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Sample records for additional family member

  1. Isolation of an additional member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, FGFR-3.

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, K; Johnson, D E; Williams, L T; Hayman, M J

    1991-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factors are a family of polypeptide growth factors involved in a variety of activities including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have previously been identified in chicken, mouse, and human and have been shown to contain an extracellular domain with either two or three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. We have isolated a human cDNA for another tyrosine kinase receptor that is highly homologous to the previously described FGFR. Expression of this receptor cDNA in COS cells directs the expression of a 125-kDa glycoprotein. We demonstrate that this cDNA encodes a biologically active receptor by showing that human acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors activate this receptor as measured by 45Ca2+ efflux assays. These data establish the existence of an additional member of the FGFR family that we have named FGFR-3. Images PMID:1847508

  2. Delayed Adrenarche may be an Additional Feature of Immunoglobulin Super Family Member 1 Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Severine; Craen, Margarita; Callewaert, Bert; Joustra, Sjoerd; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Wit, Jan Maarten; Turgeon, Marc Olivier; Bernard, Daniel J; De Schepper, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin super family member 1 (IGSF1) deficiency syndrome is characterized by central hypothyroidism, delayed surge in testosterone during puberty, macro-orchidism, and in some cases, hypoprolactinemia and/or transient growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Our patient was a 19-year-old male adolescent who had been treated since the age of 9 years with GH and thyroxine for an idiopathic combined GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) deficiency. His GH deficiency proved to be transient, but deficiencies of TSH and PRL persisted, and he had developed macro-orchidism since the end of puberty. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and PROP1 and POU1F1 sequencing were normal. A disharmonious puberty (delayed genital and pubic hair development, bone maturation, and pubertal growth spurt, despite normal testicular growth) was observed as well as a delayed adrenarche, as reflected by very low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and delayed pubarche. Direct sequencing of the IGSF1 gene revealed a novel hemizygous mutation, c.3127T>C, p.Cys1043Arg. Pathogenicity of the mutation was demonstrated in vitro. Male children with an idiopathic combined GH, PRL, and TSH deficiency, showing persistent central hypothyroidism but transient GH deficiency upon retesting at adult height, should be screened for mutations in the IGSF1 gene, especially when macro-orchidism and/or hypoprolactinemia are present. We suspect that delayed adrenarche, as a consequence of PRL deficiency, might be part of the clinical phenotype of patients with IGSF1 deficiency. PMID:26757742

  3. Delayed Adrenarche may be an Additional Feature of Immunoglobulin Super Family Member 1 Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hulle, Severine Van; Craen, Margarita; Callewaert, Bert; Joustra, Sjoerd; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Wit, Jan Maarten; Turgeon, Marc Olivier; Bernard, Daniel J.; Schepper, Jean De

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin super family member 1 (IGSF1) deficiency syndrome is characterized by central hypothyroidism, delayed surge in testosterone during puberty, macro-orchidism, and in some cases, hypoprolactinemia and/or transient growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Our patient was a 19-year-old male adolescent who had been treated since the age of 9 years with GH and thyroxine for an idiopathic combined GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) deficiency. His GH deficiency proved to be transient, but deficiencies of TSH and PRL persisted, and he had developed macro-orchidism since the end of puberty. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and PROP1 and POU1F1 sequencing were normal. A disharmonious puberty (delayed genital and pubic hair development, bone maturation, and pubertal growth spurt, despite normal testicular growth) was observed as well as a delayed adrenarche, as reflected by very low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and delayed pubarche. Direct sequencing of the IGSF1 gene revealed a novel hemizygous mutation, c.3127T>C, p.Cys1043Arg. Pathogenicity of the mutation was demonstrated in vitro. Male children with an idiopathic combined GH, PRL, and TSH deficiency, showing persistent central hypothyroidism but transient GH deficiency upon retesting at adult height, should be screened for mutations in the IGSF1 gene, especially when macro-orchidism and/or hypoprolactinemia are present. We suspect that delayed adrenarche, as a consequence of PRL deficiency, might be part of the clinical phenotype of patients with IGSF1 deficiency. PMID:26757742

  4. Family member interventions: research challenges.

    PubMed

    Leske, J S

    1991-07-01

    Numerous descriptive studies have provided a base for developing and testing interventions for family members after a critical illness event. The challenges of designing, conducting, and using research-based interventions for families are invitation for the researcher. Critical care nurses have much to offer and do make a difference with families. Accept the challenges! PMID:2071430

  5. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  6. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  7. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  8. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  9. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  10. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual and leases, loans or gives equipment, land or labor to such an individual; and (b) Such family... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective...

  11. Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

    2007-01-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

  12. Conducting a multi family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne

    2014-06-01

    Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question.

  13. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  14. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  15. Family members' opinions about civil commitment.

    PubMed

    McFarland, B H; Faulkner, L R; Bloom, J D; Hallaux, R; Bray, J D

    1990-05-01

    As part of a survey of 260 Oregon family members with mentally ill relatives, respondents were asked about their experiences with civil commitment and their opinions about proposed modifications in the commitment statutes. Family members typically described their mentally ill relative as a schizophrenic man in his thirties who had had six psychiatric hospitalizations and was currently being treated with medications at a community mental health center. Three-fourths of the relatives had been committed. A majority (57 percent) of the respondents were in favor of mandatory outpatient treatment and medication after involuntary hospitalization but were not enthusiastic about outpatient commitment without hospitalization. Family members also wanted more education about mental illness, more information about the commitment process, and assignment of a professional to help in the commitment process.

  16. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that the State makes Medicaid available to any individual who meets the definition of “qualified family... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is...

  17. Family Members as Participants on Craniofacial Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James; Seaver, Earl; Stevens, George; Whiteley, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Family members (N=83) who participated in professional team staffing concerning treatment plans for their child with a craniofacial difference (typically, cleft lip and/or palate) were surveyed. Ninety-seven percent of respondents said they would choose to meet with the team on their next visit to the clinic. The role of early interventionists on…

  18. Fort Lewis Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebdon, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Located in the shadow of Mt. Rainier, Fort Lewis is the home of the highest per capita exceptional family member population in the Army. Ideally located on the Northwest coast of Washington State, Fort Lewis is home to the Strykers and First Brigade. Combined with its close proximity to McChord Air Force Base, the installation is ideally suited to…

  19. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  20. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  1. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  2. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  3. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  4. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any... that the State makes Medicaid available to any individual who meets the definition of “qualified family... Coverage for individuals age 19 or older and under age 65 at or below 133 percent FPL. (a) Basis....

  5. Ten Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Friendly Online Chat 10 Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help Changes in physical and ... difficult to detect—for older adults and their family members, friends, and caregivers. To help in determining ...

  6. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  7. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  8. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  9. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  10. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  11. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  12. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  13. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices

    PubMed Central

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and past experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design Eight focus groups, two with each segment (men/women vegetable-likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Setting Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Participants 61 low-income, married/cohabiting men (n=28) and women (n=33). Analysis Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t-tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Results Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable-liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Past experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored due to unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Conclusions and Implications Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could 1) alter family norms about vegetables served, 2) change perceptions of past experiences, 3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables and 4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. PMID:20452288

  14. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  15. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... members. (a)(1) An enrollment for self and family includes all family members who are eligible to be... if he or she is covered under another person's self and family enrollment in the FEHB Program. (2... enroll in his or her own right in a self and family enrollment even though his or her spouse also has...

  16. Comparative integromics on Angiopoietin family members.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-06-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), Angiopoietin-4 (ANGPT4), VEGF, FGF2, FGF4, HGF, Ephrin, IL8 and CXCL12 (SFD1) are pro-angiogenic factors (angiogenic activators), while Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), Angiostatin, Endostatin, Tumstatin, Canstatin, THBS1, THBS2, TNFSF15 (VEGI) and Vasohibin (VASH1) are anti-angiogenic factors (angiogenic inhibitors). ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 are ligands for TIE family receptor tyrosine kinases, TIE1 and TIE2 (TEK). Angiopoietin family consists of ANGPT1, ANGPT2, ANGPT4, ANGPTL1 (ANGPT3), ANGPTL2, ANGPTL3 (ANGPT5), ANGPTL4, ANGPTL5, ANGPTL6 and ANGPTL7. TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human Angiopoietin family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because four TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the human ANGPTL7 promoter, comparative genomics analyses on ANGPTL7 orthologs were further performed. ANGPTL7 gene at human chromosome 1p36.22 was located within intron 28 of FRAP1 gene encoding mTOR protein. Chimpanzee ANGPTL7 gene, consisting of five exons, was located within NW_101546.1 genome sequence. Chimpanzee ANGPTL7 showed 99.4% and 86.1% total-amino-acid identity with human ANGPTL7 and mouse Angptl7, respectively. Human ANGPTL7 mRNA was expressed in neural tissues, keratoconus cornea, trabecular meshwork, melanotic melanoma and uterus endometrial cancer, while mouse Angptl7 mRNA was expressed in four-cell embryo, synovial fibroblasts, thymus, uterus and testis. Four TCF/LEF-binding sites within human ANGPTL7 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee ANGPTL7 promoter; however, only an unrelated TCF/LEF-binding site occurred in mouse and rat Angptl7 promoters. Human ANGPTL7, characterized as potent target gene of WNT/ beta-catenin signaling pathway, is a pharmacogenomics target in the fields of oncology and regenerative medicine. PMID:16685428

  17. A Family-Based Diabetes Intervention for Hispanic Adults and Their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Debra; McCoy, Thomas; Amirehsani, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this quasi-experimental one group longitudinal study is to examine the effects of a family-based intervention program on diabetes self-management behaviors, HbA1c, other biomarkers, psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in Hispanics with diabetes. Methods Adult patients with diabetes (n = 36) and family members (n = 37) were recruited from a community clinic in rural central North Carolina. Patients and family members attended an 8-week culturally tailored diabetes educational program taught in Spanish. Data was collected pre and post intervention for both patients and family members, with an additional data collection for patients 1 month post intervention. Results Most patients and family members were female and almost all were immigrants. HbA1c dropped by 0.41% on average among patients from pre-intervention to 1 month post intervention. Patients showed significant improvements in systolic blood pressure, diabetes self-efficacy diabetes knowledge, and physical and mental components of health-related quality of life. Higher levels of intake of healthy foods and performance of blood sugar tests and foot inspections were reported. Family members significantly lowered BMI and improved diabetes knowledge from pre- to immediate post-intervention. No significant changes in levels of physical activity were found among patients with diabetes or family members. Conclusions Findings suggest that including family members in educational interventions may provide emotional and psychological support to patients with diabetes, help to develop healthy family behaviors, and promote diabetes self-management. PMID:24248832

  18. LRP receptor family member associated bone disease.

    PubMed

    Lara-Castillo, N; Johnson, M L

    2015-06-01

    A dozen years ago the identification of causal mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene involved in two rare bone disorders propelled research in the bone field in totally new directions. Since then, there have been an explosion in the number of reports that highlight the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In this review we discuss some of the most recent reports (in the past 2 years) highlighting the involvement of the members of the LRP family (LRP5, LRP6, LRP4, and more recently LRP8) in the maintenance of bone and their implications in bone diseases. These reports include records of new single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes that suggest variants in these genes can contribute to subtle variation in bone traits to mutations that give rise to extreme bone phenotypes. All of these serve to further support and reinforce the importance of this tightly regulated pathway in bone. Furthermore, we discuss provocative reports suggesting novel approaches through inhibitors of this pathway to treat rarer diseases such as Osteoporosis-Pseudoglioma Syndrome (OPPG), Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), and Sclerosteosis/Van Buchem disease. It is hoped that by understanding the role of each component of the pathway and their involvement in bone diseases that this knowledge will allow us to develop new, more effective therapeutic approaches for more common diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis as well as these rarer bone diseases.

  19. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  20. Comparative integromics on VEGF family members.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-06-01

    VEGF, Hedgehog, FGF, Notch, and WNT signaling pathways network together for vascular remodeling during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. VEGFA (VEGF), VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD (FIGF) and PGF (PlGF) are VEGF family ligands for receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGFR1 (FLT1), VEGFR2 (KDR) and VEGFR3 (FLT4). Bevacizumab (Avastin), Sunitinib (Sutent) and Sorafenib (Nexavar) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to VEGF signaling pathway. TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human VEGF family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because four TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human VEGFD gene within AC095351.5 genome sequence, comparative genomics analyses on VEGFD orthologs were further performed. ASB9-ASB11-VEGFD locus at human chromosome Xp22.2 and ASB5-VEGFC locus at human chromosome 4q34 were paralogous regions within the human genome. Human VEGFD mRNA was expressed in lung, small intestine, uterus, breast, neural tissues, and neuroblastoma. Mouse Vegfd mRNA was expressed in kidney, pregnant oviduct, and neural tissues. Chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, cow Vegfd promoter, mouse Vegfd promoter and rat Vegfd promoter were identified within NW_121675.1, AC161065.2, AL732475.6 and AC130036.3 genome sequences, respectively. Three out of four TCF/LEF-binding sites within human VEGFD promoter were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, and one in cow Vegfd promoter. TCF/LEF-binding site, not conserved in human VEGFD promoter, occurred in cow, mouse and rat Vegfd promoters. At least five out of six bHLH-binding sites within human VEGFD proximal promoter region were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD proximal promoter region, while only one in cow Vegfd proximal promoter region. Together these facts indicate that relatively significant promoter evolution occurred among mammalian VEGFD orthologs. Human VEGFD was characterized as a potent target gene of WNT

  1. LRP Receptor Family Member Associated Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Castillo, N; Johnson, ML

    2015-01-01

    A dozen years ago the identification of causal mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene involved in two rare bone disorders propelled research in the bone field in totally new directions. Since then, there have been an explosion in the number of reports that highlight the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In this review we discuss some of the most recent reports (in the past 2 years) highlighting the involvement of the members of the LRP family (LRP5, LRP6, LRP4, and more recently LRP8) in the maintenance of bone and their implications in bone diseases. These reports include records of new single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes that suggest variants in these genes can contribute to subtle variation in bone traits to mutations that give rise to extreme bone phenotypes. All of these serve to further support and reinforce the importance of this tightly regulated pathway in bone. Furthermore, we discuss provocative reports suggesting novel approaches through inhibitors of this pathway to treat rarer diseases such as Osteoporosis-Pseudoglioma Syndrome (OPPG), Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), and Sclerosteosis/Van Buchem disease. It is hoped that by understanding the role of each component of the pathway and their involvement in bone diseases that this knowledge will allow us to develop new, more effective therapeutic approaches for more common diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis as well as these rarer bone diseases. PMID:26048454

  2. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  3. 78 FR 76529 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... definitions of family members residing in one household. As a result of this expansion, more U.S. returning... correspondingly, more U.S. returning resident family members may group their personal duty exemptions....

  4. Family member presence in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Eppich, Walter J; Arnold, Linda D

    2003-06-01

    Traditionally, family members were excluded from viewing invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the pediatric emergency department. The concept of family-centered care in the emergency department has now become more widespread. Consequently, family member presence during routine invasive procedures such as venipuncture, intravenous cannulation, urethral catheterization, and lumbar puncture has become more accepted. Survey evidence indicates parents' overwhelming desire to be present for invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Healthcare provider opinions about family witnessed resuscitation lack similar uniformity. Variations in approval of witnessed resuscitation are influenced by occupation, level of training and experience, and prior exposure to family member presence practices. Although several organizations formally support family presence policies, citing benefits for grieving relatives, critics point to a lack of rigor in a large body of the research cited to underpin these endorsements. We review the literature from the perspective of pediatric emergency physicians, offer suggestions for family member presence, and provide directions for future study. PMID:12806260

  5. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... continues to live with the enrollee in a regular parent-child relationship. (3) Meaning of domestic partner... employee, annuitant, child, or former spouse may enroll or be covered as a family member if he or she is... she qualifies as a family member under a spouse's or parent's enrollment. To ensure that no...

  6. Erythropoietin and interleukin-2 activate distinct JAK kinase family members.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, D L; D'Andrea, A D

    1994-01-01

    The erythropoietin (EPO) receptor and the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor beta-chain subunit are members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. They have conserved primary amino acid sequences in their cytoplasmic domains and activate phosphorylation of common substrates, suggesting common biochemical signaling mechanisms. We have generated a cell line, CTLL-EPO-R, that contains functional cell surface receptors for both EPO and IL-2. CTLL-EPO-R cells demonstrated similar growth kinetics in EPO and IL-2. Stimulation with EPO resulted in the rapid, dose-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2. In contrast, stimulation with IL-2 or the related cytokine IL-4 resulted in the rapid, dose-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1 and an additional 116-kDa protein. This 116-kDa protein was itself immunoreactive with a polyclonal antiserum raised against JAK2 and appears to be a novel member of the JAK kinase family. Immune complex kinase assays confirmed that IL-2 and IL-4 activated JAK1 and EPO activated JAK2. These results demonstrate that multiple biochemical pathways are capable of conferring a mitogenic signal in CTLL-EPO-R cells and that the EPO and IL-2 receptors interact with distinct JAK kinase family members within the same cellular background. Images PMID:7935373

  7. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  8. Coping with stigma by association and family burden among family members of people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Remko L M; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E R

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we explored stigma by association, family burden, and their impact on the family members of people with mental illness. We also studied the ways in which family members coped with these phenomena. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 immediate family members of people with mental illness. Participants reported various experiences of stigma by association and family burden. Social exclusion, being blamed, not being taken seriously, time-consuming caregiving activities, and exhaustion appeared to be the predominant forms of stigma by association and family burden experienced by the participants. The participants used problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, separately or simultaneously, to cope with the negative impact of stigma by association and family burden. The results suggest that family members should have access to services to address these problems. Social, instrumental, and emotional support should be given to family members by community members and mental health professionals.

  9. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. 653.104 Section 653.104 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and...

  10. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. 653.104 Section 653.104 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and...

  11. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  12. Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

  13. Family functioning in adolescent anorexia nervosa: a comparison of family members' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Emanuelli, F; Ostuzzi, R; Cuzzolaro, M; Baggio, F; Lask, B; Waller, G

    2004-03-01

    Abnormal patterns of family functioning have often been reported in anorexia nervosa. Moreover, members of families with an adult with eating disorders have different family functioning perspectives. This study investigated whether differences in family members' perspectives, similar to the ones found in families of adults with eating disorders, can be found in families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Perceived family functioning, measured with the Family Assessment Device, was compared between 49 control and 34 clinical families, and across family members. Differences were found between the two groups on a number of aspects of family functioning, with the clinical families showing most disturbances. There was a general agreement across family members in their perceptions of family functioning, with one notable exception. Clinical daughters disagreed with both their parents about the family level of communication, whereas control daughters disagreed only with their fathers. Disagreements between clinical adolescents and their mothers about the family communication style appear to be important in anorexia nervosa in this age group, although it is not possible to reach conclusions about the direction of causality. These findings support the use of family-oriented therapies that aim to identify and work with difficulties in communication within the family.

  14. Kidney length in healthy members of Balkan endemic nephropathy families

    PubMed Central

    Ristić, S; Marić, S; Maksimović, Z; Marić, V; Djukanović, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney size may differ between healthy members of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and non-BEN families. The present study was designed to elucidate this, in comparison with values for BEN patients. Methods: A total of 71 BEN patients (34 males, 64.4 ± 12.0 years), 74 healthy BEN family members (39 males, 49.1 ± 12.2 years), and 59 non-BEN family members (19 males, 49.2 ± 12.3 years) were involved. We measured the longest craniocaudal length and minimal parenchymal thickness on each kidney of all examined subjects using ultrasound. Results: No significant difference was found between the kidney length of healthy subjects from BEN (11.0 ± 0.8 cm) and non-BEN families (10.9 ± 0.8 cm), but kidneys were significantly longer than in BEN patients (9.9 ± 1.3 cm). Minimal parenchymal thickness was similar in all three groups. When subjects from each group were divided according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), kidney length of the healthy groups was significantly longer than in BEN patients both in stage 1 (p =0.039) and stage 2 (p =0.044) of chronic kidney disease. The parental history of BEN was not associated with kidney dimensions, eGFR, or urinary excretion of albumin and alpha1-microglobulin. Conclusion: Kidneys of BEN patients were significantly shorter than in healthy members of both BEN and non-BEN families, but no difference was found in kidney length and parenchymal thickness between healthy members of BEN and non-BEN families. No significant association was found between parental history of BEN and kidney size and function either in BEN patients or in healthy members from BEN families. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 304-308.

  15. Family Physician Support for a Family With a Mentally Ill Member.

    PubMed

    McBride, J LeBron

    2016-09-01

    Mentally ill family members can have a formidable impact on the families in which they reside. Family physicians can intervene in powerful ways when they are sensitive to those who are mentally ill and their families and can provide much needed compassionate support. PMID:27621163

  16. 77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... family residing in one household'' to allow more U.S. returning residents to file a family customs.... CBP believes that the definition unnecessarily limits the number of individuals who may file a...

  17. [Impaired communication between nurses and patients' family members].

    PubMed

    de Paula, A A; Furegato, A R; Scatena, M C

    2000-08-01

    This study aims at presenting the analysis of an interaction between a nurse and a patient's family member in which impaired communication was observed. The interpersonal-relationship theoretical framework was used. The patient was young, 20 years old, bore a dead fetus and presented various complications. The interaction took place with her aunt (stepmother) and as to the structure, it was diagnostic, therapeutic and made it possible to establish a proposal of continuous assistance. As to content, it was possible to find the points of support given by family members and identify new facts so that the nursing team could improve the assistance given to the patient.

  18. Global transcriptional regulator TrmB family members in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minwook; Park, Soyoung; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2016-10-01

    Members of the TrmB family act as global transcriptional regulators for the activation or repression of sugar ABC transporters and central sugar metabolic pathways, including glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and other metabolic pathways, and also as chromosomal stabilizers in archaea. As a relatively newly classified transcriptional regulator family, there is limited experimental evidence for their role in Thermococcales, halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC1, and crenarchaea Sulfolobus strains, despite being one of the extending protein families in archaea. Recently, the protein structures of Pyrococcus furiosus TrmB and TrmBL2 were solved, and the transcriptomic data uncovered by microarray and ChIP-Seq were published. In the present review, recent evidence of the functional roles of TrmB family members in archaea is explained and extended to bacteria. PMID:27687225

  19. Global transcriptional regulator TrmB family members in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minwook; Park, Soyoung; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2016-10-01

    Members of the TrmB family act as global transcriptional regulators for the activation or repression of sugar ABC transporters and central sugar metabolic pathways, including glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and other metabolic pathways, and also as chromosomal stabilizers in archaea. As a relatively newly classified transcriptional regulator family, there is limited experimental evidence for their role in Thermococcales, halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC1, and crenarchaea Sulfolobus strains, despite being one of the extending protein families in archaea. Recently, the protein structures of Pyrococcus furiosus TrmB and TrmBL2 were solved, and the transcriptomic data uncovered by microarray and ChIP-Seq were published. In the present review, recent evidence of the functional roles of TrmB family members in archaea is explained and extended to bacteria.

  20. The challenges of reintegration for service members and their families.

    PubMed

    Danish, Steven J; Antonides, Bradley J

    2013-10-01

    The ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have posed a number of reintegration challenges to service members. Much of the research focuses on those service members experiencing psychological problems and being treated at the VA. In this article, we contend that much of the distress service members experience occurs following deployment and is a consequence of the difficulties encountered during their efforts to successfully reintegrate into their families and communities. We propose a new conceptual framework for intervening in this reintegration distress that is psycho-educational in nature as well as a new delivery model for providing such services. An example of this new intervention framework is presented.

  1. Interventions for family members caring for an elder with dementia.

    PubMed

    Acton, Gayle J; Winter, Mary A

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews 73 published and unpublished research reports of interventions for family members caring for an elder with dementia by nurse researchers and researchers from other disciplines. Reports were identified through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Social Science Index, PsycINFO, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, American Association of Retired Persons database, CRISP index of the National Institutes of Health, Cochrane Center database, and Dissertation Abstracts using the following search terms: caregiver, caregiving, dementia, Alzheimer's, intervention study, evaluation study, experimental, and quasi-experimental design. Additional keywords were used to narrow or expand the search as necessary. All nursing research was included in the review and nonnursing research was included if published between 1991 and 2001. Studies were included if they used a design that included a treatment and control group or a one-group, pretest-posttest design (ex post facto designs were included if they used a comparison group). Key findings show that approximately 32% of the study outcomes (e.g., burden, depression, knowledge) were changed after intervention in the desired direction. In addition, several problematic issues were identified including small, diverse samples; lack of intervention specificity; diversity in the length, duration, and intensity of the intervention strategies; and problematic outcome measures.

  2. Being Socialised into Language Shift: The Impact of Extended Family Members on Family Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Christmas, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family…

  3. How illness affects family members: a qualitative interview survey

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Saada, Adrianna; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spillover effects of illness on family members can be substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify the domains of family members’ health and well-being that are affected when a relative has a chronic health condition. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in February, 2012 with 49 individuals whose relatives had any of five chronic health conditions (arthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease/dementia, cerebral palsy, and depression), purposively sampled to include different relationships with the ill relative (parent, child, spouse). Subjects were queried on whether and how having an ill relative affected their health and well-being; they were also asked about their caregiving responsibilities and the relative’s health. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Family members in our sample reported experiencing psychological and non-health effects from having an ill relative, and secondarily somatic effects. Effects on emotional health were most commonly reported as psychological spillover; non-health effects frequently included changes in daily activities and provision of caregiving. Spouses of patients reported the broadest range of spillover domains affected and adolescents of ill parents the fewest. Family members reported experiencing effects that were perceived as both positive and negative. Conclusions Spillover of illness onto family members encompasses a wide range of domains of health and well-being, extending beyond those included in many existing health-related quality of life measures. Outcomes measurement efforts should be expanded to adequately capture these health and well-being outcomes for analysis, to ensure that the benefits of interventions are accurately estimated and conclusions are valid. PMID:24142495

  4. Manipulating plant architecture with members of the CETS gene family.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Roisin C; Ayre, Brian G

    2012-06-01

    The shape or architecture of a plant is specified through the activities of indeterminate and determinate meristems, and the sum of these events sharply impacts plant growth habit, productivity, and crop management. The CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER 1/SELF-PRUNING (CETS) gene family shares homology to phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) genes and is prominent in controlling the timing and location of the developmental transition from indeterminate to determinate growth, with different family members balancing the activities of others through antagonistic functions. The CETS members FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) of Arabidopsis and related genes (e.g. SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS, SFT, in tomato) are important in promoting the transition to determinate growth while TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and its homologs (e.g. tomato SELF PRUNING, SP) oppose this activity by maintaining meristems in an indeterminate state. FT orthologs, and perhaps other CETS family members, act as mobile proteinaceous hormones, and can amplify their impact by accumulating in recipient organs. A universal model is emerging for the timing and placement of determinate and indeterminate growth through a balance of FT-like and TFL1-like gene activities, and it is now clear that the domestication of many wild exotics into crops with desired growth habits resulted from selection of altered FT/TFL1 balances. Manipulating this ratio further, through transgenic or viral-based technologies, holds promise for improved agricultural sustainability.

  5. A Brazilian Marseillevirus Is the Founding Member of a Lineage in Family Marseilleviridae

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Assis, Felipe L.; Aherfi, Sarah; Arantes, Thalita; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was discovered as parasitizing Acanthamoeba. It was revealed to exhibit remarkable features, especially odd genomic characteristics, and founded viral family Mimiviridae. Subsequently, a second family of giant amoebal viruses was described, Marseilleviridae, whose prototype member is Marseillevirus, discovered in 2009. Currently, the genomes of seven different members of this family have been fully sequenced. Previous phylogenetic analysis suggested the existence of three Marseilleviridae lineages: A, B and C. Here, we describe a new member of this family, Brazilian Marseillevirus (BrMV), which was isolated from a Brazilian sample and whose genome was fully sequenced and analyzed. Surprisingly, data from phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics, including mean amino acid identity between BrMV and other Marseilleviridae members and the analyses of the core genome and pan-genome of marseilleviruses, indicated that this virus can be assigned to a new Marseilleviridae lineage. Even if the BrMV genome is one of the smallest among Marseilleviridae members, it harbors the second largest gene content into this family. In addition, the BrMV genome encodes 29 ORFans. Here, we describe the isolation and genome analyses of the BrMV strain, and propose its classification as the prototype virus of a new lineage D within the family Marseilleviridae. PMID:26978387

  6. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

  7. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family. PMID:25535047

  8. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  9. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

  10. PC8 [corrected], a new member of the convertase family.

    PubMed

    Bruzzaniti, A; Goodge, K; Jay, P; Taviaux, S A; Lam, M H; Berta, P; Martin, T J; Moseley, J M; Gillespie, M T

    1996-03-15

    A novel subtilisin-like protein, PC8, was identified by PCR using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic region of members of the prohormone convertase family. PC8 was predicted to be 785 residues long and was structurally related to the mammalian convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2, sharing more than 50% amino acid identity over the catalytic region with these family members. PC8 possessed the catalytically important Asp, His, Asn and Ser amino acids, the homo B domain of this family of enzymes and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence indicative of a transmembrane domain. Structurally, PC8 is more related to furin and PACE4 than to PC1 or PC2. Like furin and PACE4, PC8 mRNA was found to be widely expressed; this is in contrast with PC1 and PC2, which have a restricted distribution. Two transcripts, of 4.5 and 3.5 kb, were detected in both human cell lines and rat tissues. Unlike furin and PACE4, both of which map to chromosome 15, PC8 maps to chromosome 11q23-11q24, suggesting that this gene may have resulted from an ancient gene duplication event from either furin or PACE4, or conversely that these genes arose from PC8. PMID:8615762

  11. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  12. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  13. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-03-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  14. Asteroid (90) Antiope: Another icy member of the Themis family?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, Kelsey D.; Emery, Joshua P.; Campins, Humberto; Kelley, Michael S. P.

    2015-07-01

    Many members of the Themis family show evidence of hydration in the form of oxidized iron in phyllosilicates (Florczak, M. et al. [1999]. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 463-471), and OH-bearing minerals (Takir, D., Emery, J.P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 641-654). The largest member, (24) Themis, has H2O ice covering its surface (Campins, H. et al. [2010]. Nature 464, 1320-1321; Rivkin, A.S., Emery, J.P. [2010]. Nature 464, 1322-1323). We have investigated the second largest Themis-family asteroid, (90) Antiope, which Castillo-Rogez and Schmidt (Castillo-Rogez, J.C., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L10202) predict to have a composition that includes water ice and organics. We obtained 2-4-μm spectroscopy of (90) Antiope in 2006 and 2008, and we find an absorption in the 3-μm region clearly present in our 2008 spectrum and likely in our 2006 spectrum. Both spectra have rounded, bowl-shaped absorptions consistent with those ascribed to water ice as in the spectrum of Asteroid (24) Themis. We also present and compare Spitzer 8-12-μm mid-infrared spectra of (24) Themis and (90) Antiope. We find that (90) Antiope is lacking a "fairy castle" dusty surface, which is in contrast to (24) Themis, other Themis family members (Licandro, J. et al. [2012]. Astron. Astrophys. 537, A73), and Jupiter Trojans (e.g. Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., Van Cleve, J. [2006]. Icarus 182, 496-512). We conclude that the surface structure of (90) Antiope is most similar to Cybele Asteroid (121) Hermione (Hargrove, K.D. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 453-455).

  15. A Telehealth Case Study of Videophone Use Between Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Brian K.; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Willis, Lia

    2006-01-01

    This case study extends beyond the institution-centric provider-patient dyad to examine telehealth communication between a nursing home resident and a geographically distant family member. The participants communicated regularly for three months by videophone. They found technical performance and usability acceptable and were generally satisfied with this application of telehealth technology. They assumed a strong role in self-remedying technical and usability problems they experienced. Potential implications associated with such use of telehealth technology by residence-based patients and their significant others, and the self-directedness displayed by participants in this case study, are discussed. PMID:17238567

  16. Psychological responses in family members after the Hebron massacre.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, S; Baker, A; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N; Irwin, M; Belmaker, R H

    1999-01-01

    The authors attempted to determine the frequency of severe psychological responses in surviving family members in a religious Muslim culture. Twenty-three wives, twelve daughters and twenty-six sons of heads of households massacred while praying in the Hebron mosque on 25 February 1994 were interviewed with the clinician-administered PTSD scale; 50% of daughters, 39% of wives, and 23% of sons met criteria for PTSD. PTSD or traumatic bereavement occurs with high frequency after a major tragedy in a Moslem society, despite religious admiration of dead martyrs. PMID:9989347

  17. Neuroglobin and cytoglobin: two new members of globin family

    PubMed Central

    Tosqui, Priscilla; Colombo, Marcio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The globin family has long been defined by myoglobin and hemoglobin, proteins with the functions of oxygen storage and transportation, respectively. Recently, two new members of this family were discovered: neuroglobin present in neurons and retinal cells and cytoglobin found in various types of tissue. The increased expression of these proteins in hypoxic conditions first suggested a role in oxygen supply. However structural and functional differences, such as the hexacoordinated heme, a high autoxidation rate and different concentrations between different cellular types, have dismissed this hypothesis. The protective role of these globins has already been established. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated increased survival of neurons under stress in the presence of neuroglobin and increased resistance to neurodegenerative diseases. However the mechanism remains unknown. Functions, including detoxification of nitric oxide, free radical scavenging and as an antioxidant and signaling of apoptosis, have also been suggested for neuroglobin and an antifibrotic function for cytoglobin. PMID:23049323

  18. Predicting the number and sizes of IBD regions among family members and evaluating the family size requirement for linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanling; Wang, Zhanyong; Wang, Lusheng; Sham, Pak-Chung; Huang, Peng; Lau, Yu Lung

    2008-12-01

    With genotyping of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) replacing that of microsatellite markers in linkage studies, it becomes possible to accurately determine the genomic regions shared identity by descent (IBD) by family members. In addition to evaluating the likelihood of linkage for a region with the underlining disease (the LOD score approach), an appropriate question to ask is what would be the expected number and sizes of IBD regions among the affecteds, as there could be more than one region reaching the maximum achievable LOD score for a given family. Here, we introduce a computer program to allow the prediction of the total number of IBD regions among family members and their sizes. Reversely, it can be used to predict the portion of the genome that can be excluded from consideration according to the family size and user-defined inheritance mode and penetrance. Such information has implications on the feasibility of conducting linkage analysis on a given family of certain size and structure or on a few small families when interfamily homogeneity can be assumed. It can also help determine the most relevant members to be genotyped for such a study. Simulation results showed that the IBD regions containing true mutations are usually larger than regions IBD due to random chance. We have made use of this feature in our program to allow evaluation of the identified IBD regions based on Bayesian probability calculation and simulation results.

  19. Sequence comparisons among dispersed members of the Brassica S multigene family in an S9 genome.

    PubMed

    Kai, N; Suzuki, G; Watanabe, M; Isogai, A; Hinata, K

    2001-05-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) systems prevent self-pollination and promote outbreeding. In Brassica, the SI genes SLG (for S-locus glycoprotein) and SRK (for S-receptor kinase) are members of the S multigene family, which share the SLG-like domain (S domain), which encodes a putative receptor. We have cloned members of the S multigene family from the S9 haplotype of B. campestris (syn. rapa). In addition, eight distinct genomic regions harboring 10 SLG/SRK-like genes were characterized in the present study. Sequence analysis revealed two novel SRK-like genes, BcRK3 and BcRK6 (for B. campestris receptor kinases 3 and 6, respectively). Other genes that were characterized included SFR2 (for S gene family receptor 2), SLR2 (for S locus related gene 2), and a pseudogene. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the S domain regions, SLG and SRK appear to be distinct from other members of the S multigene family. Linkage analysis showed that most members of the S multigene family are dispersed in the Brassica genome, and that SLR1 (S locus related gene 1) is not linked to the SLR2 in B. campestris.

  20. Glycosidase profiles of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Kämpfer, P; Rauhoff, O; Dott, W

    1991-01-01

    A total of 712 strains representing 47 taxa of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested for the ability to hydrolyze 14 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU)-linked substrates within 3 h of incubation. In addition to the well-known differentiation potential of the hydrolysis of 4-MU-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 4-MU-beta-D-glucuronide, and 4-MU-beta-D-xylopyranoside, the hydrolysis of some other fluorogenic substrates (e.g., 4-MU-beta-D-fucopyranoside, 4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, and 4-MU-alpha-D-galactopyranoside) can also be used for species differentiation within the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:1757564

  1. Variations in Conflictual Family Issues by Adolescent Pubertal Status, Gender, and Family Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.

    Conflictual family issues appearing during adolescence have not been adequately dimensionalized. In addition to this problem, researchers have focused on age-related variations in family conflicts without investigating other characteristics. A study was conducted to describe organized domains of conflictual family issues and to describe variations…

  2. 41 CFR 302-4.100 - What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... will my immediate family members receive? 302-4.100 Section 302-4.100 Public Contracts and Property... Expenses § 302-4.100 What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive? Except as... payment of the travel expenses of your immediate family members....

  3. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  4. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  5. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  6. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  7. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations, Eligibility Determinations, Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's...

  8. Type II collagenopathies: Are there additional family members?

    SciTech Connect

    Freisinger, P.; Pontz, B.F.; Emmrich, P.; Stoess, H.; Bonaventure, J.

    1996-05-03

    The type II collagenopathies represent a group of chondrodysplasia sharing clinical and radiological manifestations which are expressed as a continuous spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from perinatally lethal to very mild conditions. Their common molecular bases are mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). We describe one case of lethal platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type, and a variant of lethal Kniest dysplasia, neither of which has been reported as a type II collagenopathy. Biochemical studies of cartilage collagens and morphological analysis of cartilage sections suggest that abnormalities of type II collagen structure and biosynthesis are the main pathogenetic factors in both cases. Thus, the phenotypic spectrum of type II collagenopathies might be greater than hitherto suspected. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Drosophila S virus is a member of the Reoviridae family.

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferber, M; Veyrunes, J C; Croizier, L

    1989-01-01

    The S character of Drosophila simulans, the absence or malformation or both of bristles and other cuticular structures, was described by Comendador (Drosophila Inf. Serv. 55:26-28, 1980). Its characteristics (maternal transmission, low pathogenicity, and sensitivity to temperature) suggested the existence of a virus as the causative agent. Indeed, reoviruslike particles were found in subcuticular cells of S individuals, and its association with S phenotypic expression was shown. This virus was called Drosophila S virus (DSV) (C. Louis, M. López-Ferber, N. Plus, G. Kuhl, and S. Baker, J. Virol. 62:1266-1270, 1988). We report here the purification and analysis of some properties of DSV particles, the morphology (spherical, 60 nm in diameter with an electron dense central core and less dense shell) and genome composition (double-stranded RNA divided into segments), which classify DSV as a new member of the family Reoviridae. Images PMID:2911113

  10. Signaling Receptors for TGF-β Family Members.

    PubMed

    Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family members signal via heterotetrameric complexes of type I and type II dual specificity kinase receptors. The activation and stability of the receptors are controlled by posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, sumoylation, and neddylation, as well as by interaction with other proteins at the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. Activation of TGF-β receptors induces signaling via formation of Smad complexes that are translocated to the nucleus where they act as transcription factors, as well as via non-Smad pathways, including the Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways, and the Src tyrosine kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, and Rho GTPases. PMID:27481709

  11. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaigning for a spouse or family member... Campaigning for a spouse or family member. An employee covered under this subpart who is the spouse or family... candidate for partisan political office may appear in a family photograph which is printed in a...

  12. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124 Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. (a) The medical... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic......

  13. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124 Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. (a) The medical... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic......

  14. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124 Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. (a) The medical... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic......

  15. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124 Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. (a) The medical... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic......

  16. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124 Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. (a) The medical... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic......

  17. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span. PMID:26788781

  18. Faustoviruses: Comparative Genomics of New Megavirales Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Benamar, Samia; Reteno, Dorine G. I.; Bandaly, Victor; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    An emerging interest for the giant virus discovery process, genome sequencing and analysis has allowed an expansion of the number of known Megavirales members. Using the protist Vermamoeba sp. as cell support, a new giant virus named Faustovirus has been isolated. In this study, we describe the genome sequences of nine Faustoviruses and build a genomic comparison in order to have a comprehensive overview of genomic composition and diversity among this new virus family. The average sequence length of these viruses is 467,592.44 bp (ranging from 455,803 to 491,024 bp), making them the fourth largest Megavirales genome after Mimiviruses, Pandoraviruses, and Pithovirus sibericum. Faustovirus genomes displayed an average G+C content of 37.14 % (ranging from 36.22 to 39.59%) which is close to the G+C content range of the Asfarviridae genomes (38%). The proportion of best matches and the phylogenetic analysis suggest a shared origin with Asfarviridae without belonging to the same family. The core-gene-based phylogeny of Faustoviruses study has identified four lineages. These results were confirmed by the analysis of amino acids and COGs category distribution. The diversity of the gene composition of these lineages is mainly explained by gene deletion or acquisition and some exceptions for gene duplications. The high proportion of best matches from Bacteria and Phycodnaviridae on the pan-genome and unique genes may be explained by an interaction occurring after the separation of the lineages. The Faustovirus core-genome appears to consolidate the surrounding of 207 genes whereas the pan-genome is described as an open pan-genome, its enrichment via the discovery of new Faustoviruses is required to better seize all the genomic diversity of this family. PMID:26903952

  19. Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

    2011-12-01

    Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job. PMID:23599987

  20. Role of Murine Cytomegalovirus US22 Gene Family Members in Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Carine; Wagner, Markus; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Holak, Karina; Brune, Wolfram; Campbell, Ann E.; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2003-01-01

    The large cytomegalovirus (CMV) US22 gene family, found in all betaherpesviruses, comprises 12 members in both human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Conserved sequence motifs suggested a common ancestry and related functions for these gene products. Two members of this family, m140 and m141, were recently shown to affect MCMV replication on macrophages. To test the role of all US22 members in cell tropism, we analyzed the growth properties in different cell types of MCMV mutants carrying transposon insertions in all 12 US22 gene family members. When necessary, additional targeted mutants with gene deletions, ATG deletions, and ectopic gene revertants were constructed. Mutants with disruption of genes M23, M24, m25.1, m25.2, and m128 (ie2) showed no obvious growth phenotype, whereas growth of M43 mutants was reduced in a number of cell lines. Genes m142 and m143 were shown to be essential for virus replication. Growth of mutants with insertions into genes M36, m139, m140, and m141 in macrophages was severely affected. The common phenotype of the m139, m140, and m141 mutants was explained by an interaction at the protein level. The M36-dependent macrophage growth phenotype could be explained by the antiapoptotic function of the gene that was required for growth on macrophages but not for growth on other cell types. Together, the comprehensive set of mutants of the US22 gene family suggests that individual family members have diverged through evolution to serve a variety of functions for the virus. PMID:12719548

  1. 41 CFR 302-4.702 - What PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must we pay for the employee's immediate family members? 302-4.702 Section 302-4.702 Public Contracts... immediate family members? Except as specifically provided in this chapter, the reimbursement limits in... family members....

  2. Empowering family members in end-of-life care decision making in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Browning, Annette M

    2009-01-01

    Critical care nurses are often faced with working with families during the end-of-life care of a loved one. Often there is indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients when faced with making these difficult decisions. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe origins of indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients who are faced with end-of-life care decisions. Strategies to empower family members during this crucial time are also discussed. PMID:19104247

  3. Fos family members: regulation, structure and role in oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, E

    2000-07-01

    The members of the Fos protein family might be subdivided in two groups, according to their ability to transform rodent fibroblasts, transforming (c-Fos and FosB) and non-transforming (Fra-1 and Fra-2) proteins. Members of these groups are differently activated in response to external stimuli and possess different structural features. Importantly, whilst c-Fos and FosB contain multiple transactivation modules in their N- and C-terminal parts, transactivation domains are absent in the non-transforming Fos proteins. As a result, Fra-1 and Fra-2 though efficiently form dimers with the Jun proteins, are weak transcriptional activators and inhibit the c-Fos-dependent activation in transient transfection assay. The numerous experiments performed with the different Fos mutant proteins with impaired transforming ability, as well as with chimeric proteins revealed the importance of the transactivation function for transformation. Fra-1 and Fra-2 proteins albeit ineffectively triggering oncogenic transformation, are abundant in ras- and src-transformed murine and chicken fibroblasts, in neoplastic thyroid cells and in highly malignant mouse adenocarcinoma cells, which underwent mesenchymal transition. The abundance of the non-transforming Fos proteins in these systems might be mediated by a positive AP-l-dependent feedback mechanism, as well as by wnt signals. Furthermore, the manipulation of the Fra-1 expression level in thyroid and mammary tumor cells modulated the transcription of several tumor progression markers and affected cell morphology and invasiveness. These recent data demonstrate a novel function of non-transforming Fos proteins in the maintenance and progression of the transformed state. Interestingly, this function is independent of the documented invalidity of the Fra-1 and Fra-2 proteins as transcriptional activators in rodent fibroblasts.

  4. Expression of Hepatoma-derived growth factor family members in the adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahir, Heba M; Dietz, Frank; Dringen, Ralf; Schwabe, Kerstin; Strenge, Karen; Kelm, Sørge; Abouzied, Mekky M; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Franken, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Background Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1–4 (HRP-1 to -4) and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. Results HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be expressed by neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, strong expression of HRP-3 in the adult nervous system is restricted to neurons, except for very weak expression in oligodendrocytes in the brain stem. Although the majority of neurons are HRP-3 positive, some like cerebellar granule cells are negative. Conclusion The coexpression of HDGF and HRP-2 in glia and neurons as well as the coexpression of all three proteins in many neurons suggests different functions of members of the HDGF protein family in cells of the central nervous system that might include proliferation as well as cell survival. In addition the restricted expression of HRP-3 point to a special function of this family member for neuronal cells. PMID:16430771

  5. 76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (``FUTA'') under sections 3121(b)(3) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5)...

  6. 76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... owners of disregarded entities, except for qualified subchapter S subsidiaries, are responsible...

  7. Health support program for family members with hospitalized child.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Kurumi; Kusaba, Hifumi; Yamada, Miyuki; Murakata, Tazuko; Nakatomi, Rika

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, we began conducting Health Support Programs on the pediatric ward of Miyazaki Medical College Hospital. The program is designed to help family members who accompany and care for their children who are ill and hospitalized to practice some physical movements for their own benefit. An interview survey was undertaken to clarify the effects and the purpose of the program by evaluating subjective data from program participants, as well as by evaluating changes in participants' blood pressure rates. Findings indicate that the program's effects include "reduction of stress and/or lack of exercise," "refreshing effect," "comfort and/or exhilaration," "relaxation," and "alleviation of physical symptoms." We also have noted that mothers become more aware of their own health issues and that the program offers an opportunity to reexamine their health conditions. Furtherrnore, we have learned that for parents and children who participate together, the program offers a fun environment, and that, on occasion, mothers are the ones who are cared for in the program.

  8. STS-106 crew gathers to greet family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    While meeting with family on the day before launch, the STS-106 crew poses for a photo. Waving, left to right, are Mission Specialist Richard A. Mastracchio, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. In the background (left) is Launch Pad 39B and Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the Rotating Service Structure still in place. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

  9. New Members of the Mammalian Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase Family

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Noriyasu; Kudo, Takahiro; Yamashita, Yosuke; Mariggiò, Stefania; Araki, Mari; Honda, Ayako; Nagano, Tomomi; Isaji, Chiaki; Kato, Norihisa; Corda, Daniela; Izumi, Takashi; Yanaka, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The known mammalian glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GP-PDEs) hydrolyze glycerophosphodiesters. In this study, two novel members of the mammalian GP-PDE family, GDE4 and GDE7, were isolated, and the molecular basis of mammalian GP-PDEs was further explored. The GDE4 and GDE7 sequences are highly homologous and evolutionarily close. GDE4 is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, spermatids, and macrophages, whereas GDE7 is particularly expressed in gastro-esophageal epithelial cells. Unlike other mammalian GP-PDEs, GDE4 and GDE7 cannot hydrolyze either glycerophosphoinositol or glycerophosphocholine. Unexpectedly, both GDE4 and GDE7 show a lysophospholipase D activity toward lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC). We purified the recombinant GDE4 and GDE7 proteins and show that these enzymes can hydrolyze lyso-PC to produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Further characterization of purified recombinant GDE4 showed that it can also convert lyso-platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; lyso-PAF) to alkyl-LPA. These data contribute to our current understanding of mammalian GP-PDEs and of their physiological roles via the control of lyso-PC and lyso-PAF metabolism in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. PMID:25528375

  10. Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

  11. Family Members as Case Managers: Partnership Between the Formal and Informal Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Randomly assigned elderly persons to either experimental group (N=81) in which family members participated in case management training program, or to control group (N=76). Following training, family members in experimental group performed significantly greater number of case management tasks on behalf of elderly relatives than did family members…

  12. Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1) and cancer

    PubMed Central

    NAGAI, MARIA APARECIDA

    2016-01-01

    Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1) encodes a member of an evolutionarily conserved pleckstrin homology-related domain protein family. It was first identified as a potential transcription factor required for Fas expression and activation-induced apoptosis in mouse T cell hybridomas. The exact molecular and biological functions of PHLDA1 remain to be elucidated. However, its expression is induced by a variety of external stimuli and there is evidence that it may function as a transcriptional activator that acts as a mediator of apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation and cell migration dependent on the cellular type and context. Recently, PHLDA1 has received attention due to its association with cancer. In the present review, the current knowledge of PHLDA1 protein structure, expression regulation and function is summarized. In addition, the current data in the literature is reviewed with regards to the role of PHLDA1 in cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26998263

  13. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence. PMID:26075736

  14. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence.

  15. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  16. 12 CFR 215.5 - Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member banks. 215.5 Section 215.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS... MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.5 Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of...

  17. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  18. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

  19. Conserved cellular function and stress-mediated regulation among members of the proteolipid protein family.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María E; Alfonso, Julieta; Brocco, Marcela A; Frasch, Alberto C

    2010-05-01

    Chronic stress causes morphological alterations in the hippocampus of rodents and tree shrews, including atrophy of CA3 dendrites and loss of synapses. The molecular mechanisms underlying these structural changes remain largely unknown. We have previously identified M6a as a stress responsive gene and shown that M6a is involved in filopodium/spine outgrowth and, likely, synapse formation. M6a belongs to the proteolipid protein (PLP) family, all of their members having four transmembrane domains that allow their localization at the plasma membrane. In the present work, we analyzed other members of this family, the closely related M6b as well as PLP and its splice variant DM20. We found that chronic restraint stress in mice reduces M6b and DM20, but not PLP, mRNA levels in the hippocampus. In addition, M6b and DM20, but again not PLP, induce filopodium formation in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Several M6b protein isoforms were studied, all of them having similar effects except for the one lacking the transmembrane domains. Our results reveal a conserved cellular function and a stress-mediated regulation among members of the proteolipid protein family, suggesting an involvement of proteolipid proteins in the stress response. PMID:19937804

  20. Expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) family members in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. We aimed to assess the potential role of AP-1 family members as novel biomarkers in breast cancer. Methods We studied the expression of AP-1 members at the mRNA level in 72 primary breast tumors and 37 adjacent non-tumor tissues and evaluated its correlation with clinicopathological parameters including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu status. Expression levels of Ubiquitin C (UBC) were used for normalization. Protein expression of AP-1 members was assessed using Western blot analysis in a subset of tumors. We used student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, logistic regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for statistical analyses. Results We found significant differences in the expression of AP-1 family members between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues for all AP-1 family members except Fos B. Fra-1, Fra-2, Jun-B and Jun-D mRNA levels were significantly higher in tumors compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001), whilst c-Fos and c-Jun mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumors compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). In addition, Jun-B overexpression had outstanding discrimination ability to differentiate tumor tissues from adjacent non-tumor tissues as determined by ROC curve analysis. Moreover, Fra-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumors biochemically classified as ERα negative (p = 0.012) and PR negative (p = 0.037). Interestingly, Fra-1 expression was significantly higher in triple-negative tumors compared with luminal carcinomas (p = 0.01). Conclusions Expression levels of Fra-1 and Jun-B might be possible biomarkers for prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:24073962

  1. Nuclear factor 1 family members mediate repression of the BK virus late promoter.

    PubMed

    Kraus, R J; Shadley, L; Mertz, J E

    2001-08-15

    BK virus (BKV) is a member of the polyoma virus family that is ubiquitous in humans. Its 5-kb DNA genome consists of a bidirectional promoter region situated between two temporally regulated coding regions. We mapped the transcription initiation site of the major late promoter (MLP) of the archetype strain BKV(WW) to nt 185. We found that it lies within the sequence TGGN6GCCA, a binding site for members of the nuclear factor 1 (NF1) family of transcription factors. Competition electrophoretic mobility shift and immunoshift assays confirmed that NF1 factors present in nuclear extracts of HeLa and CV-1 cells bind to the BKV-MLP. Because BKV(WW) grew poorly in tissue culture and failed to express detectable levels of RNA in vitro, SV40-BKV chimeric viruses were constructed to investigate the transcriptional function of this NF-1 binding site. These sequence-specific factors repressed transcription in a cell-free system when template copy number was low. This repression could be relieved by the addition in trans of oligonucleotides containing wild-type, but not mutated, NF1-binding site sequences. SV40-BKV chimeric viruses defective in this NF1-binding site overproduced late RNA at early, but not late, times after transfection of CV-1 cells. Finally, transient expression in 293 cells of cDNAs encoding the family members NF1-A4, NF1-C2, and NF1-X2 specifically repressed transcription from the BKV late promoter approximately 3-, 10-, and 10-fold, respectively, in a DNA binding-dependent manner. We conclude that some members of the NF1 family of transcription factors can act as sequence-specific cellular repressors of the BKV-MLP. We propose that titration of these and other cellular repressors by viral genome amplification may be responsible in part for the replication-dependent component of the early-to-late switch in BKV gene expression.

  2. 41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to... determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the... for compelling personal reasons of a humanitarian or compassionate nature, which may involve: (a)...

  3. 41 CFR 302-3.303 - May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than once under one... Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE... return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than once under one service agreement?...

  4. 41 CFR 302-4.101 - Must my immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must my immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at the new official station? 302-4... family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at the new official...

  5. 41 CFR 302-11.104 - When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my residence to be eligible for the allowance for expenses incurred in connection with the sale of my residence? 302-11.104 Section 302-11.104... Requirements § 302-11.104 When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest...

  6. Screening of household family members of brucellosis cases and neighboring community members in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T

    2013-05-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis cases and 27 community neighbors were serologically tested for evidence of exposure by the serum agglutination test. Of these, the brucellosis seropositivity rate was 9.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Screening of household members of index cases and individuals who live in proximity to infected household members is a practical approach to increase the detection of brucellosis exposure.

  7. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  8. Everyday living with diabetes described by family members of adult people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  9. The Effect of Family Member Migration on Education and Work among Nonmigrant Youth in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United States, less is known about those who stay behind—an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican youth with migrant family members. Of the studies that do exist, most have sought to identify the effect migration has on youths’ migratory and educational aspirations, often using qualitative methods in single sending communities. The present article supplements this research in two ways: (1) in addition to assessing educational outcomes, the scope of the analysis is expanded to include nonmigrants’ interaction with another homeland institution of upward mobility—the labor market; and (2) using a large demographic data set, statistical techniques are employed to adjust for unobserved selectivity into the migrant family-member population, thus accounting for a potentially serious source of bias. The results suggest that youth in migrant-sending families are less likely to complete the educational transitions leading up to post-secondary school, and have a lower probability of participating in the local economy. The results also indicate that unobserved factors play a “nonignorable” role in sorting youth into migrant and nonmigrant families. PMID:21347807

  10. Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence of lung inflammation in unaffected family members

    SciTech Connect

    Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Keogh, B.A.; Wewers, M.D.; Adelberg, S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1986-05-22

    We evaluated 17 clinically unaffected members of three families with an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for evidence of alveolar inflammation. Each person in the study was examined by gallium-67 scanning for a general estimate of pulmonary inflammation, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for characterization of the types of recovered cells and their state of activation. Eight of the 17 subjects had evidence of alveolar inflammation on the lavage studies. Supporting data included increased numbers of neutrophils and activated macrophages that released one or more neutrophil chemoattractants, and growth factors for lung fibroblasts--findings similar to those observed in patients with overt idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four of these eight also had a positive gallium scan; in all the other clinically unaffected subjects the scan was normal. During a follow-up of two to four years in seven of the eight subjects who had evidence of inflammation, no clinical evidence of pulmonary fibrosis has appeared. These results indicate that alveolar inflammation occurs in approximately half the clinically unaffected family members at risk of inheriting autosomal dominant idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether these persons with evidence of pulmonary inflammation but no fibrosis will proceed to have clinically evident pulmonary fibrosis is not yet known.

  11. Experiences of Military Youth during a Family Member's Deployment: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Leanne K.; Pusateri, Kimberly B.; Ebata, Aaron T.; McGlaughlin, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of a family member can be very distressing for military children, but it also can supply opportunities for growth. This study addresses calls for research on the changes, challenges, and opportunities facing youth during a family member's tour of duty. It uses the relational turbulence model to frame research questions about how…

  12. Every Mark on the Page: Educating Family and Community Members about Young Children's Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusumano, Kate Foley

    2008-01-01

    Family and community members often look at children's writing from a deficit point of view--seeing only what's "wrong" with it, what needs "fixing." Teachers can take a proactive role as family and community member educators, communicating to them how writing develops in young children and how they can play a positive role in this development.…

  13. The Effect of Home Caregiving Program for Family Members Providing Care for Chronically Ill Relative Client

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Hussein Jassim; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in many countries are moving towards outpatient care in which family members are central in providing care for patients with life-threatening illness. Family members and friends haven't knowledge and skills to become caregivers as many studies found that, the need to involve in such program to enhance their ability to be…

  14. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and... Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-8 Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  15. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and... Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-8 Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  16. 32 CFR 884.14 - Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employees and family members. 884.14 Section 884.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.14 Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members. (a) The...

  17. 32 CFR 884.14 - Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employees and family members. 884.14 Section 884.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.14 Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members. (a) The...

  18. Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

  19. 41 CFR 302-3.510 - When must we pay return travel for immediate family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... travel for immediate family members? 302-3.510 Section 302-3.510 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY... travel for immediate family members? You must pay transportation expenses for one-way return travel...

  20. The Replacement Child: Substitution of a Lost Family Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Roy T.; Green, Donald

    Patterns of successful and unsuccessful resolution of grief over death of a child were studied in 25 families who had lost children across an 11-year-span. The families varied considerably in age, income, education, and parental occupation. Data were gathered by means of an intensive, open-ended interview schedule. The research focused on two…

  1. Accommodating family life: mentoring future female faculty members.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-03-01

    The demands of family life are crucial factors in successfully retaining women in science. Retention efforts should focus on creating a family-friendly environment within the laboratory and the institute. Based on my own experiences, I suggest ways to attract top young scientists and support their development into leading researchers.

  2. Family Stories, by the Members of the Reach One Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peg, Ed.

    This collection of stories is the result of a publishing project conducted with adult learners in the Reach One Program. The first page describes the steps that led to the finished product: providing a catalyst to stress the value of maintaining a family history; providing activities to stimulate memories of family stories; encouraging prewriting…

  3. Emotions experienced and coping strategies used by family members of organ donors.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, M

    1993-01-01

    In this descriptive study guided by the Lazarus and Folkman (1984) stress and coping theory, donor family members' emotional responses and coping strategies used during the anticipation and confrontation stages of the organ donation experience were explored. Seven families from Eastern Canada who had lost a loved one suddenly and consented to organ donation were interviewed in their homes. The findings clearly showed that family members experienced a variety of emotions and used several different types of coping strategies. The findings of this study contribute to the development of knowledge required to guide nursing interventions to provide sensitive care to family members of organ donors.

  4. Is cardiopulmonary resuscitation training deleterious for family members of cardiac patients?

    PubMed Central

    Dracup, K; Moser, D K; Guzy, P M; Taylor, S E; Marsden, C

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and subsequent CPR use of 172 CPR-trained family members of cardiac patients. The majority (88.9%) reported positive attitudes. Only 14 (8.1%) reported feeling too responsible for their family member. One hundred and forty-one (81.9%) said that they would perform CPR if required to do so. Family members do not feel unduly burdened by learning CPR, and CPR training should be recommended to families of patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. PMID:8279597

  5. Sleep problems and psychological distress in family members of patients with hematological malignancies in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Tanimukai, Hitsohi; Hirai, Kei; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Kishi, Akane

    2014-12-01

    Patients with cancer frequently suffer from insomnia symptoms, and additionally, their family members also often experience these symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in both family members and patients with hematological malignancies. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study using a clinical self-reported questionnaire for sleep conditions, depressive symptoms (two-question method), and worries (five items that originated from the Brief Cancer Worry Inventory). One hundred twelve family members and 153 patients were investigated. A t test and Chi-square test were used to compare the prevalence of insomnia and depressive symptoms between family members and patients. Logistic regression was used to determine whether insomnia symptoms or worries related to patients' disease had an impact on depressive symptoms. The presence of insomnia symptoms in family members (87 %) was significantly higher than that in patients (60 %, p < 0.001). The prevalence of depressive mood and anhedonia in family members were 55 and 34 %, respectively, and these values were higher than those in patients (43 and 28 %, respectively). Insomnia symptoms and worries about present/prospective disease conditions were significantly associated with depressive mood (insomnia symptoms, odds ratios (OR) 4.3, confidence intervals (CI) 1.2-15.2, p = 0.025; worries, OR 4.4, CI 1.0-19.3, p = 0.048). Taken together, our results demonstrated that insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent in family members as well as in patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:24947799

  6. Identification of novel members of the bacterial azoreductase family in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Crescente, Vincenzo; Holland, Sinead M; Kashyap, Sapna; Polycarpou, Elena; Sim, Edith; Ryan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Azoreductases are a family of diverse enzymes found in many pathogenic bacteria as well as distant homologues being present in eukarya. In addition to having azoreductase activity, these enzymes are also suggested to have NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity which leads to a proposed role in plant pathogenesis. Azoreductases have also been suggested to play a role in the mammalian pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In view of the importance of P. aeruginosa as a pathogen, we therefore characterized recombinant enzymes following expression of a group of putative azoreductase genes from P. aeruginosa expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymes include members of the arsenic-resistance protein H (ArsH), tryptophan repressor-binding protein A (WrbA), modulator of drug activity B (MdaB) and YieF families. The ArsH, MdaB and YieF family members all show azoreductase and NQO activities. In contrast, WrbA is the first enzyme to show NQO activity but does not reduce any of the 11 azo compounds tested under a wide range of conditions. These studies will allow further investigation of the possible role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:26621870

  7. Family resemblance: ten family members with prosopagnosia and within-class object agnosia.

    PubMed

    Duchaine, Bradley; Germine, Laura; Nakayama, Ken

    2007-06-01

    We report on neuropsychological testing done with a family in which many members reported severe face recognition impairments. These 10 individuals were high functioning in everyday life and performed normally on tests of low-level vision and high-level cognition. In contrast, they showed clear deficits with tests requiring face memory and judgements of facial similarity. They did not show deficits with all aspects of higher level visual processing as all tested performed normally on a challenging facial emotion recognition task and on a global-local letter identification task. On object memory tasks requiring recognition of particular cars and guns, they showed significant deficits so their recognition impairments were not restricted to facial identity. These results strongly suggest the existence of a genetic condition leading to a selective deficit of visual recognition.

  8. Perceptions of Individual and Family Functioning Among Deployed Female National Guard Members.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J; Cheng, An-Lin; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Females currently make up 15% of U.S. military service members. Minimal attention has been paid to families of female National Guard members who have been deployed and their subsequent reintegration challenges. This cross-sectional Internet-based survey of female members of four National Guard units compared those who were and were not deployed. Instruments, guided by the variables of the Family Resilience Model, measured individual, family, and deployment-related factors. Bivariate analysis and ordinal logistic regression were done to assess differences between the groups. Of the 239 National Guard members surveyed, deployed women (n = 164) had significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; p < .001) and lower coping skills (p = .003) than non-deployed women (n = 75). Perceptions of overall family functioning were higher among deployed when compared with never deployed women. Results indicate community interventions that focus on strengthening coping skills of female Guard members would be useful for this population. PMID:27076466

  9. Interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in intensive care units: emerging themes from a multi-sited ethnography.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Scott; McMillan, Sarah E; Kachan, Natasha; Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Kitto, Simon

    2015-05-01

    This article presents emerging findings from the first year of a two-year study, which employed ethnographic methods to explore the culture of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and family member involvement in eight North American intensive care units (ICUs). The study utilized a comparative ethnographic approach - gathering observation, interview and documentary data relating to the behaviors and attitudes of healthcare providers and family members across several sites. In total, 504 hours of ICU-based observational data were gathered over a 12-month period in four ICUs based in two US cities. In addition, 56 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a range of ICU staff (e.g. nurses, doctors and pharmacists) and family members. Documentary data (e.g. clinical guidelines and unit policies) were also collected to help develop an insight into how the different sites engaged organizationally with IPC and family member involvement. Directed content analysis enabled the identification and categorization of major themes within the data. An interprofessional conceptual framework was utilized to help frame the coding for the analysis. The preliminary findings presented in this paper illuminate a number of issues related to the nature of IPC and family member involvement within an ICU context. These findings are discussed in relation to the wider interprofessional and health services literature.

  10. Nursing Strategies to Support Family Members of ICU Patients at High Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Judith A.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Tulsky, James A.; Steinhauser, Karen E.; Bailey, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how family members of ICU patients at high risk of dying respond to nursing communication strategies. Background: Family members of ICU patients may face difficult decisions. Nurses are in a position to provide support. Evidence of specific strategies that nurses use to support decision-making and how family members respond to these strategies is lacking. Methods: This is a prospective, qualitative descriptive study involving the family members of ICU patients identified as being at high risk of dying. Results: Family members described five nursing approaches: Demonstrating concern, building rapport, demonstrating professionalism, providing factual information, and supporting decision-making. This study provides evidence that when using these approaches, nurses helped family members to cope; to have hope, confidence, and trust; to prepare for and accept impending death; and to make decisions. Conclusion: Knowledge lays a foundation for interventions targeting the areas important to family members and most likely to improve their ability to make decisions and their well-being. PMID:24655938

  11. A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.

    PubMed

    Léran, Sophie; Varala, Kranthi; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Crawford, Nigel; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; David, Laure; Dickstein, Rebecca; Fernandez, Emilio; Forde, Brian; Gassmann, Walter; Geiger, Dietmar; Gojon, Alain; Gong, Ji-Ming; Halkier, Barbara A; Harris, Jeanne M; Hedrich, Rainer; Limami, Anis M; Rentsch, Doris; Seo, Mitsunori; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong; Coruzzi, Gloria; Lacombe, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species.

  12. 41 CFR 302-3.226 - Will the Government reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and choose to... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.226 Will the...

  13. 41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the... ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.203 If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my...

  14. The Psychological Effects of a Stillbirth on Surviving Family Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrain, John; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Interview and written testimony from over 300 mothers and fathers who had experienced a stillbirth suggest themes common to these bereaved families: shock, blame, guilt and hardship; desperate need to remember; utility of autopsies and funerals; irrational and terrifying thoughts; need for support systems; issues surrounding surviving siblings and…

  15. The effect of an anger management program for family members of patients with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Son, Ju-Young; Choi, Yun-Jung

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to test the structured anger management nursing program for the family members of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Families with the AUDs suffer from the dysfunctional family dynamic caused by the patients' deteriorative disease processes of alcohol dependence. Family members of AUDs feel bitter and angry about the uncontrolled behaviors and relapses of the patients in spite of great effort for a long time. This chronic anger threatens the optimal function of the family as well as obstructs the family to help the patients who are suffering from AUDs. Sixty three subjects were participated who were referred from community mental health centers, alcohol consultation centers, and an alcohol hospital in Korea. Pre-post scores of the Korean Anger Expression Inventory were used to test the program. An anger management program was developed and implemented to promote anger expression and anger management for the family members of the patients with AUDs. The total anger expression score of the experimental group was significantly more reduced as compared with that of the control group. Subjects in the experimental group reported after the program that they felt more comfortable and their life was changed in a better way. The anger management program was effective to promote anger expression and anger management for family members of AUDs. Nurses need to include family members in their nursing process as well as to care of patients with AUDs to maximize nursing outcome and patient satisfaction.

  16. Psychological Symptoms in Family Members of Brain Death Patients in Intensive Care Unit in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinrezaei, Hakimeh; Pilevarzadeh, Motahareh; Amiri, Masoud; Rafiei, Hossein; Taghati, Sedigheh; Naderi, Mosadegheh; Moradalizadeh, Mohammad; Askarpoor, Milad

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Having patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) remains an extremely stressful live event for family members, especially for those having to confront with brain death patients. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among relatives of brain dead patients in ICU in Kerman, Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, using DASS- 42 questionnaire, the symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress of family members of brain death patients were explored in Kerman, Iran. Results: Of 244 eligible family members, 224 participated in this study (response rate of 91%). Generally, 76.8%, 75% and 70.1% of family members reported some levels of anxiety, depression and stress, respectively. More specifically, the rate of severe levels of anxiety, depression and stress among the participants were 48.7%, 33%, and 20.1% respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in family members of brain death patients in ICU remains high. Health care team members, especially nurses, should be aware and could consider this issue in the caring of family members of brain death patients. PMID:24576382

  17. Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

  18. The Effects of Having a Child with ADHD on Family Members and Family Management. Data Trends #98

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The articles summarized in this "Data Trends" discuss how members of families including children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are greatly affected in their daily lives and functioning by symptoms…

  19. Emotional responses of family members of a critically ill patient: a hermeneutic analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This study used an exploratory design with a hermeneutic approach. The aim was to increase the understanding of the emotional responses of family members during the patient's critical care. Interviews from the main researcher's previous study about relatives of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) were used. Two of these interviews were chosen, one with the mother and one with the father of an adult young patient, who became critically ill and admitted to a general ICU in south-west Sweden. The present study identified six feelings describing the emotional responses of the family members. The family members experienced feelings of uncertainty, feelings of abandonment, feelings of desertion from the loved one, feelings of being close to the deathbed, feelings of being in a no-man's-land and feelings of attachment. The experienced feelings described in this article can contribute to expanding healthcare professionals understanding of the family members' emotional responses during the patient's critical care.

  20. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  1. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  2. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  3. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  4. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  5. A critical review of Singapore's policies aimed at supporting families caring for older members.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kalyani K

    2006-01-01

    This article critically examines the family-oriented social policies of the Singapore government aimed at supporting families caring for older members. The sectors focused on are financial security, health, and housing. Singaporeans have been reminded that the family should be the first line of defense for aging families, followed by the community - the state would step in as the last resort. Drawing from recent research and examination of the state policies, the author argues that more should be done to help family caregivers looking after elder relatives. Recommendations for innovative ways to recognize and reward family carers conclude the paper.

  6. Differential Spatial Expression and Subcellular Localization of CtBP Family Members in Rodent Brain

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Karin; Lazarevic, Vesna; Altrock, Wilko D.; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Fejtova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are well-characterized nuclear transcriptional co-regulators. In addition, cytoplasmic functions were discovered for these ubiquitously expressed proteins. These include the involvement of the isoform CtBP1-S/BARS50 in cellular membrane-trafficking processes and a role of the isoform RIBEYE as molecular scaffolds in ribbons, the presynaptic specializations of sensory synapses. CtBPs were suggested to regulate neuronal differentiation and they were implied in the control of gene expression during epileptogenesis. However, the expression patterns of CtBP family members in specific brain areas and their subcellular localizations in neurons in situ are largely unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive assessment of the expression of CtBP1 and CtBP2 in mouse brain at the microscopic and the ultra-structural levels using specific antibodies. We quantified and compared expression levels of both CtBPs in biochemically isolated brain fractions containing cellular nuclei or synaptic compartment. Our study demonstrates differential regional and subcellular expression patterns for the two CtBP family members in brain and reveals a previously unknown synaptic localization for CtBP2 in particular brain regions. Finally, we propose a mechanism of differential synapto-nuclear targeting of its splice variants CtBP2-S and CtBP2-L in neurons. PMID:22745816

  7. Differential spatial expression and subcellular localization of CtBP family members in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Hübler, Diana; Rankovic, Marija; Richter, Karin; Lazarevic, Vesna; Altrock, Wilko D; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Fejtova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are well-characterized nuclear transcriptional co-regulators. In addition, cytoplasmic functions were discovered for these ubiquitously expressed proteins. These include the involvement of the isoform CtBP1-S/BARS50 in cellular membrane-trafficking processes and a role of the isoform RIBEYE as molecular scaffolds in ribbons, the presynaptic specializations of sensory synapses. CtBPs were suggested to regulate neuronal differentiation and they were implied in the control of gene expression during epileptogenesis. However, the expression patterns of CtBP family members in specific brain areas and their subcellular localizations in neurons in situ are largely unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive assessment of the expression of CtBP1 and CtBP2 in mouse brain at the microscopic and the ultra-structural levels using specific antibodies. We quantified and compared expression levels of both CtBPs in biochemically isolated brain fractions containing cellular nuclei or synaptic compartment. Our study demonstrates differential regional and subcellular expression patterns for the two CtBP family members in brain and reveals a previously unknown synaptic localization for CtBP2 in particular brain regions. Finally, we propose a mechanism of differential synapto-nuclear targeting of its splice variants CtBP2-S and CtBP2-L in neurons.

  8. New member of the trefoil factor family of proteins is an alpha-macroglobulin protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Ida B; Hammes, Stephen R; Rubenstein, David S; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Valnickova, Zuzana; Enghild, Jan J

    2002-07-29

    The amino acid sequence of the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin (alphaM) from the American bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, was determined. The mature protein consisted of 1469 amino acid residues and shared sequence identity with other members of the alphaM family of protein. The central portion of the frog monomeric alphaM contained Cys residues positioned analogously to the Cys residues in human alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M), known to be involved in disulfide bridges. Additionally, the frog monomeric alphaM contained six Cys residues in a approximately 60 residue COOH-terminal extension not present in previously characterized alphaMs. The spacing of the Cys residues and the overall sequence identity of this COOH-terminal extension were consistent with a trefoil motif. This is the first time a member of the trefoil factor family has been identified in the circulatory system. The "bait region" was located between Arg(675)-Lys(685) and contained mainly basic amino acid residues. The COOH-terminal receptor-binding domain was not exposed prior to proteolysis of this highly susceptible region. The proximity of the receptor-binding and trefoil domains implied that the trefoil domain is similarly concealed before bait region cleavage. PMID:12147353

  9. Bcl-2 family members inhibit oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Rong; Dunigan, David D; Dickman, Martin B

    2003-05-15

    Selected antiapoptotic genes were expressed in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to evaluate cytoprotective effects during oxidative stress. When exposed to treatments resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including H(2)O(2), menadione, or heat shock, wild-type yeast died and exhibited apoptotic-like characteristics, consistent with previous studies. Yeast strains were generated expressing nematode ced-9, human bcl-2, or chicken bcl-xl genes. These transformants tolerated a range of oxidative stresses, did not display features associated with apoptosis, and remained viable under conditions that were lethal to wild-type yeast. Yeast strains expressing a mutant antiapoptotic gene (bcl-2 deltaalpha 5-6), known to be nonfunctional in mammalian cells, were unable to tolerate any of the ROS-generating insults. These data are the first report showing CED-9 has cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, and add CED-9 to the list of Bcl-2 protein family members that modulate ROS-mediated programmed cell death. In addition, these data indicate that Bcl-2 family members protect wild-type yeast from physiological stresses. Taken together, these data support the concept of the broad evolutionary conservation and functional similarity of the apoptotic processes in eukaryotic organisms.

  10. Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Karakkat, Brijesh B; Gold, Scott E; Covert, Sarah F

    2013-12-01

    Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disease progression in this fungus. To test this hypothesis, we studied the function of three U. maydis velvet genes, umv1, umv2 and umv3. Using a gene replacement strategy, deletion mutants were made in all three genes in compatible haploid strains, and additionally for umv1 and umv2 in the solopathogenic strain, SG200. None of the mutants showed novel morphological phenotypes during yeast-like, in vitro growth. However, the Δumv1 mutants failed to induce galls or teliospores in maize. Chlorazol black E staining of leaves infected with Δumv1 dikaryons revealed that the Δumv1 hyphae did not proliferate normally and were blocked developmentally before teliospore formation. The Δumv2 mutants were able to induce galls and teliospores in maize, but were slow to do so and thus reduced in virulence. The Δumv3 mutants were not affected in teliospore formation or disease progression. Complementation of the Δumv1 and Δumv2 mutations in the SG200 background produced disease indices similar to those of SG200. These results indicate that two U. maydis velvet family members, umv1 and umv2, are important for normal teliospore development and disease progression in maize seedlings.

  11. Family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Gerd; Wadensten, Barbro

    2011-11-01

    Personal assistance is a type of home care common to many countries even though entitlement and legislative framework may vary from country to country. At present, there exists no knowledge about the family members' experiences of such assistance; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative of working age with a functional disability. Twenty-five family members who had a relative with a severe neurological disease in Sweden were interviewed about the significance of personal assistance, and the qualitative interviews were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The overall findings verify the close connection between the family members' experiences and their perception of the quality of the caring relationship between the personal assistant and the person with disability. The main finding was an appreciation of the personal assistance on the part of the family members. However, in situations where the encounter between the assistant and the relative with disability was perceived negatively, the family members experienced great anxiety. The shortcomings were the inability to maintain a private life with assistance and the limitation of choice because of the shortage of personal assistants. Beyond these general findings, this study found that personal assistance was experienced by the family members in terms of dignity and empowering care. This theme was generated from seven subthemes: Insight into private life, Security through the close relation, Social life through freedom of movement, Influence over the organisation of assistance, Self-determination and understanding, Friendship and mutual respect and Adaption to the dependency on assistance. The findings indicate that responsible officials, work leaders and assistants need constantly to improve the implementation of the law. In such efforts, the experiences of family members described in this study are a source of knowledge

  12. Engaging patients and family members in better hand hygiene practices: a teaching hospital's challenge.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    It is universally agreed that healthcare workers need to wash their hands in order to help control the spread of hospital-acquired infections. However, we have to be mindful that patients and family members are a significant part of the contamination equation as well. This article details the efforts by University Health Network (UHN) to develop hand hygiene resources for use with patients and family members at all of UHN's sites.

  13. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Ann C; Davis, Kelly D; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers' income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not in less acculturated families. In contrast, fathers' reports of workplace racism were positively associated with depressive symptoms in less acculturated families but not in more acculturated family contexts. These findings were consistent across all 4 family members, suggesting that the "long arm" of the jobs held by Mexican American fathers extends to mothers and adolescent offspring.

  14. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The family’s role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members. PMID:25478137

  15. Supporting conversations between individuals with dementia and their family members.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Eva; Axelsson, Karin; Zingmark, Karin; Fahlander, Kjell; Sävenstedt, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Remembrance of recent events is a major problem for individuals with dementia. Consequently, this article explores the process of acceptance and integration of a digital photograph diary (DPD) as a tool for remembrance of and conversations about daily life events. A design for multiple case studies was used. Seven couples, in which one individual in the couple had Alzheimer's disease, tested the DPD for 6 months. Data were collected in three sequences with interviews, observations, and screening instruments. In the analysis, all data were integrated to find common patterns of content. Some couples became regular users, while others used the DPD more sporadically. Factors contributing to regular use were how the DPD matched expectations, actual use, support, experienced usefulness, and reactions from family and friends. For those couples who became regular users, the DPD facilitated their conversation about recent daily activities. PMID:24066788

  16. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  17. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  18. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  20. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  1. Members of the DAN Family are BMP Antagonists that form Highly Stable Noncovalent Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Luedeke, David M.; Nolan, Kristof; Rankin, Scott A.; Greis, Kenneth D.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Thompson, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling of BMP ligands is antagonized by a number of extracellular proteins, including noggin, follistatin and members of the DAN family. Structural studies on the DAN family member sclerostin (a weak BMP antagonist) have previously revealed that the protein is monomeric and consists of an 8-membered cystine knot motif with a fold similar to TGF-β ligands. In contrast to sclerostin, certain DAN family antagonists, including Protein related to DAN and Cerberus (PRDC), have an unpaired cysteine that is thought to function in covalent dimer assembly (analogous to TGF-β ligands). Through a combination of biophysical and biochemical studies, we determined that PRDC forms biologically active dimers that potently inhibit BMP ligands. Furthermore, we showed that PRDC dimers, surprisingly, are not covalently linked, as mutation of the unpaired cysteine does not inhibit dimer formation or biological activity. We further demonstrated that the noncovalent PRDC dimers are highly stable under both denaturing and reducing conditions. This study was extended to the founding family member DAN, which also forms noncovalent dimers that are highly stable. These results demonstrate that certain DAN family members can form both monomers and noncovalent dimers, implying that biological activity of DAN family members might be linked to their oligomeric state. PMID:23063586

  2. Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chan Carusone, Soo; Loeb, Mark; Lohfeld, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    Background Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives on in situ care for pneumonia. Methods A qualitative descriptive study design was used. Participants were residents and family members of residents treated for pneumonia drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of a clinical pathway to manage nursing home-acquired pneumonia on-site. A total of 14 in-depth interviews were conducted. Interview data were analyzed using the editing style, described by Miller and Crabtree, to identify key themes. Results Both residents and family members preferred that pneumonia be treated in the nursing home, where possible. They both felt that caring and attention are key aspects of care which are more easily accessible in the nursing home setting. However, residents felt that staff or doctors should make the decision whether to hospitalize them, whereas family members wanted to be consulted or involved in the decision-making process. Conclusion These findings suggest that interventions to reduce hospitalization of nursing home residents with pneumonia are consistent with resident and family member preferences. PMID:16430782

  3. Anterior Urethral Stricture Disease Negatively Impacts the Quality of Life of Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Weese, Jonathan R.; Eswara, Jairam R.; Marshall, Stephen D.; Chang, Andrew J.; Vetter, Joel; Brandes, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the quality of life (QoL) distress experienced by immediate family members of patients with urethral stricture via a questionnaire given prior to definitive urethroplasty. The emotional, social, and physical effects of urethral stricture disease on the QoL of family members have not been previously described. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was administered prospectively to an immediate family member of 51 patients undergoing anterior urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB). The survey was comprised of twelve questions that addressed the emotional, social, and physical consequences experienced as a result of their loved one. Results. Of the 51 surveyed family members, most were female (92.2%), lived in the same household (86.3%), and slept in the same room as the patient (70.6%). Respondents experienced sleep disturbances (56.9%) and diminished social lives (43.1%). 82.4% felt stressed by the patient's surgical treatment, and 83.9% (26/31) felt that their intimacy was negatively impacted. Conclusions. Urethral stricture disease has a significant impact on the family members of those affected. These effects may last decades and include sleep disturbance, decreased social interactions, emotional stress, and impaired sexual intimacy. Treatment of urethral stricture disease should attempt to mitigate the impact of the disease on family members as well as the patient. PMID:27034658

  4. Anterior Urethral Stricture Disease Negatively Impacts the Quality of Life of Family Members.

    PubMed

    Weese, Jonathan R; Raup, Valary T; Eswara, Jairam R; Marshall, Stephen D; Chang, Andrew J; Vetter, Joel; Brandes, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the quality of life (QoL) distress experienced by immediate family members of patients with urethral stricture via a questionnaire given prior to definitive urethroplasty. The emotional, social, and physical effects of urethral stricture disease on the QoL of family members have not been previously described. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was administered prospectively to an immediate family member of 51 patients undergoing anterior urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB). The survey was comprised of twelve questions that addressed the emotional, social, and physical consequences experienced as a result of their loved one. Results. Of the 51 surveyed family members, most were female (92.2%), lived in the same household (86.3%), and slept in the same room as the patient (70.6%). Respondents experienced sleep disturbances (56.9%) and diminished social lives (43.1%). 82.4% felt stressed by the patient's surgical treatment, and 83.9% (26/31) felt that their intimacy was negatively impacted. Conclusions. Urethral stricture disease has a significant impact on the family members of those affected. These effects may last decades and include sleep disturbance, decreased social interactions, emotional stress, and impaired sexual intimacy. Treatment of urethral stricture disease should attempt to mitigate the impact of the disease on family members as well as the patient.

  5. Disclosure of Huntington's disease to family members: the dilemma of known but unknowing parties.

    PubMed

    Hakimian, R

    2000-01-01

    Predictive genetic testing presents unique issues in the legal and ethical debate concerning disclosure of information within the physician-patient relationship. A duty to disclose information to family members has been found when the disclosure is likely to result in the ability to mitigate the damaging effects of the disease. When evaluating the situation where a individual is at risk of Huntington's disease, the analysis must be different, as shown in this paper, and necessitates an ethical and legal examination of the consequences of receipt of the information on family members, those known but unknowing parties who are at risk of inheriting a genetic disease. This paper analyzes the potential legal duty of a physician to disclose or withhold genetic information from the family members of patients. Existing statutes governing genetic information do not directly address the interests of family members. Courts that have ruled on the duty to disclose medical or genetic information have analyzed these issues using traditional concepts of tort law. Yet the situation presented by Huntington's disease is unique and demands a different framework for analysis, given the late onset and lack of curative or ameliorative treatment. This paper also analyzes the ethical standards to be invoked when considering violating the privacy of a patient or a family member. The principles of autonomy and self-determination of family members are considered, versus the risk of harm and the privacy interest in not knowing potentially devastating information.

  6. 77 FR 54783 - Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families By the authority vested in me as President by the... network of support capable of providing effective mental health services for veterans, service members... health care systems of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs and in local communities....

  7. Leiomodins: larger members of the tropomodulin (Tmod) gene family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.; Fritz-Six, K. L.; Almenar-Queralt, A.; Fowler, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    The 64-kDa autoantigen D1 or 1D, first identified as a potential autoantigen in Graves' disease, is similar to the tropomodulin (Tmod) family of actin filament pointed end-capping proteins. A novel gene with significant similarity to the 64-kDa human autoantigen D1 has been cloned from both humans and mice, and the genomic sequences of both genes have been identified. These genes form a subfamily closely related to the Tmods and are here named the Leiomodins (Lmods). Both Lmod genes display a conserved intron-exon structure, as do three Tmod genes, but the intron-exon structure of the Lmods and the Tmods is divergent. mRNA expression analysis indicates that the gene formerly known as the 64-kDa autoantigen D1 is most highly expressed in a variety of human tissues that contain smooth muscle, earning it the name smooth muscle Leiomodin (SM-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD1). Transcripts encoding the novel Lmod gene are present exclusively in fetal and adult heart and adult skeletal muscle, and it is here named cardiac Leiomodin (C-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD2). Human C-Lmod is located near the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy locus CMH6 on human chromosome 7q3, potentially implicating it in this disease. Our data demonstrate that the Lmods are evolutionarily related and display tissue-specific patterns of expression distinct from, but overlapping with, the expression of Tmod isoforms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Normative beliefs about sharing housing with an older family member.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial vignette in which an older parent or stepparent was portrayed as needing help with housing. Respondents thought that parents should be helped more than stepparents, younger adults with greater resources were more obligated to help older parents and stepparents than were those with meager resources, and older parents and stepparents with greater need acuity were expected to be helped more than older parents and stepparents with less serious housing needs. Attitudes about co-residence were based on family obligation norms, beliefs about repaying older adults for past help, perceived relationship quality, other demands on the younger adult's resources, the older person's resources, and moral responsibilities to assist.

  9. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Commander Kevin Kregel enjoys a reunion with his wife, Jeanne, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  10. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi poses for photographers near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  11. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele enjoys a reunion with his wife near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  12. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Pilot Dominic Gorie enjoys a reunion with his wife, Wendy, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  13. Practical opportunities to improve early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) in members of high-risk families.

    PubMed

    Patel, S G; Lowery, J T; Gatof, D; Ahnen, D J

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality are steadily declining and CRC screening rates are increasing in the United States. Although this a very good news, several definable groups still have very low screening rates including younger (under age 50) members of high-risk CRC families. This opinion piece describes five strategies that could be incorporated into routine practice to improve identification and guideline-based screening in members of high-risk families. Routine incorporation of a simple family history screening tool and outreach to high-risk family members could substantially improve guideline-based screening in this population. Identification of CRCs and advanced adenomas in the endoscopy suite defines another group of high-risk families for similar outreach. Lynch syndrome families can be identified by testing CRCs and selected adenomas for microsatellite instability or loss of DNA repair protein expression. Finally, selective addition of aspirin to surveillance endoscopy can decrease the risk of new adenomas and CRCs. The rationale for these strategies as well as mechanisms for their implementation and evaluation in clinical practice is described. PMID:25698379

  14. 22 CFR 42.68 - Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... principal applicant precedes them. 42.68 Section 42.68 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS... Visas § 42.68 Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them. (a) Preliminary determination of visa eligibility. If a principal applicant proposes to precede the family to...

  15. Cohort and Gender Differences in Measures of Self-Esteem among Members of Three Generational Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Clifton E.; Turner, Joseph G.

    Although self-esteem (SE) has been studied across the life span and across social groups, few studies have focused on the changes in self-esteem within a social group. To investigate the cohort and gender differences in SE in three-generational families (child, parent, grandparent generations), 6 members of 47 families (282 individuals) completed…

  16. Counseling Family Members of Addicts/Alcoholics: The Stages of Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article adapts the stages of change model, a model in which specific interventions of harm reduction are directed toward the client's readiness for treatment, as a guiding framework for counseling family members of alcoholics/addicts. Interventions at each stage of the family's readiness for change, from precontemplation to action, are…

  17. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  18. Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Marna

    2005-01-01

    A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

  19. Strengthening Family Members of Incarcerated Youth: A Productive Role for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Dorothy P.; Wilson, Constance; Carter, Jannie; Johnson, LaKeisha

    2014-01-01

    The challenge to provide incarcerated youth the skills needed to succeed and avoid recidivism has prompted the use of family-systems approaches in juvenile detention centers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in northern Alabama to determine the impact of a conflict resolution workshop on the family members of incarcerated youth. Results…

  20. Complete genome sequence of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae".

    PubMed

    Aherfi, Sarah; Pagnier, Isabelle; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Marseillevirus is a giant virus that was isolated in 2007 by culturing water collected from a cooling tower in Paris, France, on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Since then, five other marseilleviruses have been detected in environmental or human samples. The genomes of two of the six marseilleviruses have been described in detail. We describe herein the genome of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae." Cannes 8 virus was isolated from water collected from a cooling tower in Cannes in southeastern France. Its genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule with 374,041 base pairs, larger than the Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus genomes. This genome harbors 484 open reading frames predicted to encode proteins with sizes ranging from 50 to 1,537 amino acids, among which 380 (79%) and 272 (56%) are bona fide orthologs of Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively. In addition, 407 and 336 predicted proteins have significant hits against Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively, and 294 proteins are shared by all three marseilleviruses. The Cannes 8 virus genome has a high level of collinearity (for 96% of orthologs) with the Marseillevirus genome. About two-thirds of the Cannes 8 virus gene repertoire is composed of family ORFans. The description and annotation of the genomes of new marseilleviruses that will undoubtedly be recovered from environmental or clinical samples will be helpful to increase our knowledge of the pan-genome of the family "Marseilleviridae." PMID:23912978

  1. Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-α-induced IL-1α in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-α, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement.

  2. How family members manage risk around functional decline: the autonomy management process in households facing dementia.

    PubMed

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-04-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of in-depth interviewing in 2012-2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual's natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual's deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual's ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual's autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder's functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements.

  3. How family members manage risk around functional decline: The autonomy management process in households facing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-01-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of retrospective interviewing in 2012–2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual’s natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual’s deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual’s ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual’s autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder’s functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  4. Rotational Properties of the Haumea Family Members and Candidates: Short-term Variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.; Noll, Keith S.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Haumea is one of the most interesting and intriguing trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). It is a large, bright, fast rotator, and its spectrum indicates nearly pure water ice on the surface. It has at least two satellites and a dynamically related family of more than 10 TNOs with very similar proper orbital parameters and similar surface properties. The Haumean family is the only one currently known in the trans-Neptunian belt. Various models have been proposed, but the formation of the family remains poorly understood. In this work, we have investigated the rotational properties of the family members and unconfirmed family candidates with short-term variability studies, and report the most complete review to date. We present results based on five years of observations and report the short-term variability of five family members and seven candidates. The mean rotational periods, from Maxwellian fits to the frequency distributions, are 6.27 ± 1.19 hr for the confirmed family members, 6.44 ± 1.16 hr for the candidates, and 7.65 ± 0.54 hr for other TNOs (without relation to the family). According to our study, there is a possibility that Haumea family members rotate faster than other TNOs; however, the sample of family members is still too limited for a secure conclusion. We also highlight the fast rotation of 2002 GH32. This object has a 0.36 ± 0.02 mag amplitude lightcurve and a rotational period of about 3.98 hr. Assuming 2002 GH32 is a triaxial object in hydrostatic equilibrium, we derive a lower limit to the density of 2.56 g cm-3. This density is similar to Haumea’s and much more dense than other small TNO densities.

  5. Psychological problems in the family members of gravely traumatised patients admitted into an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Pérez-San Gregorio, M A; Blanco-Picabia, A; Murillo-Cabezas, F; Domínguez-Roldán, J M; Sánchez, B; Núñez-Roldán, A

    1992-01-01

    The aim of these studies was the analysis of the psychological repercussions on the closest members of families of 76 gravely traumatised patients admitted into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Hospital Universitario de Rehabilitación y Traumatología "Virgen del Rocio", Sevilla (Spain). An investigation based on social information and the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire was used. The sample of family members was composed of 42 women and 34 men, with an average age of 41.3 years (SD +/- 12.8). Results showed that (a) more than 50% of the family members of gravely traumatised patients admitted into an ICU showed symptoms of depression, (b) the women scored more points in hypochondria, suicidal depression, anxious depression, low-energy depression, guilt-resentment, apathy-withdrawal, paranoia, schizophrenia, psychasthenia and psychological disadjustment, and (c) in general terms, the psychological characteristics of the families were far from the norm of the control group.

  6. Should family members be present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Critchell, C Dana; Marik, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    During resuscitation, family members are often escorted out of the room for fear of immediate and long-term consequences to the family, the patient, and the physician. However, mounting evidence suggests that family presence during resuscitation could, in fact, be beneficial. The Emergency Nurses Association and the American Heart Association endorse family-witnessed resuscitation and the development of hospital policies to facilitate this process. However, the opinions on family-witnessed resuscitation vary widely, and few hospitals in the United States have developed formal policies on the presence of families during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In this article, we review the current status of family-witnessed resuscitation and provide recommendations on the development of hospital policies for family-witnessed resuscitation.

  7. Holding blame at bay? ‘Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

  8. The organ donor family members' perception of stressful situations during the organ donation experience.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what the individual organ/tissue donor family members appraised as most stressful during the anticipation, confrontation and post-confrontation stages of the organ-donation process. The Lazarus and Folkman stress and coping theory guided the development and interpretation of the study. Family members who had lost a loved one suddenly and consented to donation in 1988 were interviewed. Data were analysed by means of content analysis. Findings showed that family members appraised different types of stressful situations during the three stages. The most frequently reported stressful situations centred around the threat of losing a loved one, confirmation of brain death, failure of the health professionals to identify the loved one as a potential donor and to approach the family regarding organ donation, and adjusting to the many changes associated with the loss. Significantly, five families requested donation, while two readily consented when approached. All family members reported that organ donation had helped with their grief. The findings of this study contribute to the development of knowledge required to guide nursing interventions to provide sensitive care to donors and their families.

  9. Discovery of a novel member of the histamine receptor family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; Shapiro, D A; George, S R; Setola, V; Lee, D K; Cheng, R; Rauser, L; Lee, S P; Lynch, K R; Roth, B L; O'Dowd, B F

    2001-03-01

    We report the discovery, tissue distribution and pharmacological characterization of a novel receptor, which we have named H4. Like the three histamine receptors reported previously (H1, H2, and H3), the H4 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor and is most closely related to the H3 receptor, sharing 58% identity in the transmembrane regions. The gene encoding the H4 receptor was discovered initially in a search of the GenBank databases as sequence fragments retrieved in a partially sequenced human genomic contig mapped to chromosome 18. These sequences were used to retrieve a partial cDNA clone and, in combination with genomic fragments, were used to determine the full-length open reading frame of 390 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed a 3.0-kb transcript in rat testis and intestine. Radioligand binding studies indicated that the H4 receptor has a unique pharmacology and binds [(3)H]histamine (K(d) = 44 nM) and [(3)H]pyrilamine (K(d) = 32 nM) and several psychoactive compounds (amitriptyline, chlorpromazine, cyproheptadine, mianserin) with moderate affinity (K(i) range of 33-750 nM). Additionally, histamine induced a rapid internalization of HA-tagged H4 receptors in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

  10. Cres2 and Cres3: new members of the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic subgroup of family 2 cystatins.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Nelson; Cornwall, Gail A

    2003-03-01

    The cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (CRES) and recently identified testatin and cystatin T proteins define a new subgroup within the family 2 cystatins of cysteine protease inhibitors. Members of the CRES subgroup are predominantly expressed in reproductive tissues and lack critical cystatin active-site sequences implying divergent functions. To determine whether there are additional members of the subgroup, we searched nucleotide databases and identified two novel genes that we designated Cres2 and Cres3. These genes, like other subgroup members, encode proteins with four conserved cysteine residues and predicted molecular weights characteristic of family 2 cystatins but have divergent cystatin inhibitory sequences. Furthermore, the genes exhibited reproductive-specific expression with Cres2 exclusively expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal and midcaput epididymal regions and Cres3 expressed in the proximal caput epididymal epithelium, Sertoli cells of the testis, and early follicles and corpora lutea in the ovary. Additional studies showed that, like Cres, both Cres2 and Cres3 genes are dependent on testicular factors for epididymal expression. Taken together, CRES2 and CRES3 represent new members of a subgroup of cystatin family 2 proteins that likely carry out tissue-specific functions distinct from that of typical cystatins.

  11. In silico identification and characterization of the MAPK family members of unicellular model eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Mehmet Taha; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2014-10-01

    The biological function and evolutionary diversity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family have mostly been studied in fungi, animals and plants, with very limited information from lower eukaryotes. This study aimed to describe the MAPKs of unicellular Tetrahymena thermophila. Eight members of the T. thermophila MAPK (TtMPK) gene family, in addition to previously reported TtMPK1, TtMPK2 and TtMPK3, were identified bioinformatically using a T. thermophila genome database. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the TtMPKs into two major groups, ERK1/2-like (TtMPK1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) as stress-responsive MAPKs for biotic and abiotic stresses, and ERK7/8-like (TtMPK4, 10, and 11) as cell-cycle-associated protein kinases for biotic factors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the TtMPKs showed high mRNA expression at 30°C; however, only TtMPK5 and TtMPK6 showed high expression at 37°C. Osmotic shock by 100mM NaCl only increased the expression of TtMPK2, whereas 20mM NaCl reduced the expression of all MPKs to almost zero. The results suggested that T. thermophila MAPKs are among the closest representatives of the ancestors of the eukaryotic MAPK family. Although no functional characterization of MPKs was performed, this study is the first report of the genome-wide MAPK family in T. thermophila.

  12. Strategies for coping with family members of patients with mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá; de Carvalho, Arélica; Olive, Aline Morgado; Souza, Maria da Graça Girade; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the coping strategies of family members of patients with mental disorders and relate them to family member sociodemographic variables and to the patient's clinical variables. Method: this was a descriptive study conducted at a psychiatric hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, with 40 family members of hospitalized patients over the age of 18, and who followed the patient before and during hospitalization. We used tools to characterize the subjects and the Folkman and Lazarus Inventory of Coping Strategies. Results: the coping strategies most often used by family members were social support and problem solving. Mothers and fathers used more functional strategies (self-control p=0.037, positive reappraisal p=0.037, and social support p=0,021). We found no significant differences between the strategies and other variables examined. Conclusion: despite the suffering resulting from the illness of a dear one, family members make more use of functional strategies, allowing them to cope with adversities in a more well-adjusted way. PMID:27627121

  13. Regulation of mitochondrial ceramide distribution by members of the BCL-2 family[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tejia; Barclay, Lauren; Walensky, Loren D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an intricately regulated cellular process that proceeds through different cell type- and signal-dependent pathways. In the mitochondrial apoptotic program, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by BCL-2 proteins leads to the release of apoptogenic factors, caspase activation, and cell death. In addition to protein components of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery, an interesting role for lipids and lipid metabolism in BCL-2 family-regulated apoptosis is also emerging. We used a comparative lipidomics approach to uncover alterations in lipid profile in the absence of the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We detected over 1,000 ions in these experiments and found changes in an ion with an m/z of 534.49. Structural elucidation of this ion through tandem mass spectrometry revealed that this molecule is a ceramide with a 16-carbon N-acyl chain and sphingadiene backbone (d18:2/16:0 ceramide). Targeted LC/MS analysis revealed elevated levels of additional sphingadiene-containing ceramides (d18:2-Cers) in BAX, BAK-double knockout MEFs. Elevated d18:2-Cers are also found in immortalized baby mouse kidney epithelial cells lacking BAX and BAK. These results support the existence of a distinct biochemical pathway for regulating ceramides with different backbone structures and suggest that sphingadiene-containing ceramides may have functions that are distinct from the more common sphingosine-containing species. PMID:26059977

  14. Migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quindemil, KettyElena; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Mayer, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Statistics show that people with migrant and minority background as patients are significant in numbers in the intensive care unit. This also puts family members in the perspective of nursing because family members are an inherent part of the intensive care unit. Family-centered care is perhaps most applicable to vulnerable populations like migrant family in the intensive care unit to meet family member’s needs. But very little is known about the situation of migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. The aim of the study was to explore the state of the science regarding family-centered care in the intensive care unit of patients with migration background in general and with a possible focus on major migrant populations in Austria—Former Yugoslavian und Turkish origin. A literature review investigated research articles that contained information on migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. Key points in the relevant articles were identified and categorized into themes with an explanation of findings at the end. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No article was found regarding groups of major migrant population groups in Austria. The included articles uncovered five predominant themes: importance of cultural norms, communication, family dynamics, universal caring, and nursing/provider deficit in culturally competent care. In order to provide adequate nursing care a more cohesive body of information on more specific geographic and cultural populations is recommended. Because of the complete lack of research regarding migrant families of Former Yugoslavian and Turkish origin into Austria, an exploration of this population is recommended. PMID:24860716

  15. Family Quality of Life of Australian Families with a Member with an Intellectual/Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillotta, F.; Kirby, N.; Shearer, J.; Nettelbeck, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Family quality of life (FQOL) is a recent concept in intellectual/developmental disability research. Outcomes for the family are important to the provision of services because families, rather than institutions, are increasingly considered the primary support unit. This article presents Australian findings using the international…

  16. Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2013-01-01

    The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

  17. Disclosing Genetic Information to Family Members About Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmias: An Obligation or a Choice?

    PubMed

    Vavolizza, Rick D; Kalia, Isha; Erskine Aaron, Kathleen; Silverstein, Louise B; Barlevy, Dorit; Wasserman, David; Walsh, Christine; Marion, Robert W; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2015-08-01

    Inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome, present clinical as well as ethical, legal, and social challenges. Many individuals who carry a deleterious mutation are largely asymptomatic and therefore may not be diagnosed until after the occurrence of a personal or family member's cardiac event. The familial nature of inherited genetic information raises numerous ethical, legal, and social issues regarding the sharing of genetic information, particularly when an individual found to carry a deleterious mutation refuses to disclose his or her results to at-risk family members who could benefit from life-saving treatments. This qualitative study sought to understand the experiences with genetic testing for individuals (n = 50) with a personal or family history of cardiac events or sudden death. Unstructured in-person focus groups or interviews were conducted for each participant in the study. The recordings of these interviews were transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed and coded. Participants' comments regarding sharing of genetic information centered around four main themes: (1) motivation to disclose; (2) extent of disclosure; (3) effect of disclosure on family dynamics; and (4) reasons for not sharing genetic information. The majority of individuals believed that affected individuals are obligated to disclose genetic information to family members. In the era of personalized medicine, the disclosure of genetic information provides individuals the opportunities to learn about the genetics, disease characteristics, and treatment options in order to reduce morbidity and mortality in themselves and their family members. Further research is necessary to identify and explore the barriers to sharing genetic information with at-risk family members. PMID:25400212

  18. Coping with work-family conflict: A leader-member exchange perspective.

    PubMed

    Major, Debra A; Morganson, Valerie J

    2011-01-01

    Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is applied as a framework for understanding coping with work-family conflict. The effectiveness of four work-family coping strategies (i.e., preventive and episodic forms of both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping) is considered with emphasis on how the LMX relationship contributes to each form of coping with work interference with family. The LMX-based model of work-family coping accounts for the development of family-friendly work roles, use of organizational family-friendly policies, and the negotiation of flextime and flexplace accommodations. Constraints on the relationship between LMX and work-family coping associated with supervisor authority and resources and aspects of the organizational context are also discussed. Research and applied implications of the model are offered.

  19. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    PubMed

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290

  20. Factors affecting grief reactions in close family members to individuals who have died of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ringdal, G I; Jordhøy, M S; Ringdal, K; Kaasa, S

    2001-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined factors related to grief reactions in a systematic and standardized way in 183 close family members to individuals who died of cancer. Grief reactions were measured using the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG). A repeated measures MANOVA was used to test and compare the grief reactions of the bereaved for one year after the loss. The female respondents showed stronger grief reactions than the male respondents. The grief reactions increased with age, and those who had lost a younger family member experienced stronger grief reactions than those who had lost an older family member. The relationship to the deceased, the duration of the disease, place of death, aspects of social support such as children living at home, and employment were not related to the grief reactions in the bereaved respondents when controlling for the former factors. PMID:11738164

  1. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  2. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J.; Girosky, Kimberly E.; Krzycki, Joseph A.; Ferguson, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health. PMID:25313086

  3. SLE like syndrome and functional deficiency of C1q in members of a large family.

    PubMed

    Hannema, A J; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Hack, C E; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Mallée, C; van Helden, H P

    1984-01-01

    Two sisters and a brother from one family are described whose sera were deficient in haemolytic complement function. This defect was restored by addition of purified C1q. In their sera, C1q like material was found, whereas C1r and C1s were normal or increased in concentration, as were the other complement components tested. All three had suffered from glomerulonephritis during childhood. A renal biopsy in the brother recently disclosed a membranous glomerulopathy stage 1; otherwise, he is apparently healthy. In both sisters, a systemic lupus erythematosus like disease became manifest at the age of 20 and 23, respectively, resulting in the death of one of them. In the serum of these three family members, the C1q like material was antigenically deficient compared with normal C1q and had, on sucrose gradient analysis, a molecular weight of approximately 65,000 daltons. It did not bind to C1r and C1s. Binding of the dysfunctional C1q to aggregated human gammaglobulin could be demonstrated. On double immunodiffusion analysis, the abnormal C1q was identical with reduced and alkylated C1q. The possible structure of the abnormal C1q molecule is discussed.

  4. Care for imminently dying cancer patients: family members' experiences and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Shinjo, Takuya; Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Sato, Kazuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to clarify the level of emotional distress experienced by bereaved family members and the perceived necessity for improvement in the care for imminently dying patients and to explore possible causes of distress and alleviating measures. METHODS A cross-sectional nationwide survey was performed in 2007 of bereaved families of cancer patients at 95 palliative care units across Japan. Results Questionnaires were sent to 670 families, and 76% responded. Families reported their experiences as very distressing in 45% of cases. Regarding care, 1.2% of respondents believed that a lot of improvement was needed, compared with 58% who believed no improvement was needed. Determinants of high-level distress were a younger patient age, being a spouse, and overhearing conversations between the medical staff outside the room at the time of the patient's death; those reporting high-level necessity of improvement were less likely to have encountered attempts to ensure the patient's comfort, received less family coaching on how to care for the patient, and felt that insufficient time was allowed for the family to grieve after the patient's death. CONCLUSION A considerable number of families experienced severe emotional distress when their family member died. Thus, we propose that a desirable care concept for imminently dying cancer patients should include relief of patient suffering, family advisement on how to care for the patient, allowance of enough time for the family to grieve, and ensuring that family members cannot overhear medical staff conversations at the time of the patient's death. PMID:19901113

  5. The role and experiences of family members during the rehabilitation of mentally ill offenders.

    PubMed

    Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'.

  6. A model of genetic guidance for hemoglobinopathy patients and laboratory diagnosis of family members as educational and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Tatiana Dela-Sávia; Freire, Adriana Sousa; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; García-Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Brazil constitutes a public health problem and thus educational and preventive measures are necessary to reduce the incidence. Genetic guidance, a modality of genetic counseling, and family screening are measures that can assist in reproductive decisions and mitigate clinical, psychological and social problems of families with these disorders. Objetive: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational and preventive measures for hemoglobinopathies using genetic guidance and laboratory screening of families. Methods: The diagnoses of patients with hemoglobinopathies were confirmed and then the level of knowledge about their disease was evaluated and genetic guidance was provided. Three months later, the level of assimilated information of these patients was evaluated. In addition, laboratory diagnosis of family members was carried out. Results: Diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed for most patients. Moreover, the majority of the patients who had a low level of knowledge before genetic guidance (68.8%) demonstrated a higher level of assimilated information after the process (81.8%). Almost 70% of the family members had hemoglobin changes and some had hemoglobinopathies(2.6%). They were duly informed about the results of the examinations, which made it possible to investigate further. Conclusion: Genetic guidance and family screening were effective preventive and educational measures that improved the quality of life of patients, preventing complications and sequels and allowed the referral of those who may transmit altered genes for clinical diagnosis and to genetic counseling services. PMID:23125541

  7. Protecting the privacy of family members in survey and pedigree research.

    PubMed

    Botkin, J

    2001-01-10

    The recent controversy at Virginia Commonwealth University involving research ethics raises important and complex issues in survey and pedigree research. The primary questions are whether family members of survey respondents themselves become subjects of the project and if they are subjects whether informed consent must be obtained for investigators to retain private information on these individuals. This article provides an analysis of the ethical issues and regulatory standards involved in this debate for consideration by investigators and institutional review boards. The analysis suggests that strong protections for the rights and welfare of subjects and their family members can be incorporated into survey and pedigree research protocols without hindering projects with extensive consent requirements.

  8. Religious Coping Among Adults Caring for Family Members with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Michelle J; Medoff, Deborah; Lawrence, Ryan E; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of religious coping strategies among family members of adults with serious mental illness. A sample of 436 individuals caring for a family member with serious mental illness were recruited into a randomized clinical trial for the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family to Family Education Program. Relationships are reported between religious coping and caregiving, care recipient, and mental health services outcomes. Religious coping was associated with more objective caregiving burden, greater care recipient need, less mental health knowledge, and less receipt of mental health services after adjusting for non-religious types of coping. At the same time, religious coping was associated with a positive caregiving experience and greater religious support. Religious coping plays an important role for many caregivers of persons with serious mental illness. Caregivers who use more religious coping may have an especially high need for mental health education and mental health services.

  9. Ethnicity, expressed emotion, and schizophrenia patients' perceptions of their family members' criticism.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Amy G; Rosales, Grace A; Kymalainen, Jennifer A; Armesto, Jorge C

    2006-09-01

    Expressed emotion is a widely researched construct. However, less is known about patients' own perceptions of their relatives' expressed emotion. Using a sample of 42 patient/family member dyads with schizophrenia, we examined the concordance between the number of criticisms expressed by relatives during the Camberwell Family Interview and patients' perceptions of how critical they perceived their relative to be. As predicted, white and Latino family members who expressed more criticism during the Camberwell Family Interview were indeed perceived as more critical by patients. Among blacks, however, no significant association was found between relatives' expressed criticism and patients' perceptions of their relatives' criticism. Findings from this study suggest that cultural/ethnic values may influence how criticism from relatives is perceived and experienced by patients. PMID:16971814

  10. Disclosing Genetic Information to Family Members about Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmias: An Obligation or a Choice?

    PubMed Central

    Vavolizza, Rick D.; Kalia, Isha; Aaron, Kathleen Erskine; Silverstein, Louise B.; Barlevy, Dorit; Wasserman, David; Walsh, Christine; Marion, Robert W.; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome, present clinical as well as ethical, legal, and social challenges. Many individuals who carry a deleterious mutation are largely asymptomatic and therefore may not be diagnosed until after the occurrence of a personal or family member’s cardiac event. The familial nature of inherited genetic information raises numerous ethical, legal, and social issues regarding the sharing of genetic information, particularly when an individual found to carry a deleterious mutation refuses to disclose his or her results to at-risk family members who could benefit from life-saving treatments. This qualitative study sought to understand the experiences with genetic testing for individuals (n= 50) with a personal or family history of cardiac events or sudden death. Unstructured in-person focus groups or interviews were conducted for each participant in the study. The recordings of these interviews were transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed and coded. Participants’ comments regarding sharing of genetic information centered around four main themes: (1) motivation to disclose; (2) extent of disclosure; (3) effect of disclosure on family dynamics; and (4) reasons for not sharing genetic information. The majority of individuals believed that affected individuals are obligated to disclose genetic information to family members. In the era of personalized medicine, the disclosure of genetic information provides individuals the opportunities to learn about the genetics, disease characteristics, and treatment options in order to reduce morbidity and mortality in themselves and their family members. Further research is necessary to identify and explore the barriers to sharing genetic information with at-risk family members. PMID:25400212

  11. Johnson-McMillin Microtia Syndrome: New Additional Family

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Gebril, Ola Hosny; Abdelraouf, Ehab Ragaa; Shafie, Mohammed Akmal; Bahgat, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Microtia is a congenital anomaly that is found with different prevalence among various populations. The exact etiology of ear anomalies is still unknown. We describe a new additional family with this rare disorder; Johnson-McMillin syndrome (JMS) where mother, son, and distant grandmother have multiple features of JMS in the form of microtia, facial asymmetry, ear malformation, hearing defect, and hypotrichosis. Variable presentations in this family could be referred to phenotype variation supporting an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. We observed that the mother was very sad and suffered from feelings of guilt. We found that she had isolated herself from family and community out of fear of being stigmatized and hurt. We concluded that the occurrence of microtia is of public health importance, adhering to traditional marriage customs in Egypt increases women's risk of giving birth to a disabled child, yet the mothers are blamed and shamed for their children's birth defects by their husbands, families, and communities, while the fathers are not stigmatized. PMID:25374870

  12. An uncharacterized member of the ribokinase family in Thermococcus kodakarensis exhibits myo-inositol kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-07-19

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate.

  13. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  14. Members of the PpaA/AerR Antirepressor Family Bind Cobalamin

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Arjan J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PpaA from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a member of a family of proteins that are thought to function as antirepressors of PpsR, a widely disseminated repressor of photosystem genes in purple photosynthetic bacteria. PpaA family members exhibit sequence similarity to a previously defined SCHIC (sensor containing heme instead of cobalamin) domain; however, the tetrapyrrole-binding specificity of PpaA family members has been unclear, as R. sphaeroides PpaA has been reported to bind heme while the Rhodobacter capsulatus homolog has been reported to bind cobalamin. In this study, we reinvestigated tetrapyrrole binding of PpaA from R. sphaeroides and show that it is not a heme-binding protein but is instead a cobalamin-binding protein. We also use bacterial two-hybrid analysis to show that PpaA is able to interact with PpsR and activate the expression of photosynthesis genes in vivo. Mutations in PpaA that cause loss of cobalamin binding also disrupt PpaA antirepressor activity in vivo. We also tested a number of PpaA homologs from other purple bacterial species and found that cobalamin binding is a conserved feature among members of this family of proteins. IMPORTANCE Cobalamin (vitamin B12) has only recently been recognized as a cofactor that affects gene expression by interacting in a light-dependent manner with transcription factors. A group of related antirepressors known as the AppA/PpaA/AerR family are known to control the expression of photosynthesis genes in part by interacting with either heme or cobalamin. The specificity of which tetrapyrroles that members of this family interact with has, however, remained cloudy. In this study, we address the tetrapyrrole-binding specificity of the PpaA/AerR subgroup and establish that it preferentially binds cobalamin over heme. PMID:26055116

  15. The Effect of Emotional Closeness and Exchanges of Support Among Family Members on Residents’ Positive and Negative Psychological Responses After Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Zhen; Nejat, Ali; Liang, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support among family members after Hurricane Sandy affected residents' psychological outcomes both positively and negatively. Methods: The working sample included 130 family ties reported by 85 respondents recruited from community and shelter residents on Staten Island after it was seriously damaged by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. Regression with robust standard errors was used to examine how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support with adult family members affected respondents' posttraumatic psychological distress and posttraumatic growth. Results: Results showed psychological distress was significantly increased with higher levels of instrumental support received from family members; whereas posttraumatic growth was significantly increased with greater improved emotional closeness with family members. In addition, having higher levels of education was associated with lower levels of psychological distress and respondents from shelters showed higher levels of posttraumatic growth than those who were from the community. Discussion: It is suggested that after a significant disaster, although a family may be the best to take care of its members' emotional needs, it should not be expected to satisfy the instrumental needs of its members. In addition, posttraumatic psychological distress and growth are not necessarily opposite to each other; the psychological well- being of residents after a disaster needs to be carefully examined from both perspectives.

  16. The Effect of Emotional Closeness and Exchanges of Support Among Family Members on Residents’ Positive and Negative Psychological Responses After Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Zhen; Nejat, Ali; Liang, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support among family members after Hurricane Sandy affected residents' psychological outcomes both positively and negatively. Methods: The working sample included 130 family ties reported by 85 respondents recruited from community and shelter residents on Staten Island after it was seriously damaged by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. Regression with robust standard errors was used to examine how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support with adult family members affected respondents' posttraumatic psychological distress and posttraumatic growth. Results: Results showed psychological distress was significantly increased with higher levels of instrumental support received from family members; whereas posttraumatic growth was significantly increased with greater improved emotional closeness with family members. In addition, having higher levels of education was associated with lower levels of psychological distress and respondents from shelters showed higher levels of posttraumatic growth than those who were from the community. Discussion: It is suggested that after a significant disaster, although a family may be the best to take care of its members' emotional needs, it should not be expected to satisfy the instrumental needs of its members. In addition, posttraumatic psychological distress and growth are not necessarily opposite to each other; the psychological well- being of residents after a disaster needs to be carefully examined from both perspectives. PMID:27651978

  17. HER-3 targeting alters the dimerization pattern of ErbB protein family members in breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Karamouzis, Michalis V.; Dalagiorgou, Georgia; Georgopoulou, Urania; Nonni, Afroditi; Kontos, Michalis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.

    2016-01-01

    Breast carcinogenesis is a multi-step process in which membrane receptor tyrosine kinases are crucial participants. Lots of research has been done on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 with important clinical results. However, breast cancer patients present intrinsic or acquired resistance to available HER-2-directed therapies, mainly due to HER-3. Using new techniques, such as proximity ligation assay, herein we evaluate the dimerization pattern of HER-3 and the importance of context-dependent dimer formation between HER-3 and other HER protein family members. Additionally, we show that the efficacy of novel HER-3 targeting agents can be better predicted in certain breast cancer patient sub-groups based on the dimerization pattern of HER protein family members. Moreover, this model was also evaluated and reproduced in human paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. PMID:26716646

  18. Nuclear degradation of particular Fos family members expressed following injections of NMDA and kainate in murine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Manabe, Takayuki; Yoneda, Yukio

    2002-02-01

    Transient glutamate signaling often leads to long lasting and permanent alterations of a variety of cellular functions through particular membrane receptors in the brain. For elucidation of mechanisms underlying long-term consolidation of transient extracellular signals, we have examined expression and degradation of particular Fos family member proteins required for assembly to the nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 in this study. Transcription factors could modulate the activity of RNA polymerase II responsible for the formation of mRNA from genomic DNA in the nucleus and therefore regulate de novo synthesis of particular target functional proteins. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 100 mg/kg N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) or 40 mg/kg kainic acid (KA), followed by homogenization of hippocampus in the presence of different protease and phosphatase inhibitors 2 h after administration, and subsequent preparation of nuclear and cytosolic fractions. The systemic administration of both NMDA and KA induced marked expression of particular Fos family members, including c-Fos and Fra-2 proteins, in hippocampal nuclear and cytosolic fractions. Incubation at 30 degrees C for 1 to 18 h led to differential degradation profiles of each Fos family member protein in nuclear fractions in a manner peculiar to the individual excitants. Degradation rate was also affected by dialysis and subsequent addition of inhibitors for phosphatases and proteases. These results suggest that in vivo NMDA and KA signals may additionally modulate the activity of heterologous machineries responsible for breakdown of each Fos family member in a unique manner in nuclear fractions, rather than cytosolic fractions, of murine hippocampus.

  19. Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family.

    PubMed

    Butt, Haroon; Graner, Sonja; Luschnig, Christian

    2014-03-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Involved in de novo DNA methylation 2 (IDN2) and the closely related factor of DNA methylation (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1-VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins.

  20. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  1. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  2. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  3. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  4. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  5. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  6. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  7. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  8. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  9. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  10. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  11. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  12. Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

  13. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  14. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  15. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  16. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  17. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  18. Audio-Visual Resources Related to Family Interaction with a Handicapped Member. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Eleanor M.; Watts, Janine A.

    This annotated bibliography lists 78 selected audiovisual resources (film, filmstrip, or video formats) in the general topic area of family interaction with a handicapped member. Sources older than 1970 are not included. Each listing provides information on length, format, audience, method of acquisition (rent or purchase, and price), source, and…

  19. Helping Your Older Family Member Handle Finances. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. PNW 344.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Nay, Tim

    This booklet is designed to help individuals help older family members handle their finances. Presented first are 10 guidelines for keeping the tension involved in intervening in an older relative's finances to a minimum. The following financial/legal instruments are explained: joint bank accounts, powers of attorney (including durable powers of…

  20. Photo of family members of STS-5 commander, Vance D. Brand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Erik Brand and his mother Beverly are seen in a photo of family members of STS-5 commander Vance D. Brand. Erik holds a small model of the space shuttle with its solid rocket boosters and external fuel tank still attached.

  1. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  2. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  3. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  4. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  5. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  6. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  7. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  8. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  9. Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

  10. A Heavy Burden: The Cardiovascular Health Consequences of Having a Family Member Incarcerated

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher; Wang, Emily A.; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of family member incarceration with cardiovascular risk factors and disease by gender. Methods. We used a sample of 5470 adults aged 18 years and older in the National Survey of American Life, a 2001–2003 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Blacks and Whites living in the United States, to examine 5 self-reported health conditions (diabetes, hypertension, heart attack or stroke, obesity, and fair or poor health). Results. Family member incarceration was associated with increased likelihood of poor health across all 5 conditions for women but not for men. In adjusted models, women with family members who were currently incarcerated had 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.00), 2.53 (95% CI = 1.80, 3.55), and 1.93 (95% CI = 1.45, 2.58) times the odds of being obese, having had a heart attack or stroke, and being in fair or poor health, respectively. Conclusions. Family member incarceration has profound implications for women’s cardiovascular health and should be considered a unique risk factor that contributes to racial disparities in health. PMID:24432879

  11. Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disea...

  12. Approaches for analyzing the differential activities and functions of eIF4E family members.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Robert E; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Jagus, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    The translational initiation factor eIF4E binds to the m(7)G-containing cap of mRNA and participates in recruitment of mRNA to ribosomes for protein synthesis. eIF4E also functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA, sequestration of mRNA in a nontranslatable state, and stabilization of mRNA against decay in the cytosol. Multiple eIF4E family members have been identified in a wide range of organisms that includes plants, flies, mammals, frogs, birds, nematodes, fish, and various protists. This chapter reviews methods that have been applied to learn the biochemical properties and physiological functions that differentiate eIF4E family members within a given organism. Much has been learned to date about approaches to discover new eIF4E family members, their in vitro properties (cap binding, stimulation of cell-free translation systems), tissue and developmental expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and their effects on the translation or repression of specific subsets of mRNA. Despite these advances, new eIF4E family members continue to be found and new physiological roles discovered.

  13. Family Members as Partners in an After-School and Summer Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayroe, Teresa B.; Brenner, Devon

    2005-01-01

    If educators expect more children to be successful in literacy experiences at school, then they must strive to form lasting partnerships with parents (Fried, 2001). The educators working with the after-school and summer literacy program actively sought to form partnerships with family members at a small rural elementary school in a southern state.…

  14. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), this notice....Regulations.gov ; or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive...

  15. 76 FR 67384 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions To Disregard Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 31 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ06 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA... existing rule that the owners of disregarded entities, except for qualified subchapter S subsidiaries, are... of 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. to CC:PA:LPD:PR (REG- 136565-09), Courier's Desk, Internal Revenue Service,...

  16. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  17. A summary of seven- and eight-membered ring sultam syntheses via three Michael addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ben; Xie, Ping; Wang, Min; Wang, Yanjie; Zhao, Wannian; Pittman, Charles U; Zhou, Aihua

    2015-08-01

    A series of seven- and eight-membered ring -N,O-, -N,N-, and -N,S-sultams were effectively synthesized via tandem reactions involving oxa-, aza-, and thia-Michael addition to vinyl sulfonamides. These reactions are summarized here since they enrich current synthetic methodologies for sultams and provide a good example of sultam diversity-oriented synthesis. All reactions proceeded under relatively mild and environmentally friendly conditions, and all these reactions are quite suitable for the rapid preparation of sultam compound libraries, which are valuable for biological activity explorations.

  18. Chipmunk Parvovirus Is Distinct from Members in the Genus Erythrovirus of the Family Parvoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Qiu, Jianming

    2010-01-01

    The transcription profile of chipmunk parvovirus (ChpPV), a tentative member of the genus Erythrovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, was characterized by transfecting a nearly full-length genome. We found that it is unique from the profiles of human parvovirus B19 and simian parvovirus, the members in the genus Erythrovirus so far characterized, in that the small RNA transcripts were not processed for encoding small non-structural proteins. However, like the large non-structural protein NS1 of the human parvovirus B19, the ChpPV NS1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Further phylogenetic analysis of ChpPV with other parvoviruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae indicates that ChpPV is distinct from the members in genus Erythrovirus. Thus, we conclude that ChpPV may represent a new genus in the family Parvoviridae. PMID:21151930

  19. Establishing the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria: the importance of examining the urine sediment of family members

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, S.S.; Fritsche, C.; Lemann, J. Jr

    1988-04-15

    Patients with microscopic hematuria are generally referred for urologic investigation. The authors describe 30 patients with normal renal function referred to our clinic during the years 1970 through 1987 for evaluation of hematuria, usually microscopic, in whom prior urologic and radiological studies had failed to determine the cause of bleeding. Urinary sediment from the patients and first-degree relatives revealed hemoglobin and red blood cell casts; the inheritance pattern was consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. During follow-up for up to 18 years, renal function remained normal, thus confirming the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and Alport's syndrome were less common than benign familial hematuria and could be differentiated from it by history, physical examination, and routine laboratory testing. Since benign familial hematuria is a common disorder in adults with hematuria and normal renal function, urinary sediment from patients and family members should be examined before extensive urologic and radiological procedures are performed.

  20. Experiences of family members of patients with colostomies and expectations about professional intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Umpiérrez, Augusto; Fort-Fort, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Objective the objective was to understand the experience of a group of family members of patients with colostomies, revealing their expectations regarding the intervention of health professionals. Method qualitative research, with the social phenomenological approach of Alfred Schütz, conducted in Montevideo in 2012; twelve family members of patients with colostomies participated, from an ostomy service of a health institution. Results the following categories were identified: family ties, trust in the health care team, the nurse as the articulator of the process, the desire to humanize care, and adaptation to new family life. Conclusions knowing the experience and expectations of the families of colostomy patients was achieved, emphasizing the previous family relationships to build upon them, and the trust in the health team, emphasizing the nurse as articulator of the process. Expectations focused on the desire for humanized care, enhancing adaptation of the nuclear family to the new way of life, restoring and enhancing its strengths, and collaborating in overcoming its weaknesses. PMID:26107831

  1. Relationship of service members' deployment trauma, PTSD symptoms, and experiential avoidance to postdeployment family reengagement.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Callie; Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Gird, Suzanne R; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Schmidt, Nicole; Pauldine, Michael R; Elish, Katie; Schrepferman, Lynn; Hayes, Charles; Zettle, Robert; DeGarmo, David

    2016-02-01

    This research examined whether military service members' deployment-related trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and experiential avoidance are associated with their observed levels of positive social engagement, social withdrawal, reactivity-coercion, and distress avoidance during postdeployment family interaction. Self reports of deployment related trauma, postdeployment PTSD symptoms, and experiential avoidance were collected from 184 men who were deployed to the Middle East conflicts, were partnered, and had a child between 4 and 13 years of age. Video samples of parent-child and partner problem solving and conversations about deployment issues were collected, and were rated by trained observers to assess service members' positive engagement, social withdrawal, reactivity-coercion, and distress avoidance, as well as spouse and child negative affect and behavior. Service members' experiential avoidance was reliably associated with less observed positive engagement and more observed withdrawal and distress avoidance after controlling for spouse and child negative affect and behavior during ongoing interaction. Service members' experiential avoidance also diminished significant associations between service members' PTSD symptoms and their observed behavior. The results are discussed in terms of how service members' psychological acceptance promotes family resilience and adaption to the multiple contextual challenges and role transitions associated with military deployment. Implications for parenting and marital interventions are described.

  2. A novel virus from Macrosiphum euphorbiae with similarities to members of the family Flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcella; Sela, Noa; Ng, James; Casteel, Clare L; Peng, Hsuan-Chieh; Bekal, Sadia; Girke, Thomas; Ghanim, Murad; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-05-01

    A virus with a large genome was identified in the transcriptome of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) and was named Macrosiphum euphorbiae virus 1 (MeV-1). The MeV-1 genome is 22 780 nt in size, including 3' and 5' non-coding regions, with a single large ORF encoding a putative polyprotein of 7333 aa. The C-terminal region of the predicted MeV-1 polyprotein contained sequences with similarities to helicase, methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) motifs, while the N-terminal region lacked any motifs including structural proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase placed MeV-1 close to pestiviruses, while the RdRp region placed it close to pestiviruses and flaviviruses, suggesting MeV-1 has a positive-polarity ssRNA genome and is a member of the family Flaviviridae. Since the MeV-1 genome is predicted to contain a methyltransferase, a gene present typically in flaviviruses but not pestiviruses, MeV-1 is likely a member of the genus Flavivirus. MeV-1 was present in nymphal and adult stages of the aphid, aphid saliva and plant tissues fed upon by aphids. However, the virus was unable to multiply and spread in tomato plants. In addition, dsRNA, the replication intermediate of RNA viruses, was isolated from virus-infected M. euphorbiae and not from tomato plants infested with the aphid. Furthermore, nymphs laid without exposure to infected plants harboured the virus, indicating that MeV-1 is an aphid-infecting virus likely transmitted transovarially. The virus was present in M. euphorbiae populations from Europe but not from North America and was absent in all other aphid species tested.

  3. Familial primary antiphospholipid syndrome: A report of co-occurrence in three Malaysian family members

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Wong, Kah Keng; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo; Gan, Siew Hua; Wong, Jin Shyan

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a case report of three familial primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients from Malaysia. The three familial patients comprised two females and one male with a mean age of 26.3 years. The first diagnosis was made between 2005 and 2009, and all patients demonstrated deep vein thrombosis, high levels of IgM and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies, and received warfarin treatment international normalized ratio (INR) 2.0–3.0. The patients ceased to show clinical symptoms after treatment. Recently (August 2014), we investigated whether the levels of antiphospholipid antibodies remained elevated, and we found that seronegativity occurred in the patients. We suspect that prolonged anticoagulant treatment might be one of the causes of reduced levels of antiphospholipid antibodies in these familial PAPS patients. PMID:27733946

  4. 41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the U.S. before I complete my service... System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Relocation Separation Overseas to U.s. Return for Separation § 302-3.302 May my agency pay for my immediate...

  5. Effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for weight loss in family members.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Raffaella; Moscatiello, Simona; Tarrini, Giulietta; Di Domizio, Silvia; Soverini, Valentina; Romano, Andreina; Mazzotti, Arianna; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2011-11-01

    The possibility that lifestyle changes may be shared by the family members of subjects with obesity attending cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss has been scarcely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in body weight, lifestyle habits, and stage of change toward physical activity in the family members of 149 subjects with overweight/obesity enrolled into a weekly group CBT for weight management in the years 2007-2008. 230 adult (aged >18 years) family members (129 spouses, 72 children (43 female, 29 male), 29 with a different family relationship) completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and soon after the end of the completion of their relatives' program (approximately 6 months later). The questionnaire consisted of qualitative information regarding food choices, estimation of energy and food intake, self-report of height and weight, and motivation toward physical activity. At baseline, self-reported body mass index was normal in 115 cases, in the range 25 to 29.9 in 80 and ≥30 in 35. Following CBT of their relatives, the family members significantly reduced their average daily energy intake (-232 kcal/day; P<0.001) and the reported body weight decreased on average by 1 kg (P=0.001). The analysis of food choices revealed a reduced average daily amount of energy from dressings (-40 kcal, P<0.001), main courses with cheese or fat meat (-24 kcal, P=0.002), refined carbohydrates (-16 kcal, P<0.001), bread (-58 kcal, P<0.001), breakfast biscuits (-23 kcal, P=0.005), chocolate (-7 kcal, P=0.024), and nonalcoholic beverages (fruit juices and carbonated drinks; -10 kcal; P=0.013), whereas fruit consumption was increased (+10 kcal; P=0.023). There was also a shift in the stage of change toward exercising. Body mass index changes of family members and CBT subjects were significantly correlated, mainly within spouses. In conclusion, CBT for weight loss positively influences the lifestyle habits of family members of

  6. 12 CFR 215.5 - Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... partnership in which one or more of the bank's executive officers are partners and, either individually or... of credit extended by a member bank to such partnership is considered to be extended to each executive officer of the member bank who is a member of the partnership. (c) A member bank is authorized...

  7. 12 CFR 215.5 - Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... partnership in which one or more of the bank's executive officers are partners and, either individually or... of credit extended by a member bank to such partnership is considered to be extended to each executive officer of the member bank who is a member of the partnership. (c) A member bank is authorized...

  8. Comparative analysis of three hyperthermophilic GH1 and GH3 family members with industrial potential.

    PubMed

    Cota, Junio; Corrêa, Thamy L R; Damásio, André R L; Diogo, José A; Hoffmam, Zaira B; Garcia, Wanius; Oliveira, Leandro C; Prade, Rolf A; Squina, Fabio M

    2015-01-25

    Beta-glucosidases (BGLs) are enzymes of great potential for several industrial processes, since they catalyze the cleavage of glucosidic bonds in cellobiose and other short cellooligosaccharides. However, features such as good stability to temperature, pH, ions and chemicals are required characteristics for industrial applications. This work aimed to provide a comparative biochemical analysis of three thermostable BGLs from Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermotoga petrophila. The genes PfBgl1 (GH1 from P. furiosus), TpBgl1 (GH1 from T. petrophila) and TpBgl3 (GH3 from T. petrophila) were cloned and proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes are hyperthermophilic, showing highest activity at temperatures above 80°C at acidic (TpBgl3 and PfBgl1) and neutral (TpBgl1) pHs. The BGLs showed greatest stability to temperature mainly at pH 6.0. Activities using a set of different substrates suggested that TpBgl3 (GH3) is more specific than GH1 family members. In addition, the influence of six monosaccharides on BGL catalysis was assayed. While PfBgl1 and TpBgl3 seemed to be weakly inhibited by monosaccharides, TpBgl1 was activated, with xylose showing the strongest activation. Under the conditions tested, TpBgl1 showed the highest inhibition constant (Ki=1100.00mM) when compared with several BGLs previously characterized. The BGLs studied have potential for industrial use, specifically the enzymes belonging to the GH1 family, due to its broad substrate specificity and weak inhibition by glucose and other saccharides.

  9. Comparative analysis of three hyperthermophilic GH1 and GH3 family members with industrial potential.

    PubMed

    Cota, Junio; Corrêa, Thamy L R; Damásio, André R L; Diogo, José A; Hoffmam, Zaira B; Garcia, Wanius; Oliveira, Leandro C; Prade, Rolf A; Squina, Fabio M

    2015-01-25

    Beta-glucosidases (BGLs) are enzymes of great potential for several industrial processes, since they catalyze the cleavage of glucosidic bonds in cellobiose and other short cellooligosaccharides. However, features such as good stability to temperature, pH, ions and chemicals are required characteristics for industrial applications. This work aimed to provide a comparative biochemical analysis of three thermostable BGLs from Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermotoga petrophila. The genes PfBgl1 (GH1 from P. furiosus), TpBgl1 (GH1 from T. petrophila) and TpBgl3 (GH3 from T. petrophila) were cloned and proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes are hyperthermophilic, showing highest activity at temperatures above 80°C at acidic (TpBgl3 and PfBgl1) and neutral (TpBgl1) pHs. The BGLs showed greatest stability to temperature mainly at pH 6.0. Activities using a set of different substrates suggested that TpBgl3 (GH3) is more specific than GH1 family members. In addition, the influence of six monosaccharides on BGL catalysis was assayed. While PfBgl1 and TpBgl3 seemed to be weakly inhibited by monosaccharides, TpBgl1 was activated, with xylose showing the strongest activation. Under the conditions tested, TpBgl1 showed the highest inhibition constant (Ki=1100.00mM) when compared with several BGLs previously characterized. The BGLs studied have potential for industrial use, specifically the enzymes belonging to the GH1 family, due to its broad substrate specificity and weak inhibition by glucose and other saccharides. PMID:25102284

  10. The discoidin domain family revisited: new members from prokaryotes and a homology-based fold prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, S.; Hofmann, K.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R.; Bucher, P.

    1998-01-01

    Members of the discoidin (DS) domain family, which includes the C1 and C2 repeats of blood coagulation factors V and VIII, occur in a great variety of eukaryotic proteins, most of which have been implicated in cell-adhesion or developmental processes. So far, no three-dimensional structure of a known example of this extracellular module has been determined, limiting the usefulness of identifying a new sequence as member of this family. Here, we present results of a recent search of the protein sequence database for new DS domains using generalized profiles, a sensitive multiple alignment-based search technique. Several previously unrecognized DS domains could be identified by this method, including the first examples from prokaryotic species. More importantly, we present statistical, structural, and functional evidence that the D1 domain of galactose oxidase whose three-dimensional structure has been determined at 1.7 A resolution, is a distant member of this family. Taken together, these findings significantly expand the concept of the DS domain, by extending its taxonomic range and by implying a fold prediction for all its members. The proposed alignment with the galactose oxidase sequence makes it possible to construct homology-based three-dimensional models for the most interesting examples, as illustrated by an accompanying paper on the C1 and C2 domains of factor V. PMID:9684896

  11. Family Supports for Families with a Disabled Member. Monograph No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner, Ed.; And Others

    Five articles address issues in family support systems for persons with disabilities. Peter Mittler, Hellie Mittler and Helen McConachie present a set of general principles designed to encourage the development of genuine partnerships between professionals and parents in "Working Together: Guidelines for Partnership between Professionals and…

  12. Redefining Residential: Family-Driven Care in Residential Treatment--Family Members Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This is the sixth in a series of papers issued by the American Association of Children's Residential Centers (AACRC) regarding emerging and best practices in the field of residential treatment for children, youth, and families. AACRC is a long standing national association focused exclusively on practice and policy issues related to the provision…

  13. Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitschke, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

  14. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood.

  15. Differential Expression of Two Novel Members of the Tomato Ethylene-Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Denise M.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development. PMID:10318694

  16. Drosophila Follistatin Exhibits Unique Structural Modifications and Interacts with Several TGF-Beta Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C.; Haerry, Theodor E.

    2008-01-01

    Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-β family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in facilitating and inhibiting signaling of TGF-β ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

  17. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood. PMID:22302216

  18. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M.

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  19. A novel frameshift mutation in BLM gene associated with high sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in heterozygous family members.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Ghada; Hadj Salem, Ikhlas; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Kallabi, Fakhri; Turki, Hamida; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ayadi, Hamadi; Kamoun, Hassen

    2014-11-01

    The Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomic recessive disorder comprising a wide range of abnormalities, including stunted growth, immunodeficiency, sun sensitivity and increased frequency of various types of cancer. Bloom syndrome cells display a high level of genetic instability, including a 10-fold increase in the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) level. Bloom syndrome arises through mutations in both alleles of the BLM gene, which was identified as a member of the RecQ helicase family. In this study, we screened a Tunisian family with three BS patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed several chromosomal aberrations, and an approximately 14-fold elevated SCE frequency in BS cells. A significant increase in SCE frequency was observed in some family members but not reaching the BS patients values, leading to suggest that this could be due to the heterozygous profile. Microsatellite genotyping using four fluorescent dye-labeled microsatellite markers revealed evidence of linkage to BLM locus and the healthy members, sharing higher SCE frequency, showed heterozygous haplotypes as expected. Additionally, the direct BLM gene sequencing identified a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.3617-3619delAA (p.K1207fsX9) in BS patients and a heterozygous BLM mutation in the family members with higher SCE frequency. Our findings suggest that this latter mutation likely leads to a reduced BLM activity explaining the homologous recombination repair defect and, therefore, the increase in SCE. Based on the present data, the screening of this mutation could contribute to the rapid diagnosis of BS. The genetic confirmation of the mutation in BLM gene provides crucial information for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

  20. Activation of HER family members in gastric carcinoma cells mediates resistance to MET inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is constitutively activated in many gastric cancers and its expression is strictly required for survival of some gastric cancer cells. Thus, MET is considered a good candidate for targeted therapeutic intervention in this type of tumor, and MET inhibitors recently entered clinical trials. One of the major problems of therapies targeting tyrosine kinases is that many tumors are not responsive to treatment or eventually develop resistance to the drugs. Perspective studies are thus mandatory to identify the molecular mechanisms that could cause resistance to these therapies. Results Our in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that, in MET-addicted gastric cancer cells, the activation of HER (Human Epidermal Receptor) family members induces resistance to MET silencing or inhibition by PHA-665752 (a selective kinase inhibitor). We provide molecular evidences highlighting the role of EGFR, HER3, and downstream signaling pathways common to MET and HER family in resistance to MET inhibitors. Moreover, we show that an in vitro generated gastric cancer cell line resistant to MET-inhibition displays overexpression of HER family members, whose activation contributes to maintenance of resistance. Conclusions Our findings predict that gastric cancer tumors bearing constitutive activation of HER family members are poorly responsive to MET inhibition, even if this receptor is constitutively active. Moreover, the appearance of these alterations might also be responsible for the onset of resistance in initially responsive tumors. PMID:20500904

  1. Complete sequence and genetic characterization of Raspberry latent virus, a novel member of the family Reoviridae.

    PubMed

    Quito-Avila, Diego F; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Keller, Karen; Martin, Robert R

    2011-02-01

    A new virus isolated from red raspberry plants and detected in the main production areas in northern Washington State, USA and British Columbia, Canada was fully sequenced and found to be a novel member of the family Reoviridae. The virus was designated as Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) based on the fact that it is symptomless when present in single infections in several Rubus virus indicators and commercial raspberry cultivars. RpLV genome is 26,128 nucleotides (nt) divided into 10 dsRNA segments. The length of the genomic segments (S) was similar to those of other reoviruses ranging from 3948 nt (S1) to 1141 nt (S10). All of the segments, except S8, have the conserved terminal sequences 5'-AGUU----GAAUAC-3'. A point mutation at each terminus of S8 resulted in the sequences 5'-AGUA----GAUUAC-3'. Inverted repeats adjacent to each conserved terminus as well as stem loops and extended pan handles were identified by analyses of secondary structures of the non-coding sequences. All segments, except S3 and S10, contained a single open reading frame (ORF) on the positive sense RNAs. Two out-of-frame overlapping ORFs were identified in segments S3 (ORF S3a and S3b) and S10 (ORF S10a and S10b). Amino acid (aa) alignments of the putative proteins encoded by the main ORF in each segment revealed a high identity to several proteins encoded by reoviruses from different genera including Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, and Dinovernavirus. Alignments of the polymerase, the most conserved protein among reoviruses, revealed a 36% aa identity between RpLV and Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus, indicating that these two viruses are closely related. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RpLV clusters with members of the genera Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, Dinovernavirus and Fijivirus. These genera belong to the subfamily Spinareovirinae which includes reoviruses with spiked core particles ('turreted' reoviruses). In addition, two nucleotide binding motifs, regarded

  2. Oxidation of Monolignols by Members of the Berberine Bridge Enzyme Family Suggests a Role in Plant Cell Wall Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Bastian; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steiner, Barbara; Dordic, Andela; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Sensen, Christoph W; van der Graaff, Eric; Wallner, Silvia; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-07-24

    Plant genomes contain a large number of genes encoding for berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like enzymes. Despite the widespread occurrence and abundance of this protein family in the plant kingdom, the biochemical function remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have expressed two members of the BBE-like enzyme family from Arabidopsis thaliana in the host organism Komagataella pastoris. The two proteins, termed AtBBE-like 13 and AtBBE-like 15, were purified, and their catalytic properties were determined. In addition, AtBBE-like 15 was crystallized and structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography. Here, we show that the enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aromatic allylic alcohols, such as coumaryl, sinapyl, and coniferyl alcohol, to the corresponding aldehydes and that AtBBE-like 15 adopts the same fold as vanillyl alcohol oxidase as reported previously for berberine bridge enzyme and other FAD-dependent oxidoreductases. Further analysis of the substrate range identified coniferin, the glycosylated storage form of coniferyl alcohol, as a substrate of the enzymes, whereas other glycosylated monolignols were rather poor substrates. A detailed analysis of the motifs present in the active sites of the BBE-like enzymes in A. thaliana suggested that 14 out of 28 members of the family might catalyze similar reactions. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role of BBE-like enzymes in monolignol metabolism that was previously not recognized for this enzyme family.

  3. Oxidation of Monolignols by Members of the Berberine Bridge Enzyme Family Suggests a Role in Plant Cell Wall Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Bastian; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steiner, Barbara; Dordic, Andela; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Sensen, Christoph W.; van der Graaff, Eric; Wallner, Silvia; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant genomes contain a large number of genes encoding for berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like enzymes. Despite the widespread occurrence and abundance of this protein family in the plant kingdom, the biochemical function remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have expressed two members of the BBE-like enzyme family from Arabidopsis thaliana in the host organism Komagataella pastoris. The two proteins, termed AtBBE-like 13 and AtBBE-like 15, were purified, and their catalytic properties were determined. In addition, AtBBE-like 15 was crystallized and structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography. Here, we show that the enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aromatic allylic alcohols, such as coumaryl, sinapyl, and coniferyl alcohol, to the corresponding aldehydes and that AtBBE-like 15 adopts the same fold as vanillyl alcohol oxidase as reported previously for berberine bridge enzyme and other FAD-dependent oxidoreductases. Further analysis of the substrate range identified coniferin, the glycosylated storage form of coniferyl alcohol, as a substrate of the enzymes, whereas other glycosylated monolignols were rather poor substrates. A detailed analysis of the motifs present in the active sites of the BBE-like enzymes in A. thaliana suggested that 14 out of 28 members of the family might catalyze similar reactions. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role of BBE-like enzymes in monolignol metabolism that was previously not recognized for this enzyme family. PMID:26037923

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of the temperate bacteriophage LBR48, a new member of the family Myoviridae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Se Hwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Chang, Hyo Ihl

    2011-02-01

    The complete genomic sequence of LBR48, a temperate bacteriophage induced from a lysogenic strain of Lactobacillus brevis, was found to be 48,211 nucleotides long and to contain 90 putative open reading frames. Based on structural characteristics obtained from microscopic analysis and nucleic acid sequence determination, phage LBR48 can be classified as a member of the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the genome showed the conserved gene order of previously reported phages of the family Siphoviridae from lactic acid bacteria, despite low nucleotide sequence similarity. Analysis of the attachment sites revealed 15-nucleotide-long core sequences. PMID:20976608

  5. Functional specialization among members of Knickkopf family of proteins in insect cuticle organization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Sujata S; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2014-08-01

    Our recent study on the functional analysis of the Knickkopf protein from T. castaneum (TcKnk), indicated a novel role for this protein in protection of chitin from degradation by chitinases. Knk is also required for the laminar organization of chitin in the procuticle. During a bioinformatics search using this protein sequence as the query, we discovered the existence of a small family of three Knk-like genes (including the prototypical TcKnk) in the T. castaneum genome as well as in all insects with completed genome assemblies. The two additional Knk-like genes have been named TcKnk2 and TcKnk3. Further complexity arises as a result of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of transcripts of TcKnk3, leading to the production of three transcripts (and by inference, three proteins) from this gene. These transcripts are named TcKnk3-Full Length (TcKnk3-FL), TcKnk3-5' and TcKnk3-3'. All three Knk-family genes appear to have essential and non-redundant functions. RNAi for TcKnk led to developmental arrest at every molt, while down-regulation of either TcKnk2 or one of the three TcKnk3 transcripts (TcKnk3-3') resulted in specific molting arrest only at the pharate adult stage. All three Knk genes appear to influence the total chitin content at the pharate adult stage, but to variable extents. While TcKnk contributes mostly to the stability and laminar organization of chitin in the elytral and body wall procuticles, proteins encoded by TcKnk2 and TcKnk3-3' transcripts appear to be required for the integrity of the body wall denticles and tracheal taenidia, but not the elytral and body wall procuticles. Thus, the three members of the Knk-family of proteins perform different essential functions in cuticle formation at different developmental stages and in different parts of the insect anatomy.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of eIF4E-family members

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Bhavesh; Lee, Kibwe; Maeder, Dennis L; Jagus, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Background Translation initiation in eukaryotes involves the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome which is controlled by the translation factor eIF4E. eIF4E binds to the 5'-m7Gppp cap-structure of mRNA. Three dimensional structures of eIF4Es bound to cap-analogues resemble 'cupped-hands' in which the cap-structure is sandwiched between two conserved Trp residues (Trp-56 and Trp-102 of H. sapiens eIF4E). A third conserved Trp residue (Trp-166 of H. sapiens eIF4E) recognizes the 7-methyl moiety of the cap-structure. Assessment of GenBank NR and dbEST databases reveals that many organisms encode a number of proteins with homology to eIF4E. Little is understood about the relationships of these structurally related proteins to each other. Results By combining sequence data deposited in the Genbank databases, we have identified sequences encoding 411 eIF4E-family members from 230 species. These sequences have been deposited into an internet-accessible database designed for sequence comparisons of eIF4E-family members. Most members can be grouped into one of three classes. Class I members carry Trp residues equivalent to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E and appear to be present in all eukaryotes. Class II members, possess Trp→Tyr/Phe/Leu and Trp→Tyr/Phe substitutions relative to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Metazoa, Viridiplantae, and Fungi. Class III members possess a Trp residue equivalent to Trp-43 of H. sapiens eIF4E but carry a Trp→Cys/Tyr substitution relative to Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Coelomata and Cnidaria. Some eIF4E-family members from Protista show extension or compaction relative to prototypical eIF4E-family members. Conclusion The expansion of sequenced cDNAs and genomic DNAs from all eukaryotic kingdoms has revealed a variety of proteins related in structure to eIF4E. Evolutionarily it seems that a single early eIF4E gene has undergone multiple gene duplications generating multiple

  7. Lentivirus-Mediated knockdown of tectonic family member 1 inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Junjie; Wang, Chengfeng; Liang, Qinchuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Wang, Shousen; Ma, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1) encodes a member of the tectonic family which are evolutionarily conserved secreted and transmembrane proteins, involving in a diverse variety of developmental processes. It has been demonstrated that tectonics expressed in regions that participate in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during mouse embryonic development and was imperative for Hh-mediated patterning of the ventral neural tube. However, the expression and regulation of tectonics in human tumor is still not clear. In this study, shRNA-expressing lentivirus was constructed to knockdown TCTN1 in medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. The results showed that knockdown of TCTN1 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in Daoy cell line, also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M boundary. Taken all together, our data suggest that TCTN1 might play an important role in the progression of medulloblastoma. PMID:26550235

  8. A new member of the family Totiviridae associated with arboreal ants (Camponotus nipponicus).

    PubMed

    Koyama, Satoshi; Sakai, Chihiro; Thomas, Cathleen E; Nunoura, Takuro; Urayama, Syun-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    A putative new member of the family Totiviridae was identified in arboreal ants (Camponotus nipponicus). The viral dsRNA consisted of 5,713 nt with two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a putative capsid protein. ORF2 encodes a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). ORF2 could be translated as a fusion protein with the ORF1 product through a -1 frameshift in the overlapping ORF1. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp revealed that the virus from C. nipponicus is closely related to Camponotus yamaokai virus, a member of the family Totiviridae, from another ant species. The name Camponotus nipponicus virus (CNV) is proposed for the new virus. PMID:27138551

  9. Reconstructing meaning through occupation after the death of a family member: accommodation, assimilation, and continuing bonds.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Segal, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Reactions to death have been studied extensively from psychological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. Occupational adaptation to loss has received scant attention. Qualitative research was undertaken to identify and describe occupational responses in bereavement. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze and interpret the occupational responses. Adaptive strategies of occupational accommodation and assimilation were used after the death of a family member. Desire to sustain bonds with the deceased motivated specific occupational engagements. These occupational responses served to reconstruct meaning after the death of a family member. These findings contribute to understanding adaptation after death by adding an occupational perspective to previous theories. Occupational therapists' abilities to support clients after loss can be enhanced through appreciation of occupational accommodation and assimilation and the role of continuing occupational bonds after the death of a loved one.

  10. Evaluating palliative care: bereaved family members' evaluations of patients' pain, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Christine J; Addington-Hall, Julia M

    2004-08-01

    Palliative care surveys often rely on bereaved family members to act as proxies to provide information on patient care at the end of life, after the patient's death. However, when comparing bereaved family members' assessments with those of the patients, agreement is found to be better for symptoms that are more concrete and observable than subjective aspects such as psychological symptoms and pain. To date, little is known about how proxies actually evaluate these types of symptoms. The present study used retrospective verbal protocol analysis to elucidate the thought processes of 30 bereaved relatives during their evaluations of patients' pain, anxiety and depression. The qualitative analysis raised awareness of the difficulties experienced by proxies when discerning the presence of symptoms. It also provided insights into the cues and strategies used when making decisions, contributing to a fuller understanding of how proxies distinguish symptoms. Recommendations are made to improve the design of retrospective palliative care surveys. PMID:15276191

  11. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. PMID:22512300

  12. Reconstructing meaning through occupation after the death of a family member: accommodation, assimilation, and continuing bonds.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Segal, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Reactions to death have been studied extensively from psychological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. Occupational adaptation to loss has received scant attention. Qualitative research was undertaken to identify and describe occupational responses in bereavement. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze and interpret the occupational responses. Adaptive strategies of occupational accommodation and assimilation were used after the death of a family member. Desire to sustain bonds with the deceased motivated specific occupational engagements. These occupational responses served to reconstruct meaning after the death of a family member. These findings contribute to understanding adaptation after death by adding an occupational perspective to previous theories. Occupational therapists' abilities to support clients after loss can be enhanced through appreciation of occupational accommodation and assimilation and the role of continuing occupational bonds after the death of a loved one. PMID:20131573

  13. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  14. Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) family members bend membranes in cells

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Allison; Ueno, Tasuku; Huebner, Robert; McCaffery, J. Michael; Inoue, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    We provide direct evidence that Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) family members bend the steady state membrane architecture of organelles in intact cells. In response to inducible BAR molecular actuators, organelles exhibit distinct changes to the orientation and degree of their membrane curvature. This rapidly inducible system may offer a mechanism by which to better understand the structure-function relationship of intracellular organelles. PMID:24796975

  15. Cloning and characterization of a second member of the mouse mdr gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gros, P; Raymond, M; Bell, J; Housman, D

    1988-01-01

    The mammalian mdr gene family comprises a small number of closely related genes. Previously, we have shown that one member, mdr1, has the capacity to convey multidrug resistance to drug-sensitive recipient cells in a gene transfer protocol. However, the functional characteristics of other members of this gene family have not been examined. In this report, we characterize a second member of the mdr gene family which we designated mdr2. We determined the nucleotide sequence corresponding to the complete coding region of this mdr2 transcript. The predicted amino acid sequence of this protein (1,276 amino acids) showed that it is a membrane glycoprotein highly homologous to mdr1 (85%), strongly suggesting that both genes originate from a common ancestor. Regions of divergence between mdr1 and mdr2 proteins are concentrated in two discrete segments of the predicted polypeptides, each approximately 100 residues in length. The mdr2 protein appears to be formed by the duplication of a structural unit which encodes three putative transmembrane loops and a predicted nucleotide-binding fold and is highly homologous to bacterial transport proteins such as hlyB. This strong homology suggests that mdr2 also participates in an energy-dependent membrane transport process. However, the direct relationship, if any, of this new member of the mdr family to multidrug resistance remains to be established. Knowledge of the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the mdr2 gene product will enable the preparation of gene-specific probes and antibodies necessary to study the functional role of this gene in multidrug resistance and normal physiological processes. PMID:3405218

  16. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma detected in a family member after confirmation of tuberculosis in his father.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Imanishi, Naoko; Matsuoka, Takahisa; Nagai, Shinjiro; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is an uncommon lung disease that usually presents as bilateral multiple nodules, and more rarely as a solitary nodule. An exaggerated immune response to antigenic stimuli resulting from infection or an autoimmune process has been suggested as the cause of PHG. Here, we describe a rare case of solitary PHG that was detected in a family member after tuberculosis had been confirmed in his father, without any background of infectious disease or autoimmune abnormality. PMID:23903707

  17. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  19. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... also includes interventions to reduce the negative impact for the veteran of mental illnesses or other... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided...

  20. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... also includes interventions to reduce the negative impact for the veteran of mental illnesses or other... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided...

  1. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... also includes interventions to reduce the negative impact for the veteran of mental illnesses or other... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided...

  2. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... also includes interventions to reduce the negative impact for the veteran of mental illnesses or other... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided...

  3. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiping; Wang, Guosong; Liu, Hehe; Gan, Xiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors) domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors) are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3′ UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3′ UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired. PMID:25961030

  4. Role of CD34 family members in lumen formation in the developing kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhufeng; Zimmerman, Susan E; Tsunezumi, Jun; Braitsch, Caitlin; Trent, Cary; Bryant, David M; Cleaver, Ondine; González-Manchón, Consuelo; Marciano, Denise K

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown CD34 family member Podocalyxin is required for epithelial lumen formation in vitro. We demonstrate that Endoglycan, a CD34 family member with homology to Podocalyxin, is produced prior to lumen formation in developing nephrons. Endoglycan localizes to Rab11-containing vesicles in nephron progenitors, and then relocalizes to the apical surface as progenitors epithelialize. Once an apical/luminal surface is formed, Endoglycan (and the actin-binding protein Ezrin) localize to large, intraluminal structures that may be vesicles/exosomes. We generated mice lacking Endoglycan and found mutants had timely initiation of lumen formation and continuous lumens, similar to controls. Mice with conditional deletion of both Endoglycan and Podocalyxin in developing nephrons also had normal tubular lumens. Despite this, Endoglycan/Podocalyxin is required for apical recruitment of the adaptor protein NHERF1, but not Ezrin, in podocyte precursors, a subset of the epithelia. In summary, while CD34 family members appear dispensable for lumen formation, our data identify Endoglycan as a novel pre-luminal marker and suggest lumen formation occurs via vesicular trafficking of apical cargo that includes Endoglycan.

  5. A good death for residents of long-term care: family members speak.

    PubMed

    Munn, Jean C; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Little research has been done on the topic of end-of-life care in long-term care settings to identify important themes regarding end-of-life care structures, processes, and outcomes. This study utilized data gathered in a stratified, random sample of 437 family members of residents who died in 31 nursing homes (NHs) and 199 residential care/ assisted living facilities. Structural components of care including staffing adequacy, training, and consistency as well as facility environment and size were important factors for family members interviewed. "Being there" and manner of care delivery (e.g., staff attitudes/empathy) were major elements in the process of care. These factors were mentioned more than direct care, Hospice, or resident preferences. Family members identified themes of [dying at] home and being comfortable and clean as important outcomes of care. These identified structural components, processes, and outcomes have implications for the role of social workers in these settings despite that social work support is notably absent in these findings.

  6. Factors Affecting Communication Patterns between Oncology Staff and Family Members of Deceased Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Granot, Tal; Gordon, Noa; Perry, Shlomit; Rizel, Shulamith; Stemmer, Salomon M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Perceptions of the role of oncology medical staff in supporting bereaved families have evolved with the transition to interdisciplinary cancer care. We investigated the interactions between oncology professionals and bereaved families. Methods This cross-sectional study involved all oncology medical staff at the Davidoff Center. Participants were given a questionnaire relating to bereavement follow-up. Responses were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Results Of 155 staff members, 107 filled questionnaires with <20% missing data and were included in the analysis (α = 0.799; corrected, α = 0.821). Respondents included physicians (35%), nurses (46%), social workers (7%), psychologists (4%), or unspecified (8%); 85% were Jewish, and 60% had ≥10 years of oncology experience. Most respondents thought that contacting bereaved families was important (73%), and that it provided closure for staff (79%); 41% indicated that they contacted >50% of the families of their deceased patients. Contacting bereaved families was considered the responsibility of the physicians (90%), nurses (84%), or social workers (89%). The main barriers to contacting bereaved families were emotional overload (68%) and lack of time (63%); 60% indicated a need for additional communication tools for bereavement follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, profession (physician vs. nurse), primary workplace (outpatient setting vs. other), and self-defined religion were significant variables with respect to the perceived importance of contacting bereaved families and to actually contacting them. Other factors (e.g., age, gender) were non-significant. Conclusions Perspectives regarding bereavement actions differ significantly across medical professions, work settings, and self-defined religions. Additional guidance and education regarding bereavement actions is warranted. PMID:27683075

  7. The Role of BCL-2 Family Members in Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Borkan, Steven C

    2016-05-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins gather at the biologic cross-roads of renal cell survival: the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite shared sequence and structural features, members of this conserved protein family constantly antagonize each other in a life-and-death battle. BCL-2 members innocently reside within renal cells until activated or de-activated by physiologic stresses caused by common nephrotoxins, transient ischemia, or acute glomerulonephritis. Recent experimental data not only illuminate the intricate mechanisms of apoptosis, the most familiar form of BCL-2-mediated cell death, but emphasizes their newfound roles in necrosis, necroptosis, membrane pore transition regulated necrosis, and other forms of acute cell demise. A major paradigm shift in non-cell death roles of the BCL-2 family has occurred. BCL-2 proteins also regulate critical daily renal cell housekeeping functions including cell metabolism, autophagy (an effective means for recycling cell components), mitochondrial morphology (organelle fission and fusion), as well as mitochondrial biogenesis. This article considers new concepts in the biochemical and structural regulation of BCL-2 proteins that contribute to membrane pore permeabilization, a universal feature of cell death. Despite these advances, persistent BCL-2 family mysteries continue to challenge cell biologists. Given their interface with many intracellular functions, it is likely that BCL-2 proteins determine cell viability under many pathologic circumstances relevant to the nephrologist and, as a consequence, represent an ideal therapeutic target. PMID:27339388

  8. Various members of the E2F transcription factor family interact in vivo with the corepressor alien.

    PubMed

    Escher, Niko; Kob, Robert; Tenbaum, Stephan P; Eisold, Michael; Baniahmad, Aria; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Melle, Christian

    2007-03-01

    Proteins perform their activities in cells by the cooperation within protein complexes. For this reason, it is important to investigate protein-protein interactions to receive insights in physiological processes. A multitude of proteins are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. Specific key factors participating here are members of the E2F transcription factors. Using an in vivo protein-protein complex detection assay, which comprises mass spectrometric and immunological techniques, we detected a number of known as well as new protein-protein interactions. We describe here for the first time protein complexes containing the corepressor Alien and members of the E2F transcription factor family. Furthermore, we assessed the functional relevance and show a repression of the transcriptional activity of E2F by Alien. Additionally, we detected new interactions that link endogenously expressed Alien with the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and with proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. PMID:17330949

  9. [The caring of family members in the intensive care units from the Jean Watson perspective].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Calatayud, M; Eseverri Azcoiti, M C

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a brief reflection on the caring of families in the Intensive Care Units. To address this issue, Jean Watson, one of the most important theoreticians on nursing of our days, has been taken as a reference. Watson was chosen because it is possible to understand perfectly the need to contemplate the family within the holistic care of critical patients from his theory. Thus, it is proposed to carry out an investigation that studies the care of the family members of the critical patient based on the idea of Watson's caring theory. To understand this approach, the theory of caring is analyzed and evaluated according to the guide produced by McEwen in 2007.

  10. Snail family members and cell survival in physiological and pathological cleft palates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción; Blanco, María J; Pérez, Raquel; Rabadán, M Angeles; Aparicio, Marta; Resel, Eva; Martínez, Tamara; Nieto, M Angela

    2004-01-01

    Palate fusion is a complex process that involves the coordination of a series of cellular changes including cell death and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Since members of the Snail family of zinc-finger regulators are involved in both triggering of the EMT and cell survival, we decided to study their putative role in palatal fusion. Furthermore, Snail genes are induced by transforming growth factor beta gene (TGF-beta) superfamily members, and TGF-beta(3) null mutant mice (TGF-beta(3)-/-) show a cleft palate phenotype. Here we show that in the wild-type mouse at the time of fusion, Snail is expressed in a few cells of the midline epithelial seam (MES), compatible with a role in triggering of the EMT in a small subpopulation of the MES. We also find an intriguing relationship between the expression of Snail family members and cell survival associated to the cleft palate condition. Indeed, Snail is expressed in the medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells in TGF-beta(3)-/-mouse embryo palates, where it is activated by the aberrant expression of its inducer, TGF-beta(1), in the underlying mesenchyme. In contrast to Snail-deficient wild-type pre-adhesion MEE cells, Snail-expressing TGF-beta(3) mutant MEE cells survive as they do their counterparts in the chick embryo. Interestingly, Slug is the Snail family member expressed in the chick MEE, providing another example of interchange of Snail and Slug expression between avian and mammalian embryos. We propose that in the absence of TGF-beta(3), TGF-beta(1) is upregulated in the mesenchyme, and that in both physiological (avian) and pathological (TGF-beta(3)-/-mammalian) cleft palates, it induces the expression of Snail genes promoting the survival of the MEE cells and permitting their subsequent differentiation into keratinized stratified epithelium.

  11. Prognostic roles for fibroblast growth factor receptor family members in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengju; Zheng, Hong; Chen, Kexin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jilong

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare, highly malignant, and poorly understood sarcomas. The often poor outcome of MPNST highlights the necessity of identifying prognostic predictors for this aggressive sarcoma. Here, we investigate the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family members in human MPNSTs. Results aCGH and bioinformatics analysis identified frequent amplification of the FGFR1 gene. FISH analysis revealed that 26.9% MPNST samples had amplification of FGFR1, with both focal and polysomy patterns observed. IHC identified that FGFR1 protein expression was positively correlated with FGFR1 gene amplification. High expression of FGFR1 protein was associated with better overall survival (OS) and was an independent prognostic predictor for OS of MPNST patients. Additionally, combined expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2 protein characterized a subtype of MPNST with better OS. FGFR4 protein was expressed 82.3% of MPNST samples, and was associated with poor disease-free survival. Materials and Methods We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) profiling of two cohorts of primary MPNST tissue samples including 25 patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and 26 patients from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to validate the gene amplification detected by aCGH analysis. Another cohort of 63 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded MPNST samples (including 52 samples for FISH assay) was obtained to explore FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4 protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Conclusions Our integrated genomic and molecular studies provide evidence that FGFRs play different prognostic roles in MPNST. PMID:26993773

  12. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings

    PubMed Central

    Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3–3.7], 4.6 [3.6–5.8], and 5.8 [4.4–7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7–4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6–2.6], 4.0 [3.1–5.1], 4.1 [3.0–5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents. PMID:27711150

  13. Members of the Pmp protein family of Chlamydia pneumoniae mediate adhesion to human cells via short repetitive peptide motifs.

    PubMed

    Mölleken, Katja; Schmidt, Eleni; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2010-11-01

    Chlamydiae sp. are obligate intracellular pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans. Adhesion of the infectious elementary body to the eukaryotic host cell is a pivotal step in chlamydial pathogenesis. Here we describe the characterization of members of the polymorphic membrane protein family (Pmp), the largest protein family (with up to 21 members) unique to Chlamydiaceae. We show that yeast cells displaying Pmp6, Pmp20 or Pmp21 on their surfaces, or beads coated with the recombinant proteins, adhere to human epithelial cells. A hallmark of the Pmp protein family is the presence of multiple repeats of the tetrapeptide motifs FxxN and GGA(I, L, V) and deletion analysis shows that at least two copies of these motifs are needed for adhesion. Importantly, pre-treatment of human cells with recombinant Pmp6, Pmp20 or Pmp21 protein reduces infectivity upon subsequent challenge with Chlamydia pneumoniae and correlates with diminished attachment of Chlamydiae to target cells. Antibodies specific for Pmp21 can neutralize infection in vitro. Finally, a combination of two different Pmp proteins in infection blockage experiments shows additive effects, possibly suggesting similar functions. Our findings imply that Pmp6, Pmp20 and Pmp21 act as adhesins, are vital during infection and thus represent promising vaccine candidates.

  14. [Addition to "Chen Muhua Speaks" at family planning meeting].

    PubMed

    1980-02-14

    The following addition supplied from Beijing Renmin Ribao in Chinese of February 3, 1980 from page 1 should be made to the article "Chen Muhua, Bo Yibo Speak at Family Planning Meeting," published in the February 4 People's Republic of China Daily Report on page L2: Page L2, 1st paragraph, line 3: "...in due course, so that the total population of China will be controlled at about 1.2 billion by the end of this century, in order to insure greater and faster economic development in the country and improvements in the people's living standards, and to raise the cultural level of the Chinese nation." "Chen Muhua made this calculation: If young people marry at age 20, there will be 5 generations in a century; but if they marry at age 25, there will be only 4. The reduction by a whole generation of people is a matter of great importance in controlling population growth. Besides, in his prime a youth should be wholeheartedly devoted to his study and work in order to make greater contributions to the 4 modernizations. For this reason, for both the nation and the indivduals concerned it is profitable for citizens to delay marriages and childbirth and exercise birth control." She was speaking...

  15. The identification of family members' contribution to patients' care in the intensive care unit: a naturalistic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Williams, Caroline M A

    2005-01-01

    The admission of a patient to an intensive care unit (ICU) is recognized as being a stressful experience for their families. Many studies have focused on the needs of families within ICU, but few have highlighted the unique contribution that family members make towards patient care and recovery. Using a naturalistic approach, data were collected through observation, video recording, in-depth interviewing and reflective video analysis to explore the processes and factors underpinning families' contribution to patient care. The findings can be grouped into three themes: getting to know the patient through the family, family contribution to care and the nurses' role in supporting families of ICU patients. Families can have a very positive influence on the patient's care and recovery from ICU, but both the family members, and in turn the nursing staff, need to be supported appropriately if this valuable contribution to patient care is to be maximized and maintained.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence of rose yellow leaf virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae.

    PubMed

    Mollov, Dimitre; Lockhart, Ben; Zlesak, David C

    2014-10-01

    The genome of the rose yellow leaf virus (RYLV) has been determined to be 3918 nucleotides long and to contain seven open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27-kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to encode an 87-kDa (p87) protein that has amino acid similarity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of members of the family Tombusviridae. ORFs 3 and 4 have no significant amino acid similarity to known functional viral ORFs. ORF5 encodes a 6-kDa (p6) protein that has similarity to movement proteins of members of the Tombusviridae. ORF5A has no conventional start codon and overlaps with p6. A putative +1 frameshift mechanism allows p6 translation to continue through the stop codon and results in a 12-kDa protein that has high homology to the carmovirus p13 movement protein. The 37-kDa protein encoded by ORF6 has amino acid sequence similarity to coat proteins (CP) of members of the Tombusviridae. ORF7 has no significant amino acid similarity to known viral ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp amino acid sequences grouped RYLV together with the unclassified Rosa rugosa leaf distortion virus (RrLDV), pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), and pelargonium chlorotic ring pattern virus (PCRPV) in a distinct subgroup of the family Tombusviridae. PMID:24838852

  17. A novel mutation (a886g) in exon 5 of FGFR2 in members of a family with Crouzon phenotype and plagiocephaly.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, D; Collmann, H; Schmalenberger, B; Müller, U

    1997-01-01

    We identified a novel mutation in members of a family with signs of Crouzon syndrome and plagiocephaly. In affected members of the family an A-->G transition was found at position 886 in exon 5 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. The base change results in the replacement of a lysine by glutamic acid in Ig-like loop III of FGFR2. The unusual finding of plagiocephaly in these Crouzon patients may either be the result of the type of mutation or because of genetic and environmental factors that affect the phenotype in addition to the mutated FGF receptor. Images PMID:9152842

  18. Family Quality of Life among Families with a Member Who Has an Intellectual Disability: An Exploratory Examination of Key Domains and Dimensions of the Revised FQOL Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, S.; Edwards, M.; Baum, N.; Brown, I.; Brown, R. I.; Isaacs, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Family Quality of Life Survey (FQOLS-2006) was developed as the result of increased interest in family quality of life (FQOL) among families with a member who has an intellectual disability (ID). The instrument includes nine life domains and six dimensions reflecting the main areas and characteristics of FQOL. The aim of the…

  19. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Children and Their Family Members in a District in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Abdullah; Kırımi, Ercan; Tuncer, Oğuz; Türkdoğan, Kürşat; Arıyuca, Sevil; Ceylan, Nesrin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children and their family members and to evaluate some epidemiologic characteristics. The study included 275 children, aged 1-15 year(s), suffering from different gastrointestinal complaints. Blood serology and stool antigen testing were used for the diagnosis of infection due to H. pylori. Sixty-five (23.6%) of the 275 children were positive for H. pylori, and this positivity had a significantly increasing correlation with age (p<0.001). H. pylori-associated infection was observed among 45 (69.2%) and 17 (8%) mothers in the H. pylori-infected and non-infected groups respectively (p<0.0001). Most children and their families infected with H. pylori were living in an urban area. The findings suggest that infection due to H. pylori is a problem for this district area, and all children having any gastrointestinal complaints should be examined whether H. pylori was prevalent among their family members. PMID:18402185

  1. Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Bacillaceae, isolated from sludge compost.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen; Wen, Junlin; Yang, Guiqin; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-02-01

    Two novel Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and moderately thermophilic bacteria, designated strains DX-3(T) and GIESS002, were isolated from sludge composts from Guangdong Province, China. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates were closely related to each other with extremely high similarity (99.6 %), and were members of the family Bacillaceae. However, these two isolates formed a novel phylogenetic branch within this family. Their closest relatives were the members of the genera Ornithinibacillus, Oceanobacillus and Virgibacillus. Cells of both strains were facultatively anaerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1γ (meso-diaminopimelic acid direct). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 43.2-43.7 mol%. The results of a polyphasic taxonomic study indicated that strains DX-3(T) and GIESS002 represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Bacillaceae, order Bacillales, for which the name Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DX-3(T) ( = KCTC 33104(T) = CGMCC 1.12360(T)). PMID:25358510

  2. Sequencing and molecular modeling identifies candidate members of Caliciviridae family in bats.

    PubMed

    Kemenesi, Gábor; Gellért, Ákos; Dallos, Bianka; Görföl, Tamás; Boldogh, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Marton, Szilvia; Oldal, Miklós; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2016-07-01

    Emerging viral diseases represent an ongoing challenge for globalized world and bats constitute an immense, partially explored, reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses. Caliciviruses are important human and animal pathogens and, as observed for human noroviruses, they may impact on human health on a global scale. By screening fecal samples of bats in Hungary, calicivirus RNA was identified in the samples of Myotis daubentonii and Eptesicus serotinus bats. In order to characterize more in detail the bat caliciviruses, large portions of the genome sequence of the viruses were determined. Phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling identified firmly the two viruses as candidate members within the Caliciviridae family, with one calicivirus strain resembling members of the Sapovirus genus and the other bat calicivirus being more related to porcine caliciviruses of the proposed genus Valovirus. This data serves the effort for detecting reservoir hosts for potential emerging viruses and recognize important evolutionary relationships. PMID:27085289

  3. Mental health professional support in families with a member suffering from severe mental illness: a grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Gavois, Helena; Paulsson, Gun; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model of mental health professional (MHP) support based on the needs of families with a member suffering from severe mental illness (SMI). Twelve family members were interviewed with the focus on their needs of support by MHP, then the interviews were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The generated model of MHP support had two core categories: the family members' process from crisis to recovery and their interaction with the MHP about mental health/illness and daily living of the person with SMI. Interaction based on ongoing contact between MHP and family members influenced the family members' process from crisis towards recovery. Four MHP strategies--being present, listening, sharing and empowering--met the family members' needs of support in the different stages of the crisis. Being present includes early contact, early information and protection by MHP at onset of illness or relapse. Listening includes assessing burden, maintaining contact and confirmation in daily living for the person with SMI. Sharing between MHP and family members includes co-ordination, open communication and security in daily living for the person with SMI. Finally, the MHP strategy empowering includes creating a context, counselling and encouraging development for the family members. The present model has a holistic approach and can be used as an overall guide for MHP support in clinical care of families of persons with SMI. For future studies, it is important to study the interaction of the family with SMI and the connection between hope, coping and empowerment.

  4. Susceptibility of members of the family Legionellaceae to thermal stress: implications for heat eradication methods in water distribution systems.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, J E; Best, M G; Yu, V L

    1986-01-01

    To ascertain the feasibility of heat inactivation as an eradication method applicable to all members of the family Legionellaceae, we tested the heat resistance of 75 isolates which represented 19 members of this family of organisms. The ranges of thermal death times at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C were 1.3 to 10.6, 0.7 to 2.6, and 0.3 to 0.7 min, respectively. These data suggest that the method of heat eradication will be effective against all members of the family Legionellaceae. PMID:3752999

  5. Effects of Resourcefulness on Sleep Disturbances, Anxiety, and Depressive symptoms in Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Yin; Chen, Chun-I; Chen, Fen-Ju; Lin, Yu-Hua; Perng, Shou-Jen; Lin, Hung-Yu; Huang, Chiung-Yu

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationships among psychological distresses, resourcefulness, sleep disturbances, anxiety and depressive symptoms in family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design was employed. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, relationships among factors, mediators, and outcomes were analyzed. The SEM explained 59% of the variances in depressive symptoms and 36% in anxiety. Family members with greater learned resourcefulness had fewer sleep disturbances, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Nursing professionals need to detect psychiatric disease of family members and must be especially vigilant with people who have low resourcefulness and sleep disturbances. PMID:27654246

  6. The everlasting trial of strength and patience': transitions in home care nursing as narrated by patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Efraimsson, E; Höglund, I; Sandman, P

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and interpret patients' and their family members' lived experiences of caring at home. Twelve tape-recorded narratives, with seven patients and five family members, were interpreted in accordance with a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur. The findings revealed life situations where natural caring was changed into patient-care-giver relations and the home became a public room. The patients had to deal with decreased abilities and the family members with adjusting to caring needs. The changes in the life situations were interpreted as long lasting and trying transitions. Implications for nursing and further research are proposed. PMID:11822854

  7. Aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members.

    PubMed

    Vinton, L; Mazza, N

    1994-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests there is a significant amount of aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members. This exploratory study describes a random sample survey of 70 Florida nursing homes. Administrators reported 1,193 acts of verbal aggression and 13 acts of physical aggression for a 6-month period. Dissatisfaction over how the specific and overall care needs of residents were being met was most frequently cited as the contributing factor. Social work staff and directors of nursing were most often called on to resolve these conflicts. The authors conclude with recommendations for research and conflict resolution. PMID:7959112

  8. Genomic sequence and organization of two members of a human lectin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Gitt, M.A.; Barondes, S.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA encoding a human dimeric soluble lactose-binding lectin. The gene has four exons, and its upstream region contains sequences that suggest control by glucocorticoids, heat (environmental) shock, metals, and other factors. They have also isolated and sequenced three exons of the gene encoding another human putative lectin, the existence of which was first indicated by isolation of its cDNA. Comparisons suggest a general pattern of genomic organization of members of this lectin gene family.

  9. The Human Laminin Receptor is a Member of the Integrin Family of Cell Adhesion Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlsen, Kurt R.; Dillner, Lena; Engvall, Eva; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    1988-09-01

    A receptor for the adhesive basement membrane protein, laminin, was isolated from human glioblastoma cells by affinity chromatography on laminin. This receptor has a heterodimeric structure similar to that of receptors for other extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin. Incorporation of the laminin receptor into liposomal membranes makes it possible for liposomes to attach to surfaces coated with laminin. The receptor liposomes also attached to some extent to surfaces coated with fibronectin, but not with other matrix proteins. These properties identify the laminin receptor as a member of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors.

  10. Care for the adult family members of victims of unexpected cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, Robert; Gillum, Richard F; Quest, Tammie E; Griffith, James L

    2006-12-01

    More than 300,000 sudden coronary deaths occur annually in the United States, despite declining cardiovascular death rates. In 2000, deaths from heart disease left an estimated 190,156 new widows and 68,493 new widowers. A major unanswered question for emergency providers is whether the immediate care of the loved ones left behind by the deceased should be a therapeutic task for the staff of the emergency department in the aftermath of a fatal cardiac arrest. Based on a review of the literature, the authors suggest that more research is needed to answer this question, to assess the current immediate needs and care of survivors, and to find ways to improve care of the surviving family of unexpected cardiac death victims. This would include improving quality of death disclosure, improving care for relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of their family member, and improved methods of referral for services for prevention of psychological and cardiovascular morbidity during bereavement. PMID:16946285

  11. Risk Factors for Anticipatory Grief in Family Members of Terminally Ill Veterans Receiving Palliative Care Services.

    PubMed

    Burke, Laurie A; Clark, Karen A; Ali, Khatidja S; Gibson, Benjamin W; Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process associated with grieving the loss of loved ones in advance of their inevitable death. Because anticipatory grief has been associated with a variety of outcomes, risk factors for this condition deserve closer consideration. Fifty-seven family members of terminally ill, hospice-eligible veterans receiving palliative care services completed measures assessing psychosocial factors and conditions. Elevated anticipatory grief was found in families characterized by relational dependency, lower education, and poor grief-specific support, who also experienced discomfort with closeness and intimacy, neuroticism, spiritual crisis, and an inability to make sense of the loss. Thus, in this sample, anticipatory grief appears to be part of a cluster of factors and associated distress that call for early monitoring and possible intervention. PMID:26654060

  12. Niakha virus: a novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Widen, Steven; Mayer, Sandra V; Seymour, Robert; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolov; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae have been assigned to eight genera but many remain unassigned. Rhabdoviruses have a remarkably diverse host range that includes terrestrial and marine animals, invertebrates and plants. Transmission of some rhabdoviruses often requires an arthropod vector, such as mosquitoes, midges, sandflies, ticks, aphids and leafhoppers, in which they replicate. Herein we characterize Niakha virus (NIAV), a previously uncharacterized rhabdovirus isolated from phebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Analysis of the 11,124 nt genome sequence indicates that it encodes the five common rhabdovirus proteins with alternative ORFs in the M, G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L protein indicate that NIAV's closest relative is Oak Vale rhabdovirus, although in this analysis NIAV is still so phylogenetically distinct that it might be classified as distinct from the eight currently recognized Rhabdoviridae genera. This observation highlights the vast, and yet not fully recognized diversity, of this family.

  13. Members of the Drosophila HSP 70 family share ATP-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, J F; Tanguay, R M

    1988-03-01

    In Drosophila, the hsp 70 family consists of a group of proteins of similar molecular masses (hsps 68, 70 and 72) that exist as multiple isoforms. In this report, it is shown that hsps 68, 70 and 72 from Drosophila cells can be purified by affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the multiple members of the hsp 70 family, which accumulate in large amounts in the nucleus during a heat shock, can be specifically solubilized from the isolated nuclei fraction by ATP. One of the major cognate proteins (hsc 70) also shows similar behavior. These data suggest that most, if not all, of the related Drosophila hsps 70 possess, like their mammalian counterparts, an ATP-binding site which could be related to their function in the stress response.

  14. The regulative effect of galanin family members on link of energy metabolism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Shi, Mingyi; Kong, Guimei; Dong, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2015-09-01

    It is essential for the species survival that an efficient coordination between energy storage and reproduction through endocrine regulation. The neuropeptide galanin, one of the endocrine hormones, can potently coordinate energy metabolism and the activities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis to adjust synthesis and release of metabolic and reproductive hormones in animals and humans. However, few papers have summarized the regulative effect of the galanin family members on the link of energy storage and reproduction as yet. To address this issue, this review attempts to summarize the current information available about the regulative effect of galanin, galanin-like peptide and alarin on the metabolic and reproductive events, with special emphasis on the interactions between galanin and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary luteinizing hormone and ovarian hormones. This research line will further deepen our understanding of the physiological roles of the galanin family in regulating the link of energy metabolism and reproduction.

  15. Race-related differences in the experiences of family members of persons with mental illness participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

    2014-12-01

    Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

  16. Human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 8 (DHRS8): a description and evaluation of its biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lundová, Tereza; Štambergová, Hana; Zemanová, Lucie; Svobodová, Markéta; Havránková, Jana; Šafr, Miroslav; Wsól, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 8 (DHRS8, SDR16C2) belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, one of the largest enzyme groups. In addition to the well-known members which participate in the metabolism of important eobiotics and xenobiotics, this superfamily contains many poorly characterized proteins. DHRS8 is a member of the Multisubstrate NADP(H)-dependent SDR16C family, which generally contains insufficiently described enzymes. Despite the limited knowledge about DHRS8, preliminary indicators have emerged regarding its significant function in the modulation of steroidal activity, at least in the case of 3α-adiol, lipid metabolism and detoxification. The aim of this study was to describe additional biochemical properties of DHRS8 and to unify knowledge about this enzyme. The DHRS8 was prepared in recombinant form and its membrane topology in the endoplasmic reticulum as an integral protein with cytosolic orientation was demonstrated. The enzyme participates in the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of steroid hormones as β-estradiol and testosterone in vitro; apparent K m and V max values were 39.86 µM and 0.80 nmol × mg(-1) × min(-1) for β-estradiol and 1207.29 µM and 3.45 nmol × mg(-1) × min(-1) for testosterone. Moreover, synthetic steroids (methyltestosterone and nandrolone) used as anabolics as well as all-trans-retinol were for the first time identified as substrates of DHRS8. This knowledge of its in vitro activity together with a newly described expression pattern at the protein level in tissues involved in steroidogenesis (adrenal gland and testis) and detoxification (liver, lung, kidney and small intestine) could suggest a potential role of DHRS8 in vivo. PMID:26472732

  17. Identification and characterization of new family members in the tautomerase superfamily: analysis and implications.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Jamison P; Burks, Elizabeth A; Whitman, Christian P

    2014-12-15

    Tautomerase superfamily members are characterized by a β-α-β building block and a catalytic amino terminal proline. 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase (MSAD) are the title enzymes of two of the five known families in the superfamily. Two recent developments in these families indicate that there might be more metabolic diversity in the tautomerase superfamily than previously thought. 4-OT homologues have been identified in three biosynthetic pathways, whereas all previously characterized 4-OTs are found in catabolic pathways. In the MSAD family, homologues have been characterized that lack decarboxylase activity, but have a modest hydratase activity using 2-oxo-3-pentynoate. This observation stands in contrast to the first characterized MSAD, which is a proficient decarboxylase and a less efficient hydratase. The hydratase activity was thought to be a vestigial and promiscuous activity. However, this recent discovery suggests that the hydratase activity might reflect a new activity in the MSAD family for an unknown substrate. These discoveries open up new avenues of research in the tautomerase superfamily.

  18. Identification and Characterization of New Family Members in the Tautomerase Superfamily: Analysis and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jamison P.; Burks, Elizabeth A.; Whitman, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Tautomerase superfamily members are characterized by a β–α–β building block and a catalytic amino terminal proline. 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase (MSAD) are the title enzymes of two of the five known families in the superfamily. Two recent developments in these families indicate that there might be more metabolic diversity in the tautomerase superfamily than previously thought. 4-OT homologues have been identified in three biosynthetic pathways, whereas all previously characterized 4-OTs are found in catabolic pathways. In the MSAD family, homologues have been characterized that lack decarboxylase activity, but have a modest hydratase activity using 2-oxo-3-pentynoate. This observation stands in contrast to the first characterized MSAD, which is a proficient decarboxylase and a less efficient hydratase. The hydratase activity was thought to be a vestigial and promiscuous activity. However, this recent discovery suggests that the hydratase activity might reflect a new activity in the MSAD family for an unknown substrate. These discoveries open up new avenues of research in the tautomerase superfamily. PMID:25219626

  19. Members of a Novel Kinase Family (DUF1537) Can Recycle Toxic Intermediates into an Essential Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Thiaville, Jennifer J; Flood, Jake; Yurgel, Svetlana; Prunetti, Laurence; Elbadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Hutinet, Geoffrey; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhang, Xinshuai; Ganesan, Venkateswaran; Reddy, Patrick; Fiehn, Oliver; Gerlt, J A; Hunt, John F; Copley, Shelley D; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-08-19

    DUF1537 is a novel family of kinases identified by comparative genomic approaches. The family is widespread and found in all sequenced plant genomes and 16% of sequenced bacterial genomes. DUF1537 is not a monofunctional family and contains subgroups that can be separated by phylogenetic and genome neighborhood context analyses. A subset of the DUF1537 proteins is strongly associated by physical clustering and gene fusion with the PdxA2 family, demonstrated here to be a functional paralog of the 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine dehydrogenase enzyme (PdxA), a central enzyme in the synthesis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) in proteobacteria. Some members of this DUF1537 subgroup phosphorylate l-4-hydroxythreonine (4HT) into 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine (4PHT), the substrate of PdxA, in vitro and in vivo. This provides an alternative route to PLP from the toxic antimetabolite 4HT that can be directly generated from the toxic intermediate glycolaldehyde. Although the kinetic and physical clustering data indicate that these functions in PLP synthesis are not the main roles of the DUF1537-PdxA2 enzymes, genetic and physiological data suggest these side activities function has been maintained in diverse sets of organisms.

  20. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family members from Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

    2014-06-01

    Powdery mildew locus O (Mlo) gene family is one of the largest seven transmembrane protein-encoding gene families. The Mlo proteins act as negative regulators of powdery mildew resistance and a loss-of-function mutation in Mlo is known to confer broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. In addition, the Mlo gene family members are known to participate in various developmental and biotic and abiotic stress response-related pathways. Therefore, a genome-wide similarity search using the characterized Mlo protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana was carried out to identify putative Mlo genes in soybean (Glycine max) genome. This search identified 39 Mlo domain containing protein-encoding genes that were distributed on 15 of the 20 G. max chromosomes. The putative promoter regions of these Mlo genes contained response elements for different external stimuli, including different hormones and abiotic stresses. Of the 39 GmMlo proteins, 35 were rich (8.7-13.1 %) in leucine, while five were serine-rich (9.2-11.9 %). Furthermore, all the GmMlo members were localized in the plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis of the GmMlo and the AtMlo proteins classified them into three main clusters, and the cluster I comprised two sub-clusters. Multiple sequence alignment visualized the location of seven transmembrane domains, and a conserved CaM-binding domain. Some of the GmMlo proteins (GmMlo10, 20, 22, 23, 32, 36, 37) contained less than seven transmembrane domains. The motif analysis yielded 27 motifs; out of these, motif 2, the only motif present in all the GmMlos, was highly conserved and three amino acid residues were essentially invariant. Five of the GmMlo members were much smaller in size; presumably they originated through deletion following a gene duplication event. The presence of a large number of GmMlo members in the G. max genome may be due to its paleopolyploid nature and the large genome size as compared to that of Arabidopsis. The findings of this study may

  1. Parental loss of family members within two years of offspring birth predicts elevated absorption scores in college.

    PubMed

    Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau; Duschinsky, Robbie; Hesse, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Liotti proposed that interactions during infancy with a parent suffering unresolved loss could lead to vulnerabilities to altered states of consciousness. Hesse and van IJzendoorn provided initial support for Liotti's hypothesis, finding elevated scores on Tellegen's Absorption Scale - a normative form of dissociation - for undergraduates reporting that their parents had experienced the loss of family members within two years of their birth. Here, we replicated the above findings in a large undergraduate sample (N = 927). Additionally, we investigated mother's and father's losses separately. Perinatal losses, including miscarriage, were also considered. Participants reporting that the mother or both parents had experienced loss within two years of their birth scored significantly higher on absorption than those reporting only perinatal, only father, or no losses. While not applicable to the assessment of individuals, the brief loss questionnaire utilized here could provide a useful addition to selected large-scale studies. PMID:27239894

  2. Parental loss of family members within two years of offspring birth predicts elevated absorption scores in college

    PubMed Central

    Bahm, Naomi I. Gribneau; Duschinsky, Robbie; Hesse, Erik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Liotti proposed that interactions during infancy with a parent suffering unresolved loss could lead to vulnerabilities to altered states of consciousness. Hesse and van IJzendoorn provided initial support for Liotti’s hypothesis, finding elevated scores on Tellegen’s Absorption Scale - a normative form of dissociation - for undergraduates reporting that their parents had experienced the loss of family members within two years of their birth. Here, we replicated the above findings in a large undergraduate sample (N = 927). Additionally, we investigated mother’s and father’s losses separately. Perinatal losses, including miscarriage, were also considered. Participants reporting that the mother or both parents had experienced loss within two years of their birth scored significantly higher on absorption than those reporting only perinatal, only father, or no losses. While not applicable to the assessment of individuals, the brief loss questionnaire utilized here could provide a useful addition to selected large-scale studies. PMID:27239894

  3. Parental loss of family members within two years of offspring birth predicts elevated absorption scores in college.

    PubMed

    Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau; Duschinsky, Robbie; Hesse, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Liotti proposed that interactions during infancy with a parent suffering unresolved loss could lead to vulnerabilities to altered states of consciousness. Hesse and van IJzendoorn provided initial support for Liotti's hypothesis, finding elevated scores on Tellegen's Absorption Scale - a normative form of dissociation - for undergraduates reporting that their parents had experienced the loss of family members within two years of their birth. Here, we replicated the above findings in a large undergraduate sample (N = 927). Additionally, we investigated mother's and father's losses separately. Perinatal losses, including miscarriage, were also considered. Participants reporting that the mother or both parents had experienced loss within two years of their birth scored significantly higher on absorption than those reporting only perinatal, only father, or no losses. While not applicable to the assessment of individuals, the brief loss questionnaire utilized here could provide a useful addition to selected large-scale studies.

  4. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  5. Mn2+ modulates the kinetic properties of an archaeal member of the PLL family.

    PubMed

    Porzio, Elena; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Palma, Achille; Manco, Giuseppe

    2013-03-25

    Recently we reported on the characterization of an archaeal member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, namely Sulfolobus acidocaldarius lactonase, showing low but significant and extremely thermostable paraoxonase activity. This enzyme, that we have named SacPox, is a member of the new described family of phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs). In this family the binuclear metal centre, which is involved in the catalytic machinery, has been poorly studied up to now. In this work we describe the expression of the protein in presence of different metals showing Mn(2+) to support the higher activity. The enzyme has been over-expressed, purified and characterized as a Mn(2+)-containing enzyme by inductive plasma coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), showing also surprising kinetic differences in comparison with the cadmium-containing enzyme. The Mn(2+) containing enzyme was about 30-fold more efficient with paraoxon as substrate and more stable than the Cd(2+) counterpart, even though the Mn(2+) affinity for the binuclear metal centre is apparently lower. These results increase our knowledge of the biochemical characteristics of SacPox mainly with regard to the metal-ions modulation of function.

  6. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  7. Traumatic events involving friends and family members in a sample of African American early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Esther J; Wang, Edward; Turner, Larry

    2009-07-01

    The current study examines violent and nonviolent traumatic events involving friends and family members as predictors of PTSD, depression, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 403 African American early adolescents from chronically violent environments. Although there are many studies of urban children's exposure to community violence, few address the unique contribution of events involving significant others, and almost no research addresses African American youths' exposure to traumatic events other than violence. This study found that violent and nonviolent traumatic events were pervasive in the lives of these urban youth, and that they were as likely to report loss and injury of a close other through an accident as an act of violence. There were strong gender differences in the data. Unexpectedly, injury or loss of a close friend or family member from nonviolent events, but not from violent events, predicted PTSD, internalizing, and depression for boys. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for school-based universal interventions in communities where large numbers of children live with loss and trauma.

  8. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence strain”, “emotional strain”, “uncertainty”, and “self-criticism” domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence”, and “emotional strain” domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the “uncertainty”, “self-criticism”, and “emotional strain” domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers. PMID:24222848

  9. EIN4 and ERS2 are members of the putative ethylene receptor gene family in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Hua, J; Sakai, H; Nourizadeh, S; Chen, Q G; Bleecker, A B; Ecker, J R; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-01-01

    The Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene ETR1 and two related genes, ERS1 and ETR2, were identified previously. These three genes encode proteins homologous to the two-component regulators that are widely used for environment sensing in bacteria. Mutations in these genes confer ethylene insensitivity to wild-type plants. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis genes, EIN4 and ERS2, by cross-hybridizing them with ETR2. Sequence analysis showed that they are more closely related to ETR2 than they are to ETR1 or ERS1. EIN4 previously was isolated as a dominant ethylene-insensitive mutant. ERS2 also conferred dominant ethylene insensitivity when certain mutations were introduced into it. Double mutant analysis indicated that ERS2, similar to ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, and EIN4, acts upstream of CTR1. Therefore, EIN4 and ERS2, along with ETR1, ETR2, and ERS1, are members of the ethylene receptor-related gene family of Arabidopsis. RNA expression patterns of members of this gene family suggest that they might have distinct as well as redundant functions in ethylene perception. PMID:9707532

  10. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence strain", "emotional strain", "uncertainty", and "self-criticism" domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence", and "emotional strain" domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the "uncertainty", "self-criticism", and "emotional strain" domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers.

  11. Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. K.; Sun, X.; Miracle, A. L.; Litman, G. W.; Rothenberg, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.

  12. Cloning, characterization and phylogenetic analyses of members of three major venom families from a single specimen of Walterinnesia aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Yu; Wang, Ying Ming; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2008-06-01

    Walterinnesia aegyptia is a monotypic elapid snake inhabiting in Africa and Mideast. Although its envenoming is known to cause rapid deaths and paralysis, structural data of its venom proteins are rather limited. Using gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC, phospholipases A(2) (PLAs), three-fingered toxins (3FTxs), and Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KIns) were purified from the venom of a single specimen of this species caught in northern Egypt. In addition, specific primers were designed and PCR was carried out to amplify the cDNAs encoding members of the three venom families, respectively, using total cDNA prepared from its venom glands. Complete amino acid sequences of two acidic PLAs, three short chain 3FTxs, and four KIns of this venom species were thus deduced after their cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. They are all novel sequences and match the mass data of purified proteins. For members of each toxin family, protein sequences were aligned and subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the PLAs and a Kunitz inhibitor of W. aegyptia are most similar to those of king cobra venom, and its 3FTxs belongs to either Type I alpha-neurotoxins or weak toxins of orphan-II subtype. It is remarkable that both king cobra and W. aegyptia cause rapid deaths of the victims, and a close evolutionary relationship between them is speculated. PMID:18405934

  13. Enterosistem 18-R: description and comparative evaluation with conventional methods for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Piccolomini, R; Di Girolamo, A; Catamo, G; Cellini, L; Allocati, N; Ravagnan, G

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of Enterosistem 18-R (Liofilchem s.r.l., Roseto degli Abruzzi, Teramo, Italy) were compared with those of conventional biochemical methods to identify 360 members (38 species) of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, 329 strains (91.3%) were correctly identified (percentage of identification, greater than or equal to 90.0), with 37 (11.2%) requiring additional tests for complete identification. For 11 isolates (3.1%), Enterosistem 18-R gave only genus identifications, and for 14 (3.9%), the strains did not correspond to any key in the codebook and could not be identified by the manufacturer's computer service. Only six isolates (1.7%) were misidentified. The new system accurately identified common and several newly described isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as Enterobacter gergoviae, Providencia rustigianii, Serratia odorifera, and Serratia rubidaea. The system is highly reproducible, simple to perform, easy to handle, and inexpensive. With adjustments in supplementary code numbers for some strains, Enterosistem 18-R is a suitable alternative for identification of members of the Enterobacteriaceae in clinical laboratories. Images PMID:1939588

  14. Myceligenerans xiligouense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel hyphae-forming member of the family Promicromonosporaceae.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaolong; Schumann, Peter; Stackebrandt, Erko; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Pukall, Rüdiger; Xu, Lihua; Rohde, Manfred; Jiang, Chenglin

    2004-07-01

    Strain XLG9A10.2T was isolated from an alkaline salt marsh soil in western China. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain XLG9A10.2T constitutes a distinct lineage within the family Promicromonosporaceae, sharing 94.8-95.1% gene similarity with members of the genus Promicromonospora and 94.4-95.7% similarity with those of Xylanimonas and related genera. The general colony and cell morphology of strain XLG9A10.2T is similar to that of members of Promicromonospora, but differs from members of the genus Xylanimonas in forming a well-developed branching mycelium and production of coccoid spores. Strain XLG9A10.2T shows the peptidoglycan type A4alpha (L-lys<--L-thr<--D-Glu), contains glucose, mannose and galactose as whole cell sugars and has MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6) as major menaquinones, while phospholipids are phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, three unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified glycolipid. The DNA base composition is 71.9 mol% G+C. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic, metabolic and phylogenetic differences from other species of Promicromonosporaceae, a new genus and species, Myceligenerans xiligouense gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is XLG9A10.2T (=DSM 15700T=CGMCC 1.3458T.)

  15. The alpha-subunit of protein prenyltransferases is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Grishin, N V

    1999-08-01

    Lipidation catalyzed by protein prenyltransferases is essential for the biological function of a number of eukaryotic proteins, many of which are involved in signal transduction and vesicular traffic regulation. Sequence similarity searches reveal that the alpha-subunit of protein prenyltransferases (PTalpha) is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) superfamily. This finding makes the three-dimensional structure of the rat protein farnesyltransferase the first structural model of a TPR protein interacting with its protein partner. Structural comparison of the two TPR domains in protein farnesyltransferase and protein phosphatase 5 indicates that variation in TPR consensus residues may affect protein binding specificity through altering the overall shape of the TPR superhelix. A general approach to evolutionary analysis of proteins with repetitive sequence motifs has been developed and applied to the protein prenyltransferases and other TPR proteins. The results suggest that all members in PTalpha family originated from a common multirepeat ancestor, while the common ancestor of PTalpha and other members of TPR superfamily is likely to be a single repeat protein.

  16. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  17. Tropicihabitans flavus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Cellulomonadaceae.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Moriyuki; Shibata, Chiyo; Nurkanto, Arif; Ratnakomala, Shanti; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Tamura, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-05-01

    Two novel Gram-stain positive actinobacteria, designated PS-14-16(T) and RS-7-1, were isolated from the rhizosphere of a mangrove and sea sediment, respectively, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Both strains were observed to form vegetative hyphae in the early phase of growth but the hyphae eventually fragment into short rods to coccoid cells. The peptidoglycan type of both strains was found to be A4α. Their predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-9(H4) and the major fatty acid as anteiso-C(15:0). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 68.4-68.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that strains PS-14-16(T) and RS-7-1 were related to members of the family Cellulomonadaceae. Their nearest phylogenetic neighbour was found to be Sediminihabitans luteus, which is currently the only species of the genus Sediminihabitans, with a similarity of 97.94%. However, strains PS-14-16(T) and RS-7-1 were distinguishable from the members of the genus Sediminihabitans and the other genera within the family Cellulomonadaceae in terms of chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic relationship. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that strains PS-14-16(T) and RS-7-1 belong to the same species. Strains PS-14-16(T) and RS-7-1 are concluded to represent a novel genus and species of the family Cellulomonadaceae, for which the name Tropicihabitans flavus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of T. flavus is PS-14-16(T) (=NBRC 110109(T) = IanCC A 516(T)). [corrected].

  18. Consumption and sources of dietary salt in family members in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-04-01

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the "one-week salt estimation method" by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet. PMID:25867952

  19. 5 CFR 894.203 - If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? 894.203 Section 894.203... plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? You may change your covered family member under a self plus one enrollment or change to self only...

  20. 5 CFR 894.203 - If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? 894.203 Section 894.203... plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? You may change your covered family member under a self plus one enrollment or change to self only...

  1. 5 CFR 894.203 - If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? 894.203 Section 894.203... plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? You may change your covered family member under a self plus one enrollment or change to self only...

  2. 5 CFR 894.203 - If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? 894.203 Section 894.203... plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? You may change your covered family member under a self plus one enrollment or change to self only...

  3. 41 CFR 302-11.103 - How will I be reimbursed if I or a member of my immediate family do not hold full title to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... if I or a member of my immediate family do not hold full title to the property for which I am... reimbursed if I or a member of my immediate family do not hold full title to the property for which I am requesting reimbursement? If you or a member of your immediate family do not hold full title to the...

  4. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or members of his immediate family. 779.234 Section 779.234 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business... family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  5. Mutation of TweedleD, a member of an unconventional cuticle protein family, alters body shape in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiao; Middlebrooks, Brooke W.; Alexander, Sherry; Wasserman, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Body shape determination represents a critical aspect of morphogenesis. In the course of investigating body shape regulation in Drosophila, we have identified a dominant mutation, TweedleD1 (TwdlD1), that alters overall dimensions at the larval and pupal stages. Characterization of the affected locus led to the discovery of a gene family that has 27 members in Drosophila and is found only among insects. Analysis of gene expression at the RNA and protein levels revealed gene-specific temporal and spatial patterns in ectodermally derived tissues. In addition, light microscopic studies of fluorescently tagged proteins demonstrated that Tweedle proteins are incorporated into larval cuticular structures. This demonstration that a mutation in a Drosophila cuticular protein gene alters overall morphology confirms a role for the fly exoskeleton in determining body shape. Furthermore, parallels between these findings and studies of cuticle collagen genes in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that the exoskeleton influences body shape in diverse organisms. PMID:17075064

  6. Involvement of RD20, a member of caleosin family, in ABA-mediated regulation of germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Yann; Leba, Louis-Jérome; Cheval, Cécilia; Ranty, Benoit; Vavasseur, Alain; Aldon, Didier; Galaud, Jean-Philippe

    2011-04-01

    The RD20 gene encodes a member of the caleosin family, which is primarily known to function in the mobilization of seed storage lipids during germination. In contrast to other caleosins, RD20 expression is early-induced by water deficit conditions and we recently provided genetic evidence for its positive role in drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. RD20 is also responsive to pathogen infection and is constitutively expressed in diverse tissues and organs during development suggesting additional roles for this caleosin. This addendum describes further exploration of phenotypic alterations in T-DNA insertional rd20 mutant and knock-out complemented transgenic plants in the context of early development and susceptibility to a phytopathogenic bacteria. We show that the RD20 gene is involved in ABA-mediated inhibition of germination and does not play a significant role in plant defense against Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:21673513

  7. Involvement of RD20, a member of caleosin family, in ABA-mediated regulation of germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cheval, Cécilia; Ranty, Benoit; Vavasseur, Alain; Aldon, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The RD20 gene encodes a member of the caleosin family, which is primarily known to function in the mobilization of seed storage lipids during germination. In contrast to other caleosins, RD20 expression is early-induced by water deficit conditions and we recently provided genetic evidence for its positive role in drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. RD20 is also responsive to pathogen infection and is constitutively expressed in diverse tissues and organs during development suggesting additional roles for this caleosin. This addendum describes further exploration of phenotypic alterations in T-DNA insertional rd20 mutant and knock-out complemented transgenic plants in the context of early development and susceptibility to a phytopathogenic bacteria. We show that the RD20 gene is involved in ABA-mediated inhibition of germination and does not play a significant role in plant defense against Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:21673513

  8. Segregation pattern and biochemical effect of the G3460A mtDNA mutation in 27 members of LHON family.

    PubMed

    Kaplanová, Vilma; Zeman, Jirí; Hansíková, Hana; Cerná, Leona; Houst'ková, Hana; Misovicová, Nadezda; Houstek, Josef

    2004-08-30

    Inheritance and expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are crucial for the pathogenesis of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We have investigated the segregation and functional consequences of G3460A mtDNA mutation in 27 members of a three-generation family with LHON syndrome. Specific activity of respiratory chain complex I in platelets was reduced in average to 56%, but no direct correlation between the mutation load and its biochemical expression was found. Heteroplasmy in blood, platelets and hair follicles varied from 7% to 100%. Segregation pattern exhibited tissue specificity and influence of different nuclear backgrounds in four branches of the pedigree. Longitudinal analysis revealed a significant (p=0.02) decrease in blood mutation load. Although enzyme assay showed reduction of complex I activity, our results give additional support to the hypothesis that expression of LHON mutation depends on complex nuclear-mitochondrial interaction.

  9. Patient and Family Member-Led Research in the Intensive Care Unit: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Marlyn; Bagshaw, Sean M.; McKenzie, Emily; Oxland, Peter; Oswell, Donna; Boulton, Debbie; Niven, Daniel J.; Potestio, Melissa L.; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marlett, Nancy; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Engaging patients and family members as partners in research increases the relevance of study results and enhances patient-centered care; how to best engage patients and families in research is unknown. Methods We tested a novel research approach that engages and trains patients and family members as researchers to see if we could understand and describe the experiences of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their families. Former patients and family members conducted focus groups and interviews with patients (n = 11) and families of surviving (n = 14) and deceased (n = 7) patients from 13 ICUs in Alberta Canada, and analyzed data using conventional content analysis. Separate blinded qualitative researchers conducted an independent analysis. Results Participants described three phases in the patient/family “ICU journey”; admission to ICU, daily care in ICU, and post-ICU experience. Admission to ICU was characterized by family shock and disorientation with families needing the presence and support of a provider. Participants described five important elements of daily care: honoring the patient’s voice, the need to know, decision-making, medical care, and culture in ICU. The post-ICU experience was characterized by the challenges of the transition from ICU to a hospital ward and long-term effects of critical illness. These “ICU journey” experiences were described as integral to appropriate interactions with the care team and comfort and trust in the ICU, which were perceived as essential for a community of caring. Participants provided suggestions for improvement: 1) provide a dedicated family navigator, 2) increase provider awareness of the fragility of family trust, 3) improve provider communication skills, 4) improve the transition from ICU to hospital ward, and 5) inform patients about the long-term effects of critical illness. Analyses by independent qualitative researchers identified similar themes. Conclusions Patient

  10. A Novel Member of a Zinc Transporter Family Is Defective in Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Bing; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Zemansky, Jason; Gitschier, Jane

    2002-01-01

    The rare inherited condition acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) results from a defect in the absorption of dietary zinc. Recently, we used homozygosity mapping in consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds to localize the AE gene to an ∼3.5-cM region on 8q24. In this article, we identify a gene, SLC39A4, located in the candidate region and, in patients with AE, document mutations that likely lead to the disease. The gene encodes a histidine-rich protein, which we refer to as “hZIP4,” which is a member of a large family of transmembrane proteins, some of which are known to serve as zinc-uptake proteins. We show that Slc39A4 is abundantly expressed in mouse enterocytes and that the protein resides in the apical membrane of these cells. These findings suggest that the hZIP4 transporter is responsible for intestinal absorption of zinc. PMID:12032886

  11. A novel member of a zinc transporter family is defective in acrodermatitis enteropathica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Bing; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Zemansky, Jason; Gitschier, Jane

    2002-07-01

    The rare inherited condition acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) results from a defect in the absorption of dietary zinc. Recently, we used homozygosity mapping in consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds to localize the AE gene to an approximately 3.5-cM region on 8q24. In this article, we identify a gene, SLC39A4, located in the candidate region and, in patients with AE, document mutations that likely lead to the disease. The gene encodes a histidine-rich protein, which we refer to as "hZIP4," which is a member of a large family of transmembrane proteins, some of which are known to serve as zinc-uptake proteins. We show that Slc39A4 is abundantly expressed in mouse enterocytes and that the protein resides in the apical membrane of these cells. These findings suggest that the hZIP4 transporter is responsible for intestinal absorption of zinc.

  12. Postmortem disclosure of genetic information to family members: active or passive?

    PubMed

    Boers, Sarah N; van Delden, Johannes J M; Knoers, Nine V; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2015-03-01

    Advances in next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) now make it possible, and affordable, to sequence the entire genome of an individual. Routine clinical application is on the horizon. There is a consensus that some subsets of genetic information should be disclosed to patients, but disclosure to their relatives is less consensual. This issue becomes especially salient after a patient's death, when permission can no longer be sought. There has however been little debate on postmortem disclosure. We identify and explain the arguments in favor of and against disclosure of genetic information to the relatives of a deceased patient. We conclude that there are valid reasons to communicate some subsets of genetic information to family members after death, and we propose a passive postmortem disclosure policy.

  13. Diagnostic value of interactions between members of the family Neisseriaceae and lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, R J; Nedjat-Haiem, F; Keller, K F; Frasch, C E

    1984-01-01

    The lectin slide agglutination test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been modified and improved. Results show that wheat germ agglutinin and soybean lectin agglutinate 100% (193 of 193 tested) of clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Lectin-reactive meningococci can be readily identified by the hydrolysis of gamma-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide. Branhamella catarrhalis, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria subflava, Neisseria perflava, and meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, X, Y, and Z do not interfere with the positive identification of N. gonorrhoeae. The frequently encountered problem of autoagglutination of members of the family Neisseriaceae may be circumvented by a short treatment of cellular suspensions with DNase. Based on agglutination assays, the enzyme treatment did not result in a loss of wheat germ agglutinin receptors from the bacteria. The lectin agglutination test, coupled with the gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase assay, is proposed as a rapid and accurate means of identifying clinical isolates of gonococci. PMID:6546936

  14. Utilization of Hospice Bereavement Support by At-Risk Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Thomas, Julie; Bruce, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the bereaved are at risk of bereavement-related mental health disorders. Hospices’ bereavement services could potentially address needs of many at risk, but little is known about their service use. We analyzed data from 6160 bereaved family members of hospice patients. Risk of mental health problems was identified by hospice providers postloss. Of those characterized as “at-risk,” 52% used services compared to 18% of the “low risk.” Factors associated with service use among at-risk were female gender and younger age of death. Those who lost a child used services less than other bereaved. Although hospices appear to be skilled at identifying and providing bereavement services to the at-risk, services do not reach almost half. Results suggest the need to improve care access, especially among men and those losing a child. PMID:25326490

  15. STS-95 crew members greet families at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members greet their families from Launch Pad 39B. From left, they are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  16. Additional Insights into the Obtusallene Family: Components of Laurencia marilzae.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cepeda, Adrián; Fernández, José J; Norte, Manuel; López-Rodríguez, Matías; Brito, Iván; Muller, Christian D; Souto, María L

    2016-04-22

    The obtusallenes are a significant subset of C15-halogenated acetogenins that incorporate 12-membered cyclic ethers. We have recently reported the isolation from Laurencia marilzae of 12-epoxyobtusallene IV (1) and its related α,β-unsaturated carboxylate ester (2), both of special biogenetic relevance. Here we describe the final step of our study, the isolation of three new analogues (3-5), among these, the first bromopropargylic derivative (3) of this class of macrocyclic C15-acetogenins. The structures were elucidated by analysis of NMR and X-ray data. 12-Epoxyobtusallene IV (1), its new isomer 4, and known obtusallene IV (6) were evaluated for their apoptosis-inducing activities in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line.

  17. Genomic structure and immunological response of an STAT4 family member from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Premachandra, H K A; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Bathige, S D N K; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Youngdeuk; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Jehee

    2013-12-01

    The Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway plays a critical role in host defense against viral and bacterial infections. STAT proteins are a group of transcription factors that translocate into the nucleus and are critical for the induction of many genes crucial for the allergic cascade and immune defense. In the present study, a member of the STAT4 family was identified from rock bream (RbSTAT4) at the genomic level, and its transcriptional regulation in response to different pathological stimuli under in vivo conditions was investigated. The genomic sequence of RbSTAT4 is approximately 15.6 kb in length, including a putative core promoter region and 24 exons interrupted by 23 introns. Bioinformatics analysis of RbSTAT4 identified the presence of typical and conserved features of the STAT4 family, including the STAT_int domain, STAT alpha domain, STAT bind domain, linker domain, SH2 domain, and transcriptional activation domain. According to the phylogenetic analysis, RbSTAT4 exhibited the closest evolutionary proximity with the STAT4 member from mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). The RbSTAT4 transcript in healthy rock breams was detected to have ubiquitous expression in 11 different tissues examined, where liver and spleen tissues showed moderate expressions compared with the highest expression level detected in gill tissue. The time-course in vivo immune stimulation of rock bream with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, live Edwardsiella tarda, and rock bream iridovirus caused significant transcriptional regulation of the RbSTAT4 expression in gill, head kidney, and spleen tissues, suggesting that RbSTAT4 is involved in immune regulation mechanisms and/or signaling cascades, orchestrating against both bacterial and viral pathogens.

  18. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  19. Functional conservation among members of the Salmonella typhimurium InvA family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ginocchio, C C; Galán, J E

    1995-02-01

    InvA, which is essential for Salmonella spp. to enter cultured epithelial cells, is a member of a family of proteins involved in either flagellar biosynthesis or the secretion of virulence determinants by a number of plant and mammalian pathogens. The predicted overall secondary structures of these proteins show significant similarities and indicate a modular construction with a hydrophobic amino-terminal half, consisting of six to eight potential transmembrane domains, and a hydrophilic carboxy terminus which is predicted to reside in the cytoplasm. These proteins can be aligned over the entire length of their polypeptide sequences, with the highest degree of homology found in the amino terminus and clusters of conserved residues in the carboxy terminus. We examined the functional conservation among members of this protein family by assessing the ability of MxiA of Shigella flexneri and LcrD of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to restore invasiveness to an invA mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. We found that MxiA was able to complement the entry defect of the invA mutant strain of S. typhimurium. In contrast, LcrD failed to complement the same strain. However, a plasmid carrying a gene encoding a chimeric protein consisting of the amino terminus of LcrD and the carboxy terminus of InvA complemented the defect of the Salmonella invA mutant. These results indicate that the secretory systems in which these proteins participate are functionally similar and that the Salmonella and Shigella systems are very closely related. These data also suggest that determinants of specificity may be located at the carboxy termini of these proteins.

  20. Oncogenic Intra-p53 Family Member Interactions in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ferraiuolo, Maria; Di Agostino, Silvia; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The p53 gene family members p53, p73, and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologs but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73, and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic “gain of function” activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance, and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53) with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP) or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response and DNA double-strand breaks response), enhanced invasion, and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild-type p53 (wt-p53) protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73, and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers. PMID:27066457

  1. INTERDEPENDENCE OF STRESS PROCESSES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILY MEMBERS: INFLUENCE OF HIV SEROSTATUS AND A NEW INFANT

    PubMed Central

    FEASTER, DANIEL J.; SZAPOCZNIK, JOSE

    2005-01-01

    This study makes a theoretical contribution to stress process research by using a systemic approach to contextualize individual outcomes within the framework of other family members' experience. Utilizing a mixed model approach, indicators of the stress process of urban low-income HIV+ African American recent mothers were found to affect the psychological distress and perceived adequacy of coping of multiple other family members. These relationships were found to be strongest proximal to birth and to be exacerbated by HIV infection. Social support to the mother was found to have differential effects depending on whether it was from the immediate family or outside sources. HIV infection of the recent mother was found to affect family members both through relationships of the mother's stress process and through their own coping responses. PMID:16609749

  2. Clinicopathological relevance of kinesin family member 18A expression in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Mai; Nagahara, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sato, Takanobu; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, kinesin motor proteins have been focused on as targets for cancer therapy. Kinesins are microtubule-based motor proteins that mediate diverse functions within the cell, including the transport of vesicles, organelles, chromosomes and protein complexes, as well as the movement of microtubules. In the current study, the expression of kinesin family member 18A (KIF18A), a member of kinesin superfamily, was investigated in breast cancer using immunohistochemistry, and its effect on breast cancer prognosis was examined. KIF18A expression level was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.047). In patients with high levels of KIF18A expression, survival was significantly poorer compared to patients with low levels of KIF18A expression (disease-free survival, P=0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that venous invasion (hazard ratio, 9.22; 95% confidence interval, 3.90–23.66; P<0.001) and KIF18A expression (hazard ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.34–6.09; P=0.010) were independent predictive factors for lymph node metastasis. KIF18A may be a useful predictive marker for lymph node metastasis in breast cancer, which could facilitate curative adjuvant treatment. PMID:27588139

  3. A member of the CPW-WPC protein family is expressed in and localized to the surface of developing ookinetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    can be classified as a novel, post-transcriptionally regulated zygote/ookinete surface protein. Additional studies are required to determine whether all CPW-WPC family members are also present on the ookinete surface and share similar biological roles during mosquito-stage parasite development. Further investigations of CPW-WPC family proteins may facilitate understanding of parasite biology in the mosquito stage and development of transmission-blocking vaccines. PMID:23587146

  4. The apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele confers additional risk in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, Albert; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Rodenburg, Jessica; Defesche, Joep C; de Jongh, Saskia; Bakker, Henk D; Kastelein, John J P

    2003-06-01

    Children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) exhibit substantial variance of LDL cholesterol. In previous studies, family members of children with FH were included, which may have influenced results. To avoid such bias, we studied phenotype in 450 unrelated children with FH and in 154 affected sib-pairs. In known families with classical FH, diagnosis was based on plasma LDL cholesterol above the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile. Girls had 0.47 +/- 0.15 mmol/L higher LDL cholesterol, compared with boys (p = 0.002). Also in girls, HDL cholesterol increased by 0.07 +/- 0.03 mmol/L per 5 y (pfor trend = 0.005); this age effect was not observed in boys. The distribution of apolipoprotein (apo) E genotypes was not significantly different between probands, their paired affected siblings, or a Dutch control population. Carriers with or without one epsilon4 allele had similar LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Within the affected sib-pairs, the epsilon4 allele explained 72.4% of the variance of HDL cholesterol levels (-0.15 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.24 to -0.05, p = 0.003). The effect of apoE4 on HDL cholesterol differed with an analysis based on probands or on affected sib-pairs. The affected sib-pair model used adjustment for shared environment, type of LDL receptor gene mutation, and a proportion of additional genetic factors and may, therefore, be more accurate in estimating effects of risk factors on complex traits. We conclude that the epsilon4 allele was associated with lower HDL cholesterol levels in an affected sib-pair analysis, which strongly suggests that apoE4 influences HDL cholesterol levels in FH children. Moreover, the strong association suggests that apoE4 carries an additional disadvantage for FH children. PMID:12646733

  5. Cloning and analysis of DnaJ family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinü; Bu, Cuiyu; Li, Tiantian; Wang, Shibao; Jiang, Feng; Yi, Yongzhu; Yang, Huipeng; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in a variety of critical biological functions, including protein folding, degradation, and translocation and macromolecule assembly, act as molecular chaperones during periods of stress by binding to other proteins. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcriptome databases, we identified 27 cDNA sequences encoding the conserved J domain, which is found in DnaJ-type Hsps. Of the 27 J domain-containing sequences, 25 were complete cDNA sequences. We divided them into three types according to the number and presence of conserved domains. By analyzing the gene structures, intron numbers, and conserved domains and constructing a phylogenetic tree, we found that the DnaJ family had undergone convergent evolution, obtaining new domains to expand the diversity of its family members. The acquisition of the new DnaJ domains most likely occurred prior to the evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The expression of DnaJ genes in the silkworm was generally higher in the fat body. The tissue distribution of DnaJ1 proteins was detected by western blotting, demonstrating that in the fifth-instar larvae, the DnaJ1 proteins were expressed at their highest levels in hemocytes, followed by the fat body and head. We also found that the DnaJ1 transcripts were likely differentially translated in different tissues. Using immunofluorescence cytochemistry, we revealed that in the blood cells, DnaJ1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm.

  6. Integration analysis of MKK and MAPK family members highlights potential MAPK signaling modules in cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Yujia; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Jing; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as their biotic and abiotic stress responses. As a nodal point of the MAPK cascade, the MKK gene family has not been systematically studied in cotton. Here, we identified 11 putative MKK genes in the Gossypium raimondii genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MKKs were supported by architectures of conserved protein motifs. Expression patterns of MKKs under hormone treatments or abiotic stresses revealed their diverse functions in stress responses. Based on a yeast two hybrid, a total of 63 interactive pairs of MKKs and MAPKs were identified in cotton. Among these, 40 interactive pairs were newly identified compared to that reported previously in Arabidopsis. Integration analysis of the interaction network and expression patterns of MKK and MAPK family members revealed 13 potential MAPK signaling modules that are involved in the complicated cross-talk between hormones and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our data enhance the understanding of the evolution and function of MAPK cascades in cotton, and lay the foundation for the improvement of various defense responses that use MAPK signaling modules in the future. PMID:27417377

  7. Narratives of grieving African-Americans about racism in the lives of deceased family members.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Paul C; Wallace, Beverly R

    2005-04-01

    As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life experiences, achievements, character, and challenges faced by the deceased, the authors expected narratives about a deceased African-American to deal with the person's encounters with racism. In fact, most of the 26 African-Americans who were interviewed spoke about racism in the life of the deceased. Many talked about racism blocking the deceased from getting ahead occupationally and in other ways and about how the deceased resisted or stood up to racism. Some people spoke about the ways the deceased taught them to deal with racism. The narratives that indicated that the deceased had rarely or ever talked about racism still made clear that the deceased lived in a racist world but chose not to bring racism into family conversation. The findings suggest that a view of African-American grieving that is insensitive to racism in African-American experience may lead to unhelpful grief support or counseling.

  8. Complete sequence of Fig fleck-associated virus, a novel member of the family Tymoviridae.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Martelli, Giovanni P

    2011-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and the genome organization were determined of a novel virus, tentatively named Fig fleck-associated virus (FFkaV). The viral genome is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA 7046 nucleotides in size excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tract, and comprising two open reading frames. ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 2161 amino acids (p240), which contains the signatures of replication-associated proteins and the coat protein cistron (p24) at its 3' end. ORF2 codes for a 461 amino acid protein (p50) identified as a putative movement proteins (MP). In phylogenetic trees constructed with sequences of the putative polymerase and CP proteins FFkaV consistently groups with members of the genus Maculavirus, family Tymoviridae. However, the genome organization diverges from that of the two completely sequenced maculaviruses, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) and Bombix mori Macula-like virus (BmMLV), as it exhibits a structure resembling that of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type species of the genus Marafivirus and of Olive latent virus 3 (OLV-3), an unclassified virus in the family Tymoviridae. FFkaV was found in field-grown figs from six Mediterranean countries with an incidence ranging from 15% to 25%.

  9. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Douglas H. . E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

  10. Integration analysis of MKK and MAPK family members highlights potential MAPK signaling modules in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueying; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Yujia; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Jing; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as their biotic and abiotic stress responses. As a nodal point of the MAPK cascade, the MKK gene family has not been systematically studied in cotton. Here, we identified 11 putative MKK genes in the Gossypium raimondii genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MKKs were supported by architectures of conserved protein motifs. Expression patterns of MKKs under hormone treatments or abiotic stresses revealed their diverse functions in stress responses. Based on a yeast two hybrid, a total of 63 interactive pairs of MKKs and MAPKs were identified in cotton. Among these, 40 interactive pairs were newly identified compared to that reported previously in Arabidopsis. Integration analysis of the interaction network and expression patterns of MKK and MAPK family members revealed 13 potential MAPK signaling modules that are involved in the complicated cross-talk between hormones and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our data enhance the understanding of the evolution and function of MAPK cascades in cotton, and lay the foundation for the improvement of various defense responses that use MAPK signaling modules in the future. PMID:27417377

  11. Cloning and analysis of DnaJ family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinü; Bu, Cuiyu; Li, Tiantian; Wang, Shibao; Jiang, Feng; Yi, Yongzhu; Yang, Huipeng; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in a variety of critical biological functions, including protein folding, degradation, and translocation and macromolecule assembly, act as molecular chaperones during periods of stress by binding to other proteins. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcriptome databases, we identified 27 cDNA sequences encoding the conserved J domain, which is found in DnaJ-type Hsps. Of the 27 J domain-containing sequences, 25 were complete cDNA sequences. We divided them into three types according to the number and presence of conserved domains. By analyzing the gene structures, intron numbers, and conserved domains and constructing a phylogenetic tree, we found that the DnaJ family had undergone convergent evolution, obtaining new domains to expand the diversity of its family members. The acquisition of the new DnaJ domains most likely occurred prior to the evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The expression of DnaJ genes in the silkworm was generally higher in the fat body. The tissue distribution of DnaJ1 proteins was detected by western blotting, demonstrating that in the fifth-instar larvae, the DnaJ1 proteins were expressed at their highest levels in hemocytes, followed by the fat body and head. We also found that the DnaJ1 transcripts were likely differentially translated in different tissues. Using immunofluorescence cytochemistry, we revealed that in the blood cells, DnaJ1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. PMID:26434795

  12. Role of RUNX family members in transcriptional repression and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Durst, Kristie L; Hiebert, Scott W

    2004-05-24

    RUNX family members are DNA-binding transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation and cell cycle progression. The RUNX family includes three mammalian RUNX proteins (RUNX1, -2, -3) and two homologues in Drosophila. Experiments in Drosophila and mouse indicate that the RUNX proteins are required for gene silencing of engrailed and CD4, respectively. RUNX-mediated repression involves recruitment of corepressors such as mSin3A and Groucho as well as histone deacetylases. Furthermore, RUNX1 and RUNX3 associate with SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase involved in gene silencing. RUNX1 is frequently targeted in human leukemia by chromosomal translocations that fuse the DNA-binding domain of RUNX1 to other transcription factors and corepressor molecules. The resulting leukemogenic fusion proteins are transcriptional repressors that form stable complexes with corepressors, histone deacetylases and histone methyltransferases. Thus, transcriptional repression and gene silencing through RUNX1 contribute to the mechanisms of leukemogenesis of the fusion proteins. Therapies directed at the associated cofactors may be beneficial for treatment of these leukemias. PMID:15156176

  13. Primary characterization of a putative novel TBC1 domain family member 13 from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhancheng; Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Yang, Jifei; Luo, Jin; Xing, Shanshan; Du, Xiaoyue; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-06-15

    A putative novel TBC1 domain family member 13 (HqTBC1D13) from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis was cloned using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), the HqTBC1D13 cDNA is 1702bp in length and encodes 396 amino acid residues with predicted molecular weight of 46.09kDa. The TBC-domain containing protein has a catalytic 'arginine finger' analogous to those of Ras and Rho family GAPs, which is critical determinants of GAP activity. The amino acid sequences of TBC domain were evolutionarily highly conserved across species. The partial coding sequence of HqTBC1D13 with the predicted molecular weight of 37.2kDa was expressed and purified in the PGEX-4T-1 vector. Real-time RT PCR analysis showed that the HqTBC1D13 was extensively expressed in the tested organs (salivary glands, midguts, ovaries and cuticles), and its transcriptional levels in salivary glands were significantly up-regulate induced by blood-feeding. The recombinant HqTBC1D13 protein vaccination in the rabbit model resulted in the extension of the duration of feeding and the reduction of 37% female engorgement and 14.8% oviposition compared to the control group. These results indicated that the HqTBC1D13 in ticks could be invovled in the regulation of feeding and oviposition. PMID:27198770

  14. Testing for DNA Tracking by MOT1, a SNF2/SWI2 Protein Family Member

    PubMed Central

    Auble, David T.; Steggerda, Susanne M.

    1999-01-01

    Proteins in the SNF2/SWI2 family use ATP hydrolysis to catalyze rearrangements in diverse protein-DNA complexes. How ATP hydrolysis is coupled to these rearrangements is unknown, however. One attractive model is that these ATPases are ATP-dependent DNA-tracking enzymes. This idea was tested for the SNF2/SWI2 protein family member MOT1. MOT1 is an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor that uses ATP to dissociate TATA binding protein (TBP) from DNA. By using a series of DNA templates with one or two TATA boxes in combination with binding sites for heterologous DNA binding “roadblock” proteins, the ability of MOT1 to track along DNA was assayed. The results demonstrate that, following ATP-dependent TBP-DNA dissociation, MOT1 dissociates rapidly from the DNA by a mechanism that does not require a DNA end. Template commitment footprinting experiments support the conclusion that ATP-dependent DNA tracking by MOT1 does not occur. These results support a model in which MOT1 drives TBP-DNA dissociation by a mechanism that involves a transient, ATP-dependent interaction with TBP-DNA which does not involve ATP-dependent DNA tracking. PMID:9858565

  15. Structural basis for the mechanism and substrate specificity of glycocyamine kinase, a phosphagen kinase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kap; Pullalarevu, Sadhana; Surabian, Karen Talin; Howard, Andrew; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Moult, John; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-03-12

    Glycocyamine kinase (GK), a member of the phosphagen kinase family, catalyzes the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent reversible phosphoryl group transfer of the N-phosphoryl group of phosphoglycocyamine to ADP to yield glycocyamine and ATP. This reaction helps to maintain the energy homeostasis of the cell in some multicelullar organisms that encounter high and variable energy turnover. GK from the marine worm Namalycastis sp. is heterodimeric, with two homologous polypeptide chains, {alpha} and {beta}, derived from a common pre-mRNA by mutually exclusive N-terminal alternative exons. The N-terminal exon of GK{beta} encodes a peptide that is different in sequence and is 16 amino acids longer than that encoded by the N-terminal exon of GK{alpha}. The crystal structures of recombinant GK{alpha}{beta} and GK{beta}{beta} from Namalycastis sp. were determined at 2.6 and 2.4 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In addition, the structure of the GK{beta}{beta} was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a transition state analogue, Mg{sup 2+}-ADP-NO{sub 3}{sup -}-glycocyamine. Consistent with the sequence homology, the GK subunits adopt the same overall fold as that of other phosphagen kinases of known structure (the homodimeric creatine kinase (CK) and the monomeric arginine kinase (AK)). As with CK, the GK N-termini mediate the dimer interface. In both heterodimeric and homodimeric GK forms, the conformations of the two N-termini are asymmetric, and the asymmetry is different than that reported previously for the homodimeric CKs from several organisms. The entire polypeptide chains of GK{alpha}{beta} are structurally defined, and the longer N-terminus of the {beta} subunit is anchored at the dimer interface. In GK{beta}{beta} the 24 N-terminal residues of one subunit and 11 N-terminal residues of the second subunit are disordered. This observation is consistent with a proposal that the GK{alpha}{beta} amino acids involved in the interface formation were optimized once

  16. Understanding the perspectives of family members on telephone intervention for individuals with schizophrenia: results of a focus group.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Schuman, David W

    2015-03-01

    The current study explored the perspectives of family members of individuals with schizophrenia to identify family needs. Six family members from the National Alliance on Mental Illness participated in a 90-minute focus group to share their perspectives on treatment needs and delivery options and to provide suggestions on needs that might be met using telephone-based treatment. Traditional atheoretical content analysis was performed. Five major themes emerged from the data: (a) isolation, (b) negative emotions, (c) recognition of illness, (d) communication with providers, and (e) problem solving. Findings indicate that families perceive needs that could potentially be met using telephone-based treatments. More research is needed to determine family responses to telephone-based treatment initiatives.

  17. Characterization of a novel β-L-arabinofuranosidase in Bifidobacterium longum: functional elucidation of a DUF1680 protein family member.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kiyotaka; Takashi, Yukari; Obuchi, Eriko; Kitahara, Kanefumi; Suganuma, Toshihiko

    2014-02-21

    Pfam DUF1680 (PF07944) is an uncharacterized protein family conserved in many species of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and plants. Previously, we cloned and characterized the hypBA2 gene as a β-L-arabinobiosidase in Bifidobacterium longum JCM 1217. In this study, we cloned a DUF1680 family member, the hypBA1 gene, which constitutes a gene cluster with hypBA2. HypBA1 is a novel β-L-arabinofuranosidase that liberates L-arabinose from the L-arabinofuranose (Araf)-β1,2-Araf disaccharide. HypBA1 also transglycosylates 1-alkanols with retention of the anomeric configuration. Mutagenesis and azide rescue experiments indicated that Glu-338 is a critical residue for catalytic activity. This study provides the first characterization of a DUF1680 family member, which defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the glycoside hydrolase family 127.

  18. Eating‐related distress and need for nutritional support of families of advanced cancer patients: a nationwide survey of bereaved family members

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Isseki; Morita, Tatsuya; Okajima, Yoshiro; Hama, Takashi; Aoyama, Maho; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of advanced cancer patients are suffering from physical and psychosocial burdens because of cancer cachexia, and these burdens also greatly impact on their family members and relationships between patients and family members. It is necessary to consider the psychosocial impact of cancer cachexia on family members of advanced cancer patients. Methods A cross‐sectional anonymous nationwide survey was conducted involving 925 bereaved family members of cancer patients who had been admitted to 133 inpatient hospices throughout Japan. Results A total of 702 bereaved family members returned the questionnaires (response rate, 75.9%). Concerning eating‐related distress, ‘I served what the patient wanted without consideration of calories and nutritional composition’ was highest (75.1%), and ‘I tried making many kinds of meals for the patient’ and ‘I was concerned about planning meals for the patient every day’ followed (63.0% and 59.4%, respectively). The top 5 of the 19 items were categorized as ‘fighting back’. Need for nutritional support was high (72.2%), and need for explanations about the reasons for anorexia and weight loss of patients was moderate (41.4%). Explanatory factor analysis of eating‐related distress identified the following four domains: (factor 1) feeling that family members forced the patient to eat to avoid death, (factor 2) feeling that family members made great efforts to help the patient eat, (factor 3) feeling that eating was a cause of conflicts between the patient and family members, and (factor 4) feeling that correct information was insufficient. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that spouse, fair/poor mental status, factors 1, and 4 were identified as independent determinants of major depression {odds ratio [OR] 3.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24–8.60], P = 0.02; OR 4.50 [95% CI 2.46–8.25], P < 0.001; OR 2.51 [95% CI 1.16–5.45], P = 0.02; OR 2.33 [95

  19. Expectations and needs of persons with family members in an intensive care unit as opposed to a general ward.

    PubMed

    Foss, K R; Tenholder, M F

    1993-04-01

    The positive effect of family support on the outcome from serious illness that requires intensive care has been recognized by clinicians for decades. We have all seen that family visitation and an intensive care environment more similar to that of a general ward (sunlight, radio, television) can benefit patients with psychosis related to intensive care. The severity of illness of the individual patient exerts a powerful stress on the family unit, but it has been difficult to measure this effect. We used a 40-question family needs survey with a degree of importance scale to compare the intensive care unit (ICU) with the general ward in terms of impact on the family. Five needs were found to discriminate these two environments. The family members of patients in an ICU considered it very important (1) for staff to give directions on what to do at the bedside, (2) to receive more support from their own family unit, (3) to have a place to be alone as a family unit in the hospital, (4) to be informed in advance of any transfer plan, and (5) to have flexibility in the time allowed for visitation. Family members are willing to accept decreased visitation time if the physicians and nurses can equate this decrease with the complexity of care in the ICU. The results of this survey have helped us modify and individualize our approach based on family expectations especially when patients are transferred from the general ward to the ICU or from the ICU to the ward.

  20. Molecular characterization and tissue distribution of a novel member of the S100 family of EF-hand proteins.

    PubMed

    Gribenko, A V; Hopper, J E; Makhatadze, G I

    2001-12-25

    We have isolated from a human prostate cDNA library a cDNA encoding a novel member of the S100 family of EF-hand proteins. The encoded 99-amino acid protein, designated S100Z, is capable of interacting with another member of the family, S100P. S100Z cDNA was cloned into a bacterial expression system, and the S100Z protein was purified to homogeneity from bacterial lysates by a combination of hydrophobic column and gel-filtration chromatography. Direct amino acid sequencing of the 20 N-terminal amino acids confirmed that the sequence of the recombinant protein is identical to the sequence deduced from the cDNA. Low-resolution structural data have been obtained using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, and equilibrium analytical centrifugation. These results show that S100Z is a dimeric, predominantly alpha-helical protein. Addition of calcium to a solution of S100Z changes the fluorescence intensity of the protein, indicating that S100Z is capable of binding calcium ions. Analysis of the calcium-binding isotherm indicates the existence of two calcium-binding sites with apparent affinities on the order of 5 x 10(6) and 10(2) M(-1). Binding of calcium results in conformational changes and exposure of hydrophobic surfaces on the protein. Using a PCR-based assay, we have detected differences in the expression level of S100Z mRNA in various tissues. The highest levels were found in spleen and leukocytes. S100Z gene expression appears to be deregulated in some tumor tissues, compared to expression in their normal counterparts. PMID:11747429

  1. Facebook as a tool for communication, collaboration, and informal knowledge exchange among members of a multisite family health team

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha K; Slater, Morgan B; Nicholas Angl, Emily; Leung, Fok-Han

    2016-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate a private Facebook group for members of a large Ontario multisite Family Health Team (FHT) to facilitate improved communication and collaboration. Design Program implementation and subsequent survey of team members. Setting A large multisite FHT in Toronto, Ontario. Participants Health professionals of the FHT. Main outcome measures Usage patterns and self-reported perceptions of the Facebook group by team members. Results At the time of the evaluation survey, the Facebook group had 43 members (37.4% of all FHT members). Activity in the group was never high, and posts by team members who were not among the researchers were infrequent throughout the study period. The content of posts fell into two broad categories: 1) information that might be useful to various team members and 2) questions posed by team members that others might be able to answer. Of the 26 team members (22.6%) who completed the evaluation survey, many reported that they never logged into the Facebook page (16 respondents), and never used it to communicate with team members outside of their own site of practice (19 respondents). Only six respondents reported no concerns with using Facebook as a professional communication tool; the most frequent concerns were regarding personal and patient privacy. Conclusion The use of social media by health care practitioners is becoming ubiquitous. However, the issues of privacy concerns and determining how to use social media without adding to provider workload must be addressed to make it a useful tool in health care. PMID:26869796

  2. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war.

  3. Variable expression and incomplete penetrance of developmental dysplasia of the hip: clinical challenge in a 71-member multigeneration family.

    PubMed

    Feldman, George J; Peters, Christopher L; Erickson, Jill A; Hozack, Bryan A; Jaraha, Ranna; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-04-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a crippling condition that affects children and adults. Identical twin studies support a strong causative genetic component. Although clinical tests for newborns can detect gross malformations, it is the subtle malformations that are often not detected, resulting in early onset osteoarthritis of the hip in adults. As a first step in identifying the causative mutation, we have recruited the largest documented affected family with 71 members spanning generations. Clinical and radiographic signs of developmental dysplasia of the hip are described, and the diagnostic challenge of identifying affected family members is discussed.Variable expression of disease allele is evident in several members of the family and greatly contributes to the diagnostic challenge facing clinicians. PMID:22177793

  4. Mangroviflexus xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Marinilabiliaceae isolated from mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Gao, Zhaoming; Qin, Qiwei; Ruan, Lingwei

    2012-08-01

    A Gram-negative, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, long rod-shaped bacterium strain P2(T) was isolated from the offshore mangrove sediment of the South China Sea. Growth was observed at between 22 and 39 °C, with an optimum at 35 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.0-8.5, with an optimum around pH 7.0-7.5. Salt tolerance was determined between 0.2 and 3.5% (w/v), optimum at 0.5-1.0%. Catalase and oxidase activities were negative. Strain P2(T) utilized cysteine, lactate, pyruvate, yeast extract or H(2)/CO(2)+acetate as electron donors, and sulfate or sulfite as electron acceptors. Metabolism was strictly fermentative. The main organic fermentation products were propionate, acetate and succinate. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P2(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Marinilabiliaceae. Strain P2(T) was most closely related to members of the genera Alkaliflexus (92.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Marinilabilia (91.7%) and Anaerophaga (89.9%) of the family Marinilabiliaceae. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 44.2 ± 1.0 mol%. The dominant fatty acids of strain P2(T) were iso-C(15:0) (33.5%), anteiso-C(15:0) (18.9%), C(16:0) (5.4%), C(16:0) 3-OH (7.7%) and iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (13.3%). The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (100% of total quinone) and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. Strain P2(T) was distinguishable from members of phylogenetically related genera by differences in several phenotypic properties. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and physiological evidence, a novel genus, Mangroviflexus, is proposed to harbour strain P2(T) ( = CGMCC 1.5167(T) = DSM 24214(T)) which is described as the type strain of a novel species, Mangroviflexus xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov.

  5. Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ∼74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause

  6. The ts111 Mutation of Paramecium tetraurelia Affects a Member of the Protein Palmitoylation Family.

    PubMed

    Prajer, Małgorzata; Tarcz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The thermosensitive ts111 mutant of Parameciun tetraurelia carries a recessive mutation which causes cell death after 2-8 divisions at the restrictive temperature of 35 degrees C. Expression at 35 degrees C induces disassembly of the infraciliary lattice (ICL). In this study, we found that the ts111 mutation also results in significant abnormalities in the number and structure of contractile vacuole complexes (CVCs) and in their functioning at the restrictive temperature. In order to characterize the ts111 gene, the complementation cloning was performed by microinjection into the macronucleus of an indexed genomic DNA library. The mutation was complemented by a sequence of 852 bp, which differed from the mutant sequence by a single nucleotide substitution. The deduced protein sequence is 284 amino acids long. It contains a domain referred to as the DHHC domain, associated with 2 trans-membrane helices. The DHHC proteins belong to the Palmitoyl-Acyl Transferases (PATs) protein family, which is implicated in the protein palmitoylation process playing the role in protein addressing. The ts111 mutation induces the amino acid change, localized before the first membrane helix. Transformation of ts111 mutant cells with the TS111-GFP gene fusion showed the expected reparation restoring thermoresistance and also demonstrated a localization of the protein in contractile vacuoles, but not in the ICL. The entire gene silencing in wild type cells at restrictive temperature caused the same effect as the expression of a point mutation in ts111 mutant. The authors propose the following hypotheses: (i) function of CVCs at the restrictive temperature depends in Paramecium on the TS111 protein--a member of the PAT family, and the primary effect of the termosensitive ts111 mutation are morphological abnormalities and dysfunction of CVCs, (ii) disassembly of the ICL is a secondary effect of the ts111 mutation, which results from disturbed regulation of the intracellular concentration

  7. Sinomicrobium oceani gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Tian, Xin-Peng; Liu, Yu-Juan; Li, Jie; Kim, Chang-Jin; Yin, Hao; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Si

    2013-03-01

    A marine bacterium, designated SCSIO 03483(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Nansha Islands in the South China Sea. The strain produced roundish colonies with diffusible yellow-coloured pigment on nutrient agar medium or marine agar 2216. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7.0 and a temperature range of 28-37 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed relatively high sequence similarity with Imtechella halotolerans K1(T) (92.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate shared a lineage with members of the genera Imtechella, Joostella and Zhouia. Phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and three unknown polar lipids. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c). The DNA G+C content of strain SCSIO 03483(T) was 38.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain SCSIO 03483(T) represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Sinomicrobium oceani gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Sinobacterium oceani is SCSIO 03483(T) ( = KCTC 23994(T) = CGMCC 1.12145(T)).

  8. Effect of Conformational Rigidity on the Stereoselectivity of Nucleophilic Additions to Five-membered Ring Bicyclic Oxocarbenium Ion Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Lavinda, O.; Tran, Vi Tuong

    2014-01-01

    Nucleophilic substitution reactions of five-membered ring acetals bearing fused rings reveal that subtle changes in the structure of the fused ring can exert dramatic influences on selectivity. If the fused ring did not constrain the five-membered ring undergoing substitution, selectivity was comparable to what was observed for an unconstrained system (≥92% diastereoselectivity, favoring the product of inside attack on the oxocarbenium ion). If the ring were more constrained by including at least one oxygen atom in the ring, selectivity dropped considerably (to 60% diastereoselectivity in one case). Transition states of the nucleophilic addition of allyltrimethylsilane to selected oxocarbenium ions were calculated using DFT methods. These computational models reproduced the correlation between additional conformational rigidity and selectivity. PMID:25087588

  9. Description of new members of the family Cylindroleberididae (Ostracoda: Cylindroleberidoidea) from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chavtur, Vladimir G; Keyser, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    We report new ostracod data (Family Cylindroleberididae) based on material collected during the German Expeditions onboard the research vessel "Polarstern" from bathyal and abyssal zones (sampling depth range from 1030 to 3963 m) in the Weddell and Scotia Seas and Drake Passage in 2002 and 2005. Four species belonging to four genera were identified in these collections. A new species, Synasterope pseudomystax, is illustrated and described. A first occurrence of an adult female is registered for Archasterope weddellensis (Kornicker, 1975). Additional description for Parasterope cf. styx Kornicker, 1975 is given. Description of Bathyleberis grossmani Kornicker, 1975 is supplemented with new data on the distribution. Additionally, keys for all species known for Antarctic waters are included.

  10. Description of new members of the family Cylindroleberididae (Ostracoda: Cylindroleberidoidea) from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chavtur, Vladimir G; Keyser, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    We report new ostracod data (Family Cylindroleberididae) based on material collected during the German Expeditions onboard the research vessel "Polarstern" from bathyal and abyssal zones (sampling depth range from 1030 to 3963 m) in the Weddell and Scotia Seas and Drake Passage in 2002 and 2005. Four species belonging to four genera were identified in these collections. A new species, Synasterope pseudomystax, is illustrated and described. A first occurrence of an adult female is registered for Archasterope weddellensis (Kornicker, 1975). Additional description for Parasterope cf. styx Kornicker, 1975 is given. Description of Bathyleberis grossmani Kornicker, 1975 is supplemented with new data on the distribution. Additionally, keys for all species known for Antarctic waters are included. PMID:27470726

  11. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  12. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  13. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  14. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  15. Effects of Solvent and Residual Water on Enhancing the Reactivity of Six-Membered Silyloxyallyl Cations toward Nucleophilic Addition.

    PubMed

    Malone, Joshua A; Cleveland, Alexander H; Fronczek, Frank R; Kartika, Rendy

    2016-09-01

    A new strategy for the generation of six-membered unsymmetrical silyloxyallyl cations using catalytic mild Brønsted acid is reported. These reactive intermediates were found to readily undergo direct nucleophilic addition with a broad range of nucleophiles to produce various α,α'-disubstituted silyl enol ether structural motifs. The findings also highlight the significance of the solvent effect and residual water in enhancing the reaction rate. PMID:27538538

  16. Cloning and characterization of additional members of the G protein-coupled receptor family.

    PubMed

    Lee, D K; Lynch, K R; Nguyen, T; Im, D S; Cheng, R; Saldivia, V R; Liu, Y; Liu, I S; Heng, H H; Seeman, P; George, S R; O'Dowd, B F; Marchese, A

    2000-02-29

    A search of the expressed sequence tag (EST) database retrieved a human cDNA sequence which partially encoded a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR26. A human genomic DNA fragment encoding a partial open reading frame (ORF) and a rat cDNA encoding the full length ORF of GPR26 were obtained by library screening. The rat GPR26 cDNA encoded a protein of 317 amino acids, most similar (albeit distantly related) to the serotonin 5-HT(5A) and gastrin releasing hormone BB2 receptors. GPR26 mRNA expression analysis revealed signals in the striatum, pons, cerebellum and cortex. HEK293 and Rh7777 cells transfected with GPR26 cDNA displayed high basal cAMP levels, slow growth rate of clonal populations and derangements of normal cell shape. We also used a sequence reported only in the patent literature encoding GPR57 (a.k.a. HNHCI32) to PCR amplify a DNA fragment which was used to screen a human genomic library. This resulted in the cloning of a genomic fragment containing a pseudogene, psiGPR57, with a 99.6% nucleotide identity to GPR57. Based on shared sequence identities, the receptor encoded by GPR57 was predicted to belong to a novel subfamily of GPCRs together with GPR58 (a.k.a. phBL5, reported only in the patent literature), putative neurotransmitter receptor (PNR) and a 5-HT(4) pseudogene. Analysis of this subfamily revealed greatest identities (approximately 56%) between the receptors encoded by GPR57 and GPR58, each with shared identities of approximately 40% with PNR. Furthermore, psiGPR57, GPR58, PNR and the 5-HT(4) pseudogene were mapped in a cluster localized to chromosome 6q22-24. PNR and GPR58 were expressed in COS cells, however no specific binding was observed for various serotonin receptor-specific ligands.

  17. Identification of two additional members of the membrane-bound dipeptidase family.

    PubMed

    Habib, Geetha M; Shi, Zheng-Zheng; Cuevas, Alan A; Lieberman, Michael W

    2003-07-01

    We have cloned two mouse cDNAs encoding previously unidentified membrane-bound dipeptidases [membrane-bound dipeptidase-2 (MBD-2) and membrane-bound dipeptidase-3 (MBD-3)] from membrane-bound dipeptidase-1 (MBD-1) deficient mice (Habib, G.M., Shi, Z-Z., Cuevas, A.A., Guo, Q., Matzuk, M.M., and Lieberman, M.W. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 4859-4863). These enzymes are closely related to MBD-1 (EC 3.4.13.19), which is known to cleave leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and cystinyl-bis-glycine. MBD-2 cDNA is 56% identical to MBD-1 with a predicted amino acid identity of 33%. The MBD-3 and MBD-1 cDNAs share a 55% nucleotide identity and a 39% predicted amino acid sequence identity. All three genes are tightly linked on the same chromosome. Expression of MBD-2 and MBD-3 in Cos cells indicated that both are membrane-bound through a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol linkage. MBD-2 cleaves leukotriene D4 (LTD4) but not cystinyl-bis-glycine, while MBD-3 cleaves cystinyl-bis-glycine but not LTD4. MBD-1 is expressed at highest levels in kidney, lung, and heart and is absent in spleen, while MBD-2 is expressed at highest levels in lung, heart, and testis and at somewhat lower levels in spleen. Of the tissues examined, MBD-3 expression was detected only in testis. Our identification of a second enzyme capable of cleaving LTD4 raises the possibility that clearance of LTD4 during asthma and in related inflammatory conditions may be mediated by more than one enzyme.

  18. Contribution by Steinway Family Members to the Technical and Acoustical Capabilities of the Steinway Grand Piano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geczy, Charles K.

    since 1972, for the first time in its history the company has been taken over by several financial interests and it faces new challenges from world competition with no Steinway family member in sight to continue the tradition.

  19. STS-103 crew members and their families pose for a portrait before DEPARTing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew pose for a group portrait with their families and loved ones on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. They are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. From left to right, the crew members are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Steven L. Smith; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  20. [The forensic medical identification of the members of the Demidov family].

    PubMed

    Romanov, S V; Smolianitskiĭ, A G; Molin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the genetic profiles of the biological materials taken from four graves in the Demidov family vault in order to establish kinship between its members. According to the archival documents, two graves contained the remains of Pyotr Grigor'evich Demidov, an adjutant-general for the emperor Aleksandr II, and his wife Elizaveta Nikolaevna Demidova (Bezobrazova). Also, it was supposed that two other graves contained the remains of Grigory Petrovich Demidov and Ekaterina Petrovna Demidova (married name princess Kudasheva), the son and the daughter of P.G. Demidov and E.N. Demidova. The bodies remained in the half-ruined crypt during approximately 150 years under conditions of enhanced humidity and seasonal temperature fluctuations which made their bone tissue virtually unsuitable for the genetic analysis. Genotyping was performed with the use of standard AmpF/STR Identifiler-TM and AmpF/STR Yfiler-TM kits ("Applied Biosystems", USA). As a result of the study, the skeletal remains of the boy from grave No2 were identified as actually belonging to the son of P.G. Demidov and E.N. Demidova with a probability of no less than 99.999999998%. whereas the girl buried in grave No4, was not the daughter of these parents.

  1. Immune factor Gambif1, a new rel family member from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed Central

    Barillas-Mury, C; Charlesworth, A; Gross, I; Richman, A; Hoffmann, J A; Kafatos, F C

    1996-01-01

    A novel rel family member, Gambif1 (gambiae immune factor 1), has been cloned from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, and shown to be most similar to Drosophila Dorsal and Dif. Gambif1 protein is translocated to the nucleus in fat body cells in response to bacterial challenge, although the mRNA is present at low levels at all developmental stages and is not induced by infection. DNA binding activity to the kappaB-like sites in the A.gambiae Defensin and the Drosophila Diptericin and Cecropin promoters is also induced in larval nuclear extracts following infection. Gambif1 has the ability to bind to kappaB-like sites in vitro. Co-transfection assays in Drosophila mbn-2 cells show that Gambif1 can activate transcription by interacting with the Drosophila Diptericin regulatory elements, but is not functionally equivalent to Dorsal in this assay. Gambif1 protein translocation to the nucleus and the appearance of kappaB-like DNA binding activity can serve as molecular markers of activation of the immune system and open up the possibility of studying the role of defence reactions in determining mosquito susceptibility/refractoriness to malaria infection. Images PMID:8887560

  2. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Family Members in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ. IL-4, IFN-γ and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trigger an immediate signaling pathway in which different tyrosine kinases (e.g. Janus kinases) are involved. Furthermore, a seven-member family of transcription factors named Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) that initiate the transcriptional activation of different genes are also involved and regulate downstream the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, how helminths avoid and modulate immune responses remains unclear; moreover, information concerning STAT-mediated immune regulation during helminth infections is scarce. Here, we review the research on mice deficient in STAT molecules, highlighting the importance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in regulating susceptibility and/or resistance in these infections. PMID:22110388

  3. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B).

    PubMed

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and the failure of proton (H(+)) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells. PMID:21871436

  4. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activities in members of the family Rhodospirillaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, M; Cox, S S; Stegeman, R A

    1984-01-01

    Strains of all 18 species of the family Rhodospirillaceae (nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria) were studied for their comparative nitrogen-fixing abilities. All species, with the exception of Rhodocyclus purpureus, were capable of growth with N2 as the sole nitrogen source under photosynthetic (anaerobic) conditions. Most rapid growth on N2 was observed in strains of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. Within the genus Rhodopseudomonas, the species R. capsulata, R. sphaeroides, R. viridis, R. gelatinosa, and R. blastica consistently showed the highest in vivo nitrogenase rates (with the acetylene reduction technique); nitrogenase rates in other species of Rhodopseudomonas and in most species of Rhodospirillum were notably lower. Chemotrophic (dark microaerobic) nitrogen fixation occurred in all species with the exception of one strain of Rhodospirillum fulvum; oxygen requirements for dark N2 fixation varied considerably among species and even within strains of the same species. We conclude that the capacity to fix molecular nitrogen is virtually universal among members of the Rhodospirillaceae but that the efficacy of the process varies considerably among species. PMID:6581158

  5. A Novel Member of GH16 Family Derived from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Cairo, João Paulo L Franco; Paixão, Douglas A A; Campos, Bruna M; Ferreira, Marcel R; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Pereira, Isabela O; Bernardes, Amanda; Ematsu, Gabriela C G; Chinaglia, Mariana; Polikarpov, Igor; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2015-09-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes found in all living kingdoms that are involved in multiple physiological functions. Due to their multiple enzymatic activities, GHs are broadly applied in bioethanol, food, and paper industry. In order to increase the productivity of these industrial processes, a constant search for novel and efficient enzymes has been proved to be necessary. In this context, metagenomics is a powerful approach to achieve this demand. In the current study, we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel member of GH16 family derived from the sugarcane soil metagenome. The enzyme, named SCLam, has 286 amino acid residues and displays sequence homology and activity properties that resemble known laminarases. SCLam is active against barley beta-glucan, laminarin, and lichenan (72, 33, and 10 U mg(-1), respectively). The optimal reaction conditions were identified as 40 °C and pH 6.5. The low-resolution structure was determined using the small-angle X-ray scattering technique, revealing that SCLam is a monomer in solution with a radius of gyration equal to 19.6 Å. To the best of our knowledge, SCLam is the first nonspecific (1,3/1,3:1,4)-β-D-glucan endohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.6) recovered by metagenomic approach to be characterized. PMID:26242386

  6. Intracellular localization of the BCL-2 family member BOK and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T

    2013-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK. PMID:23429263

  7. Analysis of the regions flanking the human insulin gene and sequence of an Alu family member.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, G I; Pictet, R; Rutter, W J

    1980-01-01

    The regions around the human insulin gene have been studied by heteroduplex, hybridization and sequence analysis. These studies indicated that there is a region of heterogeneous length located approximately 700 bp before the 5' end of the gene; and that the 19 kb of cloned DNA which includes the 1430 bp insulin gene as well as 5650 bp before and 11,500 bp after the gene is single copy sequence except for 500 bp located 6000 bp from the 3' end of the gene. This 500 bp segment contains a member of the Alu family of dispersed middle repetitive sequences as well as another less highly repeated homopolymeric segment. The sequence of this region was determined. This Alu repeat is bordered by 19 bp direct repeats and also contains an 83 bp sequence which is present twice. The regions flanking the human and rat I insulin genes were compared by heteroduplex analysis to localize homologous sequences in the flanking regions which could be involved in the regulation of insulin biosynthesis. The homology between the two genes is restricted to the region encoding preproinsulin and a short region of approximately 60 bp flanking the 5' side of the genes. Images PMID:6253909

  8. Cdk5 promotes synaptogenesis by regulating the subcellular distribution of the MAGUK family member CASK

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Hsueh, Yi-Ping; Shu, Tianzhi; Liang, Haoya; Tseng, Huang-Chun; Hong, Chen-Jei; Su, Susan C; Volker, Janet; Neve, Rachael L; Yue, David T; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2007-01-01

    Synaptogenesis is a highly regulated process that underlies formation of neural circuitry. Considerable work has demonstrated the capability of some adhesion molecules, such as SynCAM and Neurexins/Neuroligins, to induce synapse formation in vitro. Furthermore, Cdk5 gain-of-function results in an increased number of synapses in vivo. To gain a better understanding of how Cdk5 might promote synaptogenesis, we investigated potential crosstalk between Cdk5 and the cascade of events mediated by synapse-inducing proteins. One protein recruited to developing terminals by SynCAM and Neurexins/Neuroligins is the MAGUK family member CASK. We found that Cdk5 phosphorylates and regulates CASK distribution to membranes. In the absence of Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation, CASK is not recruited to developing synapses and thus fails to interact with essential presynaptic components. Functional consequences include alterations in calcium influx. Mechanistically, Cdk5 regulates the interaction between CASK and liprin-α. These results provide a molecular explanation of how Cdk5 can promote synaptogenesis. PMID:18054859

  9. Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Se Jin; Lauber, Christian; Costello, Elizabeth K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Humphrey, Gregory; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; Nakielny, Sara; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Human-associated microbial communities vary across individuals: possible contributing factors include (genetic) relatedness, diet, and age. However, our surroundings, including individuals with whom we interact, also likely shape our microbial communities. To quantify this microbial exchange, we surveyed fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 60 families (spousal units with children, dogs, both, or neither). Household members, particularly couples, shared more of their microbiota than individuals from different households, with stronger effects of co-habitation on skin than oral or fecal microbiota. Dog ownership significantly increased the shared skin microbiota in cohabiting adults, and dog-owning adults shared more ‘skin’ microbiota with their own dogs than with other dogs. Although the degree to which these shared microbes have a true niche on the human body, vs transient detection after direct contact, is unknown, these results suggest that direct and frequent contact with our cohabitants may significantly shape the composition of our microbial communities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00458.001 PMID:23599893

  10. New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import.

    PubMed

    Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

  11. A Novel Member of GH16 Family Derived from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Cairo, João Paulo L Franco; Paixão, Douglas A A; Campos, Bruna M; Ferreira, Marcel R; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Pereira, Isabela O; Bernardes, Amanda; Ematsu, Gabriela C G; Chinaglia, Mariana; Polikarpov, Igor; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2015-09-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes found in all living kingdoms that are involved in multiple physiological functions. Due to their multiple enzymatic activities, GHs are broadly applied in bioethanol, food, and paper industry. In order to increase the productivity of these industrial processes, a constant search for novel and efficient enzymes has been proved to be necessary. In this context, metagenomics is a powerful approach to achieve this demand. In the current study, we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel member of GH16 family derived from the sugarcane soil metagenome. The enzyme, named SCLam, has 286 amino acid residues and displays sequence homology and activity properties that resemble known laminarases. SCLam is active against barley beta-glucan, laminarin, and lichenan (72, 33, and 10 U mg(-1), respectively). The optimal reaction conditions were identified as 40 °C and pH 6.5. The low-resolution structure was determined using the small-angle X-ray scattering technique, revealing that SCLam is a monomer in solution with a radius of gyration equal to 19.6 Å. To the best of our knowledge, SCLam is the first nonspecific (1,3/1,3:1,4)-β-D-glucan endohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.6) recovered by metagenomic approach to be characterized.

  12. Cytokine-mediated cPLA(2) phosphorylation is regulated by multiple MAPK family members.

    PubMed

    Geijsen, N; Dijkers, P F; Lammers, J J; Koenderman, L; Coffer, P J

    2000-04-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) plays a critical role in various neutrophil functions including the generation of leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor release. Enzyme activity is regulated both by translocation to the membrane in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and serine phosphorylation by members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. In this report, we have investigated the role of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-mediated signalling pathways in the regulation of cPLA(2). GM-CSF-induced cPLA(2) phosphorylation was not affected by pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Src. However, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK activation resulted in a partial inhibition of cPLA(2) phosphorylation, revealed in a slower onset of phosphorylation. A cell line stably transfected with the GM-CSF receptor was used to further analyze GM-CSF-mediated cPLA(2) phosphorylation. Mutation of tyrosine residues 577 and 612 resulted in a delayed cPLA(2) phosphorylation similar to the pharmacological ERK inhibition. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 MAPK in cells bearing the double mutant betac577/612 completely abrogated GM-CSF-induced cPLA(2) phosphorylation. We conclude that GM-CSF can mediate cPLA(2) phosphorylation through the redundant activation of both p38 and ERK MAP kinases.

  13. Three Members of the LC8/DYNLL Family Are Required for Outer Arm Dynein Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Christopher A.; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Gorbatyuk, Oksana; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; Pazour, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The highly conserved LC8/DYNLL family proteins were originally identified in axonemal dyneins and subsequently found to function in multiple enzyme systems. Genomic analysis uncovered a third member (LC10) of this protein class in Chlamydomonas. The LC10 protein is extracted from flagellar axonemes with 0.6 M NaCl and cofractionates with the outer dynein arm in sucrose density gradients. Furthermore, LC10 is specifically missing only from axonemes of those strains that fail to assemble outer dynein arms. Previously, the oda12-1 insertional allele was shown to lack the Tctex2-related dynein light chain LC2. The LC10 gene is located ∼2 kb from that of LC2 and is also completely missing from this mutant but not from oda12-2, which lacks only the 3′ end of the LC2 gene. Although oda12-1 cells assemble outer arms that lack only LC2 and LC10, this strain exhibits a flagellar beat frequency that is consistently less than that observed for strains that fail to assemble the entire outer arm and docking complex (e.g., oda1). These results support a key regulatory role for the intermediate chain/light chain complex that is an integral and highly conserved feature of all oligomeric dynein motors. PMID:18579685

  14. Zhizhongheella caldifontis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Comamonadaceae.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Ming, Hong; Liu, Lan; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Duan, Yan-Yan; Nie, Guo-Xing; Feng, Hui-Geng; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-04-01

    An alkalitolerant, thermotolerant, strictly aerobic and Gram-staining negative bacterial strain, designated YIM 78140(T), was isolated from a water sample in Hehua hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The colonies were light brown, convex and circular. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain YIM 78140(T) indicated that it was clustered with members of β-Proteobacteria (with the similarity from 96.9 to 93.6 %). Good growth occurred at 40-50 °C, pH 8.0-9.0 and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant ubiquinones were Q-8 and Q-9. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C17:0 cyclo, C18:1 ω7c and summed feature 3. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 70.8 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical characteristics, phylogenetic analysis allowed the phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of strain YIM 78140(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, the strain YIM 78140(T) represents a novel genus of the family Comamonadaceae, for which the name Zhizhongheella caldifontis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78140(T) (= BCRC 80649(T) = KCTC 32557(T)).

  15. The AP-1 family member FOS blocks transcriptional activity of the nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Sirianni, Rosa; Nogueira, Edson; Bassett, Mary H.; Carr, Bruce R.; Suzuki, Takashi; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Andò, Sebastiano; Rainey, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Steroid production in the adrenal zona glomerulosa is under the control of angiotensin II (Ang II), which, upon binding to its receptor, activates protein kinase C (PKC) within these cells. PKC is a potent inhibitor of the steroidogenic enzyme CYP17. We have demonstrated that, in the ovary, PKC activates expression of FOS, a member of the AP-1 family, and increased expression of this gene is linked to CYP17 downregulation. However, the pathway and the molecular mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of PKC on CYP17 expression are not defined. Herein, we demonstrated that Ang II inhibited CYP17 through PKC and ERK1/2-activated FOS and that blocking FOS expression decreased PKC-mediated inhibition. Although CYP17 transcription was activated by the nuclear receptor SF-1, expression of FOS resulted in a decrease in SF-1-mediated gene transcription. FOS physically interacted with the hinge region of SF-1 and modulated its transactivity, thus preventing binding of cofactors such as SRC1 and CBP, which were necessary to fully activate CYP17 transcription. Collectively, these results indicate a new regulatory mechanism for SF-1 transcriptional activity that might influence adrenal zone-specific expression of CYP17, a mechanism that can potentially be applied to other steroidogenic tissues. PMID:20980388

  16. Rapid detection of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, S; Husson, M O; Leitz, R; Merlin, F; Laurent, F; Peladan, F; Drocourt, J L; Leclerc, H; Van Hoegaerden, M

    1992-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies directed against enterobacteria were produced and characterized. The specificity of one of these antibodies (CX9/15; immunoglobulin G2a) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence against 259 enterobacterial strains and 125 other gram-negative bacteria. All of the enterobacteria were specifically recognized, the only exception being Erwinia chrysanthemi (one strain tested). Bacteria not belonging to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not detected, except for Plesiomonas shigelloides (two strains tested), Aeromonas hydrophila (five strains tested), and Aeromonas sobria (one strain tested). This recognition spectrum strongly suggested that CX9/15 recognized the enterobacterial common antigen. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) experiments, the six antienterobacteria antibodies presented similar specificities; they all revealed only one band with an apparent molecular weight of about 20,000 from the crude extract of an enterobacterium. The six monoclonal antibodies, and especially CX9/15, can be used to develop new tests for rapid and specific detection of enterobacteria. Images PMID:1622220

  17. All members in the sphingomyelin synthase gene family have ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Tingbo; Kabir, Inamul; Li, Yue; Lou, Caixia; Yazdanyar, Amirfarbod; Xu, Jiachen; Dong, Jibin; Zhou, Hongwen; Park, Taesik; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein (SMSr) synthesizes the sphingomyelin analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) in cells. Previous cell studies indicated that SMSr is involved in ceramide homeostasis and is crucial for cell function. To further examine SMSr function in vivo, we generated Smsr KO mice that were fertile and had no obvious phenotypic alterations. Quantitative MS analyses of plasma, liver, and macrophages from the KO mice revealed only marginal changes in CPE and ceramide as well as other sphingolipid levels. Because SMS2 also has CPE synthase activity, we prepared Smsr/Sms2 double KO mice. We found that CPE levels were not significantly changed in macrophages, suggesting that CPE levels are not exclusively dependent on SMSr and SMS2 activities. We then measured CPE levels in Sms1 KO mice and found that Sms1 deficiency also reduced plasma CPE levels. Importantly, we found that expression of Sms1 or Sms2 in SF9 insect cells significantly increased not only SM but also CPE formation, indicating that SMS1 also has CPE synthase activity. Moreover, we measured CPE synthase Km and Vmax for SMS1, SMS2, and SMSr using different NBD ceramides. Our study reveals that all mouse SMS family members (SMSr, SMS1, and SMS2) have CPE synthase activity. However, neither CPE nor SMSr appears to be a critical regulator of ceramide levels in vivo. PMID:25605874

  18. Cloning of a member of the arrestin family from a human thyroid cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, B; Kaufman, K D; Chazenbalk, G D

    1992-04-01

    We used the cDNA of human retinal arrestin as a probe to screen a human thyroid cDNA library. We isolated and plaque-purified one clone (hTHY-ARRX). The nucleotide sequence of the 1.8 kb cDNA insert had an open reading frame of 1227 bp coding for a protein of 409 amino acids. Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of 1.7 kb in human thyroid cells. There is significant homology between amino acid sequences of human thyroid arrestin and human retinal arrestin (63%) and bovine beta-arrestin (74%), respectively. The hTHY-ARRX cDNA was stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells already expressing a functional human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. The cAMP response to TSH stimulation was unaltered in these cells, and homologous desensitization to TSH stimulation was not restored. It is not presently known whether hTHY-ARRX is human beta-adrenergic arrestin or a new member of the arrestin family.

  19. Kinesin family members KIF11 and KIF23 as potential therapeutic targets in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Lee, Daiyoon; Wu, Licun; Patel, Priya; Young, Ahn Jin; Wada, Hironobu; Hu, Hsin-Pei; Ujiie, Hideki; Kaji, Mitsuhito; Kano, Satoshi; Matsuge, Shinichi; Domen, Hiromitsu; Kaga, Kichizo; Matsui, Yoshiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Hatanaka, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; de Perrot, Marc; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive form of cancer commonly associated with asbestos exposure that stems from the thoracic mesothelium with high mortality rate. Currently, treatment options for MPM are limited, and new molecular targets for treatments are urgently needed. Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and an RNA interference-based screening, we screened two kinesin family members as potential therapeutic targets for MPM. Following in vitro investigation of the target silencing effects on MPM cells, a total of 53 MPMs were analyzed immunohistochemically with tissue microarray. KIF11 and KIF23 transcripts were found to be overexpressed in the majority of clinical MPM samples as well as human MPM cell lines as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Gene knockdown in MPM cell lines identified growth inhibition following knockdown of KIF11 and KIF23. High expression of KIF11 (KIF11-H) and KIF23 (KIF23-H) were found in 43.4 and 50.9% of all the MPM cases, respectively. Patients who received curative resection with tumors displaying KIF23-H showed shorter overall survival (P=0.0194). These results provide that inhibition of KIF11 and KIF23 may hold promise for treatment of MPMs, raising the possibility that kinesin-based drug targets may be developed in the future. PMID:27279560

  20. Ornithinibacter aureus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Intrasporangiaceae.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chuan; Huang, Huiqin; Ye, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhan, Baolin; Bao, Shixiang

    2011-03-01

    A novel strain of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a seawater sample collected in the South China Sea using modified R2A agar plates. The strain was a Gram-stain-positive, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, catalase-positive, irregular rod-shaped bacterium. The strain grew at 4-45 °C and pH 5.0-10.2, and tolerated 5% (w/v) NaCl. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the organism was related phylogenetically to members of the genera Fodinibacter (96.7% similarity), Lapillicoccus (96.5 %), Knoellia (95.0-95.8 %), Oryzihumus (95.6 %) and Humibacillus (95.6 %). The cell-wall contained L-ornithine as the major diagnostic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan. MK-8(H₄) was the predominant menaquinone. Major cellular fatty acids were iso-C₁₈:₁ω9c, iso-C₁₆:₀, iso-C₁₅:₀ and C₁₇:₀. The G+C content of the DNA was 69.6 mol%. Phenotypic and phylogenetic data revealed that this strain represents a novel species in a new genus of the family Intrasporangiaceae, for which the name Ornithinibacter aureus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of Ornithinibacter aureus is HB09001(T) (=CGMCC 1.10341(T) =DSM 23364(T)).

  1. Comparative biochemical analysis of three members of the Schistosoma mansoni TAL family: Differences in ion and drug binding properties

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charlotte M.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Dunne, David W.; Timson, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisation, there are differences in the three proteins’ structures. SmTAL1 was predicted to have two functional calcium binding sites and SmTAL2 was predicted to have one. Despite the presence of two EF-hand-like structures in SmTAL3, neither was predicted to be functional. These predictions were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis, intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning fluorimetry: both SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 are able to bind calcium ions reversibly, but SmTAL3 is not. SmTAL1 is also able to interact with manganese, strontium, iron(II) and nickel ions. SmTAL2 has a different ion binding profile interacting with cadmium, manganese, magnesium, strontium and barium ions in addition to calcium. All three proteins form dimers and, in contrast to some Fasciola hepatica proteins from the same family; dimerization is not affected by calcium ions. SmTAL1 interacts with the anti-schistosomal drug praziquantel and the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and W7. SmTAL2 interacts only with W7. SmTAL3 interacts with the aforementioned calmodulin antagonists and thiamylal, but not praziquantel. Overall, these data suggest that the proteins have different biochemical properties and thus, most likely, different in vivo functions. PMID:25447146

  2. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  3. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  4. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  5. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  6. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If my immediate family... for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3.202 Public Contracts and...

  8. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  9. [Supply and demand in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors.

  10. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  11. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  12. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  13. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  14. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  15. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  16. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a tr...

  17. Fathers' Forgiveness as a Moderator between Perceived Unfair Treatment by a Family of Origin Member and Anger with Own Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Rim; Enright, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how forgiveness mediates and moderates between fathers' perceived unfair treatment (PUT) from a family of origin member and anger with the child (AWC). Eighty married fathers who have at least one child between the ages of 2 and 7 years individually completed the Opening Questionnaire, the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, the…

  18. [Supply and demand in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors. PMID:25715127

  19. Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and

  20. IRES-mediated translation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA

    PubMed Central

    Shaltouki, Atossa; Harford, Terri J.; Komar, Anton A.; Weyman, Crystal M.

    2013-01-01

    The proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member PUMA is a critical regulator of apoptosis. We have previously shown that PUMA plays a pivotal role in the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation and that a MyoD-dependent mechanism is responsible for the increased expression of PUMA in these cells. Herein, we report that the increased expression of PUMA under these conditions involves regulation at the level of translation. Specifically, we have found that the increase in PUMA protein levels occurs under conditions of decreased total protein synthesis, eIF2-alpha phosphorylation and hypophosphorylation of eIF4E-BP, suggesting that PUMA translation is proceeding via an alternative initiation mechanism. Polyribosome analysis of PUMA mRNA further corroborated this suggestion. A combination of in vitro and ex vivo (cellular) approaches has provided evidence suggesting that PUMA mRNA 5'UTR harbors an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) element. Using mono- and bi-cistronic reporter constructs, we have delineated an mRNA fragment that allows for cap-independent translation in vitro and ex vivo (in skeletal myoblasts) in response to culture in differentiation media (DM), or in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent, etoposide. This mRNA fragment also supports translation in HeLa and 293T cells. Thus, our data has revealed a novel IRES-mediated regulation of PUMA expression in several cell types and in response to several stimuli. These findings contribute to our understanding and potential manipulation of any developmental or therapeutic scenario involving PUMA. PMID:26824017

  1. Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermoactinomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-Min; Yu, Tian-Tian; Liu, Lan; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Dong, Lei; Tseng, Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580, two novel Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial isolates, were recovered from the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Good growth was observed at 50-55 °C and pH 7.0. Aerial mycelium was absent on all media tested. Substrate mycelium was well-developed, long and moderately flexuous, and formed abundant, single, warty, ornamented endospores. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains indicated that they belong to the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. Similarity levels between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains and those of type strains of members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae were 88.33-93.24 %; the highest sequence similarity was with Hazenella coriacea DSM 45707(T). In both strains, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, unidentified polar lipids and unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580 were 45.5 and 44.2 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data suggest that the two isolates represent a single species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the two strains represent a single novel species in a new genus, Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Geothermomicrobium terrae is YIM 77562(T) ( = CCTCC AA 2011022(T) = JCM 18057(T)).

  2. Spider Glue Proteins Have Distinct Architectures Compared with Traditional Spidroin Family Members*

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M.; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

  3. Evolution of the Bovine TLR Gene Family and Member Associations with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen A.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Osterstock, Jason B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Seabury, Paul M.; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.; Seabury, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2≥0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several

  4. Awareness status about HIV/AIDS among Indian railway's employees and their family members.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Himanshu; Lal, Panna; Kumar, Vijay; Malhotra, Rahul; Ingle, G K

    2008-12-01

    A house to house survey was conducted in December 2005 in the Railway Colony of Shamli, located in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India using a semistructured questionnaire to study the awareness level regarding HIV/AIDS among Indian Railway's employees and their family members. Information regarding demographic characteristics and knowledge about various aspects of HIV/AIDS was recorded by a trained staff nurse of the local Railway Medical Unit from at least one person, aged 15 years to 59 years, from each household. Among 293 individuals interviewed, majority were males (61.8%), aged > 30 years (56.6%) and literate (85.3%). Majority were aware about existence of HIV infection in India (92.5%), AIDS is a fatal disease (92.8%) and laboratory tests are available for detecting HIV infection (89.4%). Although most of them knew the correct routes of HIV transmission viz. sexual (91.50%), parentral (90.8%), perinatal route (86.3%) and blood transfusion (86.0%), misconceptions such as transmission through shaking hands (89.1%), hugging (88.4%), sharing utensils (82.6%), mosquito bite (74.1%) and using public toilets (73.4%) were also observed. Most of them were also aware about preventive measures. Knowledge about various aspects was observed to be significantly higher among females, among individuals aged <45 years and literate individuals. The findings highlight the need of intensified health education focusing on removal of misconceptions and further improvement in awareness level of the study population. PMID:19579724

  5. Spider glue proteins have distinct architectures compared with traditional spidroin family members.

    PubMed

    Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

    2012-10-19

    Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

  6. Role of nutrient-sensing taste 1 receptor (T1R) family members in gastrointestinal chemosensing.

    PubMed

    Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P; Daly, Kristian; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Moran, Andrew W; Bravo, David

    2014-06-01

    Luminal nutrient sensing by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed on the apical domain of enteroendocrine cells activates intracellular pathways leading to secretion of gut hormones that control vital physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, food intake and glucose homeostasis. The taste 1 receptor (T1R) family of GPCR consists of three members: T1R1; T1R2; T1R3. Expression of T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 at mRNA and protein levels has been demonstrated in the intestinal tissue of various species. It has been shown that T1R2-T1R3, in association with G-protein gustducin, is expressed in intestinal K and L endocrine cells, where it acts as the intestinal glucose (sweet) sensor. A number of studies have demonstrated that activation of T1R2-T1R3 by natural sugars and artificial sweeteners leads to secretion of glucagon-like peptides 1&2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin secretion; GLP-2 increases intestinal growth and glucose absorption. T1R1-T1R3 combination co-expressed on the apical domain of cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing cells is a luminal sensor for a number of L-amino acids; with amino acid-activation of the receptor eliciting CCK secretion. This article focuses on the role of the gut-expressed T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 in intestinal sweet and L-amino acid sensing. The impact of exploiting T1R2-T1R3 as a nutritional target for enhancing intestinal glucose absorption and gut structural maturity in young animals is also highlighted.

  7. A new member of the GP138 multigene family implicated in cell interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Yamaguchi, N; Tanaka, Y; Urushihara, H

    1999-06-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum reproduces sexually under submerged and dark conditions. Its mating system is polymorphic and particularly interesting with respect to mechanisms of cell recognition. The cell-surface glycoprotein gp138 has been implicated in sexual cell interactions, as it was identified as a target molecule for the antibodies that block sexual cell fusion in D. discoideum. Two mutually homologous genes, GP138A and GP138B, have been cloned, but gene disruption experiments to clarify their functional relationships suggested that there is at least one more gene for gp138. Further protein analysis including peptide mapping also revealed that gp138 exists as three isoforms, DdFRP1, DdFRP2, and DdFRP3. GP138A encodes DdFRP2 and GP138B, DdFRP3, and the presence of a third gp138 gene encoding DdFRP1 was suggested. Here, we isolated and characterized a third GP138 gene, GP138C. Although the deduced amino acid sequences of GP138C matched completely with those of peptide fragments of DdFRP1 in the N-terminal half, the rest did not give complete matches. Overexpression of GP138C caused an increase in the intensity of DdFRP1, but disruption of this gene did not diminish DdFRP1. Our results indicate that GP138C encodes a protein very similar to but distinct from DdFRP1. The GP138 multigene family is thus composed of more members than previously expected, and their functional relationships are of special interest. PMID:10462174

  8. Habitat segregation and biochemical activities of marine members of the family vibrionaceae.

    PubMed

    Simidu, U; Tsukamoto, K

    1985-10-01

    A comparative study of marine members of the family Vibrionaceae with the technique of numerical taxonomy revealed habitat segregation as well as a cosmopolitan nature of species distribution among the vibrios in different marine environments. The bacterial strains analyzed were isolated from seawater, sediments, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish in the Indian Ocean, the South and East China Sea, and West Pacific Ocean, and coastal areas of Japan. A total of 155 morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests were carried out for each of 405 strains examined. The results showed that most of the large taxonomical clusters which emerged from the computation corresponded to ecological groups which have particular niches. For instance, each group of seawater vibrios inhabited a particular water layer of limited depth range, in spite of the fact that strains of the group were isolated from sampling locations spread over a wide area from the Indian Ocean to Japanese coast. Various vibrio groups showed remarkable differences in their physiological and biochemical activities, and the activities of each group seemed to correspond with its ecological niche. The strains which inhabited surface-water layers grew fast and actively utilized many high-molecular-weight organic compounds and carbohydrates that are derived from fresh, easily degradable organic matter present in the surface waters, whereas the middle- and deep-water vibrios did not decompose most of the high-molecular-weight organic compounds except chitin but, rather, utilized some carbohydrates and organic acids which seemed to be derived from refractory particulate organic matter present in the deeper waters.

  9. Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C.; Comfort, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation. PMID:26185334

  10. Molecular interactions of prodiginines with the BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ali; Espona-Fiedler, Margarita; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Quesada, Roberto; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Guallar, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Prodigiosin and obatoclax, members of the prodiginines family, are small molecules with anti-cancer properties that are currently under preclinical and clinical trials. The molecular target(s) of these agents, however, is an open question. Combining experimental and computational techniques we find that prodigiosin binds to the BH3 domain in some BCL-2 protein families, which play an important role in the apoptotic programmed cell death. In particular, our results indicate a large affinity of prodigiosin for MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family. In melanoma cells, we demonstrate that prodigiosin activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by disrupting MCL-1/BAK complexes. Computer simulations with the PELE software allow the description of the induced fit process, obtaining a detailed atomic view of the molecular interactions. These results provide new data to understand the mechanism of action of these molecules, and assist in the development of more specific inhibitors of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins.

  11. Health-related quality of life in family members of patients with an advanced cancer diagnosis: A one-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Receiving a cancer diagnosis affects family members as well as the person diagnosed. Family members often provide support for the sick person in daily life out of duty and love, and may not always think of their own vulnerability to illness. To individualise support for them, family members who are most at risk for becoming ill must be identified. The aim of this study was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in family members of patients with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer 3 to 15 months after diagnosis. Methods Data on mental and physical dimensions of HRQOL were collected from family members of these patients in this prospective quantitative study. Five assessments using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and EuroQol (EQ-5D) were conducted during a 1-year period starting 3 months after diagnosis. Thirty-six family members completed the study, i.e. participated in all five data collections. Results No statistically significant changes in physical or mental HRQOL within the study group appeared over the 1-year follow-up. Compared with norm-based scores, family members had significantly poorer mental HRQOL scores throughout the year as measured by the SF-36. Family members also scored statistically significantly worse on the EQ-5D VAS in all five assessments compared to the norm-based score. Findings showed that older family members and partners were at higher risk for decreased physical HRQOL throughout the 1-year period, and younger family members were at higher risk for poorer mental HRQOL. Conclusions It is well known that ill health is associated with poor HRQOL. By identifying family members with poor HRQOL, those at risk of ill health can be identified and supported. Future large-scale research that verifies our findings is needed before making recommendations for individualised support and creating interventions best tailored to family members at risk for illness. PMID:22846452

  12. Human EML4, a novel member of the EMAP family, is essential for microtubule formation

    SciTech Connect

    Pollmann, Marc; Parwaresch, Reza; Adam-Klages, Sabine; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Buck, Friedrich; Heidebrecht, Hans-Juergen . E-mail: hheidebrecht@path.uni-kiel.de

    2006-10-15

    Human EML4 (EMAP-like protein 4) is a novel microtubule-associated WD-repeat protein of 120 kDa molecular weight, which is classified as belonging to the conserved family of EMAP-like proteins. Cosedimentation assays demonstrated that EML4 associates with in vitro polymerized microtubules. Correspondingly, immunofluorescence stainings and transient expression of EGFP-labeled EML4 revealed a complete colocalization of EML4 with the interphase microtubule array of HeLa cells. We present evidence that the amino-terminal portion of EML4 (amino acids 1-249) is essential for the association with microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that EML4 is hyperphosphorylated on serine/threonine residues during mitosis. In addition, immunofluorescence stainings demonstrated that hyperphosphorylated EML4 is associated with the mitotic spindle, suggesting that the function of EML4 is regulated by phosphorylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of EML4 in HeLa cells led to a significant decrease in the number of cells. In no case mitotic figures could be observed in EML4 negative HeLa cells. Additionally, we observed a significant reduction of the proliferation rate and the uptake of radioactive [{sup 3}H]-thymidine as a result of EML4 silencing. Most importantly, EML4 negative cells showed a completely modified microtubule network, indicating that EML4 is necessary for correct microtubule formation.

  13. Immunoregulatory functions and expression patterns of PE/PPE family members: Roles in pathogenicity and impact on anti-tuberculosis vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asma; Das, Arghya; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome was sequenced more than 15 years ago. It revealed a lot of interesting information, one of which was that 10% of the total coding capacity of the M. tuberculosis genome is dedicated to the PE/PPE family. There is a gradual expansion of these proteins from nonpathogenic to pathogenic mycobacteria, and there is increasing evidence that PE/PPE proteins play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss PE/PPE proteins, their close functional association with the ESX clusters, their immunomodulatory functions, and their important roles in mycobacterial virulence. In addition, we have attempted to review and compile information available in the literature detailing the expression patterns of PE/PPE family members in different mycobacterial species and also during infection. Our attempt has been to provide a succinct overview of this interesting family.

  14. Generation of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine by members of the phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLA/AT) family.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Toru; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Inoue, Manami; Shinohara, Naoki; Jin, Xing-Hua; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Tonai, Takeharu; Tokumura, Akira; Ueda, Natsuo

    2012-09-14

    Bioactive N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), including N-palmitoylethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamine, and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), are formed from membrane glycerophospholipids in animal tissues. The pathway is initiated by N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to form N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE). Despite the physiological importance of this reaction, the enzyme responsible, N-acyltransferase, remains molecularly uncharacterized. We recently demonstrated that all five members of the HRAS-like suppressor tumor family are phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes with N-acyltransferase activity and are renamed HRASLS1-5 as phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLA/AT)-1-5. However, it was poorly understood whether these proteins were involved in the formation of NAPE in living cells. In the present studies, we first show that COS-7 cells transiently expressing recombinant PLA/AT-1, -2, -4, or -5, and HEK293 cells stably expressing PLA/AT-2 generated significant amounts of [(14)C]NAPE and [(14)C]NAE when cells were metabolically labeled with [(14)C]ethanolamine. Second, as analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the stable expression of PLA/AT-2 in cells remarkably increased endogenous levels of NAPEs and NAEs with various N-acyl species. Third, when NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D was additionally expressed in PLA/AT-2-expressing cells, accumulating NAPE was efficiently converted to NAE. We also found that PLA/AT-2 was partly responsible for NAPE formation in HeLa cells that endogenously express PLA/AT-2. These results suggest that PLA/AT family proteins may produce NAPEs serving as precursors of bioactive NAEs in vivo.

  15. Pustulibacterium marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the Bashi Channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Zhou, Danyan; Dai, Shikun; Tian, Xinpeng; Li, Jie; Chen, Wen; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, non-spore-forming, gliding, non-translucent, colourless or yellow, aerobic and elevated-colony-forming strain, designated E403(T), was isolated from the Bashi Channel and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain E403(T) could grow in the presence of 0.3-8 % (w/v) NaCl, at 16-43 °C and at pH 6-9, and grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 8, in natural seawater medium. The respiratory quinones were MK-6 and MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 1 G, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain E403(T) was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of members of the family Flavobacteriaceae showed that strain E403(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the stable cluster containing type strains Zhouia amylolytica HN-171(T) (92.2 % similarity) and Joostella marina En5(T) (92.4 % similarity). In addition to the large 16S rRNA gene sequence differences, E403(T) can also be distinguished from the reference type strains J. marina En5(T) and Sinomicrobium oceani SCSIO 03483(T) by several phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic properties. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain E403(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Pustulibacterium marinum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E403(T) (= CCTCC AB2012862(T) = CGMCC 1.12333(T) = KCTC 32192(T)).

  16. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  17. Limited family members/staff communication in intensive care units in the Czech and Slovak Republics considerably increases anxiety in patients ´ relatives – the DEPRESS study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common among family members of ICU patients and are culturally dependent. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and associated factors in family members of ICU patients in two Central European countries. Methods We conducted a prospective multicenter study involving 22 ICUs (250 beds) in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of ICU patients. Family member understanding of the patient’s condition was assessed using a structured interview and a questionnaire was used to assess satisfaction with family member/ICU staff communication. Results Twenty two intensive care units (both adult and pediatric) in academic medical centers and community hospitals participated in the study. During a 6 month period, 405 family members of 293 patients were enrolled. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms – 78% and 54%, respectively. Information leaflets distributed to family members did not lower incidences of anxiety/depression. Family members with symptoms of depression reported higher levels of satisfaction according to the modified Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Extended contact between staff and family members was the only related factor associated with anxiety reduction (p = 0.001). Conclusion Family members of ICU patients in East European countries suffer from symptoms of anxiety and depression. We identified limited family member/ICU staff communication as an important health care professional-related factor associated with a higher incidence of symptoms of anxiety. This factor is potentially amenable to improvement and may serve as a target for proactive intervention proactive intervention. PMID:24467834

  18. Los1p, involved in yeast pre-tRNA splicing, positively regulates members of the SOL gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.C.; Stanford, D.R.; Hopper, A.K.

    1996-06-01

    To understand the role of Los1p in pre-tRNA splicing, we sought los1 multicopy suppressors. We found SOL1 that suppresses both point and null LOS1 mutations. Since, when fused to the Gal4p DNA-binding domain, Los1p activates transcription, we tested whether Los1p regulates SOL1. We found that los1 mutants have depleted levels of SOL1 mRNA and Sol1p. Thus, LOS1 appears to positively regulate SOL1. SOL1 belongs to a multigene family with at least two additional members, SOL2 and SOL3. Sol proteins have extensive similarity to an unusual group of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases (G6PDs). As the similarities are restricted to areas separate from the catalytic domain, these G6PDs may have more than one function. The SOL gene disruptions negatively affect tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression and the severity increases with the number of mutant SOL genes. However, tRNA levels do not vary with either multicopy SOL genes or with SOL disruptions. Therefore, the Sol proteins affect tRNA expression/function at steps other than transcription or splicing. We propose that LOS1 regulates gene products involved in tRNA expression/function as well as pre-tRNA splicing. 64 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Discriminative identification of miRNA let-7 family members with high specificity and sensitivity using rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Song, Jirui; Guan, Yifu

    2015-02-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a new method based on virus DNA reproduction, which has been widely used in the field of miRNA detection. However, discrimination of highly homologous miRNAs is a bottleneck in the research of miRNA. In this study, the RCA process was creatively used to conduct the discrimination of miRNAs. Results showed that T4 RNA ligase 2 could reach the highest circularization efficiency during the RCA process with higher specificity. By using RCA technology, a member of highly homologous miRNAs, let-7, could be discriminated at the amount of 2.5 fmol. This sensitivity could not be achieved by using traditional reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method. In addition, detection of miRNAs by using RCA could reach the amount limit of fmol with a good linearity. Optimal RCA technology used in this study is better than RT-qPCR in discriminating highly homologous family miRNAs. Results from this study can promote the applications of RCA in clinical diagnosis, environment protection, health care, disease inspection and prevention, and national security.

  20. BET Inhibition Induces Apoptosis in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma via Epigenetic Regulation of BCL-2 Family Members.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Simon J; Newbold, Andrea; Vervoort, Stephin J; Cluse, Leonie A; Martin, Benjamin P; Gregory, Gareth P; Lefebure, Marcus; Vidacs, Eva; Tothill, Richard W; Bradner, James E; Shortt, Jake; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2016-09-01

    Targeting BET bromodomain proteins using small molecules is an emerging anticancer strategy with clinical evaluation of at least six inhibitors now underway. Although MYC downregulation was initially proposed as a key mechanistic property of BET inhibitors, recent evidence suggests that additional antitumor activities are important. Using the Eμ-Myc model of B-cell lymphoma, we demonstrate that BET inhibition with JQ1 is a potent inducer of p53-independent apoptosis that occurs in the absence of effects on Myc gene expression. JQ1 skews the expression of proapoptotic (Bim) and antiapoptotic (BCL-2/BCL-xL) BCL-2 family members to directly engage the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Consistent with this, Bim knockout or Bcl-2 overexpression inhibited apoptosis induction by JQ1. We identified lymphomas that were either intrinsically resistant to JQ1-mediated death or acquired resistance following in vivo exposure. Strikingly, in both instances BCL-2 was strongly upregulated and was concomitant with activation of RAS pathways. Eμ-Myc lymphomas engineered to express activated Nras upregulated BCL-2 and acquired a JQ1 resistance phenotype. These studies provide important information on mechanisms of apoptosis induction and resistance to BET-inhibition, while providing further rationale for the translation of BET inhibitors in aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2030-41. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27406984