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Sample records for additional fissile material

  1. 49 CFR 173.459 - Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages. 173.459 Section 173.459 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  2. Technologies for Fissile Material Detection and Prevention of Fissile Material Introduction into International Shipping

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J

    2003-07-01

    Prevention of the introduction of fissile materials into international shipping, and hence into a given country, is a complex problem. Some pieces of the solution to the puzzle are conceptually well defined, but lack definition of a technical pathway and/or operational implementation. Other elements are a little more fuzzy, and some elements are probably undefined at this point in time. This paper reviews the status of the more well-defined elements, and suggests needed additional measures to enhance the probability that fissile materials are not illicitly introduced into distant countries. International commerce proceeds through a number of steps from point of origin to final destination. Each step offers the possibility of a well-defined choke point to monitor and interdict the illicit shipment of fissile materials. However, because there are so many potential points and venues of entry into a large country such as the United States (e.g., air cargo, shipping containers, truck and rail transport, private vehicles, boats and planes, commercial passenger travel), it behooves the world to ensure that fissile material does not illicitly leave its point of origin.

  3. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-03-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Shipping container for fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Crowder, H.E.

    1984-12-17

    The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

  5. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1999-10-05

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  6. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1997-12-01

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium, and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  7. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  8. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  9. Scope and verification of a Fissile Material (Cutoff) Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, Frank N. von

    2014-05-09

    A Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) would ban the production of fissile material - in practice highly-enriched uranium and separated plutonium - for weapons. It has been supported by strong majorities in the United Nations. After it comes into force, newly produced fissile materials could only be produced under international - most likely International Atomic Energy Agency - monitoring. Many non-weapon states argue that the treaty should also place under safeguards pre-existing stocks of fissile material in civilian use or declared excess for weapons so as to make nuclear-weapons reductions irreversible. This paper discusses the scope of the FMCT, the ability to detect clandestine production and verification challenges in the nuclear-weapons states.

  10. 49 CFR 173.453 - Fissile materials-exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and... distributed within 360 kg of contiguous nonfissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous...-235, provided that the mass of any beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in...

  11. 49 CFR 173.453 - Fissile materials-exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and... distributed within 360 kg of contiguous nonfissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous...-235, provided that the mass of any beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in...

  12. 49 CFR 173.453 - Fissile materials-exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and... distributed within 360 kg of contiguous nonfissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous...-235, provided that the mass of any beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in...

  13. 49 CFR 173.453 - Fissile materials-exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and... distributed within 360 kg of contiguous nonfissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous...-235, provided that the mass of any beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in...

  14. 49 CFR 173.453 - Fissile materials-exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and... distributed within 360 kg of contiguous nonfissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous...-235, provided that the mass of any beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in...

  15. FISSILE MATERIAL AND FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, B.E.

    1961-08-15

    The fissile material consists of about 64 to 70% (weight) zirconium dioxide, 15 to 19% uranium dioxide, and 8 to 17% calcium oxide. The fissile material is formed into sintered composites which are disposed in a compartmented fuel element, comprising essentially a flat filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein, enclosed in cladding plates of the same material as the filler plate. The resultant fuel has good resistance to corrosion in high temperature pressurized water, good dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, and good resistance to thermal shock. (AEC)

  16. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: Fissile Materials: A Global Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaraman, Ramamurti

    2014-03-01

    The world has built up a huge glut of Fissile Materials, posing a potentially devastating threat. While specialists in the field have been aware of this danger for a long time, it was only after President Obama organized the Nuclear Security Summit in 2010 that the attention of the world's political leadership was drawn to it. We will present here an introductory overview of Fissile materials - their definition, significance and their production facilities and stocks in different parts of the world. We will also mention some of the efforts being made to verifiably cap and reduce their stocks as well as the technical and political complications involved in the process.

  17. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  18. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  19. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  20. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  1. Recent developments in fissile material exemptions for shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M. K., Liu, Y.Y., Wangler, M.E., Keeton, S.C., Fischer, L.E

    1996-10-15

    This paper discusses the regulatory exemptions for shipping packages that contain limited amounts of fissile material and concerns that have arisen over the adequacy of these regulations. The results of an ongoing review of these exemptions by the various regulatory agencies will be presented in the session.

  2. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  3. DISSOLUTION OF FISSILE MATERIALS CONTAINING TANTALUM METAL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

    2007-05-29

    The dissolution of composite materials containing plutonium (Pu) and tantalum (Ta) metals is currently performed in Phase I of the HB-Line facility. The conditions for the present flowsheet are the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal in the 15 L dissolver using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) at 95 C for 4-6 h.[1] The Ta metal, which is essentially insoluble in HNO{sub 3}/fluoride solutions, is rinsed with process water to remove residual acid, and then burned to destroy classified information. During the initial dissolution campaign, the total mass of Pu and Ta in the dissolver charge was limited to nominally 300 g. The reduced amount of Pu in the dissolver charge coupled with significant evaporation of solution during processing of several dissolver charges resulted in the precipitation of a fluoride salt contain Pu. Dissolution of the salt required the addition of aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) and a subsequent undesired 4 h heating cycle. As a result of this issue, HB-Line Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to optimize the dissolution flowsheet to reduce the cycle time, reduce the risk of precipitating solids, and obtain hydrogen (H{sub 2}) generation data at lower fluoride concentrations.[2] Using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material, we performed three experiments to demonstrate the dissolution of the Pu metal using HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.15 and 0.175 M KF. When 0.15 M KF was used in the dissolving solution, 95.5% of the Pu in the sample dissolved in approximately 6 h. The undissolved material included a small amount of Pu metal and plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) solids. Complete dissolution of the metal would have likely occurred if the dissolution time had been extended. This assumption is based on the steady increase in the Pu concentration observed during the last several hours of the experiment. We attribute the formation of PuO{sub 2} to the complexation

  4. Photo-fission Methods to detect Fissile Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Micah S.; Glenn, A.; Hartouni, E. P.; Sheets, S. A.; Soltz, R. A.; Danagoulian, A.; Korbly, S. E.; Ledoux, R. J.

    2014-09-01

    A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. A mission objective of various national security agencies is to develop systems that can detect fissile material. There are a myriad of researchers at national laboratories, academic institutions, and industry who are investigating various methods to detect fissile materials. These methods are broken down into active or passive detection systems. Examples of active systems include neutron or photon sources to stimulate and/or scatter from materials. Our focus has been to use photons near the fission barrier of various actinides to excite fission modes and measure the correlated and uncorrelated neutrons. We will present and discuss results from recent measurements. We will present the overall results of our effort and discuss some of the open questions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Rutherford, D.A.; Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Mangan, D.L.; Moya, R.W.; Moore, L.R.; Strait, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This report proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials.

  6. Covariance Spectroscopy for Fissile Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rusty Trainham, Jim Tinsley, Paul Hurley, Ray Keegan

    2009-06-02

    Nuclear fission produces multiple prompt neutrons and gammas at each fission event. The resulting daughter nuclei continue to emit delayed radiation as neutrons boil off, beta decay occurs, etc. All of the radiations are causally connected, and therefore correlated. The correlations are generally positive, but when different decay channels compete, so that some radiations tend to exclude others, negative correlations could also be observed. A similar problem of reduced complexity is that of cascades radiation, whereby a simple radioactive decay produces two or more correlated gamma rays at each decay. Covariance is the usual means for measuring correlation, and techniques of covariance mapping may be useful to produce distinct signatures of special nuclear materials (SNM). A covariance measurement can also be used to filter data streams because uncorrelated signals are largely rejected. The technique is generally more effective than a coincidence measurement. In this poster, we concentrate on cascades and the covariance filtering problem.

  7. Shuffler instruments for the nondestructive assay of fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.

    1991-05-01

    A shuffler is a nondestructive assay instrument used to determine the fissile content of materials. It places an isotopic source of neutrons near the material to induce fissions, withdraws the source, and counts the delayed neutrons. The source is shuffled until a sufficient number of delayed neutrons have been counted. The shuffler technique is generally applied to difficult assay cases. The amount of material present may be very small (a few milligrams), and thus it does not spontaneously emit neutrons of consequence; the amount of material is also below an active well counter's level of sensitivity. On the other hand, the fissile amount may be fairly large, but the rate of spontaneously emitted neutrons may still be low (so a passive neutron count will not work) or the highest assay precision may be desired (favoring a shuffler over an active well counter) even if the material is inhomogeneous (making it difficult to interrogate with thermal neutrons). In all these cases, gamma-ray backgrounds, self- shielding, or matrix effects can make gamma-ray assays impractical. Materials ranging from highly radioactive spent-fuel assemblies to low-level waste drums have been assayed with shufflers, as have leached hulls, various process materials, scrap, and waste. This report presents a theoretical background for shufflers and describes techniques for practical applications. Procedures for assaying mixtures of fissile isotopes, inhomogeneous materials, and flowing liquids are discussed. It is shown how the precision and limits of detection of a shuffler can be calculated for a given neutron background rate. A section on data analysis gives a stepwise procedure for converting the measured counts into an assay value, including random, systematic, and total uncertainties. 31 refs.

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring reactivity of fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David M.; Lindquist, Lloyd O.

    1985-01-01

    Given are a method and apparatus for measuring nondestructively and non-invasively (i.e., using no internal probing) the burnup, reactivity, or fissile content of any material which emits neutrons and which has fissionable components. No external neutron-emitting interrogation source or fissile material is used and no scanning is required, although if a profile is desired scanning can be used. As in active assays, here both reactivity and content of fissionable material can be measured. The assay is accomplished by altering the return flux of neutrons into the fuel assembly. The return flux is altered by changing the reflecting material. The existing passive neutron emissions in the material being assayed are used as the source of interrogating neutrons. Two measurements of either emitted neutron or emitted gamma-ray count rates are made and are then correlated to either reactivity, burnup, or fissionable content of the material being assayed, thus providing a measurement of either reactivity, burnup, or fissionable content of the material being assayed. Spent fuel which has been freshly discharged from a reactor can be assayed using this method and apparatus. Precisions of 1000 MWd/tU appear to be feasible.

  9. Fissile material disposition program final immobilization form assessment and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, S.G.; Dunlop, W.H.; Edmunds, T.A.; MacLean, L.M.; Gould, T.H.

    1997-10-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in its role as the lead laboratory for the development of plutonium immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), has been requested by MD to recommend an immobilization technology for the disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The recommendation and supporting documentation was requested to be provided by September 1, 1997. This report addresses the choice between glass and ceramic technologies for immobilizing plutonium using the can-in-canister approach. Its purpose is to provide a comparative evaluation of the two candidate technologies and to recommend a form based on technical considerations.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring reactivity of fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.M.; Lindquist, L.O.

    1982-09-07

    Given are a method and apparatus for measuring nondestructively and noninvasively (i.e., using no internal probing) the burnup, reactivity, or fissile content of any material which emits neutrons and which has fissionable components. The assay is accomplished by altering the return flux of neutrons into the fuel assembly by means of changing the reflecting material. The existing passive neutron emissions in the material being assayed are used as the source of interrogating neutrons. Two measurements of either emitted neutron or emitted gamma-ray count rates are made and are then correlated to either reactivity, burnup, or fissionable content of the material being assayed, thus providing a measurement of either reactivity, burnup, or fissionable content of the material being assayed. Spent fuel which has been freshly discharged from a reactor can be assayed using this method and apparatus. Precisions of 1000 MWd/tU appear to be feasible.

  11. Ensuring the 50 year life of a fissile material container

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.; Towne, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia was presented with an opportunity in 1993 to design containers for the long term storage and transport of fissile material. This program was undertaken at the direction of the US Department of Energy and in cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory which were tasked with developing the internal fixturing for the contents. The hardware is being supplied by Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and the packaging will occur at Mason and Hangar Corporation`s Pantex Plant. The unique challenge was to design a container that could be sealed with the fissile material contents; and, anytime during the next 50 years, the container could be transported with only the need for the pre-shipment leak test. This required not only a rigorous design capable of meeting the long term storage and transportation requirements, but also resulted in development of a surveillance program to ensure that the container continues to perform as designed over the 50-year life. This paper addresses the design of the container, the testing that was undertaken to demonstrate compliance with US radioactive materials transport regulations, and the surveillance program that has been initiated to ensure the 50-year performance.

  12. Correlation Measurements with {sup 252}Cf to Characterize Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.K.

    2000-01-04

    Measurements using {sup 252}Cf as a timed source of neutrons and gammas have in recent years undergone significant maturation. These methods use {sup 252}Cf as an observable source of spontaneous fission neutrons and gammas in conjunction with one or more neutron- and/or gamma-sensitive detectors to measure the time-distribution of correlated detector counts following (a) an observed {sup 252}Cf-fission event and/or (b) a counting event in another detector. Detection of {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission is frequently achieved via use of a small ionization chamber in which the {sup 252}Cf is contained--in this case the timing of source emission events is random. However, one application subsequently described uses a neutron-absorbent ''shutter'' to modulate {sup 252}Cf emissions to produce a neutron source with deterministic timing. Other applications, frequently termed noise-analysis measurements, transform the time-distributions to the frequency domain. Collectively, these correlation methods use {sup 252}Cf to ''excite'' the fissile material and the response of the material is measured by an array of detectors and analyzed using standard time-correlation and/or frequency-analysis techniques. In recent years numerous advances have been made in the application of these methods to in-situ, or field measurements directed at characterizing various configurations of fissile material in operational facilities.

  13. 10 CFR 71.59 - Standards for arrays of fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for arrays of fissile material packages. 71.59 Section 71.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.59 Standards for arrays of fissile material packages. (a)...

  14. Fissile Material Detection by Differential Die Away Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Timothy J.; Strellis, Dan A.; Stevenson, John; Keeley, Doug; Gozani, Tsahi

    2009-03-01

    Detection and interdiction of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in transportation is one of the most critical security issues facing the United States. Active inspection by inducing fission in fissile nuclear materials, such as 235U and 239Pu, provides several strong and unique signatures that make the detection of concealed nuclear materials technically very feasible. Differential Die-Away Analysis (DDAA) is a very efficient, active neutron-based technique that uses the abundant prompt fission neutrons signature. It benefits from high penetrability of the probing and signature neutrons, high fission cross section, high detection sensitivity, ease of deployment and relatively low cost. DDAA can use any neutron source or energy as long as it can be suitably pulsed. The neutron generator produces pulses of neutrons that are directed into a cargo. As each pulse passes through the cargo, the neutrons are thermalized and absorbed. If SNM is present, the thermalized neutrons create a new source of (fission) neutrons with a distinctive time profile. An efficient laboratory system was designed, fabricated and tested under a US Government DHS DNDO contract. It was shown that a small uranium sample can be detected in a large variety of cargo types and configurations within practical measurement times using commercial compact (d,T) sources. Using stronger sources and wider detector distribution will further cut inspection time. The system can validate or clear alarms from a primary inspection system such as an automated x-ray system.

  15. Fissile Material Detection by Differential Die Away Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Timothy J.; Strellis, Dan A.; Stevenson, John; Keeley, Doug; Gozani, Tsahi

    2009-03-10

    Detection and interdiction of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in transportation is one of the most critical security issues facing the United States. Active inspection by inducing fission in fissile nuclear materials, such as {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, provides several strong and unique signatures that make the detection of concealed nuclear materials technically very feasible. Differential Die-Away Analysis (DDAA) is a very efficient, active neutron-based technique that uses the abundant prompt fission neutrons signature. It benefits from high penetrability of the probing and signature neutrons, high fission cross section, high detection sensitivity, ease of deployment and relatively low cost. DDAA can use any neutron source or energy as long as it can be suitably pulsed. The neutron generator produces pulses of neutrons that are directed into a cargo. As each pulse passes through the cargo, the neutrons are thermalized and absorbed. If SNM is present, the thermalized neutrons create a new source of (fission) neutrons with a distinctive time profile. An efficient laboratory system was designed, fabricated and tested under a US Government DHS DNDO contract. It was shown that a small uranium sample can be detected in a large variety of cargo types and configurations within practical measurement times using commercial compact (d,T) sources. Using stronger sources and wider detector distribution will further cut inspection time. The system can validate or clear alarms from a primary inspection system such as an automated x-ray system.

  16. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M.; Moore, L.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  17. The Future of Nuclear Archaeology: Reducing Legacy Risks of Weapons Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Toomey, Christopher M.; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Burns, Kimberly A.; Casazza, Larry O.; S. Daly, Don; L. Duckworth, Leesa

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the value proposition for a "nuclear archeological" technical capability and applications program, targeted at resolving uncertainties regarding fissile materials production and use. At its heart, this proposition is that we can never be sure that all fissile material is adequately secure without a clear idea of what "all" means, and that uncertainty in this matter carries risk. We argue that this proposition is as valid today, under emerging state and possible non-state nuclear threats, as it was in an immediate post-Cold-War context, and describe how nuclear archeological methods can be used to verify fissile materials declarations, or estimate and characterize historical fissile materials production independently of declarations.

  18. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection Using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard R. Tittmann; P.M. Lenahan; David Spears; Rhys Williams

    2008-11-25

    The objective of this project is to develop anovel technique for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs. We propse the development of a detection system based on magnetic resonance principles (NAR), which would work where radiation detection is not possible. The approach would be non-intrusive, penetrating, applicable to many materials of interest for Nonproliferation, and be able to identify the nuclear samples under investigation.

  19. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S

    2005-10-04

    This report reviews progress made on NA22 project LL251DP to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. We have met all milestones and deliverables for FY05, as shown in Table 1. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begin to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. The results obtained in FY05 further support the feasibility of successful demonstration of an NAR experiment for remote, non-destructive, non-radiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs.

  20. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S B

    2006-11-02

    This is final report on NA-22 project LL251DP, where the goal was to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begun to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. Since our funding was cut in FY06, I will discuss where this project can go in the future with this technology.

  1. 49 CFR 173.457 - Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements. 173.457 Section 173.457 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL...

  2. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  3. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  4. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  5. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  6. Method and system based on pulsed neutron generator for fissile material detection in luggage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogolubov, Ye. P.; Korotkov, S. A.; Korytko, L. A.; Morukov, V. G.; Nazarov, V. I.; Polkanov, Yu. G.; Khasaev, T. O.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of fissile material (FM) detection in passenger luggage. Different methods of control of unauthorized FM movement were analyzed. Application of differential die-away technique was substantiated. Experimental prototype with sensitivity of uranium-235 detection equal to 5 g during 5 s was described. A method for revealing deliberate FM masking by neutron-absorbing shields is suggested.

  7. Fissile and fertile nuclear material measurements using a new differential die-away self-interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O; Tobin, Stephen J; Menlove, S H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for the measurement of fissile and fertile nuclear materials in spent fuel and plutonium laden materials such as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The technique, called differential die-away self-interrogation, is similar to traditional differential die-away analysis, but it does not require a pulsed neutron generator or pulsed beam accelerator, and it can measure the fertile mass in addition to the fissile mass. The new method uses the spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm in spent fuel and {sup 240}Pu effective neutrons in MOX as the 'pulsed' neutron source with an average of {approx} 2.7 neutrons per pulse. The time correlated neutrons from the spontaneous fission and the subsequent induced fissions are analyzed as a function of time to determine the spontaneous fission rate, the induced fast-neutron fissions, and the induced thermal-neutron fissions. The fissile mass is determined from the induced thermal-neutron fissions that are produced by reflected thermal neutrons that originated from the spontaneous fission reaction. The sensitivity of the fissile mass measurement is enhanced by the use of two measurements, with and without a cadmium liner between the sample and the hydrogenous moderator. The fertile mass is determined from the multiplicity analysis of the neutrons detected soon after the initial triggering neutron is detected. The method obtains good sensitivity by the optimal design of two different neutron die-away regions: a short die-away for the neutron detector region and a longer die-away for the sample interrogation region.

  8. Assessment and recommendations for fissile-material packaging exemptions and general licenses within 10 CFR Part 71

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Hopper, C.M.; Lichtenwalter, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a technical and regulatory assessment of the fissile material general licenses and fissile material exemptions within Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. The assessment included literature studies and calculational analyses to evaluate the technical criteria; review of current industry practice and concerns; and a detailed evaluation of the regulatory text for clarity, consistency and relevance. Recommendations for potential consideration by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff are provided. The recommendations call for a simplification and consolidation of the general licenses and a change in the technical criteria for the first fissile material exemptions.

  9. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Tolk, K.M.; Mangan, D.L.; Moore, L.

    1995-09-01

    The 1994 National Acdaemy of Sciences study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium`` defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This paper proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options as well defining the ``Standards`` from the report. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials.

  10. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... Liters Cubic feet Maximum Uranium 235-enrichment (weight)percent Maximum “Heel” weight per cylinder UF6... International Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1,”...

  11. Glass material oxidation and dissolution system: Converting miscellaneous fissile materials to glass

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1996-03-19

    The cold war and the development of nuclear energy have resulted in significant inventories of miscellaneous fissile materials (MFMs). MFMs include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel (SNF), (3) certain hot cell wastes, and (4) many one-of-a-kind materials. Major concerns associated with the long-term management of these materials include: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns. waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by converting the MFMs to glass for secure, long-term storage or repository disposal; however, conventional glass-making processes require oxide-like feed materials. Converting MFMs to oxide-like materials with subsequent vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), which directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride (NaCl) stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium, Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. However, significant work is required to develop GMODS further for applications at an industrial scale. If implemented, GMODS will provide a new approach to manage these materials.

  12. Fission Product Gamma-Ray Line Pairs Sensitive to Fissile Material and Neutron Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E; Norman, E B; Burke, J T; Macri, R A; Shugart, H A; Browne, E; Smith, A R

    2007-11-15

    The beta-delayed gamma-ray spectra from the fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu by thermal and near-14-MeV neutrons have been measured for delay times ranging from 1 minute to 14 hours. Spectra at all delay times contain sets of prominent gamma-ray lines with intensity ratios that identify the fissile material and distinguish between fission induced by low-energy or high-energy neutrons.

  13. LANL's Role in the U.S. Fissile Material Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia; Kay, Virginia

    2015-02-18

    The process of Fissile Material Disposition is in part a result of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), which is an agreement between the U.S. and Russia to dispose of excess plutonium used to make weapons. LANL is one sight that aides in the process of dismantling, storage and repurposing of the plutonium gathered from dismantled weapons. Some uses for the repurposed plutonium is fuel for commercial nuclear reactors which will provide energy for citizens.

  14. Fissile material holdup measurement systems: an historical review of hardware and software

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Smith, Steven E; Rowe, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of fissile material holdup is accomplished by passively measuring the energy-dependent photon flux and/or passive neutron flux emitted from the fissile material deposited within an engineered process system. Both measurement modalities--photon and neutron--require the implementation of portable, battery-operated systems that are transported, by hand, from one measurement location to another. Because of this portability requirement, gamma-ray spectrometers are typically limited to inorganic scintillators, coupled to photomultiplier tubes, a small multi-channel analyzer, and a handheld computer for data logging. For neutron detection, polyethylene-moderated, cadmium-back-shielded He-3 thermal neutron detectors are used, coupled to nuclear electronics for supplying high voltage to the detector, and amplifying the signal chain to the scaler for counting. Holdup measurement methods, including the concept of Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH), are well presented by T. Douglas Reilly in LA-UR-07-5149 and P. Russo in LA-14206, yet both publications leave much of the evolutionary hardware and software to the imagination of the reader. This paper presents an historical review of systems that have been developed and implemented since the mid-1980s for the nondestructive assay of fissile material, in situ. Specifications for the next-generation holdup measurements systems are conjectured.

  15. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  17. Criticality safety analysis on fissile materials in Fukushima reactor cores

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xudong; Lemaitre-Xavier, E.; Ahn, Joonhong; Hirano, Fumio

    2013-07-01

    The present study focuses on the criticality analysis for geological disposal of damaged fuels from Fukushima reactor cores. Starting from the basic understanding of behaviors of plutonium and uranium, a scenario sequence for criticality event is considered. Due to the different mobility of plutonium and uranium in geological formations, the criticality safety is considered in two parts: (1) near-field plutonium system and (2) far-field low enriched uranium (LEU) system. For the near-field plutonium system, a mathematical analysis for pure-solute transport was given, assuming a particular buffer material and waste form configuration. With the transport and decay of plutonium accounted, the critical mass of plutonium was compared with the initial load of a single canister. Our calculation leads us to the conclusion that our system with the initial loading being the average mass of plutonium in an assembly just before the accident is very unlikely to become critical over time. For the far-field LEU system, due to the uncertainties in the geological and geochemical conditions, calculations were made in a parametric space that covers the variation of material compositions and different geometries. Results show that the LEU system could not remain sub-critical within the entire parameter space assumed, although in the iron-rich rock, the neutron multiplicity is significantly reduced.

  18. Current status and recommended future studies of underground supercriticality of fissile material

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-06-01

    More than a year has passed since we released our original report pointing out the possibility of natural or induced rearrangement of fissile material underground into a critical mass, the possibility of positive feedback in underground configurations, the confinement of the rock to produce significant yield, and the possibility of venting or explosion. The nuclear weapons and repository storage groups at both Los Alamos and Livermore have been critical of our work while others have defended our calculations on wet and dry criticality. The conditions we identified for positive and negative feedback are no longer contested. The role of confinement of the rock in enhancing the yield from the explosion is still unsettled, and that is addressed later in this paper. The likelihood of confinement, venting, or explosive dispersion also remains unsettled and that is addressed here as well. Some critics of our work have tried to show that the probability of reconfiguration by natural processes is very small. They argue further that emplacement can be done in such a way as to make the probability even smaller. Of course these additional efforts will raise the cost of waste emplacement and the question arises as to how much is enough. The answer to this question seems to not be an easy one.

  19. Identification of hidden fissile materials using high-pressure xenon gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulin, Sergey E.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Grachev, V. M.; Sokolov, D. V.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Chernysheva, I. V.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2001-12-01

    The description of the High Pressure Xenon Gamma-Ray Detector (HPXeD) and its main characteristics are considered in the context of the search for hidden fissile materials. The results of HPXeD measurements of gamma-radiation from radioactive sources, which are covered by lead, iron and aluminium shields, are analyzed and discussed. The use of special software for processing data is shown to improve the potential of radioactive material detection, including the identification and estimation of the main protective shield parameters.

  20. US/Russian affirmation process of the Russian fissile material container design

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.; Nunley, S.M.; Chalfant, G.

    1998-05-10

    The US government agreed to provide the Russian Federation with containers to support the dismantlement of Russian nuclear weapons as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program. In February 1996, the ``affirmation`` of the Russian Fissile Material container design was completed. The ``affirmation`` process allowed a joint program between the Russian and US governments to proceed without the exchange of sensitive weapons specific information. The Russian Fissile Material container program is an integral part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction program wherein the US government provides assistance to the states of the Former Soviet Union for dismantlement of their nuclear stockpile. The Cooperative Threat Reduction program is managed by the US Defense Special Weapons Agency. Sandia National Laboratories was selected as the design agency and technical point of contact for the Russian Federation. The Department of Energy, which certifies containers for weapons shipments in the US, provided an independent assessment of the Sandia designed container to assure that it met the requirements of the August 31, 1993 AT-4OOR Container Requirements [Sandia National Laboratories, 1993] document which was agreed to by representatives of the US and Russian Federation. The ``affirmation`` process was undertaken in lieu of a certification process. This process was a formal review by the US Department of Energy of Sandia`s design and testing of the Russian Fissile Material container. The affirmation was intended to provide the Russian Federation with assurance that the container met the negotiated requirements including specific sections of IAEA Safety Series 6 [IAEA, 1985]. The process stopped short of a certification process that would have required weapons specific design information.

  1. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the WP. This

  2. FATE OF FISSILE MATERIAL BOUND TO MONOSODIUM TITANATE DURING COOPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-08-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of {approx}34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to

  3. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  4. Separation and Quantification of Chemically Diverse Analytes in Neutron Irradiated Fissile Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Matthew; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Thomas, Linda MP; Maiti, Tapas C.; Finn, Erin C.; Garofoli, Stephanie J.; Gassman, Paul L.; Huff, Morgan M.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Smith, Steven C.; Thomas, Kathie K.; Bachelor, Paula P.

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative measurement of fission and activation products resulting from neutron irradiation of fissile materials is of interest for applications in environmental monitoring, nuclear waste management, and national security. To overcome mass and spectral interferences, and the relative small quantities of some target analytes, an extensive series of chemical separations is necessary. Based on established separations processes involving co-precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange and extraction chromatography, we have been evaluating and optimizing a proposed sequence of separation steps to allow for the timely quantification of analytes of interest. For simplicity, much of the chemical separation development work has been performed using stable elements as surrogates for the radioactive material. We have recently evaluated the optimized procedures using an irradiated sample to examine the adequacy of separations for measurement of desired analytes by gamma spectrometry. Here we present the results of this evaluation and describe the radiochemical separations utilized.

  5. A Passive Method for Identifying and Locating Fissile Materials Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Randy; Morris, Chris; Borozdin, Konstantin; Bacon, Jeffrey; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steve; Wang

    2010-10-01

    The recent signing of the new Strategic Arms Reduction pact between the United States and Russia creates an important need for nonintrusive identification and quantification of nuclear warheads in various deployment scenarios. High-energy muons are able to achieve this goal by taking advantage of the unique fission signature produced when muons stop in fissionable and fissile materials. This can be accomplished in a passive-interrogation scenario using the ubiquitous fluence of muons at the Earth's surface that is produced via cosmic-ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. Combining this method with a muon-tracking system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory furthermore allows us to locate and count individual masses (>10 kg ) of fissionable material in the field. Proof-of-concept experiments are currently being conducted and early results are presented.

  6. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  7. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  8. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  9. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  10. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  11. Technical evaluation panel summary report. Ceramic and glass immobilization options fissile materials disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B. R.; Brummond, W.; Armantrout, G.; Shaw, H.; Jantzen, C. M.; Jostons, A.; McKibben, M.; Strachan, D.; Vienna, J. D.

    1997-12-23

    This report documents the results of a technical evaluation of the merits of ceramic and glass immobilization forms for the disposition of surplus weapons-useable plutonium. The evaluation was conducted by a Technical Evaluation Panel (TEP), whose members were selected to cover a relevant range of scientific and technical expertise and represented each of the technical organizations involved in the Plutonium Immobilization Program. The TEP held a formal review at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory (LLNL) from July 2%August 1, 1997. Following this review, the TEP documented the review and its evaluation of the two immobilization technologies in this report to provide a technical basis for a recommendation by LLNL to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the preferred immobilization form. The comparison of the glass and ceramic forms and manufacturing processes was a tremendous challenge to the TEP. The two forms and their processes are similar in many ways. The TEP went to great effort to accurately assess what were, in many cases, fine details of the processes, unit operations, and the glass and ceramic forms themselves. The set of criteria used by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) in past screenings and down-selections was used to measure-the two options. One exception is that the TEP did not consider criteria that were largely nontechnical (namely international impact, public acceptance, and effects on other : DOE programs). The TEP' s measures and assessments are documented in detail. Care was taken to ensure that the data used were well documented and traceable to their source. Although no final conclusion regarding the preferred form was reached or explicitly stated in this report (this was not within the TEP' s charter), no "show stoppers" were identified for either form. Both forms appear capable of satisfying all the criteria, as interpreted by the TEP. The TEP identified a number of distinct and quantifiable differences between the forms

  12. High-power, photofission-inducing bremsstrahlung source for intense pulsed active detection of fissile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zier, J. C.; Mosher, D.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.

    2014-06-01

    Intense pulsed active detection (IPAD) is a promising technique for detecting fissile material to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear materials. With IPAD, fissions are induced in a brief, intense radiation burst and the resulting gamma ray or neutron signals are acquired during a short period of elevated signal-to-noise ratio. The 8 MV, 200 kA Mercury pulsed-power generator at the Naval Research Laboratory coupled to a high-power vacuum diode produces an intense 30 ns bremsstrahlung beam to study this approach. The work presented here reports on Mercury experiments designed to maximize the photofission yield in a depleted-uranium (DU) object in the bremsstrahlung far field by varying the anode-cathode (AK) diode gap spacing and by adding an inner-diameter-reducing insert in the outer conductor wall. An extensive suite of diagnostics was fielded to measure the bremsstrahlung beam and DU fission yield as functions of diode geometry. Delayed fission neutrons from the DU proved to be a valuable diagnostic for measuring bremsstrahlung photons above 5 MeV. The measurements are in broad agreement with particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics and radiation transport. These show that with increasing AK gap, electron losses to the insert and outer conductor wall increase and that the electron angles impacting the bremsstrahlung converter approach normal incidence. The diode conditions for maximum fission yield occur when the gap is large enough to produce electron angles close to normal, yet small enough to limit electron losses.

  13. Open literature review of threats including sabotage and theft of fissile material transport in Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2005-06-01

    This report is a review of open literature concerning threats including sabotage and theft related to fissile material transport in Japan. It is intended to aid Japanese officials in the development of a design basis threat. This threat includes the external threats of the terrorist, criminal, and extremist, and the insider threats of the disgruntled employee, the employee forced into cooperation via coercion, the psychotic employee, and the criminal employee. Examination of the external terrorist threat considers Japanese demographics, known terrorist groups in Japan, and the international relations of Japan. Demographically, Japan has a relatively homogenous population, both ethnically and religiously. Japan is a relatively peaceful nation, but its history illustrates that it is not immune to terrorism. It has a history of domestic terrorism and the open literature points to the Red Army, Aum Shinrikyo, Chukaku-Ha, and Seikijuku. Japan supports the United States in its war on terrorism and in Iraq, which may make Japan a target for both international and domestic terrorists. Crime appears to remain low in Japan; however sources note that the foreign crime rate is increasing as the number of foreign nationals in the country increases. Antinuclear groups' recent foci have been nuclear reprocessing technology, transportation of MOX fuel, and possible related nuclear proliferation issues. The insider threat is first defined by the threat of the disgruntled employee. This threat can be determined by studying the history of Japan's employment system, where Keiretsu have provided company stability and lifetime employment. Recent economic difficulties and an increase of corporate crime, due to sole reliability on the honor code, have begun to erode employee loyalty.

  14. Fissile material measurements using the differential die-away self interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Schear, Melissa A; Menlove, Howard O; Tobin, Stephen J; Evans, Louise G; Lee, S Y

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is substantial research effort focused on quantifying plutonium (Pu) mass in spent fuel using non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques. Of the several techniques being investigated for this purpose, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) is a recently proposed, neutron-based NDA technique capable of quantifying the total fissile content in an assembly. Unlike the conventional Differential Die-Away (DDA) technique, DOSI does not require an external neutron source for sample interrogation, but rather, uses the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from {sup 244}Cm within the spent fuel for self-interrogation. The essence of the technique lies in the time separation between the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm and the detection of induced fission neutrons at a later time. The DDSI detector design imposes this time separation by optimizing the die-away times ({tau}) of the detector and sample interrogation regions to obtain an early and late neutron distribution respectively. The ratio of the count rates in the late gate to the early gate for singles, doubles, and triples is directly proportional to the fissile content present in the sample, which has already been demonstrated for simplified fuel cases using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The current work applies the DDSI concept to more complex samples, specifically spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies with varying isotopics resulting from a range of initial enrichment, bumup, and cooling time. We assess the feasibility of using the late gate to early gate ratio as a reliable indicator of overall fissile mass for a range of assemblies by defining a {sup 239}Pu effective mass which indicates the mass of {sup 239}Pu that would yield the same DDSI signal as the combined mass of major fissile isotopes present in the sample. This work is important for assessing the individual capability of the DDSI instrument in quantifying fissile mass in

  15. An approach for the limitation of fissile material resulting from criticality safety analysis of a waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P. ); Gmal, B. )

    1993-01-01

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Germany's Federal Office of Radiation Protection, intends to dispose of non-heat-generating radioactive waste, which may contain residual quantities of fissile materials like U 235 or Pu 239 in solid form, in the planned German Konrad repository. Within the framework of a comprehensive safety analysis, criticality safety for both the operational phase and the post-operational phase of the repository has been investigated. The performed analysis and the investigated scenarios as well as the calculation methods are described. As a result of the criticality safety considerations, limitations of fissionable materials are derived. These limitations restrict on the one hand the admissible mass concentration of fissile materials in the waste form and--on the other hand--the admissible mass of these materials in the cross section of an emplacement room, leading at the end to admissible masses per waste package. The mass limitations are determined separately for four radionuclides. In practice, a mixture of these radionuclides in a waste package has to be taken into account. Therefore, a summation criterion has been derived in order to ensure a high flexibility for the conditioning of the waste. This flexibility option does not result in a lower safety level of the repository.

  16. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  17. Productivity Techniques and Quality Aspects in the Criticality Safety Evaluation of Y-12 Type-B Fissile Material Packages

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, J. F.

    2011-06-28

    The inventory of certified Type-B fissile material packages consists of ten performance-based packages for offsite transportation purposes, serving transportation programs at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The containment vessels range from 5 to 19 in. in diameter and from 17 to 58 in. in height. The drum assembly external to the containment vessel ranges from 18 to 34 in. in diameter and from 26 to 71 in. in height. The weight of the packaging (drum assembly and containment vessel) ranges from 239 to 1550 lb. The older DT-nn series of Cellotex-based packages are being phased-out and replaced by a new generation of Kaolite-based ('Y-12 patented insulation') packages capable of withstanding the dynamic crush test 10 CFR 71.73(c)(2). Three replacement packages are in various stages of development; two are in use. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package, which does not conform to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for Type-B packages, is no longer authorized for service on public roads. The ES-3100 shipping package is an example of a Kaolite-based Type-B fissile material package developed as a replacement package for the DOT 6M. With expanded utility, the ES-3100 is designed and licensed for transporting highly enriched uranium and plutonium materials on public roads. The ES-3100 provides added capability for air transport of up to 7-kg quantities of uranium material. This paper presents the productivity techniques and quality aspects in the criticality safety evaluation of Y-12 packages using the ES-3100 as an example.

  18. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  19. Neutron-Absorbing Coatings for Safe Storage of Fissile Materials with Enhanced Shielding & Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J; Farmer, J; Lee, C; Fischer, L; Boussoufi, M; Liu, B; Egbert, H

    2007-07-03

    Neutron-absorbing Fe-based amorphous-metal coatings have been developed that are more corrosion resistant than other criticality-control materials, including Al-B{sub 4}C composites, borated stainless steels, and Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloys. The presence of relatively high concentration of boron in these coatings not only enhances its neutron-absorption capability, but also enables these coatings to exist in the amorphous state. Exceptional corrosion resistance has been achieved with these Fe-based amorphous-metal alloys through additions of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten. The addition of rare earth elements such as yttrium has lowered the critical cooling rate of these materials, thereby rendering them more easily processed. Containers used for the storage of nuclear materials, and protected from corrosion through the application of amorphous metal coatings, would have greatly enhanced service lives, and would therefore provide greater long-term safety. Amorphous alloy powders have been successfully produced in multi-ton quantities with gas atomization, and applied to several half-scale spent fuel storage containers and criticality control structures with the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. Salt fog testing and neutron radiography of these prototypes indicates that such an approach is viable for the production of large-scale industrial-scale facilities and containers. The use of these durable neutron-absorbing materials to coat stainless steel containers and storage racks, as well as vaults, hot-cell facilities and glove boxes could substantially reduce the risk of criticality in the event of an accident. These materials are particularly attractive for shielding applications since they are fire proof. Additionally, layers of other cold and thermal sprayed materials that include carbon and/or carbides can be used in conjunction with the high-boron amorphous metal coatings for the purpose of moderation. For example, various carbides, including boron

  20. 10 CFR 71.15 - Exemption from classification as fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the... nonfissile material. (2) Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be... beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium constitutes less than 5 percent of...

  1. 10 CFR 71.15 - Exemption from classification as fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the... nonfissile material. (2) Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be... beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium constitutes less than 5 percent of...

  2. 10 CFR 71.15 - Exemption from classification as fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the... nonfissile material. (2) Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be... beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium constitutes less than 5 percent of...

  3. 10 CFR 71.15 - Exemption from classification as fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the... nonfissile material. (2) Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be... beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium constitutes less than 5 percent of...

  4. 10 CFR 71.15 - Exemption from classification as fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the... nonfissile material. (2) Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be... beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium constitutes less than 5 percent of...

  5. 49 CFR 173.457 - Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with their definitions in § 173.403, a criticality safety index (CSI) and a transport index (TI). (b... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  6. 49 CFR 173.457 - Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with their definitions in § 173.403, a criticality safety index (CSI) and a transport index (TI). (b... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  7. 49 CFR 173.457 - Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with their definitions in § 173.403, a criticality safety index (CSI) and a transport index (TI). (b... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  8. 49 CFR 173.457 - Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with their definitions in § 173.403, a criticality safety index (CSI) and a transport index (TI). (b... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  9. Workshop Proceedings for USAF Institute for National Security Studies: Combatting Fissile Materials Smuggling Workshop #5, Held in Dublin, California, 3-4 February 1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    medical isotopes which, although extremely toxic , cannot be used to create a nuclear detonation in a bomb. 21 Combatting Fissile Materials Smuggling...other toxic substances into U.S. markets. Now, our programs to stop nuclear smuggling in the NIS are better conceived and more professionally managed...5 3-4 February 1998 - the commercial strategy and nuclear cooperation, - the brain drain, - the necessity to maintain the appearance of global

  10. Large Area Imaging Detector for Long-Range, Passive Detection of Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W

    2003-10-29

    Recent events highlight the increased risk of a terrorist attack using either a nuclear or a radiological weapon. One of the key needs to counter such a threat is long-range detection of nuclear material. Theoretically, gamma-ray emissions from such material should allow passive detection to distances greater than 100 m. However, detection at this range has long been thought impractical due to fluctuating levels of natural background radiation. These fluctuations are the major source of uncertainty in detection and mean that sensitivity cannot be increased simply by increasing detector size. Recent work has shown that this problem can be overcome through the use of imaging techniques. In this paper we describe the background problems, the advantages of imaging and the construction of a prototype, large-area (0.57 m{sup 2}) gamma-ray imager to detect nuclear materials at distances of {approx}100 m.

  11. Large Area Imaging Detector for Long-Range, Passive Detection Of Fissile Material

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W

    2004-07-30

    Recent events highlight the increased risk of a terrorist attack using either a nuclear or a radiological weapon. One of the key needs to counter such a threat is long-range detection of nuclear material. Theoretically, gamma-ray emissions from such material should allow passive detection to distances greater than 100 m. However, detection at this range has long been thought impractical due to fluctuating levels of natural background radiation. These fluctuations are the major source of uncertainty in detection and mean that sensitivity cannot be increased simply by increasing detector size. Recent work has shown that this problem can be overcome through the use of imaging techniques. In this paper we describe the background problems, the advantages of imaging and the construction of a prototype, large-area (0.57 m{sup 2}) gamma-ray imager to detect nuclear materials at distances of {approx}100 m.

  12. In situ removal of the ``hockey stick`` fissile material deposit at the East Tennessee Technology Park

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    Prior to shutdown of the gaseous diffusion process at the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant (now East Tennessee Technology Park), leakage of humid air into the process piping and equipment caused reactions with UF{sub 6}, which produced nonvolatile uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposition and other solid uranium fluoride compounds. During the period 1988--1991, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems performed nondestructive analysis (NDA) radiological surveys of the K-25 Site process facilities that previously had contained or processed uranium. These surveys were made to estimate the mass and {sup 235}U assay of localized uranium deposits remaining within the process piping and equipment. Three deposits were identified that had sufficient mass to achieve criticality. Two of these, the horizontal pipe and the T pipe deposits, required the addition of a moderator before a criticality accident could occur. The third was a very large uranium deposit determined by NDA to be distributed annularly in the process piping. Because of the shape of the system, it came to be called the hockey stick deposit. Because of the foregoing concerns with the hockey stick deposit, it was decided to gain experience by removing the less hazardous smaller deposits with their less complicated geometries first. Thus, the horizontal pipe deposit, the simplest and least reactive case, was handled first, in June 1997. Next, the T pipe, which was an intersection of large-diameter pipes and which posed additional problems because of a more complex geometry, was handled in August 1997. From this experience, the deposit removal techniques and procedures were refined. In December 1997, this large deposit was removed, and the contents were placed in a safe array configuration.

  13. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep borehole disposal Facility PEIS date input report for immobilized disposal. Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout with canisters. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    Following President Clinton`s Non-Proliferation Initiative, launched in September, 1993, an Interagency Working Group (IWG) was established to conduct a comprehensive review of the options for the disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials from nuclear weapons dismantlement activities in the United States and the former Soviet Union. The IWG review process will consider technical, nonproliferation, environmental budgetary, and economic considerations in the disposal of plutonium. The IWG is co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Security Council. The Department of Energy (DOE) is directly responsible for the management, storage, and disposition of all weapons-usable fissile material. The Department of Energy has been directed to prepare a comprehensive review of long-term options for Surplus Fissile Material (SFM) disposition, taking into account technical, nonproliferation, environmental, budgetary, and economic considerations.

  14. Evaluation of gravimetric and volumetric dispensers of particles of nuclear material. [Accurate dispensing of fissile and fertile fuel into fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Angelini, P.

    1981-08-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies compared the abilities of volumetric and gravimetric dispensers to dispense accurately fissile and fertile fuel particles. Such devices are being developed for the fabrication of sphere-pac fuel rods for high-temperature gas-cooled light water and fast breeder reactors. The theoretical examination suggests that, although the fuel particles are dispensed more accurately by the gravimetric dispenser, the amount of nuclear material in the fuel particles dispensed by the two methods is not significantly different. The experimental results demonstrated that the volumetric dispenser can dispense both fuel particles and nuclear materials that meet standards for fabricating fuel rods. Performance of the more complex gravimetric dispenser was not significantly better than that of the simple yet accurate volumetric dispenser.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  16. The Proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) and Its Potential Impact on U.S. Navy Nuclear Propulsion Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    PROGRAMS Marion Burgess Jr. Lieutenant, United States Navy A.A., St. Leo College, 1999 B.S., Norfolk State University, 2002 Submitted in...Commissioner Lewis Strauss had some reservations about Eisenhower’s ideas, his concern was that “the plan might backfire with the United States giving too...much material and the Soviets too little.”41 Strauss then reported back to Eisenhower, with findings drawn almost directly from the Panel of

  17. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  18. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  19. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  20. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  1. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  2. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  3. Radioprotective materials with tungsten nanopowder additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, V.; Baranov, G.; Chayka, T.; Derbasova, N.

    2017-01-01

    There’s been studied influence of submicron powder additives obtained by processing hardmetal waste TTK (TiC-WC-TaC-Co), on strength properties of cement. This modified cement is used as a structural material for containers at transportation and storage of radioactive waste.

  4. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performance computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.

  5. Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; ...

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is considered a disruptive technology for producing components with topologically optimized complex geometries as well as functionalities that are not achievable by traditional methods. The realization of the full potential of 3D printing is stifled by a lack of computational design tools, generic material feedstocks, techniques for monitoring thermomechanical processes under in situ conditions, and especially methods for minimizing anisotropic static and dynamic properties brought about by microstructural heterogeneity. In this paper, we discuss the role of interdisciplinary research involving robotics and automation, process control, multiscale characterization of microstructure and properties, and high-performancemore » computational tools to address each of these challenges. In addition, emerging pathways to scale up additive manufacturing of structural materials to large sizes (>1 m) and higher productivities (5–20 kg/h) while maintaining mechanical performance and geometrical flexibility are also discussed.« less

  6. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities.

  7. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  8. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17{degrees}--74{degrees}C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  9. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17[degrees]--74[degrees]C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  10. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  11. Reactivity feedback mechanisms in aqueous fissile solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E. . Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Solutions of fissile materials are often encountered during spent-fuel reprocessing. To estimate the hazards from accidental criticalities in these solutions, models have been developed to understand better the dynamics involved. Accurate representation of reactivity feedback mechanisms is a crucial part of such models. Reactivity feedback from uniform volumetric solution expansion is studied. For faster transients, density redistribution may also occur because of a variation of nuclear energy as a function of position in the assembly. Neutronic spectral temperature reactivity effects are studied by creating temperature-dependent cross sections from ENDF/B-VI data. The volumetric and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients are determined for the CRAC, KEWB-5, SILENE, and SHEBA solution assemblies. Spectral temperature coefficients are also calculated for poisoned, unpoisoned, and reflected plutonium solutions. Feedback coefficients are seen to be functions of geometry and isotopic contents of the assemblies. Results for plutonium solutions agree with other calculations, which confirms the possibility of autocatalytic excursions in large, dilute solutions.

  12. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikler, C. V.; Chaudhary, V.; Borkar, T.; Soni, V.; Jaeger, D.; Chen, X.; Contieri, R.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-03-01

    While laser additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly important in the context of next-generation manufacturing technologies, most current research efforts focus on optimizing process parameters for the processing of mature alloys for structural applications (primarily stainless steels, titanium base, and nickel base alloys) from pre-alloyed powder feedstocks to achieve properties superior to conventionally processed counterparts. However, laser additive manufacturing or processing can also be applied to functional materials. This article focuses on the use of directed energy deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies, such as the laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process, to deposit magnetic alloys. Three case studies are presented: Fe-30 at.%Ni, permalloys of the type Ni-Fe-V and Ni-Fe-Mo, and Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb (derived from Finemet) alloys. All these alloys have been processed from a blend of elemental powders used as the feedstock, and their resultant microstructures, phase formation, and magnetic properties are discussed in this paper. Although these alloys were produced from a blend of elemental powders, they exhibited relatively uniform microstructures and comparable magnetic properties to those of their conventionally processed counterparts.

  13. Additively manufactured metallic pentamode meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati, R.; Leeflang, A. M.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual mechanical properties that originate from their topological design. Pentamode metamaterials are particularly interesting because they could be designed to possess any thermodynamically admissible elasticity tensor. In this study, we additively manufacture the metallic pentamode metamaterials from a biocompatible and mechanically strong titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) using an energy distribution method developed for the powder bed fusion techniques. The mechanical properties of the developed materials were a few orders of magnitude higher than those of the similar topologies fabricated previously from polymers. Moreover, the elastic modulus and yield stress of the presented pentamode metamaterials were decoupled from their relative density, meaning that the metallic meta-biomaterials with independently tailored elastic and mass transport (permeability) properties could be designed for tissue regeneration purposes.

  14. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  15. What should ``damaged`` mean in air transport of fissile packages

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.E.; Falci, F.P.; Blackman, D.

    1995-12-31

    It is likely that the ongoing process to produce the 1996 version of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, IAEA Safety Series 6(SS 6) will result in a more stringent package qualification standard for air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) than is included in the 1990 version. During the process to define the scope of the new requirements there was extensive discussion of their impact on, and application to, fissile material package qualification criteria. Since fissile materials are shipped in a variety of packagings ranging from exempt to Type B, each packaging of each type must be evaluated for its ability to maintain subcriticality both alone and in arrays and in both damaged and undamaged condition. In the 1990 version of SS 6 ``damaged`` means the condition of a package after it had undergone the ``tests for demonstrating the ability to withstand accident conditions in transport,`` i.e., Type B qualification tests. These tests conditions are typical of severe accidents in surface modes, but are less severe than air mode qualification test environments to be applied to Type C packages. As a result, questions arose about the need for a corresponding change in the 1996 SS 6 to define ``damaged`` to include the Type C test regime for criticality evaluations of fissile packages in air transport.

  16. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  17. Safety analysis report: packages. GPHS shipping package supplement 2 to the PISA shipping package (packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chalfant, G. G.

    1981-06-01

    Safety Analysis Report DPST-78-124-1 is amended to permit shipment of 6 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) capsules (max.). Each capsule contains an average of 2330 curies of /sup 238/Pu, and each pair of capsules is contained in a welded stainless steel primary containment vessel, all of which are doubly contained in a flanged secondary containment vessel. This is in addition to the forms discussed in DPST-78-124-1 and Supplement 1.

  18. Dielectric breakdown of additively manufactured polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Monzel, W. Jacob; Hoff, Brad W.; Maestas, Sabrina S.; French, David M.; Hayden, Steven C.

    2016-01-11

    Dielectric strength testing of selected Polyjet-printed polymer plastics was performed in accordance with ASTM D149. This dielectric strength data is compared to manufacturer-provided dielectric strength data for selected plastics printed using the stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS) methods. Tested Polyjet samples demonstrated dielectric strengths as high as 47.5 kV/mm for a 0.5 mm thick sample and 32.1 kV/mm for a 1.0 mm sample. As a result, the dielectric strength of the additively manufactured plastics evaluated as part of this study was lower than the majority of non-printed plastics by at least 15% (with the exception of polycarbonate).

  19. Dielectric breakdown of additively manufactured polymeric materials

    DOE PAGES

    Monzel, W. Jacob; Hoff, Brad W.; Maestas, Sabrina S.; ...

    2016-01-11

    Dielectric strength testing of selected Polyjet-printed polymer plastics was performed in accordance with ASTM D149. This dielectric strength data is compared to manufacturer-provided dielectric strength data for selected plastics printed using the stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS) methods. Tested Polyjet samples demonstrated dielectric strengths as high as 47.5 kV/mm for a 0.5 mm thick sample and 32.1 kV/mm for a 1.0 mm sample. As a result, the dielectric strength of the additively manufactured plastics evaluated as part of this study was lower than the majority of non-printed plastics by at least 15% (with themore » exception of polycarbonate).« less

  20. Fissile-fuel production by linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Fissile fuel production by linear accelerators has advantages over fast breeders with respect to the absence of criticality problems and a higher net production rate of fuel. As part of the NASAP effort, a design study of the light-water reactor fuel enricher/regenerator, has been performed under the restriction that fuel was not to be reprocessed. The enricher/regenerator uses liquid lead jets as the target for the accelerator beam. The generated neutrons were then captured in an LWR fuel assembly for in-situ generation of fissile fuel. If the restriction of no reprocessing is removed, uranium or thorium elements can be irradiated directly with high-energy protons. The fissile fuel production rate and the heat regeneration due to high- and low-energy fission reaction are thus considerably increased, i.e., by at least a factor of two, as compared with liquid lead targets.

  1. Sensing Fissile Materials at Long Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    stable solids  in the beam chamber are desirable.  Two such compounds are water and  ammonia .   In both cases, the compounds need to be feed into the beam...sublimation, temperatures around 200 K or  lower are desirable.  Similarly  ammonia  need to be help cold in order to prevent  sublimation.  In both cases...the water or its bydroducts (oxygen ions, atoms and  water clusters) and  ammonia  and its by products, (nitrogen, ammonium clusters, …)  would not

  2. Additives in Bituminous Materials and Fuel-Resistant Sealers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    AD-A285 748 D)OT/FAAICT-94/78 DOT/FAAtRD-93/30 Additives in Bituminous FA Tehnia Cer Materials and Fuel-Resistant Atlantic City International Airport...Subtitle Ro Dat August 1394 Additives in Bituminous Materials and Fuel-Resistant S •O..M0aMtioiCOd5 Sealers I Amdirw S Polwo ovwm ’n New, No Gary L...bituminous materials and fuel-resistant sealers. Included in this report is a brief hisLory of these types of additives, the results of an airport

  3. Additive Technology: Update on Current Materials and Applications in Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Barazanchi, Abdullah; Li, Kai Chun; Al-Amleh, Basil; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, J Neil

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is becoming an alternative to subtractive manufacturing or milling in the area of computer-aided manufacturing. Research on material for use in additive manufacturing is ongoing, and a wide variety of materials are being used or developed for use in dentistry. Some materials, however, such as cobalt chromium, still lack sufficient research to allow definite conclusions about the suitability of their use in clinical dental practice. Despite this, due to the wide variety of machines that use additive manufacturing, there is much more flexibility in the build material and geometry when building structures compared with subtractive manufacturing. Overall additive manufacturing produces little material waste and is energy efficient when compared to subtractive manufacturing, due to passivity and the additive layering nature of the build process. Such features make the technique suitable to be used with fabricating structures out of hard to handle materials such as cobalt chromium. The main limitations of this technology include the appearance of steps due to layering of material and difficulty in fabricating certain material generally used in dentistry for use in 3D printing such as ceramics. The current pace of technological development, however, promises exciting possibilities.

  4. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  5. Fissile sample worths in the Uranium/Iron Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.W.; Bucher, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems from LMFBR critical experiments is the central worth discrepancy, the consistent overprediction of the reactivity associated with introducing a small material sample near the center of an assembly. Reactivity (sample worth) experiments in ZPR-9, assembly 34, the Uranium/Iron Benchmark (U/Fe), were aimed at investigating this discrepancy. U/Fe had a large, single-region core whose neutronics was governed almost entirely by /sup 235/U and iron. The essentially one-dimensional plate unit cell had one 1.6 mm-wide column of 93% enriched uranium (U(93)) near the center, imbedded in about 50 mm of iron and stainless steel. The neutron spectrum was roughly comparable to that of an LMFBR, but the adjoint spectrum was much flatter than an LMFBR's. The worths of four different fissile materials were measured and the worth of U(93) was measured using several different experimental techniques.

  6. Thermodynamically consistent microstructure prediction of additively manufactured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing has risen to the top of research interest in advanced manufacturing in recent years due to process flexibility, achievability of geometric complexity, and the ability to locally modify and optimize materials. The present work is focused on providing an approach for incorporating thermodynamically consistent properties and microstructure evolution for non-equilibrium supercooling, as observed in additive manufacturing processes, into finite element analysis. There are two primary benefits of this work: (1) the resulting prediction is based on the material composition and (2) the nonlinear behavior caused by the thermodynamic properties of the material during the non-equilibrium solution is accounted for with extremely high resolution. The predicted temperature response and microstructure evolution for additively manufactured stainless steel 316L using standard handbook-obtained thermodynamic properties are compared with the thermodynamic properties calculated using the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. Data transfer from the CALPHAD approach to finite element analysis is discussed.

  7. Methods for the additive manufacturing of semiconductor and crystal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Speight, Douglas

    2016-11-22

    A method for the additive manufacturing of inorganic crystalline materials, including: physically combining a plurality of starting materials that are used to form an inorganic crystalline compound to be used as one or more of a semiconductor, scintillator, laser crystal, and optical filter; heating or melting successive regions of the combined starting materials using a directed heat source having a predetermined energy characteristic, thereby facilitating the reaction of the combined starting materials; and allowing each region of the combined starting materials to cool in a controlled manner, such that the desired inorganic crystalline compound results. The method also includes, prior to heating or melting the successive regions of the combined starting materials using the directed heat source, heating the combined starting materials to facilitate initial reaction of the combined starting materials. The method further includes translating the combined starting materials and/or the directed heat source between successive locations. The method still further includes controlling the mechanical, electrical, photonic, and/or optical properties of the inorganic crystalline compound.

  8. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in the critical reactors

  9. CRUSH TESTING OF 9977 GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-28

    The 9977 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed in response to the adoption of the crush test requirement in the US regulations for packages for radioactive materials (10 CFR 71). This presentation on crush testing of the 9977 GPFP Reviews origins of Crush Test Requirements and implementation of crush test requirements in 10 CFR 71. SANDIA testing performed to support the rule making is reviewed. The differences in practice, on the part of the US Department of Energy from those required by the NRC for commercial purposes, are explained. The design features incorporated into the 9977 GPFP to enable it to withstand the crush test and the crush tests performed on the 9977 are described. Lessons learned from crush testing of GPFP packagings are given.

  10. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  11. Materials Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRC's Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  12. Material Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRCs Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  13. Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Salem, Ayman; Beuth, Jack; Harrysson, Ola; Lewandowski, John J.

    2016-03-01

    This overview highlights some of the key aspects regarding materials qualification needs across the additive manufacturing (AM) spectrum. AM technology has experienced considerable publicity and growth in the past few years with many successful insertions for non-mission-critical applications. However, to meet the full potential that AM has to offer, especially for flight-critical components (e.g., rotating parts, fracture-critical parts, etc.), qualification and certification efforts are necessary. While development of qualification standards will address some of these needs, this overview outlines some of the other key areas that will need to be considered in the qualification path, including various process-, microstructure-, and fracture-modeling activities in addition to integrating these with lifing activities targeting specific components. Ongoing work in the Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Reliability Center at Case Western Reserve University is focusing on fracture and fatigue testing to rapidly assess critical mechanical properties of some titanium alloys before and after post-processing, in addition to conducting nondestructive testing/evaluation using micro-computerized tomography at General Electric. Process mapping studies are being conducted at Carnegie Mellon University while large area microstructure characterization and informatics (EBSD and BSE) analyses are being conducted at Materials Resources LLC to enable future integration of these efforts via an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering approach to AM. Possible future pathways for materials qualification are provided.

  14. AN AZERBAIDZHAN SSR. INSTITUTE OF ADDITIVE CHEMISTRY ADDITIVES TO LUBRICATING OILS. PROBLEMS OF SYNTHESIS, INVESTIGATION AND USE OF OIL ADDITIVES; FUELS AND POLYMER MATERIALS (SELECTED ARTICLES),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An Azerbaidzhan SSR. Institute of additive chemistry additives to lubricating oils . Problems of synthesis, investigation and use of oil additives; fuels and polymer materials (Selected articles)--Translation.

  15. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Marie Dubois, Jean; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal–matrix composites or of polymer–matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized. PMID:27877661

  16. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Marie Dubois, Jean; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal-matrix composites or of polymer-matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized.

  17. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Dubois, Jean Marie; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal-matrix composites or of polymer-matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized.

  18. Mechanical characterisation of additively manufactured material having lattice microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuan-Urquizo, E.; Yang, S.; Bhaskar, A.

    2015-02-01

    Many natural and engineered structures possess cellular and porous architecture. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterisation of additively manufactured lattice structures. The lattice consists of a stack of polylactic acid (PLA) filaments in a woodpile arrangement fabricated using a fused deposition modelling 3D printer. Some of the most promising applications of this 3D lattice material of this type include scaffolds for tissue engineering and the core for sandwich panels. While there is a significant body of work concerning the manufacture of such lattice materials, attempts to understand their mechanical properties are very limited. This paper brings together manufacturing with the need to understand the structure-property relationship for this class of materials. In order to understand the elastic response of the PLA-based lattice structures obtained from the fused deposition modelling process, single filaments manufactured using the same process were experimentally characterised first. The single PLA filaments were manufactured under different temperatures. These filaments were then characterised by using tensile testing. The stress-strain curves are presented. The variability of the measured results is discussed. The measured properties are then taken as input to a finite element model of the lattice material. This model uses simple one-dimensional elements in conjunction with a novel method achieving computational economy which precludes the use of fine meshes. Using this novel model, the apparent elastic modulus of lattice along the filaments has been obtained and is presented in this paper.

  19. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizingmore » the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.« less

  20. Rapid Solidification and Phase Transformations in Additive Manufactured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Clarke, Amy Jean

    2016-01-14

    Within the past few years, additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a promising manufacturing technique to enable the production of complex engineering structures with high efficiency and accuracy. Among the important factors establishing AM as a sustainable manufacturing process is the ability to control the microstructures and properties of AM products. In most AM processes, such as laser sintering (LS), laser melting (LM), and laser metal deposition (LMD), rapid solidification and high-temperature phase transformations play primary roles in determining nano- and microstructures, and consequently the mechanical and other properties of AM products. This topic of JOM is dedicated to summarizing the current research efforts in the area of rapid solidification and phase transformations in additively manufactured materials. Finally, a brief summary follows below of 10 journal articles in this topic.

  1. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  2. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    W. Wallin

    1996-09-03

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective.

  3. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Bernardin, John David; Kimpland, Robert Herbert; Spernjak, Dusan

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  4. Operational Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect

    Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    2016-11-28

    Operational characteristics represent the set of responses that a nuclear system exhibits during normal operation. Operators rely on this behavior to assess the status of the system and to predict the consequences of off-normal events. These characteristics largely refer to the relationship between power and system operating conditions. The static and dynamic behavior of a chain-reacting system, operating at sufficient power, is primarily governed by reactivity effects. The science of reactor physics has identified and evaluated a number of such effects, including Doppler broadening and shifts in the thermal neutron spectrum. Often these reactivity effects are quantified in the form of feedback coefficients that serve as coupling coefficients relating the neutron population and the physical mechanisms that drive reactivity effects, such as fissile material temperature and density changes. The operational characteristics of such nuclear systems usually manifest themselves when perturbations between system power (neutron population) and system operating conditions arise. Successful operation of such systems require the establishment of steady equilibrium conditions. However, prior to obtaining the desired equilibrium (steady-state) conditions, an approach from zero-power (startup) must occur. This operational regime may possess certain limiting system conditions that must be maintained to achieve effective startup. Once steady-state is achieved, a key characteristic of this operational regime is the level of stability that the system possesses. Finally, a third operational regime, shutdown, may also possess limiting conditions of operation that must be maintained. This report documents the operational characteristics of a “generic” Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution (ADFS) system during the various operational regimes of startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown. Typical time-dependent behavior for each operational regime will be illustrated, and key system

  5. Additive manufacturing of stretchable tactile sensors: Processes, materials, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza

    3D printing technology is becoming more ubiquitous every day especially in the area of smart structures. However, fabrication of multi-material, functional, and smart structures is problematic because of the process and material limitations. This thesis sought to develop a Direct Print Photopolymerization (DPP) fabrication technique that appreciably extends the manufacturing space for the 3D smart structures. This method employs a robotically controlled micro-extrusion of a filament equipped with a photopolymerization process. The ability to use polymers and ultimately their nanocomposites in this process is the advantage of the proposed process over the current fabrication methods in the fabrication of 3D structures featuring mechanical, physical, and electrical functionalities. In addition, this study focused to develop a printable, conductive, and stretchable nanocomposite based on a photocurable and stretchable liquid resin filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). This nanocomposite exhibited piezoresistivity, means its resistivity changes as it deforms. This property is a favorable factor in developing resistance based tactile sensors. They were also able to resist high tensile strains while they showed conductivity. Furthermore, this study offered a possible and low-cost method to have a unique and highly stretchable pressure sensitive polymer. This disruptive pressure sensitive polymer composed of an Ionic Liquid (IL) and a stretchable photopolymer embedded between two layers of Carbon Nanotube (CNTs) based stretchable electrodes. The developed IL-polymer showed both field effect property and piezoresistivity that can detect large tensile strains up 30%. In summary, this research study focused to present feasible methods and materials for printing a 3D smart structure especially in the context of flexible tactile sensors. This study provides a foundation for the future efforts in fabrication of skin like tactile sensors in three-dimensional motifs

  6. Effective Mechanical Properties of Lattice Material Fabricated by Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-kyum; Rosen, David W; Duty, Chad E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step homogenization method is proposed and implemented for evaluating effective mechanical properties of lattice structured material fabricated by the material extrusion additive manufacturing process. In order to consider the characteristics of the additive manufacturing process in estimation procedures, the levels of scale for homogenization are divided into three stages the levels of layer deposition, structural element, and lattice structure. The method consists of two transformations among stages. In the first step, the transformation between layer deposition and structural element levels is proposed to find the geometrical and material effective properties of structural elements in the lattice structure. In the second step, the method to estimate effective mechanical properties of lattice material is presented, which uses a unit cell and is based on the discretized homogenization method for periodic structure. The method is implemented for cubic lattice structure and compared to experimental results for validation purposes.

  7. Timing of Getter Material Addition in Cementitious Wasteforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawter, A.; Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental immobilization technology for the Hanford sites's low activity waste (LAW), which contains radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. Cast Stone is made of a dry blend 47% blast furnace slag, 45% fly ash, and 8% ordinary Portland cement, mixed with a low-activity waste (LAW). To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to provide a stable domain for the radionuclides of concern. Previous testing conducted with a variety of getters has identified Tin(II)-Apatite and Silver Exchanged Zeolite as promising candidates for Tc and I, respectively. Investigation into the sequence in which getters are added to Cast Stone was performed following two methods: 1) adding getters to the Cast Stone dry blend, and then mixing with liquid waste, and 2) adding getters to the liquid waste first, followed by addition of the Cast Stone dry blend. Cast Stone monolith samples were prepared with each method and leach tests, following EPA method 1315, were conducted in either distilled water or simulated vadose zone porewater for a period of up to 63 days. The leachate was analyzed for Tc, I, Na, NO3-, NO2- and Cr with ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ion chromatography and the results indicated that the Cast Stone with getter addition in the dry blend mix (method 1) has lower rates of Tc and I leaching. The mechanisms of radionuclide release from the Cast Stone were also investigated with a variety of solid phase characterization techniques of the monoliths before and after leaching, such as XRD, SEM/EDS, TEM/SAED and other spectroscopic techniques.

  8. Development for fissile assay in recycled fuel using lead slowing down spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yong Deok; Je Park, C.; Kim, Ho-Dong; Song, Kee Chan

    2013-07-01

    A future nuclear energy system is under development to turn spent fuels produced by PWRs into fuels for a SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) through the pyrochemical process. The knowledge of the isotopic fissile content of the new fuel is very important for fuel safety. A lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS) is under development to analyze the fissile material content (Pu{sup 239}, Pu{sup 241} and U{sup 235}) of the fuel. The LSDS requires a neutron source, the neutrons will be slowed down through their passage in a lead medium and will finally enter the fuel and will induce fission reactions that will be analysed and the isotopic content of the fuel will be then determined. The issue is that the spent fuel emits intense gamma rays and neutrons by spontaneous fission. The threshold fission detector screens the prompt fast fission neutrons and as a result the LSDS is not influenced by the high level radiation background. The energy resolution of LSDS is good in the range 0.1 eV to 1 keV. It is also the range in which the fission reaction is the most discriminating for the considered fissile isotopes. An electron accelerator has been chosen to produce neutrons with an adequate target through (e{sup -},γ)(γ,n) reactions.

  9. Implementation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Source Verification and Confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, Taner; March-Leuba, Jose A; Powell, Danny H; Nelson, Dennis; Radev, Radoslav

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the verification procedure for neutron sources installed in U.S. Department of Energy equipment used to measure fissile material flow. The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment determines the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow of UF{sub 6} gas streams by using {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas and by measuring the fission products in the flow. The {sup 252}Cf sources in each FMFM are typically replaced every 2 to 3 years due to their relatively short half-life ({approx} 2.65 years). During installation of the new FMFM sources, the source identity and neutronic characteristics provided by the manufacturer are verified with the following equipment: (1) a remote-control video television (RCTV) camera monitoring system is used to confirm the source identity, and (2) a neutron detection system (NDS) is used for source-strength confirmation. Use of the RCTV and NDS permits remote monitoring of the source replacement process and eliminates unnecessary radiation exposure. The RCTV, NDS, and the confirmation process are described in detail in this report.

  10. Storage and disposition of weapons usable fissile materials (FMD) PEIS: Blending of U-233 to {lt}12% or {lt}5% enrichment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Data report, Draft: Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shaber, E.L.

    1995-08-01

    Uranium-233 (U-233), a uranium isotope, is a fissionable material capable of fueling nuclear reactors or being utilized in the manufacturing of nuclear weapons. As such, it is controlled as a special nuclear material. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) currently store the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) supply of unirradiated U-233 fuel materials. Irradiated U-233 is covered by the national spent nuclear fuel (SNF) program and is not in the scope of this report. The U-233 stored at ORNL is relatively pure uranium oxide in the form of powder or monolithic solids. This material is currently stored in stainless steel canisters of variable lengths measuring about 3 inches in diameter. The ORNL material enrichment varies with some material containing considerable amounts of U-235. The INEL material is fuel from the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Program and consists of enriched uranium and thorium oxides in zircaloy cladding. The DOE inventory of U-233 contains trace quantities of U-232, and daughter products from the decay of U-232 and U-233, resulting in increased radioactivity over time. These increased levels of radioactivity generally result in the need for special handling considerations.

  11. DOE NCSP Review of TRUPACT-II/HalfPACT Fissile Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.

    2002-03-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Nuclear Material & Spent Fuel, EM-21, tasked the CSSG to perform a scoping study to determine the feasibility of increasing the fissile mass loading limits for specified TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packages and containers. The results of the scoping study may provide insights and technical guidance for establishing fissile mass loading limits at waste generator sites and at the waste repository. The goal is to reduce costs of transporting fissile material to the WIPP from EM's various closure sites. This report documents the results of the scoping study and demonstrates that it is feasible to significantly increase the fissile mass loading limits in the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packages and containers. Depending upon the particular payload containers used, the number of shipments to WIPP could be reduced by at least a factor of 2 and as much as a factor of 16 and the number of total payload containers required ''down-hole'' at WIPP could be reduced by at least a factor of 2 and as much as about 6. These cost savings result simply from applying a more realistic criticality analysis model rather than the very conservative, hypothetical, bounding analysis used to support the existing fissile mass loading limits. However, the applications of existing and developmental computational tools, nuclear data, and experiments from the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program have the potential to further reduce transportation and disposal container costs on the order of 7% to 17%. It is suggested that EM proceed with an effort to do the required formal analyses and pursue SARP supplements to take advantage of these savings. The success of these analyses are dependent upon the availability of the majority of the infrastructure supported by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program as defined in the Five-Year Plan for the program. Finally, it should be noted that these potential cost savings are based only on

  12. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    support programs. 14. SUBJECT TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, technology adoption 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16...LEFT BLANK xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three Dimensions or Three Dimensional 3DP 3D Printing AM Additive Manufacturing AMDO...this is about to change. Additive manufacturing (AM) systems (commonly known as “ 3D printing”) could bring the organic parts manufacturing capability

  13. Fissile interrogation using gamma rays from oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Donald; Micklich, Bradley J.; Fessler, Andreas

    2004-04-20

    The subject apparatus provides a means to identify the presence of fissionable material or other nuclear material contained within an item to be tested. The system employs a portable accelerator to accelerate and direct protons to a fluorine-compound target. The interaction of the protons with the fluorine-compound target produces gamma rays which are directed at the item to be tested. If the item to be tested contains either a fissionable material or other nuclear material the interaction of the gamma rays with the material contained within the test item with result in the production of neutrons. A system of neutron detectors is positioned to intercept any neutrons generated by the test item. The results from the neutron detectors are analyzed to determine the presence of a fissionable material or other nuclear material.

  14. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Cates, Michael R.; Franks, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  15. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J.

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  18. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  19. 10 CFR 71.22 - General license: Fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to obtain the value of X, then the values for the terms in the equation for uranium-233 and plutonium... if: (i) Uranium-233 is present in the package; (ii) The mass of plutonium exceeds 1 percent of...

  20. 10 CFR 71.22 - General license: Fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to obtain the value of X, then the values for the terms in the equation for uranium-233 and plutonium... if: (i) Uranium-233 is present in the package; (ii) The mass of plutonium exceeds 1 percent of...

  1. 10 CFR 71.22 - General license: Fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to obtain the value of X, then the values for the terms in the equation for uranium-233 and plutonium... if: (i) Uranium-233 is present in the package; (ii) The mass of plutonium exceeds 1 percent of...

  2. 10 CFR 71.22 - General license: Fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to obtain the value of X, then the values for the terms in the equation for uranium-233 and plutonium... if: (i) Uranium-233 is present in the package; (ii) The mass of plutonium exceeds 1 percent of...

  3. 10 CFR 71.22 - General license: Fissile material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to obtain the value of X, then the values for the terms in the equation for uranium-233 and plutonium... if: (i) Uranium-233 is present in the package; (ii) The mass of plutonium exceeds 1 percent of...

  4. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  5. The Proposed Fissile-Material Production Cutoff: Next Steps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    OF THE PROPOSED CONVENTION What effect would the proposed convention limiting HEU and pluto - nium production have? First, although the convention...Having established that there will be a residual availability of pluto - nium and HEU for weapon manufacture after the implementation of the proposed...to improve the alternatives to pluto - nium use, including fuel-efficiency improvements in existing and advanced once-through low-enriched or natural

  6. 16 CFR 2.20 - Petitions for review of requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional information or documentary material. 2.20 Section 2.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... material, or recommend such modification to the responsible Assistant Director of the Bureau of Competition... investigation. A request for additional information or documentary material may be modified only in...

  7. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  8. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  9. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  10. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  11. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  12. Use of Imaging for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mullens, James Allen; Hausladen, Paul; Bingham, Philip R; Archer, Daniel E; Grogan, Brandon R; Mihalczo, John T

    2007-01-01

    The recent addition of imaging to the Nuclear Materials and Identification System (NMIS) using a small portable DT neutron generator with an embedded alpha detector to time and directionally tag neutrons from the DT reaction is discussed. The generator weighs {approx}35 lbs including power supplies (5 x 10{sup 7} n/sec) and operates on 50 watts power. Thus, the source can be easily moved to a variety of locations within an operational facility with minimum impact on operations or can be used at a fixed location for example to monitor receipts. Imaging NMIS (INMIS) not only characterizes the detailed shape of a containerized object by transmission tomography but determines the presence of fissile material by measuring the emitted radiation from induced fission. Previous work has shown that this type of imaging has a variety of applications other than nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). These include nonproliferation applications such as verification of configuration of nuclear weapons/components shipped or received, warhead authentication behind an information barrier, and traceability of weapons components both fissile and non fissile in dismantlement and counter terrorism. This paper concentrates on the use for NMC&A. Some of the NMC&A applications discussed are: verifying inventory and receipts, making more accurate holdup measurements especially where thicknesses of materials affect gamma ray spectrometry , determining the shape of unknown configurations of fissile materials where the material type may be known but not the form, determining the oxidation of fissile metal in storage cans, fingerprinting the content of storage containers going into a storage facility, and determining unknown configurations for criticality safety.

  13. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p < 0.05). After fluoride addition, flexibility was 15.45-20.27%, and the recovery from deformation did not change except one material. Compressive strength after fluoride addition was 0.36-1.12 MPa. Addition of NaF or SnF2 in an alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  15. THERMAL TESTING OF PROTOTYPE GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGES USING A FURNACE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Lawrence Gelder, L; Paul Blanton, P

    2007-02-16

    The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed by SRNL to replace the DOT 6M Specification Package and ship Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. Urethane foam was used for the overpack to ensure the package would withstand the 10CFR71.73(c)(2) crush test, which is a severe test for drum-type packages. In addition, it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam configuration provided adequate thermal protection for the containment vessel during the subsequent 10CFR71.73(c)(4) thermal test. Development tests were performed on early prototype test specimens of different diameter overpacks and a range of urethane foam densities. The thermal test was performed using an industrial furnace. Test results were used to optimize the selection of package diameter and foam density, and provided the basis for design enhancements incorporated into the final package design.

  16. Polyethylene oxide additive-entrapped polyvinyl chloride as a new blood bag material.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Kim, K O; Ju, Y M

    1999-01-01

    Until now, most widely used blood bag material has been a plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) because it has many desirable properties as a blood bag material. One of main concerns of using plasticized PVC as a blood bag material is the toxicity of the plasticizers that are leached out of the material. We tried to solve this problem by the addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-containing amphiphilic block copolymers as additives in the PVC. The PEO additives may play two roles: they can act as nontoxic plasticizers to PVC, and they can also act as blood-compatible surface modifiers. In this study, PEO additive-entrapped PVC films were prepared by the addition (up to 30 wt%) of PEO-alkyl carbon block copolymers or PEO-polypropylene oxide (PPO)-PEO triblock copolymers with different PEO chain lengths in the PVC. The prepared PEO additive-containing PVC films were characterized by the measurements of water contact angle, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode, mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation at break), water absorption, and stability of the PEO additives entrapped in the films. It was observed that the PEO additive-entrapped PVC films were flexible and transparent. It seems that the PEO additives are surface active, resulting in the considerable change of surface characteristics without a significant change of the mechanical properties of the films compared to the control PVC without any additives or a commercial blood bag. The adhesion of platelets on the film surfaces was significantly reduced by the addition of PEO additives. It seems that 10% addition of PEO additives is enough for the suppression of platelet adhesion on the surfaces. This study demonstrated that the use of PEO-containing block copolymers as additives to the PVC can be a feasible approach to prepare a new type of blood bag.

  17. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  18. 12 CFR 367.15 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... facts. 367.15 Section 367.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil... facts material to the proposed suspension and/or exclusion, the contractor shall be afforded...

  19. 12 CFR 367.15 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... facts. 367.15 Section 367.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil... facts material to the proposed suspension and/or exclusion, the contractor shall be afforded...

  20. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials determined by the Commission as found in the NHPRC...

  1. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives.

    PubMed

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2010-08-15

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the reduction of 0.2 log unit on belt material without additives. Reductions were significantly less (P<0.05) in the presence of food residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried.

  2. Computer simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in aqueous fissile solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe recent developments in computer simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in aqueous fissile solutions of uranium and plutonium such as might be encountered in fuel fabrication and reprocessing operations. Models for reactivity shutdown mechanisms and equations of state have been combined to permit estimates of fission yield, inertial pressure, and kinetic energy for a wide range of pulse sizes and time scales. Improvements to previously published models are reported along with some recent applications. Information obtained from pulsed solution assemblies (KEWB, CRAC, SILENE, and SHEBA) and from past criticality accidents was used in the development of computer models. Applications include slow events lasting many hours (hypothetical undetected laboratory accidents) and large-yield millisecond pulses in which evolution of radiolytic gas may be important (severe accidents and pulsed reactors).

  3. Examining the stability of thermally fissile Th and U isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bharat; Biswal, S. K.; Singh, S. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of recently predicted thermally fissile Th and U isotopes are studied within the framework of the relativistic mean-field approach using the axially deformed basis. We calculate the ground, first intrinsic excited state for highly neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes. The possible modes of decay such as α decay and β decay are analyzed. We found that neutron-rich isotopes are stable against α decay, however, they are very unstable against β decay. The lifetime of these nuclei is predicted to be tens of seconds against β decay. If these nuclei are utilized before their decay time, a lot of energy can be produced with the help of multifragmentation fission. Also, these nuclei have great implications from the astrophysical point of view. In some cases, we found that the isomeric states with energy range from 2 to 3 MeV and three maxima in the potential energy surface of Th-230228 and U-234228 isotopes.

  4. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-07-07

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  5. Materials of Criticality Safety Concern in Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.L.; Day, B.A.

    2006-07-01

    10 CFR 71.55 requires in part that the fissile material package remain subcritical when considering 'the most reactive credible configuration consistent with the chemical and physical form of the material'. As waste drums and packages may contain unlimited types of materials, determination of the appropriately bounding moderator and reflector materials to ensure compliance with 71.55 requires a comprehensive analysis. Such an analysis was performed to determine the materials or elements that produce the most reactive configuration with regards to both moderation and reflection of a Pu-239 system. The study was originally performed for the TRUPACT-II shipping package and thus the historical fissile mass limit for the package, 325 g Pu-239, was used [1]. Reactivity calculations were performed with the SCALE package to numerically assess the moderation or reflection merits of the materials [2]. Additional details and results are given in SAIC-1322-001 [3]. The development of payload controls utilizing process knowledge to determine the classification of special moderator and/or reflector materials and the associated fissile mass limit is also addressed. (authors)

  6. Additive Manufacturing: Building the Pathway Towards Process and Material Qualification”

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; ...

    2016-06-14

    The potential benefits of metal additive manufacturing, as compared with more traditional, subtractive-only approaches, has created excitement within design circles seeking to take advantage of the ability to build and repair complex shapes, to integrate or consolidate multiple parts and minimize joining concerns, and to locally tailor material properties to increase functionality. Tempering the excitement of designers, however, has been concerns with the material deposited by the process. It is not enough for a part to ‘look’ right from a geometric perspective. Rather, the metallurgical aspects associated with the material being deposited must ‘look’ and ‘behave’ correctly along with themore » aforementioned geometric accuracy. Finally, without elucidation of the connections between processing, microstructure, properties, and performance from a materials science perspective, metal additive manufacturing will not realize its potential to change the manufacturing world for property and performance-critical engineering applications.« less

  7. Additive Manufacturing: Building the Pathway Towards Process and Material Qualification”

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Herderick, Edward; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Sears, James

    2016-06-14

    The potential benefits of metal additive manufacturing, as compared with more traditional, subtractive-only approaches, has created excitement within design circles seeking to take advantage of the ability to build and repair complex shapes, to integrate or consolidate multiple parts and minimize joining concerns, and to locally tailor material properties to increase functionality. Tempering the excitement of designers, however, has been concerns with the material deposited by the process. It is not enough for a part to ‘look’ right from a geometric perspective. Rather, the metallurgical aspects associated with the material being deposited must ‘look’ and ‘behave’ correctly along with the aforementioned geometric accuracy. Finally, without elucidation of the connections between processing, microstructure, properties, and performance from a materials science perspective, metal additive manufacturing will not realize its potential to change the manufacturing world for property and performance-critical engineering applications.

  8. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  9. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  10. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  11. 16 CFR 803.20 - Requests for additional information or documentary material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requests for additional information or documentary material. 803.20 Section 803.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976...

  12. Direct fissile assay of highly enriched UF/sub 6/ using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Menlove, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    A new nondestructive method for direct assay of /sup 235/U mass contained in Model 5A uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) product storage cylinders has been successfully tested in the laboratory and under field conditions. The technique employs passive neutron self-interrogation and uses the ratio of coincidences-to-totals counts as a measure of bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1 sigma) based on field measurements of 44 Model 5A cylinders, 11 of which were either only partially filled or contained reactor return material. The cylinders contained UF/sub 6/ with enrichments from 5.96% to 97.6%. Count times were 3 to 6 min depending on /sup 235/U mass. Samples ranged from below 1 kg to over 16 kg of /sup 235/U. Because the method relies primarily on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place. This feature alleviates inhomogeneity problems and offers increased assurance of the presence of stated amounts of bulk fissile material as compared with current verification methods.

  13. Effect of additions of aluminosilicate and silicate materials on the softening temperature of chromite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, A. V.; Nurmaganbetova, B. N.; Pavlov, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    The temperatures of the beginning and end of softening and the temperature range of softening of the fines of the rich chromite ore of the Donskoy Ore Mining & Processing Plant in Kazakhstan are experimentally determined. The following natural and technical silica-containing materials, which are considered as fluxing additions to decrease the melting temperature of the chromite ore, are investigated: aluminosilicate clays, microsilica, and quartzite of various fractions. The effect of additions of the natural and technical silica-containing materials on the temperatures of the beginning and end of softening and the temperature range of softening of the chromite ore of DODPE is analyzed. The influences of various materials and their fraction compositions on the temperature of softening of the chromite ores are compared.

  14. On the design of novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnigan, Ross Daniel

    This thesis has been organized into five chapters. The main focus of this thesis is to design novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives. Chapter 1 is devoted to reviewing recent studies in additive manufacturing (AM) and other background information. In Chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of novel Ti3SiC2-reinforced Zn-matrix composites is reported. During this study, all the Zn composites were hot pressed at 500°C for 5 min at a uniaxial pressure of ~150 MPa. Microstructure analysis by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and phase analysis by XRD (X-ray Diffraction) confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between Ti3SiC 2 particles and the Zn matrix. The addition of Ti3SiC 2 improved the tribological performance of these composites against alumina substrates but did not have any beneficial effect on the mechanical performance. The addition of Ti3SiC2 particulates to metal and polymer matrices show interesting properties. Chapter 3 will focus on additive manufacturing of Ti3SiC2 particulates in a polymer matrix. Waste materials are a big problem in the world. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on recycling materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of the Resin-Nylon and ResinPolyester composites are reported, respectively.

  15. Influence of molybdenum silicide additions on high-temperature oxidation resistance of silicon nitride materials

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, H.; Tangermann, K.; Schubert, C.; Hermel, W.

    1996-09-01

    The influence of additions of molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of a silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) material, with neodymium oxide (Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and aluminum nitride (AlN) as sintering aids, was studied. The composites, containing 5, 10, and 17.6 wt% MoSi{sub 2}, were fabricated by hot pressing. All materials exhibited a similar phase composition, detected by X-ray diffractometry. Up to MoSi{sub 2} additions of 10 wt%, mechanical properties such as strength, fracture toughness, or creep at 1,400 C were not affected significantly, in comparison to that of monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The oxidation resistance of the composites, in terms of weight gain, degraded. After 1,000 h of oxidation at 1,400 and 1,450 C in air, a greater weight gain (by a factor of approximately three) was obtained, in comparison to that of the material without MoSi{sub 2}. Nevertheless, after 1,000 h of oxidation, the degradation in strength of the composites was considerably less severe than that of the material without MoSi{sub 2}. An additional layer was formed, caused by processes at the surface of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} material, preventing the formation of pores, cracks, or glassy-phase-rich areas, which are common features of oxidation damage in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. This surface layer, containing Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and silicon oxynitride (Si{sub 2}ON{sub 2}), was the result of reactions between MoSi{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and the oxygen penetrating by diffusion into the material during the high-temperature treatment.

  16. Effect of vermicomposting on concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge with additive materials.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Zhang, Yaxin; Shen, Maocai; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Mucen; Li, Meirong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the total content and speciation of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) during vermicomposting of sewage sludge by Eisenia fetida earthworm with different additive materials (soil, straw, fly ash and sawdust). Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon were reduced, while the electric conductivity and germination index increased after a combined composting - vermicomposting process. The addition of bulking agents accelerated the stabilization of sludge and eliminated its toxicity. The total heavy metals after vermicomposting in 10 scenarios were lowered as compared with the initial values and the control without amendment. BCR sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting significantly decreased the mobility of all heavy metals by increasing the residual fractions. The activity of earthworms and appropriate addition of amendment materials played a positive role in sequestering heavy metals during the treatment of sewage sludge.

  17. Significant role of fissility in evaporation residue cross sections as a probe of presaddle nuclear dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, W.

    2010-01-15

    Using a Langevin model, we explore the role of fissility in probing presaddle nuclear dissipation by calculating the excess of the evaporation residue cross section over its standard statistical-model value as a function of nuclear dissipation strength for nuclei {sup 190}Os and {sup 210}Po, which are taken as two representatives that have the same neutron-to-proton ratio (N/Z) but have a difference in fissility. We find that a large fissility not only amplifies the dissipation effects on the excess of evaporation residues, but also significantly increases the sensitivity of this excess to nuclear dissipation. The results suggest that in experiments, to obtain a more accurate information of nuclear dissipation inside the saddle point by measuring evaporation residue cross sections, it is best to populate among the various compound systems with equal N/Z those with high fissility.

  18. New water-soluble metal working fluids additives from phosphonic acid derivatives for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Ichitaro; Tomoda, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short paper describes properties of new additives for water-soluble cutting fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Some alkyldiphosphonic acids were prepared with known method. Amine salts of these phosphonic acids showed anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials. However, they have no hard water tolerance. Monoesters of octylphosphonic acid were prepared by the reaction of octylphosphonic acid dichloride with various alcohols in the presence of triethylamine. Amine salts of monoester of octylphosphonic acid with diethyleneglycol monomethyl ether, ethyleneglycol monomethyl ether and triethyleneglycol monomethyl ether showed both of a good anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials and hard water tolerance.

  19. Simulator for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Day, Christy M.; Determan, John C.

    2015-09-14

    LANL has developed a process to generate a progressive family of system models for a fissile solution system. This family includes a dynamic system simulation comprised of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the time evolution of the system. Neutron kinetics, radiolytic gas generation and transport, and core thermal hydraulics are included in the DSS. Extensions to explicit operation of cooling loops and radiolytic gas handling are embedded in these systems as is a stability model. The DSS may then be converted to an implementation in Visual Studio to provide a design team the ability to rapidly estimate system performance impacts from a variety of design decisions. This provides a method to assist in optimization of the system design. Once design has been generated in some detail the C++ version of the system model may then be implemented in a LabVIEW user interface to evaluate operator controls and instrumentation and operator recognition and response to off-normal events. Taken as a set of system models the DSS, Visual Studio, and LabVIEW progression provides a comprehensive set of design support tools.

  20. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  1. Effect of the fissile bead's and thermocouple wires’ sizes on the response time of a fission couple

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wenfeng Lu, Yi; Li, Meng; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Lu, Wei

    2014-05-15

    The fission couple is proposed as a fast response miniature neutron detector in the measurement of time dependent energy depositions within the fissile material based on theoretical analysis, but the response time of a fission couple is relatively slow in practice. The time lag originated from heat transfer process was demonstrated to be the dominating factor by theoretical simulations and experimental verification in this paper. The response of a fission couple as a function of the bead size and the thermocouple wires’ sizes are simulated using ANSYS workbench. The decrease of wires’ diameter results in the decrease of response time, and the increase of bead's diameter leads to a slight increase of response time. During a pulse heating transient in the fuel of Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II with a FWHM of 181μs, the time lag originated from heat transfer process is about tens of microseconds for the peaks of the change rate of temperature, and is of the order of milliseconds to achieve 85% of the temperature rise for a typical fission couple with a Φ 1 mm fissile bead and two Φ 0.05 mm thermocouple wires. The results obtained provide foundation for the optimization of fission couples.

  2. Effect of the fissile bead's and thermocouple wires' sizes on the response time of a fission couple.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenfeng; Lu, Yi; Li, Meng; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Lu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The fission couple is proposed as a fast response miniature neutron detector in the measurement of time dependent energy depositions within the fissile material based on theoretical analysis, but the response time of a fission couple is relatively slow in practice. The time lag originated from heat transfer process was demonstrated to be the dominating factor by theoretical simulations and experimental verification in this paper. The response of a fission couple as a function of the bead size and the thermocouple wires' sizes are simulated using ANSYS workbench. The decrease of wires' diameter results in the decrease of response time, and the increase of bead's diameter leads to a slight increase of response time. During a pulse heating transient in the fuel of Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II with a FWHM of 181 μs, the time lag originated from heat transfer process is about tens of microseconds for the peaks of the change rate of temperature, and is of the order of milliseconds to achieve 85% of the temperature rise for a typical fission couple with a Φ 1 mm fissile bead and two Φ 0.05 mm thermocouple wires. The results obtained provide foundation for the optimization of fission couples.

  3. Neutronic evaluation of fissile fuel breeding blankets for the fission-suppressed Tandem-Mirror Hybrid Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Burns, T.J.

    1984-06-01

    A computational study was performed on the blanket design of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) fission-suppressed Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor (TMHR) to qualify the methods and data bases available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use in analyzing the neutronic performance of fissile fuel breeding blankets. The eventual goal of the study was to establish the capability for analysis and optimization of advanced fissile fuel production blanket designs. Discrete ordinates radiation transport calculations were performed in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry to obtain the blanket spatial distribution and energy spectra of the neutron and gamma-ray fluxes resulting from the monoenergetic (14.1 MeV) fusion first wall source. Key macroscopic cross sections of the blanket materials were then folded with the flux spectra to obtain reaction rates critical to evaluating blanket feasibility. Finally, a time-dependent depletion analysis was performed to evaluate the blanket performance during equilibrium cycle conditions. The results of the study are presented both as graphs and tables.

  4. Functionalized 3D Architected Materials via Thiol-Michael Addition and Two-Photon Lithography.

    PubMed

    Yee, Daryl W; Schulz, Michael D; Grubbs, Robert H; Greer, Julia R

    2017-02-20

    Fabrication of functionalized 3D architected materials is achieved by a facile method using functionalized acrylates synthesized via thiol-Michael addition, which are then polymerized using two-photon lithography. A wide variety of functional groups can be attached, from Boc-protected amines to fluoroalkanes. Modification of surface wetting properties and conjugation with fluorescent tags are demonstrated to highlight the potential applications of this technique.

  5. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-10

    Michelle L. Pantoya, Michael A. Daniels Se. TASK NUMBER Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...of composite energetic materials using carbon nanotube additives Kade H. Poper a, Eric S. Collins a, Michelle L. Pantoya a, *, Michael A. Daniels b a...Thermochim. Acta 451 (1 2) (2006). [2] Chelsea Weir, Michelle L. Pantoya, Michael Daniels , Electrostatic discharge sensitivity and electrical conductivity

  6. Material Development for Tooling Applications Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Drye, Tom; Franc, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Techmer Engineered Solutions (TES) is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop materials and evaluate their use for ORNL s recently developed Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system for tooling applications. The first phase of the project established the performance of some commercially available polymer compositions deposited with the BAAM system. Carbon fiber reinforced ABS demonstrated a tensile strength of nearly 10 ksi, which is sufficient for a number of low temperature tooling applications.

  7. A comparison of dimensional accuracy between three different addition cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Forrester-Baker, L; Seymour, K G; Samarawickrama, D; Zou, L; Cherukara, G; Patel, M

    2005-06-01

    Ten impressions of a metal implant abutment were made with each of three addition-cured silicone impression materials. Using the technique of co-ordinate metrology, the shoulder region of the abutment and corresponding regions of both impressions and dies made from these impressions were scanned and measured. Comparison of these measurements indicated that the mean dimension measured from the shoulder region for each group of impression materials was significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. However, when these impressions were cast in a gypsum based die material, none of the measured dimensions taken from the casts were significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. Thus, any change in measured dimensions occurring during impression making, was compensated for in some way by the casting process.

  8. Critical masses of highly enriched uranium diluted with matrix material

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Kimpland, R.; Jaegers, P.; Butterfield, K.; Casson, W.; Bounds, J.; Myers, W.; Densmore, J. Rendon, G.

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive waste containing fissile material is frequently encountered in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Most of this waste is placed in containers or drums and stored in storage facilities. The amount of fissile material in each drum is generally small because criticality safety limits have been calculated with computer transport codes utilizing cross-section sections with large uncertainties. To the best of their knowledge, no experimental critical mass data are available to ensure the correctness of these calculations or any calculations for systems containing fissile material ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, or {sup 233}U) in contact with matrix material such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, SiO{sub 2}, Al, MgO, etc. The experiments discussed in this paper establish the critical masses of highly enriched uranium foils diluted in various X/{sup 235}U ratios with polyethylene and SiO{sub 2}, polyethylene and aluminum, and polyethylene and MgO. In addition, these critical mass experimental data will be used to validate computer transport codes and cross-section data.

  9. Aging effects on fire-retardant additives in organic materials for nuclear-plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.L.

    1982-08-01

    Inhibiting fire is a major concern of nuclear safety. One of the most widely used commercial fire-retardant additives incorporated into cable insulation and other organic materials to reduce their flammability has been the halocarbon (usually a chlorinated hydrocarbon), typically in combination with antimony oxide. Such materials may be installed for the design lifetime of a nuclear plant; this report describes an investigation of the long-term aging behavior of these fire-retardant additives in polymeric materials. Extensive aging experiments on fire-retarded formulations of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) have been carried out, with chemical analysis of halogen and antimony content performed as a function of aging time and conditions. Oxygen index flammability measurements were also performed on selected samples. Significant fire-retardant losses (both chlorine (Cl) and antimony (Sb)) were found to occur in certain of the fire-retardant materials but not in others, depending on the molecular structure of the particular halogen-containing component. The data indicate that the loss of halogen- and antimony-based fire retardants appears to be insignificant under ambient conditions expected for nuclear plants.

  10. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  11. Application of polymer graded-index materials for aberration correction of progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitanoki, Yuki; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2009-02-01

    Graded-index (GRIN) progressive addition lens (PAL) was successfully fabricated, and GRIN's potential for aberration correction of PAL was confirmed. GRIN material was prepared by partial diffusion of methyl methacrylate (MMA (nd at polymer = 1.492)) monomer into cross-linked benzyl methacrylate (BzMA (nd at polymer=1.568)) flat gel, and GRINPAL was prepared by polymerization of the GRIN material attached to a mold of commercially available PAL. GRIN polymer materials have been used for various applications such as rod lenses and optical fibers. GRIN represents gradual change of refractive index in a material, which adds or reduces light focusing power of the material. PAL is a multifocal spectacle lens for presbyopia. However, some localized aberrations (especially astigmatism) in PAL have not yet been reduced satisfactorily for decades by optimizing surface geometry of a lens. In this research, we propose to employ GRIN materials for astigmatism reduction of PALs. BzMA flat gel was prepared by UV polymerization of BzMA, crosslinking agent ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) and photopolymerization initiator DAROCURE 1173. MMA monomer was diffused into BzMA flat gel from a portion of periphery for several hours. The obtained GRIN material was attached to a mold of commercially available PAL and polymerized by UV. As a result, reduction of astigmatism was confirmed locally in the fabricated PAL and GRIN-PAL using lens meter. In conclusion, GRIN-PAL was successfully fabricated. The validity of GRIN employment for the astigmatism reduction in PAL was demonstrated experimentally.

  12. Determination of additives in PVC material by UV laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerlin, M.; Mermet, J. M.; Bertucci, M.; Zydowicz, P.

    1997-04-01

    UV laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) has been applied to the direct determination of additives in solid poly(vinyl chloride) materials. A Nd:YAG laser, operating at its fourth harmonic (266 nm), was used with a beam masking device, in the most reproducible conditions, to introduce solid particles into the plasma torch of a simultaneous ICP-AES system. Emphasis was placed on both precision and accuracy in the analysis of PVC materials by LA-ICP-AES. A series of six in-house PVC reference materials was prepared by incorporating several additives in increasing concentrations. Three alternative methods were evaluated to certify the amount of incorporated elements: ICP-AES with sample dissolution, NAA and XRF. Satisfactory results and good agreement were obtained for seven elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Mg, Sb, Sn and Ti) among the ten incorporated. Sample homogeneity appeared to be satisfactory, and calibration graphs obtained by LA-ICP-AES for several elements are presented. Finally, the performance of the technique in terms of repeatability (1.6-5%), reproducibility (2-5%), and limits of detection was investigated.

  13. Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG8k-co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

  14. Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

  15. Active metal-matrix composites with embedded smart materials by ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnlen, Ryan; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the development of active aluminum-matrix composites manufactured by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), an emerging rapid prototyping process based on ultrasonic metal welding. Composites created through this process experience temperatures as low as 25 °C during fabrication, in contrast to current metal-matrix fabrication processes which require temperatures of 500 °C and above. UAM thus provides unprecedented opportunities to develop adaptive structures with seamlessly embedded smart materials and electronic components without degrading the properties that make these materials and components attractive. This research focuses on developing UAM composites with aluminum matrices and embedded shape memory NiTi, magnetostrictive Galfenol, and electroactive PVDF phases. The research on these composites will focus on: (i) electrical insulation between NiTi and Al phases for strain sensors, investigation and modeling of NiTi-Al composites as tunable stiffness materials and thermally invariant structures based on the shape memory effect; (ii) process development and composite testing for Galfenol-Al composites; and (iii) development of PVDF-Al composites for embedded sensing applications. We demonstrate a method to electrically insulate embedded materials from the UAM matrix, the ability create composites containing up to 22.3% NiTi, and their resulting dimensional stability and thermal actuation characteristics. Also demonstrated is Galfenol-Al composite magnetic actuation of up to 54 μ(see manuscript), and creation of a PVDF-Al composite sensor.

  16. Processing of New Materials by Additive Manufacturing: Iron-Based Alloys Containing Silver for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Hoyer, Peter; Schwarze, Dieter; Schaper, Mirko; Grothe, Richard; Wiesener, Markus; Grundmeier, Guido; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    In the biomedical sector, production of bioresorbable implants remains challenging due to improper dissolution rates or deficient strength of many candidate alloys. Promising materials for overcoming the prevalent drawbacks are iron-based alloys containing silver. However, due to immiscibility of iron and silver these alloys cannot be manufactured based on conventional processing routes. In this study, iron-manganese-silver alloys were for the first time synthesized by means of additive manufacturing. Based on combined mechanical, microscopic, and electrochemical studies, it is shown that silver particles well distributed in the matrix can be obtained, leading to cathodic sites in the composite material. Eventually, this results in an increased dissolution rate of the alloy. Stress-strain curves showed that the incorporation of silver barely affects the mechanical properties.

  17. Multi-material additive manufacturing of robot components with integrated sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Matt; Cox, Bryan; Galla, Matt; Krueger, Paul S.; Richer, Edmond; Cohen, Adam L.

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating a robotic component comprising 100s of distributed, connected sensors can be very difficult with current approaches. To address these challenges, we are developing a novel additive manufacturing technology to enable the integrated fabrication of robotic structural elements with distributed, interconnected sensors and actuators. The focus is on resistive and capacitive sensors and electromagnetic actuators, though others are anticipated. Anticipated applications beyond robotics include advanced prosthetics, wearable electronics, and defense electronics. This paper presents preliminary results for printing polymers and conductive material simultaneously to form small sensor arrays. Approaches to optimizing sensor performance are discussed.

  18. Preliminary result on the enhancement of Ufer electrodes using recycle additives materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Haziq Aniq Bin; Ahmad, Hussein Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ground building pillars is to be used as ground rod. The pillars are design, fabricated, and formulated with new ground fillers. The additives will be used from recycle waste materials mainly from the palm oil plant process. Micro scale building pillars will be fabricated and install in the test ground at all of the location. Earth tester meter are used to measure and collect the data of the soil resistivity when the research is conducted. In collecting these data, 3-terminal methods are used to carry the measurements. This experiment will be conducted for 30 weeks and regular measurements at the test ground copper grids will be conducted to measure the ground electrode resistance. The study will mainly base on IEC 62503-3. The used of reinforcing rods and mixture of recycle additives could produce a better grounding system that are suitable and can be used in all kind of soil condition and large industries.

  19. High order statistical signatures from source-driven measurements of subcritical fissile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, John Kelly

    1998-11-01

    This research focuses on the development and application of high order statistical analyses applied to measurements performed with subcritical fissile systems driven by an introduced neutron source. The signatures presented are derived from counting statistics of the introduced source and radiation detectors that observe the response of the fissile system. It is demonstrated that successively higher order counting statistics possess progressively higher sensitivity to reactivity. Consequently, these signatures are more sensitive to changes in the composition, fissile mass, and configuration of the fissile assembly. Furthermore, it is shown that these techniques are capable of distinguishing the response of the fissile system to the introduced source from its response to any internal or inherent sources. This ability combined with the enhanced sensitivity of higher order signatures indicates that these techniques will be of significant utility in a variety of applications. Potential applications include enhanced radiation signature identification of weapons components for nuclear disarmament and safeguards applications and augmented nondestructive analysis of spent nuclear fuel. In general, these techniques expand present capabilities in the analysis of subcritical measurements.

  20. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash.

    PubMed

    He, Deng-liang; Yin, Guang-fu; Dong, Fa-qin; Liu, Lai-bao; Luo, Ya-jun

    2010-05-15

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of gamma-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  1. Carbon materials as additives to WO3 for an enhanced conversion of simulated solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rocío; Velasco, Leticia; Laurenti, Enzo; Maurino, Valter; Ania, Conchi

    2016-02-01

    We have explored the impact of the incorporation of nanoporous carbons as additives to tungsten oxide on the photocatalytic degradation of two recalcitrant pollutants: rhodamine B and phenol, under simulated solar light. For this purpose, WO3/carbon mixtures were prepared using three carbon materials with different properties (in terms of porosity, structural order and surface chemistry). Despite the low carbon content used (2 wt. %), a significant increase in the photocatalytic performance of the semiconductor was observed for all the catalysts. Moreover, the influence of the carbon additive on the performance of the photocatalysts was found to be very different for the two pollutants. Carbon additives of hydrophobic nature increased the photodegradation yield of phenol compared to bare WO3, likely due to the higher affinity and stronger interactions of phenol molecules towards basic nanoporous carbons. Oppositely, the use of acidic carbon additives led to higher rhodamine B conversions due to increased acidity of the WO3/carbon mixtures and the stronger affinity of the pollutant for acidic catalyst’s surfaces. As a result, the photooxidation of rhodamine B is favored by means of a coupled (photosensitized and photocatalytic) degradation mechanism. All these results highlight the importance of favoring the interactions of the pollutant with the catalyst’s surface through a detailed design of the features of the photocatalyst.

  2. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of chemistry and detonation performance.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L; Bukowski, Eric J

    2017-01-20

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives. Here, the LASEM technique has been extended to explosive formulations with metal additives. A comparison of the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities for TNT, RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by the thermochemical code CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time (<10  μs) participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that while Al is mostly inert at early times in the detonation event (confirmed from large-scale detonation testing), B is active-and reducing the amount of hydrogen present during the early chemical reactions increases the resulting estimated detonation velocities.

  3. Development of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (sinrd) to measure the fissile content in nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Adrienne Marie

    The development of non-destructive assay (NDA) capabilities to directly measure the fissile content in spent fuel is needed to improve the timely detection of the diversion of significant quantities of fissile material. Currently, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not have effective NDA methods to verify spent fuel and recover continuity of knowledge in the event of a containment and surveillance systems failure. This issue has become increasingly critical with the worldwide expansion of nuclear power, adoption of enhanced safeguards criteria for spent fuel verification, and recent efforts by the IAEA to incorporate an integrated safeguards regime. In order to address these issues, the use of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) has been developed to improve existing nuclear safeguards and material accountability measurements. The following characteristics of SINRD were analyzed: (1) ability to measure the fissile content in Light Water Reactors (LWR) fuel assemblies and (2) sensitivity and penetrability of SINRD to the removal of fuel pins from an assembly. The Monte Carlo Neutral Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code was used to simulate SINRD for different geometries. Experimental measurements were also performed with SINRD and were compared to MCNPX simulations of the experiment to verify the accuracy of the MCNPX model of SINRD. Based on the results from these simulations and measurements, we have concluded that SINRD provides a number of improvements over current IAEA verification methods. These improvements include: (1) SINRD provides absolute measurements of burnup independent of the operator's declaration. (2) SINRD is sensitive to pin removal over the entire burnup range and can verify the diversion of 6% of fuel pins within 3o from LWR spent LEU and MOX fuel. (3) SINRD is insensitive to the boron concentration and initial fuel enrichment and can therefore be used at multiple spent fuel storage facilities. (4) The

  4. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-09-14

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument’s LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  5. Development of magnetodielectric materials to be used in additive manufacturing processes for high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Paul Emerson, II

    Electrical devices for very-high frequency (VHF, 0.03 -- 0.3 GHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 0.3 -- 3.0 GHz) are commonly used for communications. However, the wavelengths, lambda, of these frequency bands correspond to lengths between 10 and 0.1 m, resulting in prohibitively large devices. Materials with an index of refraction, n, greater than 1 can be used to effectively shrink these devices by a factor of 1/ n. In this thesis, magnetodielectric materials (MDM), where n ≥1, have been made to be used in additive manufacturing processes with strict particle size requirements and were developed using various methods, such as polyol reduction and conventional ceramic solid state processing. These materials were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), to determine their crystalline, physical, and direct current (DC) magnetization properties. The techniques used to synthesize the MDM yielded particles that were chemically similar, but had drastically different physical properties which heavily influences their high-frequency electromagnetic properties. These materials were then uniformly dispersed into a non-conducting medium, such as a low-electrical loss polymer or resin, and formed into composite samples with variable volumetric loading. These composite samples were measured using several techniques to characterize the frequency-dependent electromagnetic (EM) properties, such as relative permeability, relative permittivity, and their respective losses. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were performed using these MDM-composites to design a spiral antenna to be used at approximately 585 MHz.

  6. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  7. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  8. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubencik, A. M.

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  9. Defect Characterization for Material Assurance in Metal Additive Manufacturing (FY15-0664)

    SciTech Connect

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad; Jared, Bradley Howell; Rodelas, Jeffrey; Laing, John Robert

    2016-02-01

    No industry-wide standards yet exist for minimum properties in additively manufactured (AM) metals. While AM alloys such as 17-4 precipitation hardened stainless steel have been shown to have average properties that can be comparable to wrought or cast product, they suffer from inconsistent performance. Variability in the feedstock powder, feature sizes, thermal history, and laser performance can lead to unpredictable surface finish, chemistry, phase content, and defects. To address this issue, rapid, efficient, high-throughput mechanical testing and data analysis was developed, providing profound statistical insight into the stochastic variability in properties. With this new approach, 1000’s of comprehensive tensile tests can be performed for the cost of 10’s of conventional tests. This new high-throughput approach provides a material qualification pathway that is commensurate with the quick turn-around benefit of AM.

  10. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    SciTech Connect

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  11. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    DOE PAGES

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; ...

    2015-12-29

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In thismore » study, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.« less

  12. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin. PMID:23127224

  13. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the SI units. Abbreviations are authorized. Except for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or kilograms of fissile radionuclides may be inserted instead of activity units. For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams of fissile radionuclides may be inserted in addition to...

  14. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the SI units. Abbreviations are authorized. Except for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or kilograms of fissile radionuclides may be inserted instead of activity units. For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams of fissile radionuclides may be inserted in addition to...

  15. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the SI units. Abbreviations are authorized. Except for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or kilograms of fissile radionuclides may be inserted instead of activity units. For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams of fissile radionuclides may be inserted in addition to...

  16. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the SI units. Abbreviations are authorized. Except for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or kilograms of fissile radionuclides may be inserted instead of activity units. For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams of fissile radionuclides may be inserted in addition to...

  17. Polymeric Materials With Additives for Durability and Radiation Shielding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric materials are attractive for use in space structures because of their light weight and high strength In addition, polymers are made of elements with low atomic numbers (Z), primarily carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (0), and nitrogen (N) which provide the best shielding from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) (ref. 1). Galactic cosmic rays are composed primarily of nuclei (i.e., fully ionized atoms) plus a contribution of about 2% from electrons and positrons. There is a small but significant component of GCR particles with high charge (Z > 10) and high energy (E >100 GeV) (ref. 2). These so-called HZE particles comprise only 1 to 2% of the cosmic ray fluence but they interact with very high specific ionization and contribute 50% of the long- term dose to humans. The best shield for this radiation would be liquid hydrogen, which is not feasible. For this reason, hydrogen-containing polymers make the most effective practical shields. Moreover, neutrons are formed in the interactions of GCR particles with materials. Neutrons can only lose energy by collisions or reactions with a nucleus since they are uncharged. This is a process that is much less probable than the Coulombic interactions of charged particles. Thus, neutrons migrate far from the site of the reaction in which they were formed. This increases the probability of neutrons reaching humans or electronic equipment. Fast neutrons (> 1 MeV) can interact with silicon chips in electronic equipment resulting in the production of recoil ions which can cause single event upsets (SEU) in sensitive components (ref. 3). Neutrons lose energy most effectively by elastic collisions with light atoms, particularly hydrogen atoms. Therefore, hydrogen-containing polymers are not only effective in interacting with GCR particles; they are also effective in reducing the energy of the neutrons formed in the interactions.

  18. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  19. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  20. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  1. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  2. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  3. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity and surface topography evaluation of additive manufacturing titanium implant materials.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Jukka T; Björkstrand, Roy V; Pernu, Mikael L; Salmi, Mika V J; Huotilainen, Eero I; Wolff, Jan E H; Vallittu, Pekka K; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2017-03-01

    Custom-designed patient-specific implants and reconstruction plates are to date commonly manufactured using two different additive manufacturing (AM) technologies: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM). The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the surface structure and to assess the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys processed using DMLS and EBM technologies as the existing information on these issues is scarce. "Processed" and "polished" DMLS and EBM disks were assessed. Microscopic examination revealed titanium alloy particles and surface flaws on the processed materials. These surface flaws were subsequently removed by polishing. Surface roughness of EBM processed titanium was higher than that of DMLS processed. The cytotoxicity results of the DMLS and EBM discs were compared with a "gold standard" commercially available titanium mandible reconstruction plate. The mean cell viability for all discs was 82.6% (range, 77.4 to 89.7) and 83.3% for the control reconstruction plate. The DMLS and EBM manufactured titanium plates were non-cytotoxic both in "processed" and in "polished" forms.

  5. Evaluation Of Glass Density To Support The Estimation Of Fissile Mass Loadings From Iron Concentrations In SB8 Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-04-30

    The Department of Energy – Savannah River (DOE-SR) has provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of that guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) glass based on the iron (Fe) concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that the necessary density information be provided to allow SRR to update the Excel® spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes an upper bound for the density of SB8-based glasses. Thus, these bounding density values are to be used to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel-based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB8. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB8 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample.

  6. Surplus plutonium immobilization feed materials requirements and blending strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Edmunds, T.; Gray, L.; Riley, D.; Rising, T.L.

    1998-02-13

    The Excess Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s Record of Decision (ROD) published in January 1997 by DOE/MD describes three potential pathways for the disposition of excess fissile materials: burning as MOX fuel rods, and two can-in-canister immobilization candidates: glass and ceramics. In addition, the ROD introduced processing schedules for MD disposition program. Prior to the ROD, the only acceptance specification that AMD had for incoming materials was DOE- STD-3013. However, STD-3013 is a specification aimed at maintaining safety for long term storage (approximately 100 years) and was never intended to act as an acceptance specification. An effort has begun to examine all of the technical issues associated with the processing and transfer of materials from EM to MD. Since that time, several related initiatives have begun to deal with the many issues, including the EM Material Stewardship program, the latest EM-66 sponsored trade studies, and a new storage standard. A draft of feed material requirements for the ceramic Immobilization Facility that will be used for the disposition of surplus plutonium has been developed for discussion. It established impurity limits for feed materials to the immobilization process, identifies impurities in feed materials that may have an adverse effect on the immobilization process, and indicates how these materials can be further processed and blended at the Immobilization Facility to ensure manufacture of an acceptable product.

  7. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  8. Biological properties of IRM with the addition of hydroxyapatite as a retrograde root filling material.

    PubMed

    Owadally, I D; Chong, B S; Pitt Ford, T R; Wilson, R F

    1994-10-01

    The effect of adding 10% & 20% hydroxyapatite (HAP) on the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material) when used as a retrograde root filling was compared with amalgam, a commonly used material. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the agar diffusion inhibitory test. Forty standardized pellets of each material were produced. Fresh materials, and materials aged for 1 week in sterile distilled water, were placed on blood agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) or Enterococcus faecalis. The presence and diameter of zones of inhibition were recorded at intervals of 3, 7 and 10 days. There was no statistically significant overall difference in the response of the two bacteria tested. However, there were statistically significant overall differences in diameters of the zones of inhibition related to different materials, period of exposure and ageing of materials (P < 0.001). The diameter of the zones of inhibition increased with time for all materials, fresh and aged. IRM and both the HAP-modified forms produced large zones of inhibition. Amalgam produced no measureable zones of inhibition whether aged or fresh, regardless of period of exposure and was different from the other materials (P < 0.001). The cytotoxicity was assessed using the Millipore filter method. Ten standardized pellets of each material were produced and aged by storage in sterile distilled water for 72 h. Ten filters were included as controls. Amalgam produced a consistent cytotoxic score of 1, and the difference between amalgam and the other materials was statistically significant (P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. 45 CFR 1641.21 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.21 Section 1641.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  10. 45 CFR 1641.21 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.21 Section 1641.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  11. 45 CFR 1641.10 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.10 Section 1641.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  12. 45 CFR 1641.10 - Additional proceedings as to disputed material facts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... facts. 1641.10 Section 1641.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL... proceedings as to disputed material facts. (a) In actions not based upon a conviction or civil judgment under... of material fact, the IPA shall be afforded an opportunity to appear (with counsel, if...

  13. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  14. Evaluation of fuel additives for reduction of material imcompatibilities in methanol-gasoline blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, C. F.; Barbee, J. G.; Knutson, W. K.; Cuellar, J. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests determined the efficacy of six commercially available additives as modifiers of methanol's corrosivity toward metals and its weakening of tensile properties of nonmetals in automotive fuel systems. From the screening phase, three additives which seemed to protect some of the metals were tested in higher concentrations and binary combinations in search of optimal application conditions. Results indicate that two of the additives have protective properties and combining them increases the protection of the metals corroded by methanol-gasoline blends. Half of the metals in the tests were not corroded. Testing at recommended concentrations and then at higher concentrations and in combinations shows that the additives would have no protective or harmful effects on the nonmetals. Two additives emerged as candidates for application to the protection of metals in automotive methanol-gasoline fuel systems. The additives tested were assigned letter codes to protect their proprietary nature.

  15. Effects of titanium addition on the microstructure of carbon/copper composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, Takeo; Oku, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Carbon(C)/copper(Cu)-based materials with high thermal conductivity and good stability at high temperatures were developed by adding a small amount of titanium, which has a low enthalpy of alloy formation with C and Cu. The isotropic fine-grained nuclear grade graphite and felt type C/C composite, which were impregnated by Cu and titanium, provided 1.3 times higher thermal conductivity at 1200 K than the original carbon materials. Microstructural analysis showed that the increase of thermal conductivity is due to the formation of titanium compounds at the C/Cu interface. These carbon-based materials could be a candidate material for the plasma facing components of fusion devices.

  16. Representation of the neutron cross sections of several fertile and fissile nuclei in the resonance regions

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Several aspects of the measurement, analysis and evaluation of the cross sections of the fertile and fissile nuclides in the resonance regions are discussed. In the resolved range, for the fertile nuclides it is thought that the principal requirement for improved evaluations is for a practical methodology to deal with systematic errors and their correlations. For the fissile nuclides /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu, the ENDF/B-V evaluations are not consistent with ENDF/B procedures recommendations and fall short of the goals of resonance analysis. New evaluations of these two isotopes should be performed. In the unresolved resonance region it is shown that the ENDF/B representation is ambiguous and is not theoretically justified. A better representation may be desirable, and a validation of the representation with experimental self-shielding and transmission measurements is certainly required. 105 references. (WHK)

  17. Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculational Analysis for Fissile Mass Limits and Spacing Requirements for 55 - Gallon Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Thomas C.; Hesse, David J.; Tayloe, Jr., Robert W.

    1994-05-01

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis was performed to determine the fissile mass limits and spacing requirements for the storage of 55-gallon waste drums at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS).

  18. Differential die-away technique for determination of the fissile contents in spent fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tachoon; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Nartyn T; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the differential die-away (DDA) technique to quantify its capability to measure the fissile contents in spent fuel assemblies of 64 different cases in terms of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time. The DDA count rate varies according to the contents of fissile isotopes such as {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu contained in the spent fuel assembly. The effective {sup 239}Pu concept was introduced to quantify the total fissile mass of spent fuel by weighting the relative signal contributions of {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Pu compared to that of {sup 239}Pu. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the count rate of the DDA instrument for a spent fuel assembly of 4% initial enrichment, 45 GWD/MTU burnup, and 5 year cooling time is {approx} 9.8 x 10{sup 4} counts per second (c/s) with the 100-Hz repeated interrogation pattern of 0 to 10 {micro}s interrogation, 0.2 ms to 1 ms counting time, and 1 x 10{sup 9} n/s neutron source. The {sup 244}Cm neutron background count rate for this counting time scheme is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 4} c/s, and thus the signal to background ratio is {approx}10.

  19. Photofission Analysis for Fissile Dosimeters Dedicated to Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourganel, Stéphane; Faucher, Margaux; Thiollay, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Fissile dosimeters are commonly used in reactor pressure vessel surveillance programs. In this paper, the photofission contribution is analyzed for in-vessel 237Np and 238U fissile dosimeters in French PWR. The aim is to reassess this contribution using recent tools (the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code) and latest nuclear data (JEFF3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII nuclear libraries). To be as exhaustive as possible, this study is carried out for different configurations of fissile dosimeters, irradiated inside different kinds of PWR: 900 MWe, 1300 MWe, and 1450 MWe. Calculation of photofission rate in dosimeters does not present a major problem using the TRIPOLI-4® Monte Carlo code and the coupled neutron-photon simulation mode. However, preliminary studies were necessary to identify the origin of photons responsible of photofissions in dosimeters in relation to the photofission threshold reaction (around 5 MeV). It appears that the main contribution of high enough energy photons generating photofissions is the neutron inelastic scattering in stainless steel reactor structures. By contrast, 137Cs activity calculation is not an easy task since photofission yield data are known with high uncertainty.

  20. Controlling cell-material interactions with polymer nanocomposites by use of surface modifying additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole-Warren, L. A.; Farrugia, B.; Fong, N.; Hume, E.; Simmons, A.

    2008-11-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (NC) are fabricated by incorporating well dispersed nanoscale particles within a polymer matrix. This study focuses on elastomeric polyurethane (PU) based nanocomposites, containing organically modified silicates (OMS), as bioactive materials. Nanocomposites incorporating chlorhexidine diacetate as an organic modifier (OM) were demonstrated to be antibacterial with a dose dependence related to both the silicate loading and the loading of OM. When the non-antibacterial OM dodecylamine was used, both cell and platelet adhesion were decreased on the nanocomposite surface. These results suggest that OM is released from the polymer and can impact on cell behaviour at the interface. Nanocomposites have potential use as bioactive materials in a range of biomedical applications.

  1. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  2. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  3. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, Brian; Heacker, Fred; McMillan, Bill

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m{sup 3} (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m{sup 3} or 0.06 m{sup 3} (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated to

  4. TiO2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with different morphology and additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Ng, Yip Hang; Leung, Yu Hang; Liu, Fangzhou; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Xie, Mao Hai; Chan, Wai Kin

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performances of different TiO2 nanostructures, TiO2/CNT composite and TiO2 with titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment anode were investigated. For different TiO2 nanostructures, we investigated vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil and TiO2 nanotube-powders fabricated by rapid breakdown anodization technique. The morphology of the prepared samples was characterized by scanning probe microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical lithium storage abilities were studied by galvanostatic method. In addition, carbon nanotubes (CNT) additives and solution treatment process of TiO2 anode were investigated, and the results show that the additives and treatment could enhance the cycling performance of the TiO2 anode on lithium ion batteries.

  5. A review on graphite and hybrid nano-materials as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Gautam; Saxena, Prateek

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a review on use of nano-particles as lubricant additives. Nanoparticles have a strong potential to improve the lubrication property of grease when they are used as additives. Nano-grease has several advantages such as improved frictional behaviour, high load bearing capacity and reduced wear, as compared to base oil grease. Current advancements, limitations and challenges in use of nano-grease as a lubricant are discussed. Although, nanogrease has shown outstanding results, more research is required in this field for the commercialization of technology related to nano-grease.

  6. Instrumentation Acquisition for Research and Education in Additive Manufacturing and Advanced Material Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-18

    Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Final Report, Instrument acquisition, Selective Laser Melting REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Description 1 Renishaw AM 250 Selective Laser Melting Machine Renishaw $585,305 This vendor was selected for purchase due to lower acquisition... selective laser melting of Tefenol – D giant magnetostricitve material. Terfenol‐D has the advantage of achieving magnetostriction comparable

  7. Additional material of the enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Susanne; Werdelin, Lars; Seiffert, Erik R.; Barry, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Kelba quadeemae, a fossil mammal from the Early Miocene of East Africa, was originally named on the basis of three isolated upper molars. Kelba has previously been interpreted as a creodont, a pantolestid, an insectivoran, and a hemigaline viverrid. The true affinities of this taxon have remained unclear because of the limited material and its unique morphology relative to other Miocene African mammals. New material of Kelba from several East African Miocene localities, most notably a skull from the Early Miocene locality of Songhor in Western Kenya, permits analysis of the affinities of Kelba and documents the lower dentition of this taxon. Morphological comparison of this new material clearly demonstrates that Kelba is a member of the order Ptolemaiida, a poorly understood group whose fossil record was previously restricted to the Oligocene Fayum deposits of northern Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of the Ptolemaiida, including Kelba, and recovers two monophyletic clades within the order. We provide new family names for these groups and an emended diagnosis for the order. The discovery of ptolemaiidans from the Miocene of East Africa is significant because it extends the known temporal range of the order by >10 million years and the geographic range by >3,200 km. Although the higher-level affinities of the Ptolemaiida remain obscure, their unique morphology and distribution through a larger area of Africa (and exclusively Africa) lend support to the idea that Ptolemaiida may have an ancient African origin. PMID:17372202

  8. Experimental Studies on the Self-Shielding Effect in Fissile Fuel Breeding Measurement in Thorium Oxide Pellets Irradiated with 14 MeV Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitul, Abhangi; Nupur, Jain; Rajnikant, Makwana; Sudhirsinh, Vala; Shrichand, Jakhar; K. Basu, T.; V. S. Rao, C.

    2013-02-01

    The 14 MeV neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reactions have the potential of breeding Uranium-233 fissile fuel from fertile material Thorium-232. In order to estimate the amount of U-233 produced, experiments are carried out by irradiating thorium dioxide pellets with neutrons produced from a 14 MeV neutron generator. The objective of the present work is to measure the reaction rates of 232Th + 1n → 233Th → 233Pa → 233U in different pellet thicknesses to study the self-shielding effects and adopt a procedure for correction. An appropriate assembly consisting of high-density polyethylene is designed and fabricated to slow down the high-energy neutrons, in which Thorium pellets are irradiated. The amount of fissile fuel (233U) produced is estimated by measuring the 312 keV gammas emitted by Protactinium-233 (half-life of 27 days). A calibrated High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector is used to measure the gamma ray spectrum. The amount of 233U produced by Th232 (n, γ) is calculated using MCNP code. The self-shielding effect is evaluated by calculating the reaction rates for different foil thickness. MCNP calculation results are compared with the experimental values and appropriate correction factors are estimated for self-shielding of neutrons and absorption of gamma rays.

  9. Thermodynamic method of calculating the effect of alloying additives on interphase interaction in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuchinsky, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of alloying additives to the matrix of a composite on the high temperature solubility rate of a single component fiber was analyzed thermodynamically. With an example of binary Ni alloys, with Group IV-VI transition metals reinforced with W fibers, agreement between the calculated and experimental data was demonstrated.

  10. Fissile Flow and Enrichment Monitor for GCEP Advanced Safeguards Application

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data that demonstrate a concept for a {sup 235}U flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO) based on passive measurements of process equipment in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The primary goal of the FEMO is to prevent, without using pipe penetrations or active interrogation with external sources, the production and diversion of undeclared nuclear material. This FEMO concept utilizes: (1) calibrated measurements of {sup 235}U density in cascade headers, and (2) measurements of pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate, which are correlated to the electrical power consumed by the GCEP pumps that transport UF{sub 6} from the cascade to the condensation cylinders. The {sup 235}U density is measured by counting 186 keV emissions using a NaI gamma detector located upstream of the pump. The pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate are determined using a correlation that is a function of the measured pump operational parameters (e.g., electric power consumption and rotational frequency) and the pumping configuration. The concept has been demonstrated in a low-pressure flow loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. Evaluation of Glass Density to Support the Estimation of Fissile Mass Loadings from Iron Concentrations in SB6 Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

    2010-12-15

    The Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) previously provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of the guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 glass based on the Fe concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that SRNL provide the necessary information to allow SRR to update the Excel spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes a bounding density for SB6-based glasses. Based on the measured density data of select SB6 variability study glasses, SRNL recommends that SRR utilize the 99/99 Upper Tolerance Limit (UTL) density value at 38% WL (2.823 g/cm{sup 3}) as a bounding density for SB6 glasses to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. That is, the 2.823 g/cm{sup 3} is recommended as a key (and fixed) input into the fissile concentration spreadsheet for SB6 processing. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB6. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample. The purpose of this technical report is to present the density measurements that were determined for the SB6 variability study glasses and to conduct a statistical evaluation of these measurements to provide a bounding density value that may be used as input to the Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet to be employed by SRR to maintain the

  12. Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Wang, Qing Xiao; Liu, Yang; Gianchandani, Yogesh; Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B.

  13. Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Wang, Qing Xiao; Liu, Yang; Gianchandani, Yogesh; Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B. PMID:25587418

  14. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kade H. Poper; Eric S. Collins; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael Daniels

    2014-10-01

    Powder energetic materials are highly sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) ignition. This study shows that small concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to the highly reactive mixture of aluminum and copper oxide (Al + CuO) significantly reduces ESD ignition sensitivity. CNT act as a conduit for electric energy, bypassing energy buildup and desensitizing the mixture to ESD ignition. The lowest CNT concentration needed to desensitize ignition is 3.8 vol.% corresponding to percolation corresponding to an electrical conductivity of 0.04 S/cm. Conversely, added CNT increased Al + CuO thermal ignition sensitivity to a hot wire igniter.

  15. Does the addition of proteases affect the biogas yield from organic material in anaerobic digestion?

    PubMed

    Müller, Liane; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Pröter, Jürgen; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical disintegration effect of hydrolytic enzymes in lab scale experiments. Influences of enzyme addition on the biogas yield as well as effects on the process stability were examined. The addition of proteases occurred with low and high dosages in batch and semi-continuous biogas tests. The feed mixture consisted of maize silage, chicken dung and cow manure. Only very high concentrated enzymes caused an increase in biogas production in batch experiments. In semi-continuous biogas tests no positive long-term effects (100 days) were observed. Higher enzyme-dosage led to a reduced biogas-yield (13% and 36% lower than the reference). Phenylacetate and -propionate increased (up to 372 mgl(-1)) before the other volatile fatty acids did. Volatile organic acids rose up to 6.8 gl(-1). The anaerobic digestion process was inhibited.

  16. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    PubMed

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value.

  17. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  18. Survey of residue levels of organic solvents in "existing food additives" and health food materials by head-space GC.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichirou; Ito, Koichi; Nakazato, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Organic solvent residue levels in "Existing Food Additives" (n=145), health food materials (n=23), and commercial health food products (n=19) were surveyed. Ethanol was the dominant solvent found in the samples, suggesting its use in the manufacturing process. Methanol, acetone, 2-propanol and ethyl acetate was also found. No residual solvent exceeded the limits set by the Food Sanitation Law.

  19. Materials and Additive Manufacturing for Energy Efficiency in Wind Turbine and Aircraft Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G; Polyzos, Georgios; Clemons, Art; Bolton, Paul; Hollander, Aaron

    2016-05-04

    The purpose of this project was to develop surface treatments which will inhibit the formation of ice on turbine blades and propellers. ORNL worked with Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC and First Aviation Services Inc. to demonstrate a new surface treatment for two primary markets, aviation and wind turbines, as well as secondary markets such as power lines, bridges, boats, roofs and antennas among others. Exploring alternative surface treatments for wind turbines will provide anti-icing properties and erosion/abrasion prevention properties similar to those for aviation applications. A series of superhydrophobic coating materials was synthesized and successfully applied on anti-ice tape materials that could be used in a wide range of wind turbine and aviation applications to prevent ice accumulation. The coatings developed in this project were based on superhydrophobic particles of different geometries and sizes that were homogeneously dispersed in polymeric binders. The superhydrophobic features of the coatings are volumetric and their abrasion resistance was evaluated. Future research will involve the demonstration of anti-icing properties of the surface treatment developed in this project.

  20. The effect of the addition of different fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Rahamneh, A; Jagger, D C; Harrison, A

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the addition of different types of fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material. The addition of glass fibres (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a non significant increase in the modulus of elasticity, compared with the control of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin. The addition of glass fibres (woven and strand), polyethylene and carbon fibres to acrylic resin produced a non significant increase in the modulus of rupture. The addition of carbon, glass (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a significant increase in the impact strength. Within the limitations of this study the addition of silk fibres did not produce an improvement in the mechanical properties.

  1. Composite materials based on high-modulus compounds for additive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Kotelnikov, N.; Buyakova, S.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of adding nanocrystalline ZrO2 and submicron TiC to ultrafine Al2O3 on mechanical properties and the microstructure of the composites developed by hot pressing was investigated. It was shown that by means of hot pressing in argon atmosphere at the sintering temperature of 1500 °C one can obtain the composites of Al2O3-ZrO2-TiC with a fine structure and minimal porosity. It was shown that in the material a multi-scale hierarchical structure is formed, which possesses high physical and mechanical properties: the hardness and fracture toughness was 22 GPa and 5.2 MPa*m1/2, respectively. It has been shown that mechanical properties of the composite are better than those of commercial composites based on aluminum oxide (Al2O3, ZTA, Al2O3-TiC) and are comparable to those of silicon nitride.

  2. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  3. A Metallurgical Evaluation of the Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufactured 4140 Steel Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wesley; Kelly, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    Using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) additive manufacturing (AM) process for steel or iron powder has been attempted for decades. This work used a medium carbon steel (AISI 4140) powder to explore the feasibility of AM. The high carbon equivalent of 4140 steel (CEIIW ≈ 0.83) has a strong tendency toward cold cracking. As such, the process parameters must be carefully controlled to ensure the AM build quality. Through an orthogonally designed experimental matrix, a laser-welding procedure was successfully developed to produce 4140 steel AM builds with no welding defects. In addition, the microstructure and micro-cleanliness of the as-welded PBF-L AM builds were also examined. The results showed an ultra-fine martensite lath structure and an ultra-clean internal quality with minimal oxide inclusion distribution. After optimizing the PBF-L AM process parameters, including the laser power and scan speed, the as-welded AM builds yielded an average tensile strength higher than 1482 MPa and an average 33 J Charpy V-notch impact toughness at -18°C. The surface quality, tensile strength, and Charpy V-notch impact toughness of AM builds were comparable to the wrought 4140 steel. The excellent mechanical properties of 4140 steel builds created by the PBF-L AM AM process make industrial production more feasible, which shows great potential for application in the aerospace, automobile, and machinery industries.

  4. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  5. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2014-09-28

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  6. Standard addition method applied to solid-state stripping voltammetry: determination of zirconium in minerals and ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Carbó, A; Moya-Moreno, M; Doménech-Carbó, M T

    2004-09-01

    An application of the standard addition method to stripping voltammetry of solid materials immobilized in inert electrodes is described. The method allows the determination of the mass fraction of a depositable metal M in a material on addition of known amounts of a standard material containing M to a mixture of that material and a reference compound of a second depositable metal, R. After a reductive deposition step, voltammograms recorded for those modified electrodes immersed in a suitable electrolyte produce stripping peaks for the oxidation of the deposits of M and R. If no intermetallic effects appear the quotients between the peak areas and the peak currents for the stripping oxidation of M and R vary linearly with the mass ratio of the added standard and the reference compound, thus providing an electrochemical method for determining the amount of M in the sample. The method has been applied to the determination of Zr in minerals, ceramic frits, and pigments, using ZnO as reference material and ZrO(2) as the standard.

  7. Prompt neutron fission spectrum mean energies for the fissile nuclides and /sup 252/Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. The average neutron energies of these spectra are tabulated. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Also tabulated are the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. 75 refs., 9 tabs. (LEW)

  8. Identification of trace additives in polymer materials by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared mapping coupled with multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Tang, Yongjiao; Yan, Zhiwei; Zhang, Pudun

    2017-03-07

    Although multivariate curve resolution (MCR) has been applied to the analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging, it is still problematic to determine the number of components. The reported methods at present tend to cause the components of low concentration missed. In this paper a new idea was proposed to resolve this problem. First, MCR calculation was repeated by increasing the number of components sequentially, then each retrieved pure spectrum of as-resulted MCR component was directly compared with a real-world pixel spectrum of the local high concentration in the corresponding MCR map. One component was affirmed only if the characteristic bands of the MCR component had been included in its pixel spectrum. This idea was applied to attenuated total reflection (ATR)/FTIR mapping for identifying the trace additives in blind polymer materials and satisfactory results were acquired. The successful demonstration of this novel approach opens up new possibilities for analyzing additives in polymer materials.

  9. 49 CFR 172.402 - Additional labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 173.453 of this subchapter) must bear two FISSILE labels, affixed to opposite sides of the package or... of Division 2.2 material that also meets the definition for an oxidizing gas (see § 171.8 of this...: (1) Division 2.1, must be labeled Flammable Gas; (2) Division 5.1, must be labeled Oxidizer; and...

  10. 49 CFR 172.402 - Additional labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this subchapter) must bear two FISSILE labels, affixed to opposite sides of the package or overpack... of Division 2.2 material that also meets the definition for an oxidizing gas (see § 171.8 of this...: (1) Division 2.1, must be labeled Flammable Gas; (2) Division 5.1, must be labeled Oxidizer; and...

  11. An additional S-shaped structure for sensitivity improvement of coaxial probe for permittivity determination of low loss materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xingmin; Jin, Wei; Yang, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    Permittivity measurement of materials is important in microwave chemistry, microwave material processing and microwave heating. The open-ended coaxial line method is one of the most popular and effective means for permittivity measurement. However, the conventional coaxial probe has difficulty in distinguishing small permittivity variations for low loss media. In this paper an additional S-shaped structure is proposed for sensitivity improvement of a coaxial probe for permittivity determination of low loss materials at 2.45 GHz. The small permittivity variation can be distinguished due to field enhancement generated by the additional S-shaped structure. We studied the variation of reflection coefficient amplitude for three kinds of samples with different moisture content, within the probe at different insertion depths. We find that the conventional coaxial probe cannot distinguish small permittivity variations until the moisture content of materials reaches 3%. Meanwhile, the probe with the S-shaped structure can detect such small permittivity variations when the moisture content of samples changes by only 1%. The experimental results demonstrate that the new probe proposed in this paper is reliable and feasible.

  12. TID Environmental Performance Testing In Support of the Mayak Fissile Material Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Jennifer E.; Undem, Halvor A.; Roberts, Bruce A.; Griggs, James R.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Smith, Matthew H.

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of the test and evaluation of tamper indicating devices (TIDs) described in this report is to assure that the recommended TID technologies are acceptable for use at the Mayak FMSF. TID acceptance is based on TID performance with respect to mutually agreed functional, operational, and security requirements for the FMSF, taking into account both the United States and the Russian Federation views. Although some Russian views have been documented, very little information at the level required for formal test planning had been received prior to the start of the testing campaign. Consequently, this report currently represents US recommendations for an arms control and/or safeguards and security application. Acceptance of these test results and recommendations by those Russian Federation entities responsible for the Mayak FMSF will be required before implementing any TID regime at Mayak FMSF.

  13. Interaction of Radiation with Graphene Based Nanomaterials for Sensing Fissile Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Besides, we have continued to explore the radiation interaction in graphene with integrated plasmonic metal nanostructures. We successfully improved...the operation wavelength of the graphene-metal plasmonic hybrid devices from mid-IR to near-IR by using dolmen structure design. An effective...electrical control of the plasmonic resonance frequency was demonstrated with strong ion liquid gating. Furthermore, we investigate other possibilities of

  14. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H

    1996-05-01

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth`s surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future.

  15. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  16. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  17. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  18. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  19. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  20. Nuclear Weapons-Grade Fissile Materials. The Most Serious Threat to US National Security Today?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    the year 2010 , of which at least 300 tons will be stockpiled as surplus.24 Growing stockpiles of civilian or reactor- grade plutonium in Western...France continue to reprocess and separate an average of 21 tons of plutonium a year. 27 By 2010 a total of 545 tons will have been sepa­ rated,28...Extension Should Not Ignore the Dangers of Plutonium,” Disarmament Times , 22 November 1994, 1. 25. David Albright, Frans Berkhout , and William Walker

  1. Immobilization as a route to surplus fissile materials disposition. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; McKibben, J.M.

    1996-03-15

    The safe management of surplus weapons plutonium is a very important and urgent task with profound environmental, national and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Police Directive 13 and various analysis by renown scientific, technical and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths forward for the long term disposition of surplus weapons usable plutonium. The central, overarching goal is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons, as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in civilian spent reactor fuel. One disposition alternative considered for surplus Pu is immobilization, in which plutonium would be emplaced in glass, ceramic or glass-bonded zeolite. This option, along with some of the progress over the last year is discussed.

  2. Measurements on an inventory of mixed fissile materials in shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Krick, M.S.; Kelley, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    An inventory contained a large number of previously unmeasured items, many with both uranium and plutonium. We have assembled a suite of instruments and measured the items in a variety of ways. This report first considers the measurements and deduced results in detail before summarizing the important differences with the declarations of the inventory`s database. The appendices referred to in this report are part of a classified version only and are not attached to this unclassified version. The classified report is by the same authors as this report, has the same title (which is unclassified), and is classified as {open_quotes}SRD.{close_quotes}

  3. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Pint, Bruce A; Ryan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  4. Physics concept on the constellation type fissile fuels and its application to the prospective Th-{sup 233}U reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jiahua Zhange

    1994-12-31

    In contrast with the conventional nuclear reactor which usually fuelled with one single fissile nuclide, a constellation type fissile fuels reactor consists of a parent nuclide such as {sup 232}Th or {sup 238}U and its whole family of neutron generated daughter nuclides. All of them are regarded as fissile fuels but of quite different fission ability. The concentration of each daughter nuclide is determined by its saturate concentration ratio with the parent nuclide. In such fuel system, the whole fuel consumed by neutron reaction almost completely results in fission production. In this article, some interesting properties of such fuel system, determination of the saturate concentration of each daughter nuclide and applicability to Th-{sup 233}U reactor will be discussed.

  5. Influence of the Density Law on Various Fissile Single Unit and Array Storage Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T

    2011-03-02

    The advancement of computational technology has resulted in the wide-spread availability of powerful radiation transport Monte Carlo codes. Prevailing practices today rely heavily on Monte Carlo codes to provide the basis for assessing the reactivity of various fissile systems for nuclear criticality safety (NCS). In 1958, Weinberg and Wigner expressed their concerns on a 'deplorable trend in reactor design - the tendency to substitute a code for a theory'. Unfortunately, their concerns have largely become a reality in many modern NCS practices. lacking the time or information to understand the underlying neutron physics of the fissile system under consideration is indeed a deplorable trend. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many features of criticality hand calculation methods are indeed based upon the fundamentals of the density law and that many correlations of important physics parameters can be more easily understood from such a perspective. Historically, the density law was recognized by many pioneers in the field, including during the Manhattan Project. However, it was by and large an 'oral tradition' in that bits and pieces of great physical insights of the pioneers were scattered in many earlier publications. This paper attempts to bring together some of the 'jewels' of the pioneers which might have been lost or forgotten.

  6. Apparatus for in situ determination of burnup, cooling time and fissile content of an irradiated nuclear fuel assembly in a fuel storage pond

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, John R.; Halbig, James K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Klosterbuer, Shirley F.

    1985-01-01

    A detector head for in situ inspection of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies submerged in a water-filled nuclear fuel storage pond. The detector head includes two parallel arms which extend from a housing and which are spaced apart so as to be positionable on opposite sides of a submerged fuel assembly. Each arm includes an ionization chamber and two fission chambers. One fission chamber in each arm is enclosed in a cadmium shield and the other fission chamber is unshielded. The ratio of the outputs of the shielded and unshielded fission chambers is used to determine the boron content of the pond water. Correcting for the boron content, the neutron flux and gamma ray intensity are then used to verify the declared exposure, cooling time and fissile material content of the irradiated fuel assembly.

  7. Apparatus for in situ determination of burnup, cooling time and fissile content of an irradiated nuclear fuel assembly in a fuel storage pond

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Menlove, H.O.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    A detector head for in situ inspection of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies submerged in a water-filled nuclear fuel storage pond. The detector head includes two parallel arms which extend from a housing and which are spaced apart so as to be positionable on opposite sides of a submerged fuel assembly. Each arm includes an ionization chamber and two fission chambers. One fission chamber in each arm is enclosed in a cadmium shield and the other fission chamber is unshielded. The ratio of the outputs of the shielded and unshielded fission chambers is used to determine the boron content of the pond water. Correcting for the boron content, the neutron flux and gamma ray intensity are then used to verify the declared exposure, cooling time and fissile material content of the irradiated fuel assembly.

  8. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  9. [Antibacterial effect of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Junki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of food additives and detergents against histamine-producing bacteria on food contact material surfaces. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing with Morganella morganii NBRC3848, Raoultella planticola NBRC3317 and Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC10006, we screened nine food additives and four detergents with relatively high inhibitory potency. We prepared food contact material surfaces contaminated with histamine-producing bacteria, and dipped them into fourteen agents (100 µg/mL). Sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and 1-n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial activity against histamine-producing bacteria. We prepared low concentrations of the five agents (10 and 50 µg/mL) and tested them in the same way. Sodium hypochlorite showed high antibacterial activity at 10 µg/mL, and the other four showed activity at 50 µg/mL. So, washing the material surface with these reagents might be effective to prevent histamine food poisoning owing to bacterial contamination of food contact surfaces.

  10. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Feasibility study of fissile mass quantification by photofission delayed gamma rays in radioactive waste packages using MCNPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Eric; Jallu, Fanny; Pérot, Bertrand; Plumeri, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of fissile mass quantification in large, long-lived medium activity radioactive waste packages using photofission delayed gamma rays has been assessed with MCNPX. The detection limit achievable is lower than the expected uranium mass in these waste packages, but the important sensibility to the waste matrix density and sample localization imposes to get an accurate measurement of these parameters. An isotope discrimination method based on gamma-ray ratios has been evaluated showing that photofission delayed gamma rays can be used to measure the fissile mass as well as the total uranium mass.

  12. Additive-Free Transparent Triarylamine-Based Polymeric Hole-Transport Materials for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Taisuke; Petrikyte, Ieva; Malinauskas, Tadas; Domanski, Konrad; Daskeviciene, Maryte; Steponaitis, Matas; Gratia, Paul; Tress, Wolfgang; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Getautis, Vytautas; Saliba, Michael

    2016-09-22

    Triarylamine-based polymers with different functional groups were synthetized as hole-transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The novel materials enabled efficient PSCs without the use of chemical doping (or additives) to enhance charge transport. Devices employing poly(triarylamine) with methylphenylethenyl functional groups (V873) showed a power conversion efficiency of 12.3 %, whereas widely used additive-free poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine] (PTAA) demonstrated 10.8 %. Notably, devices with V873 enabled stable PSCs under 1 sun illumination at maximum power point tracking for approximately 40 h at room temperature, and in the dark under elevated temperature (85 °C) for more than 140 h. This is in stark contrast to additive-containing devices, which degrade significantly within the same time frame. The results present remarkable progress towards stable PSC under real working conditions and industrial stress tests.

  13. Immobilization of heavy metals in polluted soils by the addition of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Moreno, Natàlia; Alvarez-Ayuso, Esther; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carles; Simón, Mariano

    2006-01-01

    The use of zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash for the immobilization of pollutants in contaminated soils was investigated in experimental plots in the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain). This area was affected by a pyrite slurry spill in April 1998. Although reclamation activities were completed in a few months, residual pyrite slurry mixed with soil accounted for relatively high leachable levels of trace elements such as Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Sb, Co, Tl and Cd. Phytoremediation strategies were adopted for the final recovery of the polluted soils. The immobilization of metals had previously been undertaken to avoid leaching processes and the consequent groundwater pollution. To this end, 1100 kg of high NaP1 (Na6[(AlO2)6(SiO2)10] .15H2O) zeolitic material was synthesized using fly ash from the Teruel power plant (NE Spain), in a 10 m3 reactor. This zeolitic material was manually applied using different doses (10000-25000 kg per hectare), into the 25 cm topsoil. Another plot (control) was maintained without zeolite. Sampling was carried out 1 and 2 years after the zeolite addition. The results show that the zeolitic material considerably decreases the leaching of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The sorption of metals in soil clay minerals (illite) proved to be the main cause contributing to the immobilization of these pollutants. This sorption could be a consequence of the rise in pH from 3.3 to 7.6 owing to the alkalinity of the zeolitic material added (caused by traces of free lime in the fly ash, or residual NaOH from synthesis).

  14. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  15. Additive-Driven Assembly of Block Copolymer-Nanoparticle Hybrid Materials for Solution Processable Floating Gate Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Lin, Ying; Anderson, Eric; Briseno, Alejandro; Gido, Samuel; Watkins, James

    2012-02-01

    The preparation of well-ordered hybrid materials at nanoscale is not only fundamentally interesting but also of significant importance for the development of next generation functional devices. In this study, we present a simple approach for the preparation of well-ordered polymer/NP composites through the concept of additive-driven assembly, and its application for the fabrication of floating gate organic FET memory devices. The addition of gold NPs that selectively hydrogen bond with pyridine in poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) is shown to induce an ordered structure. This enables the fabrication of well-ordered hybrid materials with lamellar domains at Au NP loadings of more than 40 wt%. The fabrication of floating gate memory devices was demonstrated by the ordered Au NPs / block copolymer hybrid film as a charge trapping layer, which is sandwiched between a SiO2 dielectric layer and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) semiconductor layer. This approach enables us to fabricate well-ordered charge storage layers by solution processing and to achieve facile control of the memory windows by changing the density of gold NPs. The devices show high carrier mobility (> 0.1 cm^2/Vs), controllable memory windows (0˜50V), high on/off ratio (>10^5) between memory states and long retention times (>10^4 s). This approach is potentially suitable for roll-to-roll printing techniques to make flexible, large area and high density devices.

  16. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-09-12

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO₂eq to 132,141 tonCO₂eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide.

  17. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO2eq to 132,141 tonCO2eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide. PMID:27626433

  18. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must not be fissile unless excepted by § 173.453; (b) Contained in sealed and corrosion resistant... graphite, dry sand, or other suitable inerting material, or blended into a matrix of hardened concrete;...

  19. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Chiyu; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Conventional tetrabasic lead sulfate used as positive active material additive shows the results of the low effective lead dioxide conversion rate due to the large grain size and crossed the crystal structure. In this paper, we study on a type of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate. Through the XRD and SEM test and Material Studio software calculation, the purity of tetrabasic lead sulfate is very high, the grain size of the nanometer 4BS is almost unanimous, and can be controlled below 200 nm. When charged and discharged in 1.75 V-2.42 V with the current density of 40 mA g-1, 80 mA g-1 and 160 mA g-1, the effective lead dioxide conversion rate of nanometer 4BS after formation can achieve to 83.48%, 71.42%, and 66.96%. Subsequently, the nanometer 4BS as additive is added to positive paste of lead-acid battery. When the batteries are tested galvanostatically between 1.75 V and 2.42 V at 0.25 C charge and 0.5 C discharge rates at room temperature. The ratio of adding nanometer 4BS is 0%, 1% and 4% and the initial discharge specific capacities are 60 mAh g-1, 65 mAh g-1 and 68 mAh g-1. After 80 cycles, the initial discharge capacity of positive active material with 1% nanometer 4BS decreased less than 10%, while adding 4% nanometer 4BS, the initial discharge capacity doesn't decrease obviously.

  20. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1985-02-04

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the /sup 235/U nuclide content of samples containing UF/sub 6/, UF/sub 4/, or UO/sub 2/ utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1sigma) for cylinders containing UF/sub 6/ with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF/sub 6/ takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Stewart, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

  2. Effect of lime addition during sewage sludge treatment on characteristics of resulting SSA when it is used in cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Vouk, D; Nakic, D; Štirmer, N; Baricevic, A

    2017-02-01

    Final disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater treatment technology, including the sludge treatment. In most EU countries, significant amounts of stabilized and dewatered sludge are incinerated, and sewage sludge ash (SSA) is generated as a by product. At the same time, lime is one of the commonly used additives in the sewage sludge treatment primarily to stabilize the sludge. In doing so, the question arose how desirable is such addition of lime if the sludge is subsequently incinerated, and the generated ash is further used in the production of cementitious materials. A series of mortars were prepared where 10-20% of the cement fraction was replaced by SSA. Since all three types of analyzed SSA (without lime, with lime added during sludge stabilization and with extra lime added during sludge incineration) yielded nearly same results, it can be concluded that if sludge incineration is accepted solution, lime addition during sludge treatment is unnecessary even from the standpoint of preserving the pozzolanic properties of the resulting SSA. Results of the research carried out on cement mortars point to the great possibilities of using SSA in concrete industry.

  3. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shaikh, Hamid; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO) and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD) in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  4. Law, Policy and Nonproliferation Project Events and Workshops: Key Themes, Results and Related Materials 2008 - 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    treaty negotiating process to fill gaps in the international legal regime in the field of WMD SECTION TWO: KEY THEMES LAW, POLICY AND...science behind identifying the source of fissile materials used in a nuclear detonation. The process involves identifying the radiological signature of...fissile materials, which varies depending on whether uranium or plutonium serves as the basis of the nuclear fuel, and what enrichment processes were

  5. Effect of a laboratory surfactant on compatibility of type IV dental stones with addition-cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Tredwin, Christopher Jeremy; Nesbit, Michael; Butta, Rajeev; Moles, David R

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of a surfactant on surface detail reproduction between combinations of addition-cured silicone impression materials and type IV stones. Six hundred impressions were made of a ruled test block using; Examix-NDS, Doric-Es Flo-Light, Panasil Contact Plus, Extrude Wash and President Plus Jet. Half of the impressions were treated with a surfactant (Aurofilm). Impressions were poured with type IV dental stones; Silky Rock, Fuji Rock, Suprastone and Vel-Mix and the 20 mu line was scored. A laboratory surfactant (Aurofilm) significantly reduced (P<0.01) compatibility with; (i) Examix-NDS and Suprastone, (ii) Examix-NDS and Velmix, (iii) Extrude Wash and Fuji Rock.

  6. Analysis of the addition of a crosslinking agent in pyrromethene-HEMA based photopolymerizable holographic recording materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaya, S.; Acebal, P.; Carretero, L.; Madrigal, R. F.; Murciano, A.; Fimia, A.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we present the analysis of a photopolymerizable system based on pyrromethene dye (PM567) acting as a photoinitiator and HEMA as monomer both of them dissolved in a dry polymeric matrix of PMMA. Previously, we reported the recording of diffraction gratings in this composition, resulting in diffraction efficiencies near 60 % with exposures of 1 J/cm2 in materials with thicknesses around 500 microns. Although, the mentioned response (best) was observed at low intensities but at higher ones lower diffraction efficiencies were reached. Furthermore, in all the studied cases inhibition periods with asymmetrical angular selectivity curves were obtained. Since, in order to solve the mentioned drawbacks, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the addition of a crosslinking agent (PETA) in a photopolymerizable holographic material based on a pyrromethene dye (PM567) acting as a photoinitiator and HEMA as monomer both of them dissolved in a dry polymeric matrix of PMMA. For this, diffraction gratings were recorded at different intensities and the energetic evolution of the diffraction efficiency as well as the observed inhibition period were studied as a function of the concentration of crosslinking agent. Moreover, the experimental angular selectivity curves were theoretically analyzed by the model of Kubota and Uchida, and as a result information such as the effective thickness, fringe bending and non-uniform index modulation against the thickness of grating was obtained.

  7. Effect of addition of antibiotics and an antioxidant on the stability of tissue reference materials for domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poison.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Burrell, Stephen; Hess, Philipp

    2007-04-01

    Five separate reference materials (RMs) were prepared from a mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue containing domoic acid (DA) from scallop hepatopancreas (Pecten maximus). Homogenates were separately spiked with antibiotics, an antioxidant, or a combination of both. Control materials did not contain any additives and were prepared from lightly cooked and autoclaved mussel tissues. Stability studies were run over a 148-day period at three different temperature conditions: -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C and +40 degrees C. DA contents in all materials were characterised by HPLC-UV. Homogeneities were demonstrated at the beginning of the study, with coefficients of variance of less than 4% (n = 9). DA was stable at -20 degrees C in all materials. The control materials showed significant degradation after two days at +40 degrees C, and after eight days at +4 degrees C. Each of the materials containing additives demonstrated better stability during the initial period of the study. In addition there was no significant degradation in any of the materials with additives stored at +4 degrees C over the duration of the study. The material containing a combination of the antibiotics and the antioxidant displayed the best stability of all the materials. There was no significant reduction in DA concentration at all temperature conditions after eight days, and after 32 days the decrease at +40 degrees C was still <20 %. Following this, a DA laboratory reference material (LRM) was prepared and, based on previous results, spiked with both the antioxidant and antibiotics. A short-term stability study on this material gave similar results to the corresponding material in the additives study. This study shows that combined use of the additives investigated in the preparation of a mussel tissue reference material for DA ensures analyte stability for a period of up to eight days at temperatures of up to +40 degrees C, a condition that is particularly important when shipping test materials

  8. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  9. ADDING REALISM TO NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLVING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-15

    Two new criticality modeling approaches have greatly increased the efficiency of dissolver operations in H-Canyon. The first new approach takes credit for the linear, physical distribution of the mass throughout the entire length of the fuel assembly. This distribution of mass is referred to as the linear density. Crediting the linear density of the fuel bundles results in using lower fissile concentrations, which allows higher masses to be charged to the dissolver. Also, this approach takes credit for the fact that only part of the fissile mass is wetted at a time. There are multiple assemblies stacked on top of each other in a bundle. On average, only 50-75% of the mass (the bottom two or three assemblies) is wetted at a time. This means that only 50-75% (depending on operating level) of the mass is moderated and is contributing to the reactivity of the system. The second new approach takes credit for the progression of the dissolving process. Previously, dissolving analysis looked at a snapshot in time where the same fissile material existed both in the wells and in the bulk solution at the same time. The second new approach models multiple consecutive phases that simulate the fissile material moving from a high concentration in the wells to a low concentration in the bulk solution. This approach is more realistic and allows higher fissile masses to be charged to the dissolver.

  10. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  11. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and MS2 coliphage: effects of additives and alternative container materials.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael B; Iriarte, Mercedes; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-04-15

    The use of alternative container materials and added oxidants accelerated the inactivation of MS2 coliphage and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. bacteria during solar water disinfection (SODIS) trials. Specifically, bottles made from polypropylene copolymer (PPCO), a partially UVB-transparent plastic, resulted in three-log inactivation of these organisms in approximately half the time required for disinfection in bottles made from PET, polycarbonate, or Tritan(®), which absorb most UVB light. Furthermore, the addition of 125 mg/L sodium percarbonate in combination with either citric acid or copper plus ascorbate tended to accelerate inactivation by factors of 1.4-19. Finally, it was observed that the inactivation of E. coli and enterococci derived from local wastewater was far slower than the inactivation of laboratory-cultured E. coli and Enterococcus spp., while the inactivation of MS2 was slowest of all. These results highlight the importance of UVB in SODIS under certain conditions, and also the greater sunlight resistance of some viruses and of bacteria of fecal origin, as compared to the laboratory-cultured bacteria commonly used to model their inactivation. Furthermore, this study illustrates promising new avenues for accelerating the inactivation of bacteria and viruses by solar disinfection.

  12. THERMAL TESTING OF 9977 GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGE USING A POOL FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Cecil May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2007-02-15

    The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP), has been designed as a cost-effective, user-friendly replacement for the DOT 6M Specification Package for transporting Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. To ensure the capability of the 9977 GPFP to withstand the regulatory crush test, urethane foam was chosen for the impact absorbing overpack. As part of the package development it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam overpack would provide the required protection for the containment vessel during the thermal test portion of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions Sequential Tests. Development tests of early prototypes were performed, using a furnace. Based on the results of the development tests, detailed design enhancements were incorporated into the final design. Examples of the definitive 9977 design configuration were subjected to an all-engulfing pool fire test, as part of the HAC Sequential Tests, to support the application for certification. Testing has confirmed the package's ability to withstand the HAC thermal tests.

  13. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  14. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  15. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  16. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging materials in parts 174 through 179 of... and pet food....

  17. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging... packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food....

  18. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging materials in parts 174 through 179 of... and pet food....

  19. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging... packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food....

  20. Photonuclear reaction studies at HIγS: Developing the science of remote detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, C. R.

    2014-11-02

    Development of gamma-ray beam interrogation technologies for remote detection of special nuclear materials and isotope analysis requires comprehensive databases of nuclear structure information and gamma-ray induced nuclear reaction observables. Relevant nuclear structure details include the energy, spin and parity of excited states that have significant probability for electromagnetic transition from the ground state, i.e, the angular momentum transferred in the reaction is Δl ≤ 2. This talk will report recent Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) measurements to identify and characterize new low-spin states in actinide nuclei at energies from 1 to 4 MeV, which is the energy range most important for remote analysis methods. Here, these measurements are carried out using the nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Also, studies of the (γ, n) reaction on a variety of nuclei with linearly polarized beams at HIγS indicate that this reaction might be used to discern between fissile and non-fissile materials. This work will be described. In addition, an overview will be given of a concept for a next generation laser Compton-backing scattering gamma-ray source to be implemented as an upgrade to increase the beam intensity at HIγS by more than an order of magnitude.

  1. Influence of nanographene platelets (NGP) incorporation on Fe3O4 nanoparticles as materials additives for enhancement thermal properties stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryadin, M. K.; Andiarto, R.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and Fe3O4/NGP composite were used as material additive for enhancement thermal properties of stearic acid (SA). The both material additive were synthesized using sol-gel method. Phase change material (PCM) composites SA-Fe3O4 and Sa-Fe3O4/NGP mixtures were made through the dispersion technique with three different weight % ratio of material additives into stearic acid: 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.%. X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural properties. Magnetic properties also measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to see influence of NGP in PCM composites. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used in order to analyse the thermal properties of the samples. The results show an enhancement of the latent heat, thermal stability as well as specific heat by the presence of material additives in SA. Compare to SA- Fe3O4, SA-Fe3O4/NGP show better improvement in enhancement of thermal performance of SA. The improvement by about 41.2% in specific heat and 21.2% in latent heat.

  2. Water-soluble metal working fluids additives derived from the esters of acid anhydrides with higher alcohols for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Syutaro; Tomoda, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short article describes properties of new additives in water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Many half esters or diesters were prepared from the reactions of higher alcohols with acid anhydrides. Interestingly, diesters of PTMG (tetrahydrofuran oligomer, MW = 650 and 1000) and polybutylene oxide (MW = 650) with maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride showed both of an excellent anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy and a good hard water tolerance. The industrial soluble type processing oils including these additives also showed anti-corrosion property and hard water tolerance.

  3. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties.

  4. Modeling the mechanical and aging properties of silicone rubber and foam - stockpile-historical & additively manufactured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Gee, R. H.

    2014-09-30

    M97* and M9763 belong to the M97xx series of cellular silicone materials that have been deployed as stress cushions in some of the LLNL systems. Their purpose of these support foams is to distribute the stress between adjacent components, maintain relative positioning of various components, and mitigate the effects of component size variation due to manufacturing and temperature changes. In service these materials are subjected to a continuous compressive strain over long periods of time. In order to ensure their effectiveness, it is important to understand how their mechanical properties change over time. The properties we are primarily concerned about are: compression set, load retention, and stress-strain response (modulus).

  5. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  6. Synthesis of neutron-rich transuranic nuclei in fissile spallation targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishustin, Igor; Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2015-04-01

    A possibility of synthesizing neutron-rich superheavy elements in spallation targets of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) is considered. A dedicated software called Nuclide Composition Dynamics (NuCoD) was developed to model the evolution of isotope composition in the targets during a long-time irradiation by intense proton and deuteron beams. Simulation results show that transuranic elements up to 249Bk can be produced in multiple neutron capture reactions in macroscopic quantities. However, the neutron flux achievable in a spallation target is still insufficient to overcome the so-called fermium gap. Further optimization of the target design, in particular, by including moderating material and covering it by a reflector could turn ADS into an alternative source of transuranic elements in addition to nuclear fission reactors.

  7. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored.

  8. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  9. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  10. Investigation of cross-linked and additive containing polymer materials for membranes with improved performance in pervaporation and gas separation.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-10-22

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes.

  11. Investigation of Cross-Linked and Additive Containing Polymer Materials for Membranes with Improved Performance in Pervaporation and Gas Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes. PMID:24958427

  12. Preparation of layered double hydroxides and their applications as additives in polymers, as precursors to magnetic materials and in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2006-02-07

    In recent years layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials, have attracted considerable interest from both industry and academia. In this article, we discuss methods of preparing LDHs with an emphasis on the way in which particle size and morphology can be controlled with regard to specific target applications; scale-up of one such preparation procedure is also described. In addition, we review selected applications of LDHs developed by our own and other laboratories.

  13. A setup for active neutron analysis of the fissile material content in fuel assemblies of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushuev, A. V.; Kozhin, A. F.; Aleeva, T. B.; Zubarev, V. N.; Petrova, E. V.; Smirnov, V. E.

    2016-12-01

    An active neutron method for measuring the residual mass of 235U in spent fuel assemblies (FAs) of the IRT MEPhI research reactor is presented. The special measuring stand design and uniform irradiation of the fuel with neutrons along the entire length of the active part of the FA provide high accuracy of determination of the residual 235U content. AmLi neutron sources yield a higher effect/background ratio than other types of sources and do not induce the fission of 238U. The proposed method of transfer of the isotope source in accordance with a given algorithm may be used in experiments where the studied object needs to be irradiated with a uniform fluence.

  14. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  15. Evaluation of effect of tray space on the accuracy of condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Aeran, Himanshu

    2012-09-01

    Optimal thickness of impression materials in the custom tray in order to get the most accurate impression. To investigate the effect of different tray spacer thickness on the accuracy and the dimensional stability of impressions made from monophasic condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials. Three different types of elastomeric monophasic impression materials were used for making the impression of a master die with tray having tray spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Each type of impression was poured in die stone after 1 h. Each cast was analyzed by a travelling microscope and compared with the master die. The data was tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 to 4 mm spaced trays produced more accurate stone casts when compared to 6 mm spaced tray. No statistical significant differences were observed between the accuracy and dimensional stability of the three materials tested. Minimum changes were observed when the cast was poured after 1 h and the tray space was 2 mm for all the materials tested. It is therefore advisable not to exceed tray space of 2 mm.

  16. Enhanced properties of MgO-Al2O3 composite materials with Al powder addition under 1300 °C creep test and its mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Ma, Jiajia; Li, Yong; Yue, Dandan; Tong, Shanghao; Xue, Wendong

    2017-04-01

    The Al-MgO-Al2O3 composite samples were prepared with alumina (fused corundum and sintered alumina), high purity sintered magnesia and aluminum powder. Creep test was carried out at 1300 °C and studied. The results show that the creep rate of sample without aluminum addition decreases gradually. The creep properties of the MgO-Al2O3 composite material are improved by aluminum powder addition, with the sample demonstrating an increase creep rate. The physical properties of the samples are enhanced by aluminum powder addition as well. The mechanism of the improvement on the sample is analyzed by different characterization methods and kinetics calculations. Our results indicates that the AlN and MgAl2O4 spinel phases which are formed during the creep test are acting as the reinforcing phases and therefore enhance the creep performance of the samples.

  17. Effect of Ti/Al ratio and Cr, Nb, and Hf additions on material factors and mechanical properties in TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, T.; Tamura, T.; Izumi, O.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the Ti/Al ratio and Cr, Nb, and Hf additions on material factors, such as the grain size, second phase, la tice parameters and the axial ratio, and on mechanical properties in TiAl-base alloys has been studied. The grain size was decreased by the deviation from the stoichiometric composition o the Ti-rich side and the addition of the third elements. The Cr element was contained a little more in Ti3Al phase than in TiAl phase in two-phase Ti-rich alloys. The lattice parameters, a and c, and the axial ratio, c/a, of the binary alloys varied linearly with decreasing Al content even in the dual-phase region. The Cr addition decreased the a and c and also c/a. The Nb addition increased weakly the a and c and c/a. On the contrary, the Hf addition increased the a and c but decreased the c/a ratio. In the Cr added alloys, the decrease of volume of a unit cell, due to the substitution of Cr atoms for Ti and Al atoms, was larger than that expected from the difference of atom sizes. The Nb addition should decrease the volume of a unit cell, but it increased the volume. The Hf addition caused a larger increase of volume of a unit cell than that expected from the difference of atom sizes. We suggested that the Cr addition increases and the Nb and Hf additions decrease the bond strength in TiAl. The deviation from stoichiometry and the addition of third elements caused an increase of work-hardening rate. The alloys with Ti-rich composition have superior mechanical properties compared to those of alloys vith Al-rich composition. The Cr addition resulted in high solution hardening, and the Ti-47A1 3Cr (in atomic percent) alloys had the highest fracture strain of 2.7 pct in all alloys tested. The Nb addition resulted in poor ductility in both Ti- and Al-rich alloys. The Hf additions to the Ti-rich composition caused better mechanical properties than those of Al-rich alloys. Thi; trend was also similar to the Nb-added alloys. In the Hf-added alloys, the Ti-49Al-2Hf

  18. An evaluation of dimensional accuracy of one-step and two-step impression technique using addition silicone impression material: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pande, Neelam A; Parkhedkar, R D

    2013-09-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy, the effect of undercut of two different configurations and the elastic recovery of addition silicone impression material assessed indirectly, by measuring the dimensions on stone models recorded from the impression of the master model, using one-step and two-step impression technique, for addition silicone impression materials. Measurements are taken to evaluate horizontal or linear and vertical dimensional changes, of the abutment V and abutment C from the stainless steel model. Heavy body/light body material is used for making one-step impression technique in a custom tray. Putty/light body is used for taking two-step technique in a stock metal tray. Improved die stone is used for pouring the impression. The different 11 locations on the dies produced by two different techniques are measured microscopically on image analyzer and compared with those of stainless steel model. Anova test was applied to test the differences of mean values of inter and intra abutment measurements, to calculate p value. Unpaired t test was applied to calculate t value. Results showed less deviation of stone models produced by one-step technique from stainless steel model, whereas the deviation of stone models produced by two-step is comparatively more. (p < 0.01). This difference of deviation is significantly less in one-step as compared to two-step technique. One-step is sufficiently dimensionally accurate than two-step technique in conjunction with addition silicone impression material. They have the best elastic recovery from the two undercut configurations.

  19. Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation for Transparency in HEU Blenddown at the URAL Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) in Novouralsk

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, B.

    1999-07-25

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) was deployed at the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) highly enriched uranium (HEU) blending facility in January and February 1999 at Novouralsk in Russia for the DOE HEU Transparency Program. The FMFM provides unattended monitoring of the fissile mass flow of the uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas in the process lines of HEU, the low enriched uranium (LEU) blend stock, and the product LEU (P-LEU) of the blending tee non-intrusively. To do this, uranium-235 (U-235) fissions are induced in the UF{sub 6} by a thermalized and modulated californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron source placed on each process line. A set of detectors, located downstream of source, measure delayed gamma rays emitted by the resulting fission fragments. The observed delay in the time correlated measurement between the source and the detector signal provides the velocity of UF{sub 6} and its amplitude is related to the U- 235 content in UF{sub 6}. An on-line computer controls the source modulator, processes the collected detector data, and displays the results. The UEIP Main and the Reserved process lines were implemented with minor modifications. The FMFM monitors the HEU blending operation by measuring UF{sub 6} flows in the process blending lines, and the traceability of the HEU flow from the blend point to the P-LEU. The detail operational characteristics of the FMFM software (FM2) and the measurement methodology used are presented.

  20. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  1. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  2. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies.

  3. Synthesis of binder-like molecules covalently linked to silicon nanoparticles and application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries without the use of electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assresahegn, Birhanu Desalegn; Bélanger, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A chemically modified silicon anode is prepared for application as anode in lithium-ion batteries by covalent attachment of polyacrylic acid to enable self-adhesion between the active material particles. The polyacrylic acid polymer is formed by atom transfer radical polymerization using 1-(bromoethyl)benzene initiator groups initially bonded to a hydrogenated silicon surface. The grafting of 1-(bromoethyl)benzene and polyacrylic acid is confirmed by various material characterization techniques. The electrochemical performance of the silicon anodes is also evaluated by galvanostatic cycling. The chemically modified composite silicon anode (with active material loading of 0.9-1 mg cm-2) showed a significantly improved performance in terms of: gravimetric capacitance (more than 2000 mAh g-1) after 300 cycles and 80% capacity retention with an average 99.6% Coulombic efficiency at a current density of 0.34 A g-1. However, the unmodified electrode cycled 75 times in the same conditions only retains 46% of its initial capacity with an average 95.1% Coulombic efficiency. The new composite Si electrode performs better at high charge/discharge rate and allows the use of larger proportion of the active material by reducing the amount of binder. It is noteworthy that these composite silicon electrodes are tested without the use of expensive electrolyte additives.

  4. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  5. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    DOE PAGES

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; ...

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highlymore » Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.« less

  6. Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material detection – Active stimulation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Paff, Marc G.; Monterial, Mateusz; Marleau, Peter; Kiff, Scott; Nowack, Aaron; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2014-06-21

    A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

  7. NUCLEAR FUEL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.

    1962-06-26

    An improved method is given for making the carbides of nuclear fuel material. The metal of the fuel material, which may be a fissile and/or fertile material, is transformed into a silicide, after which the silicide is comminuted to the desired particle size. This silicide is then carburized at an elevated temperature, either above or below the melting point of the silicide, to produce an intimate mixture of the carbide of the fuel material and the carbide of silicon. This mixture of the fuel material carbide and the silicon carbide is relatively stable in the presence of moisture and does not exhibit the highly reactive surface condition which is observed with fuel material carbides made by most other known methods. (AEC)

  8. Telechelic Poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials

    PubMed Central

    Fik, Christoph P.; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H.; Waschinski, Christian J.; Ladisch, Reinhild S.; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C.

    2015-01-01

    Although modern dental repair materials show excellent mechanical and adhesion properties, they still face two major problems: First, any microbes that remain alive below the composite fillings actively decompose dentin and thus, subsequently cause secondary caries. Second, even if those microbes are killed, the extracellular proteases such as MMP, remain active and can still degrade collagenousdental tissue. In order to address both problems, a poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal quaternary ammonium and a polymerizable methacrylate terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. It could be demonstrated that the adhesive rendered the adhesive contact-active antimicrobial against S. mutans at a concentration of only 2.5 wt% and even constant washing with water for 101 days did not diminish this effect. Increasing the amount of the additive to 5 wt% allowed killing S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovinedentin upon application of the adhesive. Further, the additive fully inhibited bacterial collagenase at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and reduced human recombinant collagenase MMP-9 to 13% of its original activity at that concentration. Human MMPs naturally bound to dentin were inhibited by more than 96% in a medium containing 5 wt% of the additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected in combination with a dental composite. PMID:25130877

  9. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... criticality safety index (as defined in § 173.403 of this subchapter) of not more than 50 each. This provision... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS....457 of this subchapter. The transport controls must be adequate to assure that no fissile...

  10. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... criticality safety index (as defined in § 173.403 of this subchapter) of not more than 50 each. This provision... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS....457 of this subchapter. The transport controls must be adequate to assure that no fissile...

  11. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W.; Maliyekkel, A.T.

    1996-01-02

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process.

  12. Development and validation of a simple method for routine analysis of ractopamine hydrochloride in raw material and feed additives by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ellen Figueiredo; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Tanimoto, Hélio; Nogueira, Raquel Tassara; Bertolini, Lucimara Cristiane Toso; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2009-01-01

    A simple method was optimized and validated for determination of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in raw material and feed additives by HPLC for use in quality control in veterinary industries. The best-optimized conditions were a C8 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5.0 microm particle size) at room temperature with acetonitrile-100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0; 75 + 25, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 275 nm. With these conditions, the retention time of RAC was around 5.2 min, and standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 160-240 microg/mL (correlation coefficient > or = 0.999). Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (ranged from 1.60 to 2.05 microg/mL), limit of quantification (ranged from 4.26 to 6.84 microg/mL), precision (relative standard deviation < or = 1.87%), accuracy (ranged from 96.97 to 100.54%), and robustness, gave results within acceptable ranges. Therefore, the developed method can be successfully applied for the routine quality control analysis of raw material and feed additives.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of eight additives in polymer food packaging materials by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xulong; Liu, Yin; Gong, Zhiguo; Wang, Pengju; Wang, Jide; Feng, Shun

    2014-08-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight additives (Irgafos 168 (tri(2.4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite), Irganox 1076 (octadecyl-β-(4-hydroxy-3, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate), Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakys 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate), BHA (butyl hydroxy anisole), TBHQ (tertiary butylhydroquinone), PG (propyl gallate), DG (dodecyl gallate), UV-326 (2-( 2'-hydroxyl-3'-tert-butyl-5'-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole) in food packaging materials. After extracted by chloromethane through ultrasonic extraction, the samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The chromatographic conditions were optimized, and the best separation was obtained on a Waters BEH-C18 column (50 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution of 0. 05% acetic acid solu- tion and methanol. The analysis was performed by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in switching between the positive and negative ion modes in one run for multiple reaction monitoring. The eight additives showed good linear relationships in the ranges with all the correlation coefficients (R2) more than 0. 993. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) and limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N= 10) of this method were 0. 13-5.50 μg/L and 0.45-17.50 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 63. 9% - 127. 0% with all the RSDs < 15. 8% (n= 6). This method is simple, accurate and effective for the analysis of the eight additives in food packaging materials.

  14. Preparation and characterization of new dental porcelains, using K-feldspar and quartz raw materials. Effect of B2O3 additions on sintering and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Harabi, Abdelhamid; Guerfa, Fatiha; Harabi, Esma; Benhassine, Mohamed-Tayeb; Foughali, Lazhar; Zaiou, Soumia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of temperature and boric oxide (B2O3) addition on sintering and mechanical properties of a newly developed dental porcelain (DP) prepared from local Algerian raw materials. Based on a preliminary work, the new selected composition was 75wt.% feldspar, 20wt.% quartz and 5wt.% kaolin. It was prepared by sintering the mixture at different temperatures (1100-1250°C). The optimum sintering conditions gave a relatively higher density (2.47g/cm(3)) and excellent mechanical properties. The three point flexural strength (3PFS) and Martens micro-hardness of dental porcelains were 149MPa and 2600MPa, respectively. This obtained 3PFS value is more than four times greater than that of hydroxyapatite (HA) value (about 37MPa) sintered under the same conditions. However, the sintering temperature was lowered by about 25 and 50°C for 3 and 5wt.% B2O3 additions, respectively. But, it did not improve furthermore the samples density and their mechanical properties. It has also been found that B2O3 additions provoke a glass matrix composition variation which delays the leucite formation during sintering.

  15. Nitrogen and oxygen functionalized hollow carbon materials: The capacitive enhancement by simply incorporating novel redox additives into H2SO4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yong Fu; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang Ying; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-07-01

    In present work, we have developed a simple but effective template carbonization method for producing hollow carbon materials with high content of nitrogen and oxygen from thiocarbanilide. Among all samples, the NPC-1 exhibits high specific surface area (736 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (5.93 cm3 g-1) with high content of heteroatoms (∼11.25 at% nitrogen and ∼5.74 at% oxygen), which is conducive to the improvement of electrochemical performance. Specifically, the high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability over 5000 cycles of the NPC-1-based electrode are achieved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Additionally, pyrocatechol and rutin as novel redox additives that can easily cause redox-reactions have been incorporated into H2SO4 electrolyte to improve the capacitances. As a result, the NPC-1-R-0.15 and NPC-1-P-0.15 samples deliver high specific capacitances of 120.5 and 368.7 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of the NPC-1 sample (66.2 F g-1) without redox-additives at same current density. Furthermore, the large energy density of 18.9 and 11.9 Wh kg-1 of the NPC-1-based symmetric supercapacitors have been obtained in H2SO4+pyrocatechol and H2SO4+rutin electrolyte, respectively, and both samples also demonstrate excellent cyclic performance for 5000 cycles.

  16. Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2010-06-01

    The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-beta phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on egg production of laying hens was found. A similar protection was also seen on the toxic effect of OTA on various internal organs of the same hens. A significant protection was found against the decrease of the weight or the quantity of eggs as well as against the delay of the beginning of the laying period of chicks, both of which were provoked by ochratoxin A. These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS or WEA, but were slightest in chicks treated with l-beta PHE.

  17. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 1: Summary of exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, R.A.; Davis, C.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    In a September 1993 address to the United Nations General Assembly, President Clinton announced a new nonproliferation and export control policy that established a framework for US efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The new policy proposed that the US undertake a comprehensive approach to the growing accumulation of fissile material. One of the key elements was for the US to support a special nuclear materials (SNM) multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards. This policy is often referred to as the President`s Cutoff Initiative or the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT). Because both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and foreign reprocessing facilities similar to PUREX will likely to be inspected under a FMCT, the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, Negotiations and Analysis Division (DOE/NN-41) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to perform an information gathering exercise, the PUREX Exercise, using the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant located on the Hanford Site in Washington State. PUREX is a former production reactor fuel reprocessing plant currently undergoing a transition to a ``decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) ready`` mode. The PUREX Exercise was conducted March 29--30, 1994, to examine aspects of the imposition of several possible cutoff regimes and to study verification of non-production of SNM for nuclear weapons purposes or outside of safeguards. A follow-up activity to further examine various additional verification regimes was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on May 10, 1994.

  18. Optical detection of special nuclear materials: an alternative approach for standoff and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. Bruce; Reeve, S. W.; Burns, W. A.; Allen, Susan D.

    2010-04-01

    Termed Special Nuclear Material (SNM) by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, fissile materials, such as 235U and 239Pu, are the primary components used to construct modern nuclear weapons. Detecting the clandestine presence of SNM represents an important capability for Homeland Security. An ideal SNM sensor must be able to detect fissile materials present at ppb levels, be able to distinguish between the source of the detected fissile material, i.e., 235U, 239Pu, 233U or other fission source, and be able to perform the discrimination in near real time. A sensor with such capabilities would provide not only rapid identification of a threat but, ultimately, information on the potential source of the threat. For example, current detection schemes for monitoring clandestine nuclear testing and nuclear fuel reprocessing to provide weapons grade fissile material rely largely on passive air sampling combined with a subsequent instrumental analysis or some type of wet chemical analysis of the collected material. It would be highly useful to have a noncontact method of measuring isotopes capable of providing forensic information rapidly at ppb levels of detection. Here we compare the use of Kr, Xe and I as "canary" species for distinguishing between 235U and 239Pu fission sources by spectroscopic methods.

  19. Nuclear materials safeguards for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Basic concepts of domestic and international safeguards are described, with an emphasis on safeguards systems for the fuel cycles of commercial power reactors. Future trends in institutional and technical measures for nuclear materials safeguards are outlined. The conclusion is that continued developments in safeguards approaches and technology, coupled with institutional measures that facilitate the global management and protection of nuclear materials, are up to the challenge of safeguarding the growing inventories of nuclear materials in commercial fuel cycles in technologically advanced States with stable governments that have signed the nonproliferation treaty. These same approaches also show promise for facilitating international inspection of excess weapons materials and verifying a fissile materials cutoff convention.

  20. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. Analysis of Electron and Antineutrino Energy Spectra from Fissile Samples under Irradiation based on Gross Theory of Beta-decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tachibana, T.; Chiba, S.

    2016-06-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor electron and antineutrino ({{{bar ν }}{e}}) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). We make it clear what kinds of transition types and FP nuclides are important to shape the lepton spectra. After taking the ambiguity in the current data for fission yields and Qβ-values into account, we suggested a possibility that the high-energy part of the widely referred electron-spectra by Schreckenbach et al., almost only one experimental data set available now, might possibly be too low. Arguments on a special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) nuclides and on the consistency between U-238 and other fissiles in the experimental data lead to the importance of a new and independent measurement of electron energy spectra which could be converted into the reactor {{{bar ν }}{e}} spectra.

  2. Dynamical description of the moments of the energy distribution of fission fragments and scission of a fissile nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Borunov, M. V. Nadtochy, P. N.; Adeev, G. D.

    2007-11-15

    A multidimensional stochastic approach to fission dynamics on the basis of three-dimensional Langevin equations is applied systematically to calculating the first four moments of the energy distribution of fission fragments over a broad range of Coulomb parameter values (700 < Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} < 1700). For the scission of a fissile nucleus into fragments, use was made of various criteria traditional in modern fission theory: the vanishing of the neck radius at the scission instant and the equality of the neck radius to about 0.3R{sub 0} at this instant. In calculating the energy distribution, both of the criteria used lead to a fairly good description of experimental data on the first two moments and to a satisfactory description of data on the third and fourth moments of the distribution. However, the quality of the description of available experimental data is insufficiently good for giving preference to any of these criteria. Within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics, it is shown that the vanishing-radius criterion leads to unexpectably good agreement with experimental data on the first four moments of the energy distribution. A modified version of one-body dissipation where the coefficient that takes into account the reduction of the wall-formula contribution was set to k{sub s} = 0.25 was used in the calculations.

  3. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  4. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  5. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  6. Detection and Identification of Leachables in Vaccine from Plastic Packaging Materials Using UPLC-QTOF MS with Self-Built Polymer Additives Library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Sun, Shuqi; Xing, Xuebin; Du, Zhenxia; Guo, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wenlian

    2016-07-05

    The direct contact of plastic parts with the medical products raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished medical product. The leachable components from plastic materials may impact the safety and efficacy of the final medical product, so identification and determination of the leachables are essential for the safety assessment of medical products. A method to identify main leachables-polymer additives in medical products was developed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and a self-built library. The library contains 174 additives and the information on their names, formulas, structures, retention times, fragments, classifications, origin, and corresponding MS(E) and MSMS spectra. The reliability of the construction process of the library was guaranteed by the system stability and suitability test. Identification parameters of library application, such as mass error, retention times, fragments, and isotope pattern, were evaluated. Leachables in real vaccine and the intermediates were identified using automatic library searching. In vaccine, the peak m/z 239.0887 that could not be assigned by the library was identified as dimethyl 2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylate using a series of elucidation tools. As a result, the concentrations of leachables in vaccine and the intermediates ranged from 0.85 to 21.91 μg/L.

  7. Role of different additives and metallic micro minerals on the enhanced citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Haq, Ikram-ul

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the promotry effect of different additives and metallic micro minerals on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials. For this, sugar cane bagasse was fortified with sucrose salt medium. Ethanol and coconut oil at 3.0% (v/w) level increased citric acid productivity. Fluoroacetate at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml bagasse enhanced the yield of citric acid significantly. However, the addition of ethanol and fluoroacetate after 6 h of growth gave the maximum conversion of available sugar to citric acid. In another study, influence of some metallic micro-minerals viz. copper sulphate, molybdenum sulphate, zinc sulphate and cobalt sulphate on microbial synthesis of citric acid using molasses medium was also carried out. It was found that copper sulphate and molybdenum sulphate remarkably enhanced the production of citric acid while zinc sulphate was not so effective. However, cobalt sulphate was the least effective for microbial biosynthesis of citric acid under the same experimental conditions. In case of CuSO(4), the strain of Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 showed enhanced citric productivity with experimental (9.80%) over the control (7.54%). In addition, the specific productivity of the culture at 30 ppm CuSO(4) (Q(p) = 0.012a g/g cells/h) was several folds higher than other all other concentrations. All kinetic parameters including yield coefficients and volumetric rates revealed the hyper productivity of citric acid by CuSO(4) using blackstrap molasses as the basal carbon source.

  8. A system for the measurement of delayed neutrons and gammas from special nuclear materials

    DOE PAGES

    Andrews, M. T.; Corcoran, E. C.; Goorley, J. T.; ...

    2014-11-27

    The delayed neutron counting (DNC) system at the Royal Military College of Canada has been upgraded to accommodate concurrent delayed neutron and gamma measurements. This delayed neutron and gamma counting (DNGC) system uses a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor to irradiate fissile materials before their transfer to a counting arrangement consisting of six ³He and one HPGe detector. The application of this system is demonstrated in an example where delayed neutron and gamma emissions are used in complement to examine ²³³U content and determine fissile mass with an average relative error and accuracy of -2.2 and 1.5 %, respectively.

  9. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Controlling and eliminating nuclear-weapon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hippel, Frank

    2010-02-01

    Fissile material -- in practice plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) -- is the essential ingredient in nuclear weapons. Controlling and eliminating fissile material and the means of its production is therefore the common denominator for nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and the prevention of nuclear terrorism. From a fundamentalist anti-nuclear-weapon perspective, the less fissile material there is and the fewer locations where it can be found, the safer a world we will have. A comprehensive fissile-material policy therefore would have the following elements: *Consolidation of all nuclear-weapon-usable materials at a minimum number of high-security sites; *A verified ban on the production of HEU and plutonium for weapons; *Minimization of non-weapon uses of HEU and plutonium; and *Elimination of all excess stocks of plutonium and HEU. There is activity on all these fronts but it is not comprehensive and not all aspects are being pursued vigorously or competently. It is therefore worthwhile to review the situation. )

  10. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    PubMed

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share.

  11. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied.

  12. Understanding the effects of a multi-functionalized additive on the cathode-electrolyte interfacial stability of Ni-rich materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Taeeun; Kang, Kyoung Seok; Mun, Junyoung; Lim, Sang Hoo; Woo, Sang-Gil; Kim, Ki Jae; Park, Min-Sik; Cho, Woosuk; Song, Jun Ho; Han, Young-Kyu; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Nickel-rich lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxides have received considerable attention as a promising cathode material, however, they have suffered from poor interfacial stability, especially at high temperature. Here, we suggest a bi-functionalized divinyl sulfone that enhances the applicability of a nickel-rich cathode via stabilization of the electrolyte-electrode interface. The divinyl sulfone forms a protective layer on the cathode surface by electrochemical oxidation reactions and this greatly decreases the internal pressure of the cell via stabilization of the Ni-rich cathode-electrolyte interface. The cell controlled with divinyl sulfone shows remarkable cycling performance with 91.9% capacity retention at elevated temperature even after 100 cycles. Additional electrode analyses and first-principles calculations provide critical spectroscopic evidences to demonstrate the combined effects of the sulfone and vinyl functional groups. Once the divinyl sulfone is electrochemically oxidized, the vinyl functional groups readily participate in further stabilizing sulfone-based solid electrolyte interphase intermediates and afford a durable protective layer on the nickel-rich electrode surface.

  13. Hydroxyapatite formation on titania-based materials in a solution mimicking body fluid: Effects of manganese and iron addition in anatase.

    PubMed

    Shin, Euisup; Kim, Ill Yong; Cho, Sung Baek; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite formation on the surfaces of implanted materials plays an important role in osteoconduction of bone substitutes in bone tissues. Titania hydrogels are known to instigate hydroxyapatite formation in a solution mimicking human blood plasma. To date, the relationship between the surface characteristics of titania and hydroxyapatite formation on its surface remains unclear. In this study, titania powders with varying surface characteristics were prepared by addition of manganese or iron to examine hydroxyapatite formation in a type of simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution). Hydroxyapatite formation was monitored by observation of deposited particles with scale-like morphology on the prepared titania powders. The effect of the titania surface characteristics, i.e., crystal structure, zeta potential, hydroxy group content, and specific surface area, on hydroxyapatite formation was examined. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed on the surface of titania powders that were primarily anatase, and featured a negative zeta potential and low specific surface areas irrespective of the hydroxy group content. High specific surface areas inhibited the formation of hydroxyapatite because calcium and phosphate ions were mostly consumed by adsorption on the titania surface. Thus, these surface characteristics of titania determine its osteoconductivity following exposure to body fluid.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety bounding analysis for the in-tank-precipitation (ITP) process, impacted by fissile isotopic weight fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, C.E.

    1994-04-22

    The In-Tank Precipitation process (ITP) receives High Level Waste (HLW) supernatant liquid containing radionuclides in waste processing tank 48H. Sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, and monosodium titanate (MST), NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}H, are added for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr, respectively. In addition to removal of radio-strontium, MST will also remove plutonium and uranium. The majority of the feed solutions to ITP will come from the dissolution of supernate that had been concentrated by evaporation to a crystallized salt form, commonly referred to as saltcake. The concern for criticality safety arises from the adsorption of U and Pt onto MST. If sufficient mass and optimum conditions are achieved then criticality is credible. The concentration of u and Pt from solution into the smaller volume of precipitate represents a concern for criticality. This report supplements WSRC-TR-93-171, Nuclear Criticality Safety Bounding Analysis For The In-Tank-Precipitation (ITP) Process. Criticality safety in ITP can be analyzed by two bounding conditions: (1) the minimum safe ratio of MST to fissionable material and (2) the maximum fissionable material adsorption capacity of the MST. Calculations have provided the first bounding condition and experimental analysis has established the second. This report combines these conditions with canyon facility data to evaluate the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to the adsorption of the fissionable material from solution. In addition, this report analyzes the potential impact of increased U loading onto MST. Results of this analysis demonstrate a greater safety margin for ITP operations than the previous analysis. This report further demonstrates that the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to adsorption of fissionable material by MST is not credible.

  15. Substituting water for chlorofluorocarbon liquid in density measuring baths for nuclear weapon components on non-fissile alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Beitscher, S.; Palachek, A.D.

    1991-09-23

    This project was part of a Rocky Flats Plant and Department of Energy weapons complex effort to reduce release of hazardous materials to the atmosphere. Experiments were performed to determine whether deionized water could be substituted for trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113) in the bath of a density measuring system. In the first experiment, 14 parts of seven types were tested: They included shells of beryllium, vanadium, titanium, stainless steel, uranium, a uranium alloy, and casting feed strips of a uranium alloy. Each part was measured for density five times in each medium. The entire experiment was repeated -- the only change being addition of a wetting agent to the water. Two additional experiments were confided to the uranium alloy casting feed strips. As a result of this study, it is recommended that CFC be discontinued as a bath medium for the part types studied in this investigation and that deionized water be substituted.

  16. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

  17. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Influence of Al 2O 3 additions on the crystallization mechanism and properties of diopside/anorthite hybrid glass-ceramics for LED packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mina; Kang, Seunggu

    2011-07-01

    The crystallization mechanism and properties of diopside (CaMgSi 2O 6)/anorthite (CaAl 2Si 2O 8) hybrid glass-ceramics fabricated from a CMSA (CaO-MgO-SiO 2-Al 2O 3) glass system were studied as a function of Al 2O 3 additions. The parent glass prepared was pressed to pellets isostatically and was sintered to produce glass-ceramics. A non-isothermal analysis was performed to study the crystallization behavior of diopside/anorthite hybrid glass-ceramics using differential thermal analysis (DTA) with various heating rates (5-20 K min -1) and John-Mehl-Avrami and Kissinger equations. The occupying ratio of diopside and anorthite phases, crystal identification and microstructure in the glass-ceramics containing various Al 2O 3 contents were analyzed. Also the thermal conductivity and density of diopside/anorthite composites were measured to apply to LED packaging materials. The main crystalline phases for CaO-MgO-SiO 2-Al 2O 3 glass-ceramics system containing 8.6 wt% or less Al 2O 3, and 15.9 wt% or more Al 2O 3 were the diopside and anorthite, respectively. The difference (Δ T) of initiation temperature for crystallized ( Tx) and glass transition temperature ( Tg), calculated from the DTA curve for a glass is inversely proportional to the density of glass-ceramics fabricated from the glass. The highest crystallization temperature was 946 °C for the glass-ceramics containing 27.4 wt% Al 2O 3, which is low enough to apply the LTCC process. The glass-ceramics of diopside base with no Al 2O 3 added had the highest thermal conductivity of 2.372 W/m °C among all specimens fabricated in this study.

  20. Incorporation of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Boron and Gadolinium into Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Clad Material

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, K.; Renk, T.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Corradini, M.L

    2004-12-14

    Long-lived fuels require the use of higher enrichments of 235U or other fissile materials. Such high levels of fissile material lead to excessive fuel activity at the beginning of life. To counteract this excessive activity, integral fuel burnable absorbers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly. The two commonly used IFBA elements are gadolinium, which is added as gadolinium-oxide to the UO2 powder, and boron, which is applied as a zirconium-diboride coating on the UO2 pellets using plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The incorporation of IFBA into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be very costly because of their small volume and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. Other manufacturing issues that impact cost and performance are maintaining the correct levels of dosing, the reduction in fuel melting point due to gadolinium-oxide additions, and parasitic neutron absorption at fuel's end-of-life. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of boron or gadolinium into the outer surface of the fuel cladding material rather than as an additive to the fuel pellets. This paradigm shift will allow for the introduction of the IFBA in a non-nuclear regulated environment and will obviate the necessity of additional handling and processing of the fuel pellets. This could represent significant cost savings and potentially lead to greater reproducibility and control of the burnable fuel in the early stages of the reactor operation. The surface alloying is being performed using the IBEST (Ion Beam Surface Treatment) process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. IBEST involves the delivery of energetic ion beam pulses onto the surface of a material, near-surface melting, and rapid solidification. The non-equilibrium nature of such processing allows for surface

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  2. A treaty to ban nuclear smuggling: The next step in nuclear material control?

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, B.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    Since the demise of the Soviet Union, reports have continued to surface that weapons-usable nuclear material has been smuggled out of former Soviet territory into the hands of proliferant states. So far, few examples of nuclear smuggling have involved serious quantities of weapons-usable material, and much purported smuggling has involved attempted fraud rather than an effort to transfer fissile material. In no instance has an actual transfer to a potential proliferant state been verified.

  3. Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-07

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6770--14-9554 Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using...of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission R.J. Commisso, J.W. Schumer, R.J. Allen, D.D. Hinshelwood, S.L...induce photofission in fissile material . We are investigating the applicability of this mechanism, using photons from bremsstrahlung, for long-range

  4. Nonmetals Test and Evaluation. Delivery Order 0003: Fuel System Materials Compatibility Testing of Fuel Additives for Reducing the Amount of Small Particulate in Turbine Engine Exhaust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    JAMES J. MAZZA MARY ANN PHILLIPS Team Lead Chief Adhesives, Composites, and Elastomers Team Materials Integrity Branch Materials...P-24441 (Epoxy Polyamide ) Pencil Hardness Unaged 7d/200°F/JP-8+100 (Control) 7d/200°F/Control + #1 (RXP) 7d/200°F/Control + #2...Description Test Conditioning Results MIL-P-24441 (Epoxy Polyamide ) Taber Test (Wear Index) Unaged 7d/200°F/JP-8+100

  5. The attractiveness of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles for various proliferation and theft scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, Charles G; Wallace, Richard K; Ireland, John R; Johnson, M W; Hase, Kevin R; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B; Sleaford, Brad A; Bradley, Keith S; Collins, Brian W; Smith, Brian W; Prichard, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant state and sub-national group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no 'silver bullet' has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Stability-Improving Additives for JP-8, Phase 2 - Specification, Materials, Filtration, and Fit-For-Purpose Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    outside-in for the separators. Both coalescer technologies use glass to generate larger water droplets and Teflon separator screens to repel any water ...mainly to anomalous or nebulous data relating to filtration and water separation. It is recommended that these additives undergo additional filtration... water separation testing and that the results of the testing in this program be combined with any new data to re- evaluate AFRL’s position regarding

  7. An Assessment of the Attractiveness of Material Associated with a MOX Fuel Cycle from a Safeguards Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, Charles G; Wallace, Richard K; Ireland, John R; Johnson, M W; Hase, Kevin R; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B; Sleaford, Brad W; Collins, Brian A; Robel, Martin; Bradley, Keith S; Prichard, Andrew W; Smith, Brian W

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, coextraction, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant State and sub-national group capabilities. This study also considers those materials that will be recycled and burned, possibly multiple times, in LWRs [e.g., plutonium in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel]. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a State and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no 'silver bullet' has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  8. US/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Rumyantsev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1998-12-31

    Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in physical protection, upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, installation of equipment for the computerized materials accounting system, and installation of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment are being carried out at this facility. Software for the computerized accounting system, named KI-MACS, has been developed at Kurchatov and the system has been fully integrated with the bar code printing and reading equipment, electronic scales, and nondestructive assay equipment provided under this program. Additional 1997--1998 activities at Kurchatov include continuation of a tamper indicating device program, vulnerability assessments of several facilities, hosting of a Russian-American Workshop on Fissile Material Control and Accountability at Critical Facilities, and the development of accounting procedures for transfers of nuclear materials between material balance areas.

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Effect of organic additives on the mitigation of volatility of 1-nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ): next generation powerful melt cast able high energy material.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Singh, Alok; Naik, N H; Polke, B G; Gore, G M; Asthana, S N; Gandhe, B R

    2006-06-30

    1-Nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was synthesized based on the lines of reported method. Thermolysis studies on synthesized and characterized TNAZ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hyphenated TG-FT-IR techniques were undertaken to generate data on decomposition pattern. FT-IR of decomposition products of TNAZ revealed the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and HCN containing species suggesting the cleavage of C/N-NO(2) bond accompanied with the collapse of ring structure. The effect of incorporation of 15% additives namely, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT), carbohydrazide (CHZ), 5,7-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF), bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) succinate (BNPS), triaminoguanidinium nitrate (TAGN), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) and nitroguanidine (NQ) on the volatility of TNAZ was investigated by undertaking thermogravimetric analysis. The TG pattern brings out the potential of BNPS and TAGN as additives to mitigate the volatility of TNAZ. The influence of additives on thermal decomposition of pattern of TNAZ was also investigated by DSC. The DSC results indicated that the additives did not have appreciable effect on the melting point of TNAZ. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were carried out to investigate the effect of additives on morphology of TNAZ. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism involved in between the TNAZ and TAGN and BNPS. It appears that the formation of charge transfer complex formation between the TNAZ and TAGN/BNPS. The effect of addition of high explosives such as CL-20, HMX and RDX on thermo-physical characteristics of TNAZ is also reported in this paper.

  12. Computer modelling integrated with micro-CT and material testing provides additional insight to evaluate bone treatments: Application to a beta-glycan derived whey protein mice model.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, D; Tu, P T; Dickinson, M; Watson, M; Blais, A; Das, R; Cornish, J; Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a whey protein diet on computationally predicted mechanical strength of murine bones in both trabecular and cortical regions of the femur. There was no significant influence on mechanical strength in cortical bone observed with increasing whey protein treatment, consistent with cortical tissue mineral density (TMD) and bone volume changes observed. Trabecular bone showed a significant decline in strength with increasing whey protein treatment when nanoindentation derived Young׳s moduli were used in the model. When microindentation, micro-CT phantom density or normalised Young׳s moduli were included in the model a non-significant decline in strength was exhibited. These results for trabecular bone were consistent with both trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-CT indices obtained independently. The secondary aim of this study was to characterise the influence of different sources of Young׳s moduli on computational prediction. This study aimed to quantify the predicted mechanical strength in 3D from these sources and evaluate if trends and conclusions remained consistent. For cortical bone, predicted mechanical strength behaviour was consistent across all sources of Young׳s moduli. There was no difference in treatment trend observed when Young׳s moduli were normalised. In contrast, trabecular strength due to whey protein treatment significantly reduced when material properties from nanoindentation were introduced. Other material property sources were not significant but emphasised the strength trend over normalised material properties. This shows strength at the trabecular level was attributed to both changes in bone architecture and material properties.

  13. From chemistry to materials, design and photophysics of functional terbium molecular hybrids from assembling covalent chromophore to alkoxysilanes through hydrogen transfer addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Bing . E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn; Ma Dongjie

    2006-07-15

    Two silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials composed of phenol (PHE) and ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate derivatives (abbreviated as EPHBA) complexes were prepared via a sol-gel process. The active hydroxyl groups of PHE/EPHBA grafted by 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) through hydrogen transfer reaction were used as multi-functional bridged components, which can coordinate to Tb{sup 3+} with carbonyl groups, strongly absorb ultraviolet and effectively transfer energy to Tb{sup 3+} through their triplet excited state, as well as undergo polymerization or crosslinking reactions with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), for anchoring terbium ions to the silica backbone. For comparison, two doped hybrid materials in which rare-earth complexes were just encapsulated in silica-based sol-gel matrices were also prepared. NMR, FT-IR, UV/vis absorption and luminescence spectroscopy were used to investigate the obtained hybrid materials. UV excitation in the organic component resulted in strong green emission from Tb{sup 3+} ions due to an efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer mechanism. - Graphical abstract: The active hydroxyl groups of phenol/ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate grafted by 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) through hydrogen transfer reaction were used as multi-functional bridged components, which can coordinate to Tb{sup 3+} with carbonyl groups, strongly absorb ultraviolet and effectively transfer energy to Tb{sup 3+} through their triplet excited state, as well as undergo polymerization or crosslinking reactions with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), for anchoring terbium ions to the silica backbone with covalently bonded.

  14. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. )

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  15. Study on the effects of white rice husk ash and fibrous materials additions on some properties of fiber-cement composites.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Yahya; Ziabari, Kamran Pourhooshyar; Torkaman, Javad; Ashori, Alireza; Jafari, Mohammad

    2013-03-15

    This work assesses the effects of white rice husk ash (WRHA) as pozzolanic material, virgin kraft pulp (VKP), old corrugated container (OCC) and fibers derived from fiberboard (FFB) as reinforcing agents on some properties of blended cement composites. In the sample preparation, composites were manufactured using fiber-to-cement ratio of 25:75 by weight and 5% CaCl(2) as accelerator. Type II Portland cement was replaced by WRHA at 0%, 25% and 50% by weight of binder. A water-to-binder ratio of 0.55 was used for all blended cement paste mixes. For parametric study, compressive strength, water absorption and density of the composite samples were evaluated. Results showed that WRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material to cement and also improved resistance to water absorption. However, increasing the replacement level of WRHA tends to reduce the compressive strength due to the low binding ability. The optimum replacement level of WRHA in mortar was 25% by weight of binder; this replacement percentage resulted in better compressive strengths and water absorption. OCC fiber is shown to be superior to VKF and FFB fibers in increasing the compressive strength, due to its superior strength properties. As expected, the increase of the WRHA content induced the reduction of bulk density of the cement composites. Statistical analysis showed that the interaction of above-mentioned variable parameters was significant on the mechanical and physical properties at 1% confidence level.

  16. Potential for and consequences of criticality resulting from hydrogeochemically concentrated fissile uranium blended with soil in low-level waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    Evaluations were done to determine conditions that could permit nuclear criticality with fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities and to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel if there were such an accident. Simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies were done (1) to identify some realistic scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) to model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration via sorption or precipitation of uranium, (3) to evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits, and (4) to estimate potential radiation exposures to personnel resulting from criticality consequences. The scope of the referenced work was restricted to uranium at an assumed 100 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment. Three outcomes of uranium concentration are possible: uranium concentration is increased to levels that do pose a criticality safety concern; uranium concentration is increased, but levels do not pose a criticality safety concern; or uranium concentration does not increase.

  17. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C.; Grassi, G.

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  18. Decrease of ruminal methane production in Rusitec fermenters through the addition of plant material from rhubarb (Rheum spp.) and alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus).

    PubMed

    García-González, R; González, J S; López, S

    2010-08-01

    Roots of rhubarb (Rheum spp.) and bark of alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) were tested as feed additives for decreasing ruminal methane production released from anaerobic fermentation of a forage-based diet in a rumen-simulating fermenter (Rusitec). Sixteen fermentation units (vessels) were set up for the experiment lasting 19 d. Treated vessels were supplied with 1g/d of rhubarb or alder buckthorn (4 vessels per plant species); another 4 vessels received 12 microM sodium monensin (positive control), and the remaining 4 vessels were controls (no additive). Upon termination of the experimental period, batch cultures were inoculated with the liquid contents of the vessels for examining in vitro fermentation kinetics of cellulose, starch, barley straw, and the same substrate used in the Rusitec cultures. Monensin induced changes in fermentation in agreement with those reported in the literature, and inocula from those cultures decreased the fermentation rate and total gas produced in the gas kinetics study. Rhubarb decreased methane production, associated with limited changes in the profile of volatile fatty acids throughout the duration of the study, whereas digestibility and total volatile fatty acids production were not affected. Rhubarb inocula did not affect gas production kinetics except for cellulose. Alder buckthorn decreased only methane concentration in fermentation gas, and this effect was not always significant. The use of rhubarb (milled rhizomes of Rheum spp.) in the diets of ruminants may effectively modulate ruminal fermentation by abating methane production, thus potentially involving productive and environmental benefits.

  19. Ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of eleven fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Xianbo; Qiu, Bin; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Juan; Luo, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, 11 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents with different numbers of sulfonic acid groups were separated by using an ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The effects of ionic liquid concentration, pH of mobile phase B, and composition of mobile phase A on the separation of fluorescent whitening agents were systematically investigated. The ionic liquid tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate is superior to tetrabutylammomnium bromide for the separation of the fluorescent whitening agents. The optimal separation conditions were an ionic liquid concentration at 8 mM and the pH of mobile phase B at 8.5 with methanol as mobile phase A. The established method exhibited low limits of detection (0.04-0.07 ng/mL) and wide linearity ranges (0.30-20 ng/mL) with high linear correlation coefficients from 0.9994 to 0.9998. The optimized procedure was applied to analyze target analytes in paper samples with satisfactory results. Eleven target analytes were quantified, and the recoveries of spiked paper samples were in the range of 85-105% with the relative standard deviations from 2.1 to 5.1%. The obtained results indicated that the method was efficient for detection of 11 fluorescent whitening agents.

  20. Additives for immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional separation of particulate material: comparison between commercial and new synthetic detergents.

    PubMed

    Gianazza, E; Rabilloud, T; Quaglia, L; Caccia, P; Astrua-Testori, S; Osio, L; Grazioli, G; Righetti, P G

    1987-09-01

    We describe the synthesis of two detergents, L and A15, whose performances as solubilizing agents and as additives in the first-dimension step of a two-dimensional separation are compared with those of some commercial compounds, i.e., Nonidet P-40, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate(Chaps), and sulfobetaine, on three membrane protein preparations: rat RBC ghosts, beef kidney microvilli, and spinach thylakoids. L is 3-]3-dodecylamidoprophylcbdimethylammonio propane-1-sulfonate; owing to the substitution of a dodecylamido for the dodecyl residue of SB 3-12, the concentration of urea compatible with 2% detergent increases from 4.5 M for the parent molecule up to 7 M. With all three biological samples on which the panel of different detergents has been tested in parallel, L + urea scores as the most effective solubilization medium. On red blood cells a notable qualitative difference is observed with the selective extraction by L as well as by N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-3-propanesulfonate of a major protein (pI = ca. 5.5, Mr = ca. 100,000). A15 is derived from a tertiary amine, with one alkylic substituent (either C11 or C13) and two poly(ethylene oxide) tails (totaling 15 ethoxy residues), which is reacted with propane sultone. Approximately 30% of the product corresponds to the N-adduct and is a truly zwitterionic detergent, while 60% is an O-derivative and still contains a titratable amino group (with a pK of 7.2). A15 can thus be used for isoelectric focusing on immobilized pH gradients, as in this work, but would not be compatible with carrier ampholyte isoelectric focusing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Estimating discharged plutonium using measurements of structural material activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W. S.; Lumley-Woodyear, A. de; Budlong-Sylvester, K. W.

    2002-01-01

    As the US and Russia move to lower numbers of deployed nuclear weapons, transparency regarding the quantity of weapons usable fissile material available in each country may become more important. In some cases detailed historical information regarding material production at individual facilities may be incomplete or not readily available, e.g., at decommissioned facilities. In such cases tools may be needed to produce estimates of aggregate material production as part of a bilateral agreement. Such measurement techniques could also provide increased confidence in declared production quantities.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    In a coordinated effort, the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed the elimination of the Specification Packaging from 49 CFR 173.[1] In accordance with the Federal Register, issued on October 1, 2004, new fabrication of Specification Packages would no longer be authorized. In accordance with the NRC final rulemaking published January 26, 2004, Specification Packagings are mandated by law to be removed from service no later than October 1, 2008. This coordinated effort and resulting rulemaking initiated a planned phase out of Specification Type B and Type A fissile (F) material transportation packages within the Department of Energy (DOE) and its subcontractors. One of the Specification Packages affected by this regulatory change is the UN1A2 Specification Package, per DOT 49 CFR 173.417(a)(6). To maintain continuing shipments of DOE materials currently transported in UN1A2 Specification Package after the existing authorization expires, a replacement Type A(F) material packaging design is under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of the prototype design effort and testing of the new Type A(F) Package development for the DOE. This paper discusses the progress made in the development of a Type A Fissile Packaging to replace the expiring 49 CFR UN1A2 Specification Fissile Package. The Specification Package was mostly a single-use waste disposal container. The design requirements and authorized radioactive material contents of the UN1A2 Specification Package were defined in 49 CFR. A UN1A2 Specification Package was authorized to ship up to 350 grams of U-235 in any enrichment and in any non-pyrophoric form. The design was specified as a 55-gallon 1A2 drum overpack with a body constructed from 18 gauge steel with a 16 gauge drum lid. Drum closure was specified as a standard 12-gauge ring closure. The inner product container size was not specified but was listed as any

  3. Transition Metal Diborides as Electrode Material for MHD Direct Power Extraction: High-temperature Oxidation of ZrB2-HfB2 Solid Solution with LaB6 Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitler, Steven; Hill, Cody; Raja, Krishnan S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2016-06-01

    Transition metal borides are being considered for use as potential electrode coating materials in magnetohydrodynamic direct power extraction plants from coal-fired plasma. These electrode materials will be exposed to aggressive service conditions at high temperatures. Therefore, high-temperature oxidation resistance is an important property. Consolidated samples containing an equimolar solid solution of ZrB2-HfB2 with and without the addition of 1.8 mol pct LaB6 were prepared by ball milling of commercial boride material followed by spark plasma sintering. These samples were oxidized at 1773 K (1500 °C) in two different conditions: (1) as-sintered and (2) anodized (10 V in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte). Oxidation studies were carried out in 0.3 × 105 and 0.1 Pa oxygen partial pressures. The anodic oxide layers showed hafnium enrichment on the surface of the samples, whereas the high-temperature oxides showed zirconium enrichment. The anodized samples without LaB6 addition showed about 2.5 times higher oxidation resistance in high-oxygen partial pressures than the as-sintered samples. Addition of LaB6 improved the oxidation resistance in the as-sintered condition by about 30 pct in the high-oxygen partial pressure tests.

  4. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  5. This Arms Control Dog Won’t Hunt: The Proposed Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty at the Conference on Disarmament

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    about 75 tons of plutonium. It is estimated that the annual production figure will remain more or less the same until 2010 . The cumulative amount of...before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, May 26, 1994, 3. 13 David Albright, Frans Berkhout , William Walker, World...control separated plutonium either for military or commercial use. See David Albright, Frans Berkhout and William Walker, World Inventory of

  6. Post-Synthetic Modification of Porphyrin-Encapsulating Metal-Organic Materials by Cooperative Addition of Inorganic Salts to Enhance CO2/CH4 Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Gao, Wen-Yang; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2012-11-26

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO3)2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal–organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M+Cl-) in a stoichiometric fashion.

  7. Modified-Atmospheric Pressure-Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Identification of Friction Modifier Additives Oleamide and Ethoxylated Tallow Amines on Varied Metal Target Materials and Tribologically Stressed Steel Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Widder, Lukas; Ristic, Andjelka; Brenner, Florian; Brenner, Josef; Hutter, Herbert

    2015-11-17

    For many tasks in failure and damage analysis of surfaces deteriorated in heavy tribological contact, the detailed characterization of used lubricants and their additives is essential. The objective of the presented work is to establish accessibility of tribostressed surfaces for direct characterization via modified atmospheric pressure-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (m-AP-MALDI-MS). Special target holders were constructed to allow target samples of differing shape and form to fit into the desorption/ionization chamber. The best results of desorption and ionization on different target materials and varying roughnesses were achieved on smooth surfaces with low matrix/substrate interaction. M-AP-MALDI characterization of tribologically stressed steel surfaces after pin-on-disc sliding wear tests (SRV-tribotests) yielded positive identification of used friction modifier additives. Further structure elucidation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and measurements of worn surfaces by time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) accompanied findings about additive behavior and deterioration during tribological contact. Using m-AP-MALDI for direct offline examinations of worn surfaces may set up a quick method for determination of additives used for lubrication and general characterization of a tribological system.

  8. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  9. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  10. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or kilograms of fissile radionuclides (or the.... For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams of fissile radionuclides (or the mass of...

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  12. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  13. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  14. 49 CFR 172.203 - Additional description requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Abbreviations are authorized. Except for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or kilograms of fissile radionuclides may be inserted instead of activity units. For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241,...

  15. Stabilizing interface layer of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage using p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate as film forming additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Ding; Yao, Yao; Li, Xue; Zhang, Yingjie; Ru, Juanjian; Ren, Ting

    2017-03-01

    p-Toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (PTSI) is introduced as electrolyte additive in a bid to enhance the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage. A less resistive and stable film on the cathode surface derived from PTSI oxidation which taken place prior to the carbonate solvents is formed. As a result, the discharge capacity retention of Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cell is elevated from 71.4% to 86.2% after 100 cycles at room temperature, and from 32.3% to 54.5% after 100 cycles at 55 °C. In addition, the Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 half cell with PTSI exhibits superior rate capability compared to that in baseline electrolyte. The improved performance is not only ascribed to the thin protective layer originated from PTSI decomposition which prevent the successive breakdown of the electrolyte on cathode surface, but it is also attributed to the sbnd Sdbnd O group in PTSI serves as the weak base site to restrain the reactivity of PF5, resulting in the suppression of LiF formation and HF generation.

  16. Demonstration (DEMO) of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system for tracking and monitoring of nuclear materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H. C.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y. Y.; Shuler, J.

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) [Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)] Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has developed a radiofrequency identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system for the management of nuclear materials packages during storage and transportation. The system, developed by the PCP team at Argonne National Laboratory, involves hardware modification, application software development, secured database and web server development, and irradiation experiments. In April 2008, Argonne tested key features of the RFID tracking and monitoring system in a weeklong, 1700 mile (2736 km) demonstration employing 14 empty type B fissile material drums of three designs (models 9975, 9977 and ES-3100) that have been certified for shipment by the DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The demonstration successfully integrated global positioning system (GPS) technology for vehicle tracking, satellite/cellular (general packet radio service, or GPRS) technologies for wireless communication, and active RFID tags with multiple sensors (seal integrity, shock, temperature, humidity and battery status) on drums. In addition, the demonstration integrated geographic information system (GIS) technology with automatic alarm notifications of incidents and generated buffer zone reports for emergency response and management of staged incidents. The demonstration was sponsored by EM and the US National Nuclear Security Administration, with the participation of Argonne, Savannah River and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Over 50 authorised stakeholders across the country observed the demonstration via secured Internet access. The DOE PCP and national laboratories are working on several RFID system implementation projects at selected DOE sites, as well as continuing device and systems development and widening applications beyond DOE sites and possibly beyond nuclear materials to include other radioactive materials.

  17. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  19. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Justin; Skutnik, Steven; Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  20. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; Kapsimalis, Roger J.

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  1. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; ...

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification,more » mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.« less

  2. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  3. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  4. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  5. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  6. 49 CFR 173.420 - Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted and non-fissile).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... filling and during periodic inspection and test, packagings must be cleaned in accordance with American... below the minimum value specified in the following table: Packaging model Minimum thickness;...

  7. 49 CFR 173.420 - Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted and non-fissile).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... filling and during periodic inspection and test, packagings must be cleaned in accordance with American... below the minimum value specified in the following table: Packaging model Minimum thickness;...

  8. 49 CFR 173.420 - Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted and non-fissile).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... filling and during periodic inspection and test, packagings must be cleaned in accordance with American... minimum value specified in the following table: Packaging model Minimum thickness; millimeters (inches)...

  9. 49 CFR 173.420 - Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted and non-fissile).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... filling and during periodic inspection and test, packagings must be cleaned in accordance with American... below the minimum value specified in the following table: Packaging model Minimum thickness;...

  10. Computational materials design of crystalline solids† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: An extended reading list taken from a snapshot of the Mendeley Group on Materials Design available at https://www.mendeley.com/groups/8113991/materials-design. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cs00841g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Keith T.; Frost, Jarvist M.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Svane, Katrine L.

    2016-01-01

    The modelling of materials properties and processes from first principles is becoming sufficiently accurate as to facilitate the design and testing of new systems in silico. Computational materials science is both valuable and increasingly necessary for developing novel functional materials and composites that meet the requirements of next-generation technology. A range of simulation techniques are being developed and applied to problems related to materials for energy generation, storage and conversion including solar cells, nuclear reactors, batteries, fuel cells, and catalytic systems. Such techniques may combine crystal-structure prediction (global optimisation), data mining (materials informatics) and high-throughput screening with elements of machine learning. We explore the development process associated with computational materials design, from setting the requirements and descriptors to the development and testing of new materials. As a case study, we critically review progress in the fields of thermoelectrics and photovoltaics, including the simulation of lattice thermal conductivity and the search for Pb-free hybrid halide perovskites. Finally, a number of universal chemical-design principles are advanced. PMID:26992173

  11. Apparatus and method for quantitative assay of samples of transuranic waste contained in barrels in the presence of matrix material

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Herrera, G.C.; Hastings, R.D.; Shunk, E.R.; Kunz, W.E.

    1987-08-28

    Apparatus and method for performing corrections for matrix material effects on the neutron measurements generated from analysis of transuranic waste drums using the differential-dieaway technique. By measuring the absorption index and the moderator index for a particular drum, correction factors can be determined for the effects of matrix materials on the ''observed'' quantity of fissile and fertile material present therein in order to determine the actual assays thereof. A barrel flux monitor is introduced into the measurement chamber to accomplish these measurements as a new contribution to the differential-dieaway technology. 9 figs.

  12. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  13. 76 FR 35918 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Materials; Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum, a division of...

  14. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura Schmidt

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  15. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  16. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  17. Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.; Fainberg, A.; Sanborn, J.; Allentuck, J.; Sun, C.

    1996-11-01

    On 27 September 1993, President Clinton proposed {open_quotes}... a multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards.{close_quotes} The UN General Assembly subsequently adopted a resolution recommending negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral, and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty (hereinafter referred to as {open_quotes}the Cutoff Convention{close_quotes}) banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. The matter is now on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament, although not yet under negotiation. This accord would, in effect, place all fissile material (defined as highly enriched uranium and plutonium) produced after entry into force (EIF) of the accord under international safeguards. {open_quotes}Production{close_quotes} would mean separation of the material in question from radioactive fission products, as in spent fuel reprocessing, or enrichment of uranium above the 20% level, which defines highly enriched uranium (HEU). Facilities where such production could occur would be safeguarded to verify that either such production is not occurring or that all material produced at these facilities is maintained under safeguards.

  18. Hybrid inorganic-organic materials: Novel poly(propylene oxide)-based ceramers, abrasion-resistant sol-gel coatings for metals, and epoxy-clay nanocomposites, with an additional chapter on: Metallocene-catalyzed linear polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, Kurt

    1999-12-01

    The sol-gel process has been employed to generate hybrid inorganic-organic network materials. Unique ceramers were prepared based on an alkoxysilane functionalized soft organic oligomer, poly(propylene oxide (PPO), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Despite the formation of covalent bonds between the inorganic and organic constituents, the resulting network materials were phase separated, composed of a silicate rich phase embedded in a matrix of the organic oligomer chains. The behavior of such materials was similar to elastomers containing a reinforcing filler. The study focused on the influence of initial oligomer molecular weight, functionality, and tetramethoxysilane, water, and acid catalyst content on the final structure, mechanical and thermal properties. The sol-gel approach has also been exploited to generate thin, transparent, abrasion resistant coatings for metal substrates. These systems were based on alkoxysilane functionalized diethylenetriamine (DETA) with TMOS, which generated hybrid networks with very high crosslink densities. These materials were applied with great success as abrasion resistant coatings to aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel. In another study, intercalated polymer-clay nanocomposites were prepared based on various epoxy networks montmorillonite clay. This work explored the influence of incorporated clay on the adhesive properties of the epoxies. The lap shear strength decreased with increasing day content This was due to a reduction in the toughness of the epoxy. Also, the delaminated (or exfoliated) nanocomposite structure could not be generated. Instead, all nanocomposite systems possessed an intercalated structure. The final project involved the characterization of a series of metallocene catalyzed linear polyethylenes, produced at Phillips Petroleum. Polyolefins synthesized with such new catalyst systems are becoming widely available. The influence of molecular weight and thermal treatment on the mechanical, rheological

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  1. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  2. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of

  3. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  4. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  5. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  9. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  10. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  11. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  12. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  13. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  14. LIFE Materials: Overview of Fuels and Structural Materials Issues Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-08

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion

  15. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  19. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  20. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  1. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    casting molds for traditional casting processes on the battlefield, and 3) the use of recycled polymeric materials as feedstock for 3-D printers ...nondestructive characterization technique allows for 3D imaging that readily captures defects and voids on the conditions that the attenuation, which is...of 3D -printed structures. Analysis examples will include quantification of tolerance differences between the designed and manufactured parts, void

  2. Zirconium carbonitride pellets by internal sol gel and spark plasma sintering as inert matrix fuel material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, Marcus; Cologna, Marco; Cambriani, Andrea; Somers, Joseph; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Inert matrix fuel is a fuel type where the fissile material is blended with a solid diluent material. In this work zirconium carbonitride microspheres have been produced by internal sol gel technique, followed by carbothermal reduction. Material nitride purities in the produced materials ranged from Zr(N0.45C0.55) to Zr(N0.74C0.26) as determined by X-ray diffraction and application of Vegard's law. The zirconium carbonitride microspheres have been pelletized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and by conventional cold pressing and sintering. In all SPS experiments cohesive pellets were formed. Maximum final density reached by SPS at 1700 °C was 87% theoretical density (TD) compared to 53% TD in conventional sintering at 1700 °C. Pore sizes in all the produced pellets were in the μm scale and no density gradients could be observed by computer tomography.

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  5. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  6. 10 CFR 71.65 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 71.65 Section 71.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.65 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or...

  7. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  8. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  9. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  10. THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Preparation of materials: Multiple oxides: Additions of TiO2, ZrO2 , CeO2 and SnO2 to YCrO3 were prepared. X-ray diffrac ion data established the...La2O3 and Nb2O5 to CeO2; CdO, Bi2O3, Sb2O5, MoO3 and WO3 to PbNb2O6 or Pb2N6207. Percentage compositions and ceramic properties of the materials are

  11. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  12. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  13. METHOD OF MAKING A REFRACTORY MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to a composition containing beryllia and the oxide of a fissile element such as uranium. The oxides are first ground and mixed, paraffin is added to the mixed powders, and the composition is then compacted and sintered to drive off the paraffin and produce a stuctually stable compact. The result is a coherent refractory arrangement of fissile nuclei dispersed among moderating nuclei. The composition, size, shape, etc., of the brick may be varied according to its intended use.

  14. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  15. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  16. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  17. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  18. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  19. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  20. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039