure in a total sample of 1,273 Asian American participants. In the first step of analysis, an exploratory factor analysis with 651 participants yielded a 13-item two-factor…

  19. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  20. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  1. Effectiveness of an additional individualized multi-component complementary medicine treatment on health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients: a pragmatic randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Außerer, Oskar; Baier, Susanne; Heidegger, Herbert; Icke, Katja; Mayr, Oswald; Mitterer, Manfred; Roll, Stephanie; Spizzo, Gilbert; Scherer, Arthur; Thuile, Christian; Wieser, Anton; Schützler, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an additional, individualized, multi-component complementary medicine treatment offered to breast cancer patients at the Merano Hospital (South Tyrol) on health-related quality of life compared to patients receiving usual care only. A randomized pragmatic trial with two parallel arms was performed. Women with confirmed diagnoses of breast cancer were randomized (stratified by usual care treatment) to receive individualized complementary medicine (CM group) or usual care alone (usual care group). Both groups were allowed to use conventional treatment for breast cancer. Primary endpoint was the breast cancer-related quality of life FACT-B score at 6 months. For statistical analysis, we used analysis of covariance (with factors treatment, stratum, and baseline FACT-B score) and imputed missing FACT-B scores at 6 months with regression-based multiple imputation. A total of 275 patients were randomized between April 2011 and March 2012 to the CM group (n = 136, 56.3 ± 10.9 years of age) or the usual care group (n = 139, 56.0 ± 11.0). After 6 months from randomization, adjusted means for health-related quality of life were higher in the CM group (FACT-B score 107.9; 95 % CI 104.1-111.7) compared to the usual care group (102.2; 98.5-105.9) with an adjusted FACT-B score difference between groups of 5.7 (2.6-8.7, p < 0.001). Thus, an additional individualized and complex complementary medicine intervention improved quality of life of breast cancer patients compared to usual care alone. Further studies evaluating specific effects of treatment components should follow to optimize the treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID:25555830

  2. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and related occupational causative factors among electricity linemen: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Padmanathan, Vinothini; Joseph, Leonard; Omar, Baharudin; Nawawi, Roslizawati

    2016-01-01

    Occupational tasks of linemen are highly associated with the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). Although linemen are prone to develop WRMDs, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of WRMDs and related occupational causative factors. Therefore, the present review was conducted to report on the prevalence of WRMDs and to outline causative risk factors within occupational tasks in the lineman profession. Literature search was conducted in various databases such as Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles published between 1996-2013. The articles were analyzed, selected and retrieved based on predetermined objectives, inclusion criteria and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). In the review process only articles published in English were considered. The review identified moderate to high prevalence of WRMDs among the linemen population. Back and shoulder regions were highly affected compared to the other body regions. The review also reported occupational tasks such as bar installation, insulator fixation and manual handling of tools as high risk tasks that lead to the development of WRMDs. In addition, occupational tools such as ladders, manual cutters and manual presses were also identified as a potential ergonomic hazard. In conclusion, the current review identified that WRMDs are common in the back and shoulder regions among linemen. Also, a number of occupational risk factors were identified to be associated with WRMDs among the linemen. Hence, future research on prevention and intervention studies concerning lineman profession population in order to develop a good job practice are recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):725-734. PMID:27518883

  3. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  4. Interaction between droplets in a ternary microemulsion evaluated by the relative form factor method

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2007-06-15

    This paper describes the concentration dependence of the interaction between water droplets coated by a surfactant monolayer using the contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering technique. In the first part, we explain the idea of how to extract a relatively model free structure factor from the scattering data, which is called the relative form factor method. In the second part, the experimental results for the shape of the droplets (form factor) are described. In the third part the relatively model free structure factor is shown, and finally the concentration dependence of the interaction potential between droplets is discussed. The result indicates the validity of the relative form factor method, and the importance of the estimation of the model free structure factor to discuss the nature of structure formation in microemulsion systems.

  5. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures''...

  6. Empirical Research on Factors Related to the Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Urban Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peigang; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the China General Social Survey are used in order to investigate the factors that are related to the subjective well-being of Chinese urban residents. Factors predicting higher subjective well-being include female gender, high-income class, marriage, employment, fashionable consumption, less sense of relative deprivation, and party…

  7. 25 CFR 170.223 - What is the Relative Need Distribution Factor (RNDF)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Relative Need Distribution Factor (RNDF)? 170.223 Section 170.223 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Relative Need Distribution Factor §...

  8. 25 CFR 170.202 - Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate funding among tribes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate... LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (ttam) § 170.202 Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor...

  9. 25 CFR 170.202 - Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate funding among tribes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate... LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (ttam) § 170.202 Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor...

  10. 25 CFR 170.223 - What is the Relative Need Distribution Factor (RNDF)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the Relative Need Distribution Factor (RNDF)? 170.223 Section 170.223 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Relative Need Distribution Factor §...

  11. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  12. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  13. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  14. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  15. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  16. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  17. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  18. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  19. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  20. 40 CFR Table 29 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for External..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 29 Table 29 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for External Floating Roof Vessels Seal type Welded vessels KS N Riveted vessels KS N Metallic shoe...

  1. Parent Involvement in School: Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the association between parental involvement (PI) and children's positive academic performance and social competence. Study examines the relations between a set of family and demographic risk factors and PI. Results reveal different patterns of relations between the risk factors studied-parental education, maternal depression, and…

  2. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M.; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W.; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.; Nalls, Michael A.; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel M.; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Barrett, Jeffrey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M.A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Brice, Alexis; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Corvol, Jen-Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean Francois; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Durr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gasser, Thomas; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Hardy, John; Harris, Clare; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heutink, Peter; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holmans, Peter; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lesage, Suzanne; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; Martinez, Maria; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw; Morrison, Karen E.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mudanohwo, Ese; Nalls, Michael A.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Saad, Mohamad; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Sharma, Manu; Shaw, Karen; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Shoulson, Ira; Schulte, Claudia; Sidransky, Ellen; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Colin; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Stefánsson, Kári; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigurlaug; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Wood, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1–2% in people >60 and 3–4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10−16) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the ‘regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity’ and also ‘cytokine-mediated signalling’ as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated. PMID:23223016

  3. Endorsement of Growth Factors and Its Relation to Stage of Group Development in Experiential Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiweewa, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation utilized critical incidents methodology to examine participants' endorsement of twelve primary growth factors during a Master's level group counseling class. Additionally, the study examined whether some factors are more salient than others at each stage of development (i.e., forming, storming, norming, performing) as defined by…

  4. Polymorphism of the human factor H-related gene (FHR-1) and of factor H in a West African individual

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.G.; Skerka, C.; Zipfel, P.F.

    1995-03-01

    The human factor H-related 1 (FHR-1) protein is structurally and immunogenically related to the regulatory complement protein factor H (FH). Polymorphism of the FHR-1 gene is indicated by the nucleotide differences as described by the five cDNA clones isolated so far. In order to further analyze this polymorphism we identified PCR-primers which allow the simultaneous amplification of FHR-1 and FH alleles in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By DNA sequence analysis, two novel FHR-1 variants and one as yet unrecognized FH allele could be characterized in an individual from Benin, West Africa. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important. PMID:26143065

  6. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  7. Cognitive and Behavioral Factors Associated With Insomnia in Inpatients With Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Vivian W; Harvey, Robert H; Sloan, Nancy B; Ree, Melissa; Lin, Ashleigh; Janca, Aleksandar; Waters, Flavie

    2015-10-01

    This study examines cognitive and behavioral factors linked to insomnia in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (with and without insomnia) and healthy controls (with and without insomnia). Fifty-five psychiatric inpatients and 66 healthy controls (n = 25 with insomnia in both groups) completed the Insomnia Severity Index, Thought Control Questionnaire for Insomnia-Revised, Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale, Sleep Hygiene Knowledge scale, and Beliefs about Causes of Sleep Problems questionnaires. Both insomnia groups demonstrated night-time rumination, aggressive suppression as a thought control strategy, and exaggerated views regarding the health consequences of poor sleep. In addition, the psychiatric group with insomnia frequently reported the causes of insomnia to be related to their illness (rather than to their lifestyle factors) and had an incomplete understanding of good sleep habits. Psychological interventions should be more commonly pursued as a first line of treatment for insomnia in schizophrenia and psychosis, and these should be adapted to address the unique knowledge gaps and cognitive style of patients. PMID:26356092

  8. Employing Lead Thiocyanate Additive to Reduce the Hysteresis and Boost the Fill Factor of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Weijun; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Zhao, Dewei; Xiao, Zewen; Schulz, Philip; Harvey, Steven P; Liao, Weiqiang; Meng, Weiwei; Yu, Yue; Cimaroli, Alexander J; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Fang, Guojia; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-07-01

    Lead thiocyanate in the perovskite precursor can increase the grain size of a perovskite thin film and reduce the conductivity of the grain boundaries, leading to perovskite solar cells with reduced hysteresis and enhanced fill factor. A planar perovskite solar cell with grain boundary and interface passivation achieves a steady-state efficiency of 18.42%. PMID:27145346

  9. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  10. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kicklighter, David W.; Hayes, Daniel J; Mcclelland, James W; Peterson, Bruce; Mcguire, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western

  11. Rheological and sensory behaviour of rice flour dough: effect of selected additives in relation to dough flattening.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Yash; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The handling of rice flour doughs in terms of sheeting, flattening and rolling is difficult due to the absence of gluten forming proteins; scope exists to improve these characteristics by incorporating appropriate additives during the preparation of rice doughs. Different levels of additives such as whey protein concentrate (WPC) (0-10 %), xanthan gum (0-5 %), sucrose (0-20 %) and salt (0-2 %) have been incorporated, and the rheological (small-deformation oscillation) as well as sensory characteristics have been determined, in addition to microstructural observations and finding inter-relationships. The second order polynomial can adequately explain the rheological parameters like storage modulus, loss modulus and complex viscosity (R = 0.863-0.889, p ≤ 0.01) while it is poor for phase angle (R = 0.659, p ≤ 0.01). Among these additives, xanthan gum imparts the strongest effect (significant at p ≤ 0.01) followed by whey protein concentrate. The effects of these additives are predominantly linear though quadratic effects are also significant in several cases. A cohesive microstructure with improved binding occurs with a high level (7.5 %) of WPC. It is concluded that a judicious selection of additives in appropriate levels can develop rice doughs that possess the desirable handling properties leading to preparation of products. PMID:26243905

  12. Overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor in SBMA model mice has an additive effect on combination therapy with castration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Adachi, Hiroaki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Huang, Zhe; Jiang, Yue-Mei; Kondo, Naohide; Iida, Madoka; Tohnai, Genki; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Sobue, Gen

    2015-12-25

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding tract within the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The pathologic features of SBMA are motor neuron loss in the spinal cord and brainstem and diffuse nuclear accumulation and nuclear inclusions of mutant AR in residual motor neurons and certain visceral organs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a polypeptide growth factor which has neuroprotective properties. To investigate whether HGF overexpression can affect disease progression in a mouse model of SBMA, we crossed SBMA transgenic model mice expressing an AR gene with an expanded CAG repeat with mice overexpressing HGF. Here, we report that high expression of HGF induces Akt phosphorylation and modestly ameliorated motor symptoms in an SBMA transgenic mouse model treated with or without castration. These findings suggest that HGF overexpression can provide a potential therapeutic avenue as a combination therapy with disease-modifying therapies in SBMA. PMID:26551462

  13. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…

  14. Factors related to the formation of buccal mucosa ridging in university students

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Machida, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Buccal mucosa ridging (BMR) is known as a clinical sign of clenching, which is one of the major manifestations of bruxism. However, there are few reports about the formation of BMR and no data regarding the association between BMR and factors such as malocclusion. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between BMR and factors such as the number of teeth present, gender, body mass index (BMI), occlusion and clenching habit in university students. Materials and methods A total of 2101 students (1164 males, 937 females), aged 18–29 years old, were included in the study. BMR and the number of teeth present were recorded and malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Additional information regarding gender, clenching habit and BMI was collected via a questionnaire. Results Forty-six per cent of the subjects had BMR and the prevalence of BMR in females was significantly higher than that of males (chi square test, p < 0.001). According to logistic regression analysis, the probability of BMR was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.259–1.790, p < 0.001), crowding (OR = 2.102, 95% CI = 1.706–2.590, p < 0.001) and overjet (OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.418–0.818, p = 0.002). On the other hand, BMR was not associated with awareness of clenching habit and BMI. Conclusions Gender, crowding and overjet were related to the formation of BMR in university students. When evaluating BMR as a clinical sign of clenching, one might have to take factors such as gender and crowding into consideration. PMID:23692316

  15. Smoking and polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolism and DNA repair genes are additive risk factors affecting bladder cancer in Northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Rouissi, Kamel; Ouerhani, Slah; Hamrita, Bechr; Bougatef, Karim; Marrakchi, Raja; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Mohamed Riadh; Bouzouita, Mohamed; Chebil, Mohamed; Ben Ammar Elgaaied, Amel

    2011-12-01

    Cancer epidemiology has undergone marked development since the nineteen-fifties. One of the most spectacular and specific contributions was the demonstration of the massive effect of smoking and genetic polymorphisms on the occurrence of bladder cancer. The tobacco carcinogens are metabolized by various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the super-families of N-acetyltransferases (NAT) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). DNA repair is essential to an individual's ability to respond to damage caused by tobacco carcinogens. Alterations in DNA repair genes may affect cancer risk by influencing individual susceptibility to this environmental exposure. Polymorphisms in NAT2, GST and DNA repair genes alter the ability of these enzymes to metabolize carcinogens or to repair alterations caused by this process. We have conducted a case-control study to assess the role of smoking, slow NAT2 variants, GSTM1 and GSTT1 null, and XPC, XPD, XPG nucleotide excision-repair (NER) genotypes in bladder cancer development in North Tunisia. Taken alone, each gene unless NAT2 did not appear to be a factor affecting bladder cancer susceptibility. For the NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes, the NAT2*5/*7 diplotype was found to have a 7-fold increased risk to develop bladder cancer (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.30-51.41). However, in tobacco consumers, we have shown that Null GSTM1, Wild GSTT1, Slow NAT2, XPC (CC) and XPG (CC) are genetic risk factors for the disease. When combined together in susceptible individuals compared to protected individuals these risk factors give an elevated OR (OR = 61). So, we have shown a strong cumulative effect of tobacco and different combinations of studied genetic risk factors which lead to a great susceptibility to bladder cancer. PMID:21647780

  16. Legal Factors Related to Access to Campuses of Public Colleges and Universities: An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Michael A.

    Legal methods and related case law that can be used by public higher education administrators to deal with intrusions by outsiders onto the campus are examined. The following legal factors related to control of campus access are addressed: risk management, police power, general trespass, school related trespass/loitering statutes, First and…

  17. Familial factors related to suicidal ideation of Latina adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G; Rodriguez, Kimberly M; Ray, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a Latina adolescent's perception of mother connectedness, father connectedness, parental caring, autonomy granting from parents, and parental interest in their child's school life predicts suicidal ideation above and beyond known risk factors of adolescent depression and acculturation. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Wave 1, 2 secondary logistic regression data analyses were conducted on a sample of 345 Latina adolescents. Results of correlational analyses indicated that perceived mother connectedness, father connectedness, parental caring, and academic interest were positively related; depression and nativity were negatively related to reports of suicidal ideation. Additionally, in a model with adolescents who reported having both a mother and father figure present in their life, depression and academic interest were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. In a second model, which included all Latinas regardless of the presence of both parents, depression, nativity, perceived academic interest, and caring were significant predictors. Implications are discussed for suicide prevention and intervention with Latina adolescents. PMID:24593057

  18. Environment-related and host-related factors affecting the occurrence of lice on rodents in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Michal; Fričová, Jana; Miklisová, Dana; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effects of environment- (habitat, season) and host-related (sex, body mass) factors on the occurrence of four species of lice (Insecta:Phthiraptera:Anoplura) on six rodent species (Rodentia:Muridae). We asked how these factors influence the occurrence of lice on an individual host and whether different rodent-louse associations demonstrate consistent trends in these effects. We found significant effects of at least one environment-related and at least one host-related factor on the louse occurrence in five of six host-louse associations. The effect of habitat was significant in two associations with the occurrence of lice being more frequent in lowland than in mountain habitats. The effect of season was significant in five associations with a higher occurrence of infestation during the warm season in four associations and the cold season in one association. Host sex affected significantly the infestation by lice in three associations with a higher frequency of infestation in males. Host body mass affected the occurrence of lice in all five associations, being negative in wood mice and positive in voles. In conclusion, lice were influenced not only by the host- but also by environment-related factors. The effects of the latter could be mediated via life history parameters of a host. PMID:25651932

  19. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  20. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  1. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  2. Examination of Critical Factors Related to Summer Chlorophyll a Concentration in the Sueo Dam Reservoir, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Heekyung; Park, Sangjun; Yum, Kyungtaek

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study examined critical factors related to the short-term variation of algae growth in reservoirs during the summer. To this end, statistical tests were carried out at a small dam reservoir to determine how chemical factors (e.g., nutrient concentrations) and physical factors (e.g., theoretical and relative residence times, temperature) influenced the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration. Statistical tests revealed that, although phosphorus (P) concentration was significant for Chl-a, residence time had much stronger relationship to Chl-a concentration than chemical factors. In addition, the study verified that relative residence time (RRT) best explained the relation of water status to algae growth. RRT was found to be useful in identifying water status related to the summer algae bloom. Finally, this study raised the possibility of inhibiting summer algae growth by operating dam reservoirs moderately. These findings need to be seriously considered when reservoir operators establish effective strategies for water quality management in summer. PMID:22693417

  3. Relating transverse-momentum-dependent and collinear factorization theorems in a generalized formalism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-08

    We construct an improved implementation for combining TMD factorization transverse- momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suit- able for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W + Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. As a result, we further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q- dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y -term.

  4. Using Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations to Risk Factors Priority of Metropolitan Underground Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shih-Tong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    To execute a large and complex underground project in metropolis will involve more risky factors. It is the successful implementation of such project depends on effective management of the key risk factors. This study cites the key risk factors of underground rail-way project identified by Ghosh and Jintanapakanont (2004) and uses the consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR) to deal with the degree of impact of these risk factors. It reveals that the CFPR is an easy and practical way to provide rankings of more risk factors in making decision and yields consistent requirement from only n - 1 pairwise comparisons.

  5. Factors Associated with Myelosuppression Related to Low-Dose Methotrexate Therapy for Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shunsuke; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawakita, Toshiro; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshitama, Tamami; Migita, Kiyoshi; Ueki, Yukitaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe myelosuppression is a serious concern in the management of rheumatic disease patients receiving methotrexate (MTX) therapy. This study was intended to explore factors associated with the development of MTX-related myelosuppression and its disease severity. Methods We retrospectively examined a total of 40 cases of MTX-related myelosuppression that had been filed in the registries of participating rheumatology and hematology divisions. Data before onset were compared with those of 120 controls matched for age and sex. Cytopenia was graded according to the National Cancer Institute criteria for adverse events. Data before and at onset were compared between the severe and non-severe groups. Results Non-use of folic acid supplements, concurrent medications, and low renal function were significantly associated with the development of myelosuppression (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, significantly lower MTX dosages, higher blood cell counts, and lower hemoglobin levels were seen in the myelosuppression group (p < 0.001). No patients exhibited leukocytopenia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia in routine blood monitoring taken within the past month. One-fourth developed myelosuppression within the first two months (an early-onset period). Myelosuppression was severe in approximately 40% of patients. Hypoalbuminemia and non-use of folic acid supplements were significantly associated with the severity of pancytopenia (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). Besides these two factors, early onset and the use of lower doses of MTX were significantly associated with the severity of neutropenia (p = 0.003, 0.007, 0.003, and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Myelosuppression can occur abruptly at any time during low-dose MTX therapy, but severe neutropenia is more likely to occur in the early-onset period of this therapy. Contrary to our expectations, disease severity was not dependent on MTX doses. Serum albumin levels and folic acid

  6. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and related equipment in an... greater than 15,000 psig or a temperature rating greater than 350 degrees Fahrenheit; (2) The...

  7. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to... or well control equipment assigned a pressure rating greater than 15,000 psig or a temperature...

  8. Additive effect of calreticulin and translation initiation factor eIF4E on secreted protein production in the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chao-Yi; van Oers, Monique M; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. However, the yield of membrane-bound or secreted proteins is relatively low when compared with intracellular or nuclear proteins. In a previous study, we had demonstrated that the co-expression of the human chaperones calreticulin (CALR) or β-synuclein (β-syn) increased the production of a secreted protein considerably. A similar effect was also seen when co-expressing insect translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this study, different combinations of the three genes were tested (CALR alone, β-syn + CALR, or β-syn + CALR + eIF4E) to further improve secretory protein production by assessing the expression level of a recombinant secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEFP). An additional 1.8-fold increment of SEFP production was obtained when cells co-expressed all the three "helper" genes, compared to cells, in which only CALR was co-produced with SEFP. Moreover, the duration of the SEFP production lasted much longer in cells that co-expressed these three "helper" genes, up to 10 dpi was observed. Utilization of this "triple-supporters" containing vector offers significant advantages when producing secreted proteins and is likely to have benefits for the production of viral vaccines and other pharmaceutical products. PMID:23900798

  9. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure under natural zeolite addition: VFA evolution, cation variation, and related microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Wan, Chunli; Liu, Xiang; Lei, Zhongfang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-12-01

    Batch experiments were carried out on anaerobic digestion of swine manure under 10 % of total solids and 60 g/L of zeolite addition at 35 °C. Four distinctive volatile fatty acid (VFAs) evolution stages were observed during the anaerobic process, i.e., VFA accumulation, acetic acid (HAc) and butyric acid (HBu) utilization, propionic acid (HPr) and valeric acid (HVa) degradation, and VFA depletion. Large decreases in HAc/HBu and HPr/HVa occurred respectively at the first and second biogas peaks. Biogas yield increased by 20 % after zeolite addition, about 356 mL/g VSadded with accelerated soluble chemical oxygen demand degradation and VFA (especially HPr and HBu) consumption in addition to a shortened lag phase between the two biogas peaks. Compared with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (100-300 mg/L) released from zeolite, simultaneous K(+) and NH4 (+) (580-600 mg/L) adsorptions onto zeolite particles contributed more to the enhanced biogasification, resulting in alleviated inhibition effects of ammonium on acidogenesis and methanogenesis, respectively. All the identified anaerobes could be grouped into Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and zeolite addition had no significant influence on the microbial biodiversity in this study. PMID:24270923

  10. 76 FR 38937 - World Trade Center Health Program Requirements for the Addition of New WTC-Related Health Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... (see Delegation of Authority, 76 FR 31337, May 31, 2011). All references to the WTC Program... July 1, 2011 Part VII Department of Health and Human Services 42 CFR Part 88 World Trade Center Health... SERVICES 42 CFR Part 88 RIN 0920-AA45 World Trade Center Health Program Requirements for the Addition...

  11. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  12. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Stupp, Samuel I; Donners, Jack J.J.M.; Silva, Gabriel A; Behanna, Heather A; Anthony, Shawn G

    2013-11-12

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  13. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A.; Behanna, Heather A.; Anthony, Shawn G.

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  14. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A.; Behanna, Heather A.; Anthony, Shawn G.

    2012-03-20

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  15. Individual and Social Factors Related to Urban African American Adolescents' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Owens, Delila; Piliawsky, Monte

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the academic success of urban, African American youth. Participants were 118 African American male and female ninth graders from a large urban high school in the Midwest. A majority of students at the school receive free or reduced lunch. Factors studied were social support from five…

  16. Factors Related to the Participation of Pennsylvania Agricultural Education Teachers in Professional Development Activities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David E.

    A study examined factors related to the participation of Pennsylvania agricultural education teachers in professional development activities. Specifically, it sought to describe the relationship or differences between participation in professional development activities, professional attitude, and 22 selected demographic factors. A questionnaire…

  17. Marriage, Children, and Aging Parents: The Role of Family-Related Factors in Faculty Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Sax, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to changes in the academic market, faculty job satisfaction is especially critical. Using a multi-step framework, this study explores the role of family and stress related "pull factors" on a measure of overall job satisfaction for a large nationally representative sample of college and university faculty members. These "pull factors" include,…

  18. Factors Related to the Achievement and Adjustment of Young African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; McAdoo, Harriette Pipes

    1994-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to examine factors related to the achievement and adjustment of 378 African American children in the early elementary grades. Consistent with past research, there was a positive relationship between the number of risk factors children were exposed to and the probability that they were…

  19. A Note on the Relation between Factor Analytic and Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Akihito; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The relations among several alternative parameterizations of the binary factor analysis model and the 2-parameter item response theory model are discussed. It is pointed out that different parameterizations of factor analysis model parameters can be transformed into item response model theory parameters, and general formulas are provided.…

  20. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  1. Factor Structure of the Job-Related Tension Index among Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Nikki R.; Fakunmoju, Sunday B.; Kim, HaeJung; LeFevre, Ann L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the factor structure of the 15-item Job-Related Tension Index (JRTI). Method: Data were derived from a larger cross-sectional study using a modified tailored design method to mail a self-administered survey to a random stratified sample of the National Association of Social Workers,…

  2. Factors related to oral health related quality of life in TMD patients.

    PubMed

    Rener-Sitar, Ksenija; Celebić, Asja; Mehulić, Ketij; Petricević, Nikola

    2013-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the impact of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) on self-percieved oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to compare OHRQoL of patients with TMD with a control group. A total of 81 TMD patients participated in a study group and 400 adults served as the control group. The mean OHIP summary scores were computed for all patients with the same diagnosis and the same subgroup of axis I according to the RDC/TMD exam form. The mean OHIP subscores for all seven domains of the OHIP questionnaire were compared between the study and the control group. The hierarchical linear regression model was used to assess the most important variables according to the RDC/TMD protocol that contribute to OHRQoL in TMD patients with the OHIP summary score as dependent variable. According to this study, TMD had a high association with reduced OHRQoL (p < 0.001). More diagnoses of axis I according to the RDC/TMD protocol (p < 0.001), higher age of TMD patients (p < 0.001) and diagnoses associated with limited jaw movements contributed to more impaired OHRQoL (p = 0.008 and p = 0.030, respectively). Female TMD patients had no significantly different OHRQoL compared to male patients (p = 0.436). According to regression analysis, higher age (p < 0.001), more physical diagnoses (p = 0.018) and diagnosis Ib (p = 0.169) explained 39.1% of the variability (p < 0.001) of the OHIP summary score in TMD patients. PMID:23940982

  3. Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio and Blood Pressure, Hypertension, and Related Factors12

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Vanessa; Chang, Ellen T.

    2014-01-01

    The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted. PMID:25398734

  4. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and alcohol-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic, Gordana; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Sviglin, Korona Nenadic; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2013-01-10

    Alcoholism is a chronic psychiatric disorder affecting neural pathways that regulate motivation, stress, reward and arousal. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates mood, response to stress and interacts with neurotransmitters and stress systems involved in reward pathways and addiction. Aim of the study was to evaluate the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met or rs6265) and alcohol related phenotypes in Caucasian patients. In ethnically homogenous Caucasian subjects of the Croatian origin, the BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution was determined in 549 male and 126 female patients with alcohol dependence and in 655 male and 259 female healthy non-alcoholic control subjects. Based on the structured clinical interview, additional detailed clinical interview, the Brown-Goodwin Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Clinical Global Impression scores, alcoholic patients were subdivided into those with or without comorbid depression, aggression, delirium tremens, withdrawal syndrome, early/late onset of alcohol abuse, prior suicidal attempt during lifetime, current suicidal behavior, and severity of alcohol dependence. The results showed no significant association between BDNF Val66Met variants and alcohol dependence and/or any of the alcohol related phenotypes in either Caucasian women, or men, with alcohol dependence. There are few limitations of the study. The overall study sample size was large (N=1589) but not well-powered to detect differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution between studied groups. Healthy control women were older than female alcoholic patients. Only one BDNF polymorphism (rs6265) was studied. In conclusion, these data do not support the view that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism correlates with the specific alcohol related phenotypes in ethnically homogenous medication-free Caucasian subjects with alcohol dependence. PMID:23023098

  6. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max)

    PubMed Central

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T.; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P. Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B.; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J. Grover; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  7. Trophic effect of human pericardial fluid on adult cardiac myocytes. Differential role of fibroblast growth factor-2 and factors related to ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Corda, S; Mebazaa, A; Gandolfini, M P; Fitting, C; Marotte, F; Peynet, J; Charlemagne, D; Cavaillon, J M; Payen, D; Rappaport, L; Samuel, J L

    1997-11-01

    Pericardial fluid (PF) may contain myocardial growth factors that exert paracrine actions on cardiac myocytes. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of human PF and serum, collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, on the growth of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes and (2) to relate the growth activity of both fluids to the adaptive changes in overloaded human hearts. Both PF and serum increased the rate of protein synthesis, measured by [14C]phenylalanine incorporation in adult rat cardiomyocytes (PF, +71.9 +/- 8.2% [n = 17]; serum, +14.9 +/- 6.5% [n = 13]; both P < .01 versus control medium). The effects of both PF and serum on cardiomyocyte growth correlated positively with the respective left ventricular (LV) mass. However, the magnitude of change with PF was 3-fold greater than with serum (P < .01). These trophic effects of PF were mimicked by exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and inhibited by anti-FGF2 antibodies and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), suggesting a relationship to FGF2. In addition, FGF2 concentration in PF was 20 times greater than in serum. On the other hand, the LV mass-dependent trophic effect, present in both fluids, was independent of FGF2 concentration or other factors, such as angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic factor, and TGF-beta. These data suggest that FGF2 in human PF is a major determining factor in normal myocyte growth, whereas unidentified LV mass-dependent factor(s), present in both PF and serum, participates in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:9351441

  8. Association of Genetic Variants in Complement Factor H and Factor H-Related Genes with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian; Wu, Hui; Khosravi, Melanie; Cui, Huijuan; Qian, Xiaoxia; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Williams, Adrienne H.; Comeau, Mary E.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Marion, Miranda C.; Adler, Adam; Glenn, Stuart B.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Harley, John B.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bang, So-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Jacob, Chaim O.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Moser, Kathy L.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Petri, Michelle A.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Vilá, Luis M.; Reveille, John D.; James, Judith A.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.; Freedman, Barry I.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Merrill, Joan T.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Scofield, R. Hal; Stevens, Anne M.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Chang, Deh-Ming; Song, Yeong Wook; Park, Ji Ah; Lee, Eun Young; Boackle, Susan A.; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Goodship, Timothy H. J.; Cantor, Rita M.; Yu, Chack-Yung; Shen, Nan; Tsao, Betty P.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a complex polygenic autoimmune disease, is associated with increased complement activation. Variants of genes encoding complement regulator factor H (CFH) and five CFH-related proteins (CFHR1-CFHR5) within the chromosome 1q32 locus linked to SLE, have been associated with multiple human diseases and may contribute to dysregulated complement activation predisposing to SLE. We assessed 60 SNPs covering the CFH-CFHRs region for association with SLE in 15,864 case-control subjects derived from four ethnic groups. Significant allelic associations with SLE were detected in European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA), which could be attributed to an intronic CFH SNP (rs6677604, in intron 11, Pmeta = 6.6×10−8, OR = 1.18) and an intergenic SNP between CFHR1 and CFHR4 (rs16840639, Pmeta = 2.9×10−7, OR = 1.17) rather than to previously identified disease-associated CFH exonic SNPs, including I62V, Y402H, A474A, and D936E. In addition, allelic association of rs6677604 with SLE was subsequently confirmed in Asians (AS). Haplotype analysis revealed that the underlying causal variant, tagged by rs6677604 and rs16840639, was localized to a ∼146 kb block extending from intron 9 of CFH to downstream of CFHR1. Within this block, the deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 (CFHR3-1Δ), a likely causal variant measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, was tagged by rs6677604 in EA and AS and rs16840639 in AA, respectively. Deduced from genotypic associations of tag SNPs in EA, AA, and AS, homozygous deletion of CFHR3-1Δ (Pmeta = 3.2×10−7, OR = 1.47) conferred a higher risk of SLE than heterozygous deletion (Pmeta = 3.5×10−4, OR = 1.14). These results suggested that the CFHR3-1Δ deletion within the SLE-associated block, but not the previously described exonic SNPs of CFH, might contribute to the development of SLE in EA, AA, and AS, providing new insights into the role of complement

  9. Association of genetic variants in complement factor H and factor H-related genes with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wu, Hui; Khosravi, Melanie; Cui, Huijuan; Qian, Xiaoxia; Kelly, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Langefeld, Carl D; Williams, Adrienne H; Comeau, Mary E; Ziegler, Julie T; Marion, Miranda C; Adler, Adam; Glenn, Stuart B; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Harley, John B; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bang, So-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Jacob, Chaim O; Vyse, Timothy J; Niewold, Timothy B; Gaffney, Patrick M; Moser, Kathy L; Kimberly, Robert P; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Brown, Elizabeth E; Alarcon, Graciela S; Petri, Michelle A; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Vilá, Luis M; Reveille, John D; James, Judith A; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L; Freedman, Barry I; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Merrill, Joan T; Criswell, Lindsey A; Scofield, R Hal; Stevens, Anne M; Guthridge, Joel M; Chang, Deh-Ming; Song, Yeong Wook; Park, Ji Ah; Lee, Eun Young; Boackle, Susan A; Grossman, Jennifer M; Hahn, Bevra H; Goodship, Timothy H J; Cantor, Rita M; Yu, Chack-Yung; Shen, Nan; Tsao, Betty P

    2011-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a complex polygenic autoimmune disease, is associated with increased complement activation. Variants of genes encoding complement regulator factor H (CFH) and five CFH-related proteins (CFHR1-CFHR5) within the chromosome 1q32 locus linked to SLE, have been associated with multiple human diseases and may contribute to dysregulated complement activation predisposing to SLE. We assessed 60 SNPs covering the CFH-CFHRs region for association with SLE in 15,864 case-control subjects derived from four ethnic groups. Significant allelic associations with SLE were detected in European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA), which could be attributed to an intronic CFH SNP (rs6677604, in intron 11, P(meta) = 6.6×10(-8), OR = 1.18) and an intergenic SNP between CFHR1 and CFHR4 (rs16840639, P(meta) = 2.9×10(-7), OR = 1.17) rather than to previously identified disease-associated CFH exonic SNPs, including I62V, Y402H, A474A, and D936E. In addition, allelic association of rs6677604 with SLE was subsequently confirmed in Asians (AS). Haplotype analysis revealed that the underlying causal variant, tagged by rs6677604 and rs16840639, was localized to a ~146 kb block extending from intron 9 of CFH to downstream of CFHR1. Within this block, the deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 (CFHR3-1Δ), a likely causal variant measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, was tagged by rs6677604 in EA and AS and rs16840639 in AA, respectively. Deduced from genotypic associations of tag SNPs in EA, AA, and AS, homozygous deletion of CFHR3-1Δ (P(meta) = 3.2×10(-7), OR = 1.47) conferred a higher risk of SLE than heterozygous deletion (P(meta) = 3.5×10(-4), OR = 1.14). These results suggested that the CFHR3-1Δ deletion within the SLE-associated block, but not the previously described exonic SNPs of CFH, might contribute to the development of SLE in EA, AA, and AS, providing new insights into the role of

  10. Suppression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 via extracellular signal-regulated kinase contributes to bleomycin-induced oxidative stress and fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Hongli; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Qin, Xujun; Zhang, Xiaodi; Li, Wenli; Liang, Xin; Hai, Chunxu

    2013-06-20

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious and irreversible lung injury with obscure etiologic mechanisms and no effective treatment to date. This study explored a crucial link between oxidative stress and pulmonary fibrogenesis, focusing on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a core transcription factor in antioxidative regulation systems. Treatment of C57 BL/6 mice with bleomycin increased fibroblast viability and collagen production and significantly downregulated Nrf2. In addition, prominent oxidative stress was indicated by changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels. In a cell-based model, bleomycin suppressed Nrf2 activation via extracellular signal-related kinase phosphorylation, enhancing intracellular reactive oxygen species in lung fibroblasts and stimulating abnormal cell proliferation and collagen secretion. To confirm this novel mechanism of bleomycin-induced fibrogenesis, we attempted to upregulate Nrf2 and related antioxidant proteins in bleomycin-treated fibroblasts using a putative Nrf2 activator, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, and the results showed that bleomycin-induced fibroblast proliferation and collagen content were attenuated through improved redox balance. Collectively, these results disclose a potential regulatory mechanism in pulmonary fibrosis that will aid the development of new therapies. PMID:23570914

  11. RXFP1 is Targeted by Complement C1q Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Factor 8 in Brain Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thanasupawat, Thatchawan; Glogowska, Aleksandra; Burg, Maxwell; Wong, G. William; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Klonisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The relaxin-like RXFP1 ligand–receptor system has important functions in tumor growth and tissue invasion. Recently, we have identified the secreted protein, CTRP8, a member of the C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein (CTRP) family, as a novel ligand of the relaxin receptor, RXFP1, with functions in brain cancer. Here, we review the role of CTRP members in cancers cells with particular emphasis on CTRP8 in glioblastoma. PMID:26322020

  12. RXFP1 is Targeted by Complement C1q Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Factor 8 in Brain Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thanasupawat, Thatchawan; Glogowska, Aleksandra; Burg, Maxwell; Wong, G William; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Klonisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The relaxin-like RXFP1 ligand-receptor system has important functions in tumor growth and tissue invasion. Recently, we have identified the secreted protein, CTRP8, a member of the C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein (CTRP) family, as a novel ligand of the relaxin receptor, RXFP1, with functions in brain cancer. Here, we review the role of CTRP members in cancers cells with particular emphasis on CTRP8 in glioblastoma. PMID:26322020

  13. Viral and host inflammation-related factors that can predict the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Zhang, Qi; Chang, Wenjun; Du, Yan; Zhang, Hongwei; Cao, Guangwen

    2012-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a malignancy caused mainly by chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a highly fatal disease. Apart from clinical parameters like venous invasion and multinodularity, viral and host inflammation-related factors are important predictors of HCC prognosis after surgical treatment. The factors of prognostic value can be detected in the specimens of HCC patients. In preoperative peripheral blood, high HBV DNA and the genotypes and mutations of HBV or HCV, high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and high concentrations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and osteopontin predict poor prognosis. In tumours, high ratios of neutrophil-to-CD8(+) T cell and Treg-to-CD8(+) T cell, high expression of pro-angiogenic factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and cell growth/survival factors such as CD24 and activation of inflammatory signalling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 predict early recurrence. In peritumoural hepatic tissues, high HBV DNA, HBV mutations, high densities of macrophages, activated stellates and mast cells, high expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor/its receptor and placental growth factor, Th1/Th2-like cytokine shift, inflammation-related signature and activation of carcinogenesis-related pathways predict late recurrence. Further studies should be focused on the development of a robust strategy by integrating the viral factors, inflammatory factors and clinical factors of complementary prognostic value to ensure high validity of the assessment for postoperative HCC prognosis. PMID:22325840

  14. Relation of pulmonary vessel size to transfer factor in subjects with airflow obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    In a group of 61 consecutive patients undergoing assessment of airflow obstruction, a significant linear relation was demonstrated between measurements of the diameter of the midzonal pulmonary vessels on the plain chest radiographs and transfer factor (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Since reduction in transfer factor has been shown to relate to structural emphysema, reduction in midzone vessel caliber implies the same. However, in the individual patient neither the transfer factor nor structural emphysema can be reliably predicted from midzone vessel diameters alone.

  15. The Need for an Enlarged Vision and Additional Perspectives of Public Relations in the 21st Century: A Challenge to Existing Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that an enlarged vision and additional perspectives of public relations will be needed in the 21st century: vision and perspectives that will not only complement but challenge existing paradigms. Future communication technological phenomena will require dramatic changes in public relations practitioners' efforts in relationship-…

  16. Improvement of low bioavailability of a novel factor Xa inhibitor through formulation of cationic additives in its oral dosage form.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshimine; Kanamaru, Taro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Shinji; Akashi, Mitsuru; Sakuma, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    A clinical trial of (2S)-2-[4-[[(3S)-1-acetimidoyl-3-pyrrolidinyl]oxy]phenyl]-3-(7-amidino-2-naphtyl) propanoic acid (DX-9065) revealed that its oral bioavailability was only 3% when it was administered as a conventional capsule formulation. The low bioavailability of DX-9065 was likely caused by both its poor membrane permeability and its electrostatic interaction with anionic bile acids. We hypothesized that DX-9065 absorption would be enhanced when the cationic drug was free from the complex through its replacement with other cationic substances. Polystyrene nanospheres coated with cationic poly(vinylamine) and cholestyramine, which is clinically used as a cholesterol-lowering agent, dramatically prevented DX-9065 from interacting with chenodeoxycholic acid in vitro. Successive animal experiments showed that bioavailability of DX-9065 administered with these cationic substances was 2-3 times that of DX-9065 administered solely. A dry syrup formulation with one-half of a minimal cholesterol-lowering equivalent dose of cholestyramine was designed, and the clinical trial was resumed. A 1.3-fold increase in bioavailability of DX-9065 was observed when the dry syrup was administered. We successfully demonstrated that DX-9065 absorption was enhanced when the drug was administered with cationic additives; however, it appeared that the absorption-enhancing function of cholestyramine largely depended on its dose. The dose escalation is probably prerequisite for the significant improvement of DX-9065 absorption in humans. PMID:22001539

  17. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and... assigned a pressure rating greater than 15,000 psig or a temperature rating greater than 350...

  18. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and... assigned a pressure rating greater than 15,000 psig or a temperature rating greater than 350...

  19. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... valves and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. 250.807... installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments. (a) If you plan to install SSSVs and... assigned a pressure rating greater than 15,000 psig or a temperature rating greater than 350...

  20. Relating transverse-momentum-dependent and collinear factorization theorems in a generalized formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-01

    We construct an improved implementation for combining transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suitable for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W +Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. We further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y term.

  1. Factors related to seeking health care among adolescents with musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Paananen, Markus V; Taimela, Simo P; Tammelin, Tuija H; Kantomaa, Marko T; Ebeling, Hanna E; Taanila, Anja M; Zitting, Paavo J; Karppinen, Jaro I

    2011-04-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is common among adolescents, but little is known about the factors that affect seeking health care for the problem. We examined the care-seeking pattern among adolescents reporting musculoskeletal pain. The study consisted of adolescents aged 16 years from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort who responded to a mailed questionnaire in 2001 and reported musculoskeletal pain over the preceding 6 months (n=5052). Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess whether enabling resources, need factors, personal health habits, and psychological problems were associated with seeking health care for musculoskeletal pain. Musculoskeletal pain during the preceding 6 months was reported by 68% of boys and 83% of girls in the study population. Only 16% of boys and 20% of girls reporting pain had sought medical care. Among both boys and girls, care-seeking was associated with being a member of a sports club (boys, odds ratio [OR] 2.1; girls, OR 1.5) and having one (boys, OR 2.1; girls, OR 1.8) or at least 2 (boys, OR 2.2; girls, OR 2.1) other health disorders. In addition, it was associated with a high physical activity level (OR 1.5) and low self-rated (OR 1.5) health among girls. Reporting pain in other anatomical areas decreased the likelihood of seeking care for pain among both genders. In conclusion, relatively few adolescents with musculoskeletal pain had consulted a health professional for the problem. Being physically active (trauma), participating in organized sport (accessibility of care), and having other health problems may explain why an adolescent seeks care for musculoskeletal pain. PMID:21295404

  2. Factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aircraft crashes--Alaska, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    2002-04-26

    Despite its large geographic area, Alaska has only 12,200 miles of public roads, and 90% of the state's communities are not connected to a highway system. Commuter and air-taxi flights are essential for transportation of passengers and delivery of goods, services, and mail to outlying communities (Figure 1). Because of the substantial progress in decreasing fatalities in the fishing and logging industries, aviation crashes are the leading cause of occupational death in Alaska. During 1990-1999, aircraft crashes in Alaska caused 107 deaths among workers classified as civilian pilots. This is equivalent to 410 fatalities per 100,000 pilots each year, approximately five times the death rate for all U.S. pilots and approximately 100 times the death rate for all U.S. workers. As part of a collaborative aviation safety initiative that CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is implementing with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and the National Weather Service, CDC analyzed data from NTSB crash reports to determine factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aviation crashes in Alaska. This report summarizes the result of this analysis, which found that the following factors were associated with pilot fatalities: crashes involving a post-crash fire, flights in darkness or weather conditions requiring instrument use, crashes occurring away from an airport, and crashes in which the pilot was not using a shoulder restraint. Additional pilot training, improved fuel systems that are less likely to ignite in crashes, and company policies that discourage flying in poor weather conditions might help decrease pilot fatalities. More detailed analyses of crash data, collaborations with aircraft operators to improve safety, and evaluation of new technologies are needed. PMID:12004985

  3. Dietary Supplements Use and Related Factors of Preschoolers in 3 Korean Cities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Sil; Lee, Hye Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use, investigate the related factors associated with DS use among preschoolers and support the adequate nutrition. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey of mothers of children aged between 1 and 6 years who visited pediatric clinics in 3 Korean cities (Jeonju, Suncheon, Jeongeup) between October and November 2012 at Presbyterian Medical Center. The responses from 929 questionnaires were analyzed. Results Approximately 45.1% of the preschoolers used DS in the past month. The following factors were associated with greater use of DS: older age (p<0.001), whether or not the preschoolers attended kindergarten (p<0.001), higher mother's concern about the nutritional facts (p<0.001), whether or not the mother use DS (p<0.001), whether or not the mother counsel with a doctor or pharmacist about DS use (p<0.001). Vitamin·mineral supplements (77.5%) were the most commonly used DS among the preschoolers, followed by ginseng (49.3%) and probiotics (25.6%). Additionally, of the DS users, 95.9% gave DS to their healthy children. Of the users and non-users, 97.6% and 62.2%, respectively, indicated that they would like to have their children take DS. The information on DS was obtained from family or friends in 48.2% of the DS users and from doctors in only 6.1%. Conclusion Approximately half of the preschoolers in our study used DS, which might not have been medically indicated for most of them. Therefore, the role of professionals in counseling on desirable diet behaviors and DS use for preschoolers is warranted. PMID:24010114

  4. Work Related Psychosocial and Organizational Factors for Neck Pain in Workers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340

  5. Change in fatigue property and its relation to critical current for YBCO coated conductor with additional Cu layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Hojo, M.; Sugano, M.; Adachi, T.; Inoue, Y.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2009-10-01

    YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ, (YBCO) coated conductors with an additional Cu layer are expected to be applied as coils used in superconducting magnetic energy storage, SMES. In the operation of SMES, large cyclic hoop stress is applied to the coated conductor in the longitudinal direction. In the present study, we carried out fatigue tests in liquid nitrogen, LN 2, and measured the critical current, I c, after a specific number of fatigue cycles to clarify its fatigue fracture mechanism. All fatigue tests were carried out under a stress ratio (the ratio of the minimum to maximum load) of 0.5. The frequency of stress cycling was 30 Hz. Our results showed that the addition of a Cu layer increased the fatigue strength after 10 6 cycles, F, by about 19%. Decrease of I c was more than 30% of the initial critical current, I c0, without loading at the point of final overall fracture when the maximum load in the stress cycles was close to that corresponding to irreversible strain. Furthermore, microscopic observation and the change in I c showed that fatigue fracture mainly initiated from the Hastelloy C-276 substrate. Fatigue fracture also initiated from the Cu layer, but only when the maximum load was approximately F.

  6. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  7. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in children: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Agarwal, Arnav; Tassone, Maria Cristina; Shahjahan, Nadia; Walton, Mark; Chan, Anthony; Mondal, Tapas

    2016-06-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with increased risk of thrombosis in the paediatric population, particularly in relation to the type of catheter and the manner of its insertion. Here, we investigate risk factors associated with CVC-related thrombosis in children, with particular emphasis on positioning of the catheter tip. Patients aged 0-18 who underwent at least one CVC placement from 2008 to 2013 at a single centre with a subsequent follow-up echocardiogram were included for a total of 104 patients and 147 lines. Data on clinical and catheter-related risk factors were collected from patient charts. Statistical analysis using Pearson's χ tests, independent samples t-test, and odds ratios were used to assess potential risk factors for thrombosis. Neither insertion site (subclavian vein or otherwise), left- vs. right-sided insertion, nor catheter type were significant risk factors for thrombosis. There were no thrombotic events reported at the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium junction and no significant differences in thrombotic risk with initial tip placement in the SVC-right atrium junction vs. the SVC, right atrium, or inferior vena cava. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was a major clinical risk factor for thrombosis. Tip movement was common and may have been an important factor in the development of CVC-related thrombi. Prospective studies can yield insight into the role of follow-up imaging in the prevention of catheter-related thrombosis in children. PMID:26977751

  8. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

  9. Using the Excess Heat Factor (EHF) to predict the risk of heat related deaths.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Neil; Herbst, Jonathon; Mason, Kerryn; Nairn, John; Byard, Roger W

    2013-07-01

    Extremes of climate are not uncommon in Australia and heatwaves are not infrequent. Periods of high ambient temperature may result in clusters of heat related deaths, which may place strain on forensic facilities. This paper describes the formulation of the Excess Heat Factor using meteorological data to provide a means of predicting death resulting from periods of extreme heat stress. The 2009 South Australian heatwave had the highest ranked Excess Heat Factor in Adelaide's records. There were 58 heat related deaths, with the bulk of the heat related deaths following the peak Excess Heat Factor value (144 °C(2)). The 2008 heatwave had a lower peak Excess Heat Factor value (36 °C(2)); there was only one heat related death, which followed the peak in the Excess Heat Factor. It is proposed that calculation of the Excess Heat Factor from meteorological data could provide a means to predict and identify heat related deaths resulting from extreme weather conditions. PMID:23756508

  10. Soil carbon distribution in Alaska in relation to soil-forming factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.D.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.D.; Bliss, N.B.; Bockheim, J.G.; Clark, M.; Nettleton-Hollingsworth, T.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kane, E.S.; Mack, M.; O'Donnell, J.; Ping, C.-L.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Valentine, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes in response to climate change remain unclear and depend on the spatial distribution of SOC across landscapes. Uncertainties regarding the fate of SOC are greater in high-latitude systems where data are sparse and the soils are affected by sub-zero temperatures. To address these issues in Alaska, a first-order assessment of data gaps and spatial distributions of SOC was conducted from a recently compiled soil carbon database. Temperature and landform type were the dominant controls on SOC distribution for selected ecoregions. Mean SOC pools (to a depth of 1-m) varied by three, seven and ten-fold across ecoregion, landform, and ecosystem types, respectively. Climate interactions with landform type and SOC were greatest in the uplands. For upland SOC there was a six-fold non-linear increase in SOC with latitude (i.e., temperature) where SOC was lowest in the Intermontane Boreal compared to the Arctic Tundra and Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, in upland systems mineral SOC pools decreased as climate became more continental, suggesting that the lower productivity, higher decomposition rates and fire activity, common in continental climates, interacted to reduce mineral SOC. For lowland systems, in contrast, these interactions and their impacts on SOC were muted or absent making SOC in these environments more comparable across latitudes. Thus, the magnitudes of SOC change across temperature gradients were non-uniform and depended on landform type. Additional factors that appeared to be related to SOC distribution within ecoregions included stand age, aspect, and permafrost presence or absence in black spruce stands. Overall, these results indicate the influence of major interactions between temperature-controlled decomposition and topography on SOC in high-latitude systems. However, there remains a need for more SOC data from wetlands and boreal-region permafrost soils, especially at depths > 1 m in order

  11. The severity of retinal pathology in homozygous Crb1rd8/rd8 mice is dependent on additional genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Ulrich F.O.; Carvalho, Livia S.; Holthaus, Sophia-Martha kleine; Cowing, Jill A.; Greenaway, Simon; Chu, Colin J.; Herrmann, Philipp; Smith, Alexander J.; Munro, Peter M.G.; Potter, Paul; Bainbridge, James W.B.; Ali, Robin R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding phenotype–genotype correlations in retinal degeneration is a major challenge. Mutations in CRB1 lead to a spectrum of autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies with variable phenotypes suggesting the influence of modifying factors. To establish the contribution of the genetic background to phenotypic variability associated with the Crb1rd8/rd8 mutation, we compared the retinal pathology of Crb1rd8/rd8/J inbred mice with that of two Crb1rd8/rd8 lines backcrossed with C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice. Topical endoscopic fundal imaging and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy fundus images of all three Crb1rd8/rd8 lines showed a significant increase in the number of inferior retinal lesions that was strikingly variable between the lines. Optical coherence tomography, semithin, ultrastructural morphology and assessment of inflammatory and vascular marker by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the lesions were associated with photoreceptor death, Müller and microglia activation and telangiectasia-like vascular remodelling—features that were stable in the inbred, variable in the second, but virtually absent in the third Crb1rd8/rd8 line, even at 12 months of age. This suggests that the Crb1rd8/rd8 mutation is necessary, but not sufficient for the development of these degenerative features. By whole-genome SNP analysis of the genotype–phenotype correlation, a candidate region on chromosome 15 was identified. This may carry one or more genetic modifiers for the manifestation of the retinal pathology associated with mutations in Crb1. This study also provides insight into the nature of the retinal vascular lesions that likely represent a clinical correlate for the formation of retinal telangiectasia or Coats-like vasculopathy in patients with CRB1 mutations that are thought to depend on such genetic modifiers. PMID:25147295

  12. The severity of retinal pathology in homozygous Crb1rd8/rd8 mice is dependent on additional genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Carvalho, Livia S; Holthaus, Sophia-Martha Kleine; Cowing, Jill A; Greenaway, Simon; Chu, Colin J; Herrmann, Philipp; Smith, Alexander J; Munro, Peter M G; Potter, Paul; Bainbridge, James W B; Ali, Robin R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding phenotype-genotype correlations in retinal degeneration is a major challenge. Mutations in CRB1 lead to a spectrum of autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies with variable phenotypes suggesting the influence of modifying factors. To establish the contribution of the genetic background to phenotypic variability associated with the Crb1(rd8/rd8) mutation, we compared the retinal pathology of Crb1(rd8/rd8)/J inbred mice with that of two Crb1(rd8/rd8) lines backcrossed with C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice. Topical endoscopic fundal imaging and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy fundus images of all three Crb1(rd8/rd8) lines showed a significant increase in the number of inferior retinal lesions that was strikingly variable between the lines. Optical coherence tomography, semithin, ultrastructural morphology and assessment of inflammatory and vascular marker by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the lesions were associated with photoreceptor death, Müller and microglia activation and telangiectasia-like vascular remodelling-features that were stable in the inbred, variable in the second, but virtually absent in the third Crb1(rd8/rd8) line, even at 12 months of age. This suggests that the Crb1(rd8/rd8) mutation is necessary, but not sufficient for the development of these degenerative features. By whole-genome SNP analysis of the genotype-phenotype correlation, a candidate region on chromosome 15 was identified. This may carry one or more genetic modifiers for the manifestation of the retinal pathology associated with mutations in Crb1. This study also provides insight into the nature of the retinal vascular lesions that likely represent a clinical correlate for the formation of retinal telangiectasia or Coats-like vasculopathy in patients with CRB1 mutations that are thought to depend on such genetic modifiers. PMID:25147295

  13. Patient and medication-related factors associated with hospital-acquired hyponatremia in patients hospitalized from heart failure.

    PubMed

    Saepudin, S; Ball, Patrick A; Morrissey, Hana

    2016-08-01

    admission was found as patient-related factors associated with HAH in this study. In addition, administration of amiodarone and heparin during hospital stay were found as medication-related factors associated with HAH in patients hospitalized from HF. PMID:27041705

  14. Physiological basis of tolerance to complete submergence in rice involves genetic factors in addition to the SUB1 gene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhanshu; Mackill, David J; Ismail, Abdelbagi M

    2014-01-01

    1 lines. This suggests the possibility of further improvements in submergence tolerance by incorporating additional traits present in FR13A or other similar landraces. PMID:25281725

  15. Physiological basis of tolerance to complete submergence in rice involves genetic factors in addition to the SUB1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhanshu; Mackill, David J.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

    2014-01-01

    1 lines. This suggests the possibility of further improvements in submergence tolerance by incorporating additional traits present in FR13A or other similar landraces. PMID:25281725

  16. Survey of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in lettuce production in relation to management and soil factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Jackson, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) root colonization and spore number in soil was assessed for 18 fields under intensive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in California during July and August of 1995. Data on management practices and soil characteristics were compiled for each field, and included a wide range of conditions. The relationship between these factors and the occurrence of VAM in these fields was explored with multivariate statistical analysis. VAM colonization of lettuce tended to decrease with the use of chemical inputs, such as pesticides and high amounts of P and N fertilizers. Addition of soil organic matter amendments, the occurrence of other host crops in the rotation, and soil carbon:phosphorus and carbon:nitrogen ratios, were positively associated with VAM colonization of lettuce roots. The number of VAM spores in soil was strongly correlated with the number of other host crops in the rotation, the occurrence of weed hosts and sampling date, but was more affected by general soil conditions than by management inputs. Higher total soil N, C and P, as well as CEC, were inversely related to soil spore number. A glasshouse study of the two primary lettuce types sampled in the field showed no significant differences in the extent of root colonization under similar growing conditions. The results of this study are compared with other studies on the effects of management and soil conditions on mycorrhizal occurrence in agriculture.

  17. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

  18. Wanted: Gerontological Social Workers--Factors Related to Interest in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to build a predictive model of factors related to social work students' interest in gerontological social work. Bachelor's and Master's students from universities around Texas were surveyed to determine if knowledge about the aging process and related job opportunities, attitudes toward aging and professional or personal…

  19. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  20. A Quantitative Analysis of the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Turnover Factors of Relational Database Support Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takusi, Gabriel Samuto

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative analysis explored the intrinsic and extrinsic turnover factors of relational database support specialists. Two hundred and nine relational database support specialists were surveyed for this research. The research was conducted based on Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey. Regression analysis and a univariate ANOVA…

  1. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal…

  2. Factors Related to Social Competence in Elementary School among Children of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Laura; Luster, Tom; Vandenbelt, Marcia

    2003-01-01

    This study examined factors related to social competence in first-grade children of low-income, adolescent mothers. Findings indicated that higher social skills and lower levels of problem behaviors related to higher quality parenting, higher academic skills, and residence in neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Children with higher social…

  3. Psychosocial factors associated with pain intensity, pain-related interference, and psychological functioning in persons with multiple sclerosis and pain.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Travis L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Hanley, Marisol A; Kraft, George

    2007-01-01

    Biopsychosocial models of chronic pain that recognize psychological and environmental factors as important aspects of adjustment to pain have been proposed for understanding chronic pain and related suffering in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but such models have not been empirically tested. The objective of this study was to test such a model by evaluating the associations of several psychosocial variables (i.e., pain-related catastrophizing, perceived social support, pain beliefs, and pain coping) with pain intensity, pain interference with functioning, and psychological functioning in persons with chronic pain and MS, after controlling for demographic and disease-related factors. Participants were 125 community-dwelling persons with MS and pain who completed a mailed questionnaire that included measures of pain intensity and interference, psychological functioning, catastrophizing, social support, and pain beliefs and coping. The psychosocial variables accounted for an additional 25% of the variance in average pain intensity after controlling for demographic and disease-related variables (p<.001). These variables explained an additional 22% of the variance in pain-related interference (p<.001) and 43% of the variance in psychological functioning (p<.001), after adjusting for demographic and MS-related variables and average pain intensity. Catastrophizing was consistently and independently associated with all criterion measures, whereas social support, pain beliefs, and pain coping were associated with some criterion measures but not others. The results provide empirical support for a biopsychosocial understanding of chronic pain in MS and suggest that specific psychosocial factors (e.g., catastrophizing) may be important regarding adjustment to pain in persons with MS. PMID:16950570

  4. Incidence and risk factors of bleeding-related adverse events in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Andrew H; Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Tian, Xin; Martyr, Sabrina; Cullinane, Ann M; Nghiem, Khanh; Sun, Clare; Valdez, Janet; Niemann, Carsten U; Herman, Sarah E M; Saba, Nakhle; Soto, Susan; Marti, Gerald; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steve M; Lozier, Jay N; Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Ibrutinib is associated with bleeding-related adverse events of grade ≤ 2 in severity, and infrequently with grade ≥ 3 events. To investigate the mechanisms of bleeding and identify patients at risk, we prospectively assessed platelet function and coagulation factors in our investigator-initiated trial of single-agent ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. At a median follow-up of 24 months we recorded grade ≤ 2 bleeding-related adverse events in 55% of 85 patients. No grade ≥ 3 events occurred. Median time to event was 49 days. The cumulative incidence of an event plateaued by 6 months, suggesting that the risk of bleeding decreases with continued therapy. At baseline, von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels were often high and normalized on treatment. Platelet function measured via the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100™) was impaired in 22 patients at baseline and in an additional 19 patients on ibrutinib (often transiently). Collagen and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation was tested using whole blood aggregometry. Compared to normal controls, response to both agonists was decreased in all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, whether on ibrutinib or not. Compared to untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, response to collagen showed a mild further decrement on ibrutinib, while response to adenosine diphosphate improved. All parameters associated with a significantly increased risk of bleeding-related events were present at baseline, including prolonged epinephrine closure time (HR 2.74, P=0.012), lower levels of von Willebrand factor activity (HR 2.73, P=0.009) and factor VIII (HR 3.73, P=0.0004). In conclusion, both disease and treatment-related factors influence the risk of bleeding. Patients at greater risk for bleeding of grade ≤ 2 can be identified by clinical laboratory tests and counseled to avoid aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and fish oils. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01500733

  5. Incidence and risk factors of bleeding-related adverse events in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Andrew H.; Farooqui, Mohammed Z.H.; Tian, Xin; Martyr, Sabrina; Cullinane, Ann M.; Nghiem, Khanh; Sun, Clare; Valdez, Janet; Niemann, Carsten U.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Saba, Nakhle; Soto, Susan; Marti, Gerald; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steve M.; Lozier, Jay N.; Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib is associated with bleeding-related adverse events of grade ≤2 in severity, and infrequently with grade ≥3 events. To investigate the mechanisms of bleeding and identify patients at risk, we prospectively assessed platelet function and coagulation factors in our investigator-initiated trial of single-agent ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. At a median follow-up of 24 months we recorded grade ≤2 bleeding-related adverse events in 55% of 85 patients. No grade ≥3 events occurred. Median time to event was 49 days. The cumulative incidence of an event plateaued by 6 months, suggesting that the risk of bleeding decreases with continued therapy. At baseline, von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels were often high and normalized on treatment. Platelet function measured via the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100™) was impaired in 22 patients at baseline and in an additional 19 patients on ibrutinib (often transiently). Collagen and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation was tested using whole blood aggregometry. Compared to normal controls, response to both agonists was decreased in all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, whether on ibrutinib or not. Compared to untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, response to collagen showed a mild further decrement on ibrutinib, while response to adenosine diphosphate improved. All parameters associated with a significantly increased risk of bleeding-related events were present at baseline, including prolonged epinephrine closure time (HR 2.74, P=0.012), lower levels of von Willebrand factor activity (HR 2.73, P=0.009) and factor VIII (HR 3.73, P=0.0004). In conclusion, both disease and treatment-related factors influence the risk of bleeding. Patients at greater risk for bleeding of grade ≤2 can be identified by clinical laboratory tests and counseled to avoid aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and fish oils. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01500733 PMID

  6. Atrazine and metolachlor occurrence in shallow ground water of the United States, 1993 to 1995: Relations to explanatory factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Barbash, J.E.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the quality of the Nation's water resources. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of why pesticides are found in shallow ground water on a national scale, a set of factors likely to affect the fate and transport of two herbicides in the subsurface were examined. Atrazine and metolachlor were selected for this discussion because they were among the most frequently detected pesticides in ground water during the first phase of the NAWQA Program (1993 to 1995), and each was the most frequently detected compound in its chemical class (triazines and acetanilides, respectively). The factors that most strongly correlated with the frequencies of atrazine detection in shallow ground-water networks were those that provided either: (1) an indication of the potential susceptibility of ground water to atrazine contamination, or (2) an indication of relative ground-water age. The factors most closely related to the frequencies of metolachlor detection in ground water, however, were those that estimated or indicated the intensity of the agricultural use of metolachlor. This difference is probably the result of detailed use estimates for these compounds being available only for agricultural settings. While atrazine use is relatively extensive in nonagricultural settings, in addition to its widespread agricultural use, metolachlor is used almost exclusively for agricultural purposes. As a result, estimates of agricultural applications provide a less reliable indication of total chemical use for atrazine than for metolachlor. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors of interest explained about 50 percent of the variance in atrazine and metolachlor detection frequencies among the NAWQA land-use studies examined. The inclusion of other factors related to pesticide fate and transport in ground water, or improvements in the quality and

  7. Patient-related medical risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee

    PubMed Central

    Eka, Aleeson

    2015-01-01

    Despite advancements and improvements in methods for preventing infection, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a significant complication following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Prevention is the most important strategy to deal with this disabling complication, and prevention should begin with identifying patient-related risk factors. Medical risk factors, such as morbid obesity, malnutrition, hyperglycemia, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), preoperative anemia, cardiovascular disorders, chronic renal failure, smoking, alcohol abuse and depression, should be evaluated and optimized prior to surgery. Treating patients to get laboratory values under a specified threshold or cessation of certain modifiable risk factors can decrease the risk of PJI. Although significant advances have been made in past decades to identify these risk factors, there remains some uncertainty regarding the risk factors predisposing TJA patients to PJI. Through a review of the current literature, this paper aims to comprehensively evaluate and provide a better understanding of known medical risk factors for PJI after TJA. PMID:26539450

  8. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Sun Protection in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Shuk, Elyse; Burkhalter, Jack; Baguer, Carlos; Holland, Susan; Pinkhasik, Alisa; Brady, Mary Sue; Coit, Daniel; Ariyan, Charlotte; Hay, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma survivors are at heightened risk for developing melanoma, but sporadically use sun protection. To develop appropriate interventions, in this article we identify factors related to sun protection inconsistency in melanoma FDRs using ethnographic decision tree modeling. We conducted in-home interviews with 25 melanoma FDRs balanced across gender and sunbathing attitudes and identified factors related to daily decision making about use of sunscreen, shade seeking, hats, and clothing. Results indicated primary facilitators for sun protection involved water settings and sunny weather. Physical activities such as exercise served to promote as well as inhibit sun protection. If participants anticipated shade cover, they tended to forgo other sun protection. The use of hats and clothing was often dictated by non-sun protection goals. Understanding factors related to inconsistent sun protection with detail and nuance is an important prerequisite to interventions aimed to improve sun protection maintenance in this population. PMID:22645220

  9. Turkish Students' Science Performance and Related Factors in PISA 2006 and 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Arikan, Serkan; Erbilgin, Evrim

    2015-01-01

    The OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) enables participating countries to monitor 15-year old students' progress in reading, mathematics, and science literacy. The present study investigates persistent factors that contribute to science performance of Turkish students in PISA 2006 and PISA 2009. Additionally,…

  10. Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Related Factors in Turkey: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsal-Delialioglu, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Ozel, Sumru; Gorgulu, Gulderen

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to determine whether there was any difference, with respect to depression, between mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and mothers of healthy children. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether some additional factors had an impact on the depression of the mothers. The study included 49…

  11. TRF3, a TATA-box-binding protein-related factor, is vertebrate-specific and widely expressed.

    PubMed

    Persengiev, Stephan P; Zhu, Xiaochun; Dixit, Bharat L; Maston, Glenn A; Kittler, Ellen L W; Green, Michael R

    2003-12-01

    TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) is a highly conserved RNA polymerase II general transcription factor that binds to the core promoter and initiates assembly of the preinitiation complex. Two proteins with high homology to TBP have been found: TBP-related factor 1 (TRF1), described only in Drosophila melanogaster, and TRF2, which is broadly distributed in metazoans. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an additional TBP-related factor, TRF3. TRF3 is virtually identical to TBP in the C-terminal core domain, including all residues involved in DNA binding and interaction with other general transcription factors. Like other TBP family members, the N-terminal region of TRF3 is divergent. The TRF3 gene is present and expressed in vertebrates, from fish through humans, but absent from the genomes of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis and the lower eukaryotes D. melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. TRF3 is a nuclear protein that is present in all human and mouse tissues and cell lines examined. Despite the highly homologous TBP-like C-terminal core domain, gel filtration analysis indicates that the native molecular weight of TRF3 is substantially less than that of TFIID. Interestingly, after mitosis, reimport of TRF3 into the nucleus occurs subsequent to TBP and other basal transcription factors. In summary, TRF3 is a highly conserved vertebrate-specific TRF whose phylogenetic conservation, expression pattern, and other properties are distinct from those of TBP and all other TRFs. PMID:14634207

  12. Incidence, severity and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy with glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Takeo; Wakai, Kimiko; Suda, Kieko; Nakatsue, Tomoko; Sawada, Hideko; Hara, Hiroaki; Ueda, Jun; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yamada, Akiko; Abe, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence, severity, and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy in eyes using antiglaucoma eye drops. Patients and methods In a cross-sectional study, 749 eyes from 427 patients who had used one or more antiglaucoma eye drops were examined at Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital or related facilities. The incidence and severity of superficial punctate keratitis (SPK), patient gender and age, type of glaucoma, and type of eye drops were recorded. SPK was graded according to the AD (A, area; D, density) classification. The severity score (SS) was calculated from A × D. Results SPK was observed in 382 (51.0%) of 749 eyes that had received any type of antiglaucoma eye drops. While 254 eyes (33.9%) were classified as A1D1 (SS 1), 34 eyes (4.6%) had severe SPK with SS 4 or more. The number of eye drops and the total dosing frequency per day were significantly greater in SPK-positive eyes than in eyes without SPK. The number of eye drops was proportional to the frequency and severity of SPK. Among eyes that were treated with three or more eye drops, SPK was more severe and more frequent in older patients (≥71 years). In addition, a considerable difference was detected for each type of glaucoma. Conclusion Drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy is often observed in eyes that have received recent antiglaucoma eye drops. The number of eye drops, the total dose frequency per day, patient age, and type of glaucoma may affect this condition. We have to consider not only the effects on intraocular pressure but also the incidence and severity of drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy as a frequent side effect of glaucoma medications. PMID:20463785

  13. The role of emotion regulation in the relations between psychopathy factors and impulsive and premeditated aggression.

    PubMed

    Long, Katherine; Felton, Julia W; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lejuez, Carl W

    2014-10-01

    Given the high rates of aggressive behavior among highly psychopathic individuals, much research has sought to clarify the nature of the relation between psychopathy and aggression. The present study examined relations between Fearless Dominance (PPI FD), Self-Centered Impulsivity (PPI SCI), and Coldheartedness (PPI CH) Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and aggression dimensions (premeditated and impulsive aggression) in a sample of substance users receiving inpatient treatment. At the univariate level, PPI FD traits were significantly and positively related to premeditated aggression, but were not significantly related to impulsive aggression. PPI SCI traits were positively related to both forms of aggression, whereas PPI CH was not significantly related to either aggression dimension. Emotion regulation difficulties, as measured by the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004), were negatively related to PPI FD traits, positively related to PPI SCI traits, and negatively related to PPI CH traits. Both PPI SCI and PPI FD traits exerted significant indirect effects on impulsive aggression through the DERS. In contrast, the DERS did not mediate the relations between psychopathic traits and premeditated aggression. Results provide a more nuanced understanding of the psychopathy-aggression relations and suggest that difficulties with emotion regulation may be an important mediator of the relations between psychopathy factors and impulsive aggression. PMID:25198433

  14. Evaluation of Cholangiocarcinoma Risk and its Related Factors in Wetland Geographical Communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Bureelerd, Onanong; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Wetland geographical areas have a higher incidence of Opisthorchis viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), confirmed by data from geographic information systems, than other areas. Behavioral data also indicate that people in these areas traditionally eat uncooked freshwater fish dishes, a vehicle for O. viverrini infection. The best approach to reducing CCA incidence is decreasing risk factors together with behavior alteration. Evaluation of CCA risk and its related factors are first needed for planning the prevention and control programs in the future. We therefore aimed to evaluate the CCA risk and explore its related factors among people in wetland communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2014. In total 906 participants, with informed consent, completed questionnaires. Overall risk of CCA was determined by multiplying odds ratios (ORs) of the risk factors for CCA from literature reviews. A mean score of 5.95 was applied as the cut-off point. Assessment of factors related to overall risk of CCA was accomplished using conditional logistic regression. Of all participants, 60.15% had a high level of the overall risk of CCA. Factors related to the overall risk of CCA were gender (<0.001), marital status (<0.001), perceived susceptibility (p=0.043) and prevention behavior for CCA (<0.001). In conclusion, most participants in this community had a high level of overall risk of CCA. Therefore, integrated prevention and control programs continue to be urgently required. PMID:27221857

  15. Fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphorus related factors in young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sanae; Ishida, Hiromi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus homeostasis is determined by dietary intake, intestinal absorption, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is considered to be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in both patients with chronic kidney diseases and healthy subjects. However, the number of studies evaluating serum FGF-23 concentrations in healthy subjects is limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between serum FGF-23 concentrations and phosphorus related factors in 182 young Japanese women (mean age, 19.5±0.4 years). We found that higher serum concentrations of inorganic phosphorus and lower serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D as well as lower fat but higher phosphorus and calcium intake were weakly but significantly associated with high serum concentrations of FGF-23, adjusted for postmenarcheal age and body weight. These results suggested that in young Japanese women, serum FGF-23 might be indicative of phosphorus nutrition status. However, it is worthy of note that maturity factors, including postmenarcheal age and physical attributes, such as body weight, might be related to serum FGF-23 concentrations. PMID:27440690

  16. Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) and anti-GAD-related CNS degenerations: protean additions to the autoimmune central neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fatima; Rowley, Merrill; Jayakrishnan, Bindu; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric; Mackay, Ian R

    2011-09-01

    Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is a rare autoimmune neurological disease attributable to autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) more usually associated with the islet beta cell destruction of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). SPS is characterized by interference in neurons with the synthesis/activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) resulting in the prototypic progressive spasmodic muscular rigidity of SPS, or diverse neurological syndromes, cerebellar ataxia, intractable epilepsy, myoclonus and several others. Remarkably, a single autoantibody, anti-GAD, can be common to widely different disease expressions, i.e. T1D and SPS. One explanation for these data is the differences in epitope engagement between the anti-GAD reactivity in SPS and T1D: in both diseases, anti-GAD antibody reactivity is predominantly to a conformational epitope region in the PLP- and C-terminal domains of the 65 kDa isoform but, additionally in SPS, there is reactivity to conformational epitope(s) on GAD67, and short linear epitopes in the C-terminal region and at the N-terminus of GAD65. Another explanation for disease expressions in SPS includes ready access of anti-GAD to antigen sites due to immune responsiveness within the CNS itself according to intrathecal anti-GAD-specific B cells and autoantibody. Closer study of the mysterious stiff-person syndrome should enhance the understanding of this disease itself, and autoimmunity in general. PMID:21680149

  17. Factors affecting the outcome of related allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with Fanconi Anemia.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Mouhab; Siddiqui, Khawar; Al-Jefri, Abdullah; El-Solh, Hassan; Al-Ahmari, Ali; Khairy, Ashraf; Markiz, Samer; Shahin, Hasan; Al-Musa, Abdulrahman; Al-Seraihy, Amal

    2014-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi Anemia (FA), and it is generally accepted that these patients should receive low-intensity conditioning because of the underlying DNA repair defect in their cells. Outcomes for recipients of matched related HCT have generally been favorable, but only a few studies have scrutinized the factors that may affect the eventual outcome of these patients. This retrospective analysis of 94 pediatric patients with FA who underwent related HCT at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center was carried out to attempt to identify factors that may affect outcome. Results showed overall survival (OS) probabilities of 92.5%, 89%, and 86% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In univariate analysis, use of higher dose cyclophosphamide (CY) (60 mg/kg) conditioning was associated with a better 10-year OS than lower dose CY (20 mg/kg) conditioning (91% versus 82%, respectively; P = .035), and use of radiation-containing regimens was associated with a significantly lower 10-year OS than nonradiation regimens (76% versus 91%, respectively; P = .005). Of the 4 regimens used in this study, the fludarabine-based regimen was associated with the highest survival (95.2%; P = .034). The use of the higher dose CY (60 mg/kg) was associated with a significantly increased incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) (20% versus 5.6% respectively; P = .049). Three patients (3%) developed squamous cell carcinoma (2 oropharyngeal and 1 genitourinary), at 9.4, 5.4, and 13.3 years after HCT; 2 of them had radiation-containing conditioning. In conclusion, our data suggest that although using a higher dose CY (60 mg/kg) conditioning regimen may be associated with better survival, it is also associated with a significantly increased risk of HC. The addition of fludarabine to the low-dose CY (20 mg/kg) is associated with the best survival. On the other hand, radiation-containing regimens are associated with

  18. Deficiency in the nuclear-related factor erythroid 2 transcription factor (Nrf1) leads to genetic instability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Diane H; Rigas, Diamanda; Cho, Ara; Chan, Jefferson Y

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) regulates cellular stress response genes, and has also been suggested to play a role in other cellular processes. We previously demonstrated that hepatocyte-specific deletion of Nrf1 in mice resulted in spontaneous apoptosis, inflammation, and development of liver tumors. Here, we showed that both fibroblasts derived from Nrf1 null mouse embryos and fibroblasts expressing a conditional Nrf1 allele showed increased micronuclei and formation of abnormal nuclei. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf1 in SAOS-2 cells also resulted in increased micronuclei, abnormal mitosis and multi-nucleated cells. Metaphase analyses showed increased aneuploidy in Nrf1(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts. Nuclear defects in Nrf1-deficient cells were associated with decreased expression of various genes encoding kinetochore and mitotic checkpoint proteins. Our findings suggest that Nrf1 may play a role in maintaining genomic integrity, and that Nrf1 dysregulation may induce tumorigenesis. PMID:22971132

  19. Factors associated with distress in relatives of a family member experiencing recent-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Barrowclough, Christine; Gooding, Patricia; Hartley, Samantha; Lee, Gary; Lobban, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Factors associated with distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis are unclear, but subjective appraisals of the illness seem to be implicated. We aimed to identify the contribution of illness perceptions to predicting distress in relatives of people experiencing recent-onset psychosis. The relatives were assessed on measures including distress and illness perceptions, and these were repeated 6 months later. Almost half of the relatives had significant distress that persisted at 6 months. Where symptoms of the service users were more severe, and for the older relatives, distress showed less improvement. Perceptions of greater perceived future negative consequences and a more chronic timeline predicted greater distress at 6 months, whereas increased perceived coping efficacy of the relatives predicted a reduction in distress. Distress in relatives is evident early on in psychosis, but assessment of appraisals of relatives may help identify those at risk for enduring problems and offers opportunity for clinical intervention. PMID:24375211

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with age-related decline in hippocampal volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Heo, Susie; McLaren, Molly; Pence, Brandt D; Martin, Stephen A; Vieira, Victoria J; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-04-14

    Hippocampal volume shrinks in late adulthood, but the neuromolecular factors that trigger hippocampal decay in aging humans remains a matter of speculation. In rodents, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the growth and proliferation of cells in the hippocampus and is important in long-term potentiation and memory formation. In humans, circulating levels of BDNF decline with advancing age, and a genetic polymorphism for BDNF has been related to gray matter volume loss in old age. In this study, we tested whether age-related reductions in serum levels of BDNF would be related to shrinkage of the hippocampus and memory deficits in older adults. Hippocampal volume was acquired by automated segmentation of magnetic resonance images in 142 older adults without dementia. The caudate nucleus was also segmented and examined in relation to levels of serum BDNF. Spatial memory was tested using a paradigm in which memory load was parametrically increased. We found that increasing age was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes, reduced levels of serum BDNF, and poorer memory performance. Lower levels of BDNF were associated with smaller hippocampi and poorer memory, even when controlling for the variation related to age. In an exploratory mediation analysis, hippocampal volume mediated the age-related decline in spatial memory and BDNF mediated the age-related decline in hippocampal volume. Caudate nucleus volume was unrelated to BDNF levels or spatial memory performance. Our results identify serum BDNF as a significant factor related to hippocampal shrinkage and memory decline in late adulthood. PMID:20392958