Science.gov

Sample records for additional fuel consumption

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  3. Fuel consumption in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jim; Silverberg, Larry

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for comparing three optimal control strategies based on fuel consumption. A general cost function minimization procedure was developed by applying two theorems associated with convex sets. Three cost functions associated with control saturation, pseudofuel, and absolute fuel are introduced and minimized. The first two cost functions led to the bang-bang and continuous control strategies, and the minimization of absolute fuel led to an impulsive strategy. The three control strategies were implemented on two elementary systems and a comparison of fuel consumption was made. The impulse control strategy consumes significantly less fuel than the continuous and bang-bang control strategies. This comparison suggests a potential for fuel savings in higher-order systems using impulsive control strategies. However, since exact solutions to fuel-optimal control for large-order systems are difficult if not impossible to achieve, the alternative is to develop near-optimal control strategies.

  4. Additive concentrates for distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.; Lewtas, K.

    1985-08-27

    An additive concentrate for incorporation into wax containing petroleum fuel oil compositions to improve low temperature flow properties comprising an oil solution containing: 3% to 90 wt. % of a C30-C300 oil-soluble nitrogen compound wax crystal growth inhibitor having at least one straight C8-C40 alkyl chain and partial esters, and at least one mole per mole of an organic acid capable of hydrogen bonding to improve the solubility in the oil.

  5. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  6. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  7. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    SciTech Connect

    Truşcă, M. R. C. Albert, Ş. Tudoran, C. Soran, M. L. Fărcaş, F.; Abrudean, M.

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  8. Predicting ship fuel consumption: Update. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrady, D.A.; Smyth, G.K.; Vassian, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report is concerned with the prediction of ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of predicted and actual fuel use data, the standard error of the estimate, and plots of actual and fitted data are given for 22 classes of Navy ships.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  10. Benzophenone derivatives as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, H.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel having an initial boiling point of at least about 75/sup 0/F and an end boiling point of about 750/sup 0/F, and a minor amount sufficient to improve the fuel detergency thereof the reaction product of an ester of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or mixtures of such esters and an amine wherein the benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride ester or mixtures of such esters are reacted with the amine in a mole ratio of from about 3:1 to about 1:3 at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/ - 300/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure from about three to about 10 hours.

  11. Additive effects on lubricant fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S.; Moore, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Bench and engine tests were used to determine the effects of typical lubricating oil components on the fuel economy performance of energy conserving oils. The bench studies identified negative fuel economy effects of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and positive effects of overbased sulfonates. The Sequence VI dynamometer test quantified viscometric influences on fuel economy; results indicated that SAE 5W-30 oils are not always more fuel efficient than 10W-30 analogs, and that viscosity index improver type has a large impact on fuel economy. These effects were integrated with additive effects on other formulation criteria to design an overall system.

  12. Reduced truck fuel consumption through aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Full-scale fuel consumption and drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor-trailer combination and a version of the same vehicle with significant forebody modifications. The modified configuration had greatly increased radii on all front corners and edges of the tractor and a smooth fairing of the modified tractor top and sides extending to the trailer. Concurrent highway testing of the two configurations showed that the modified design used 20% to 24% less fuel than the baseline configuration at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) with near-calm wind conditions. Coastdown test results showed that the modified configuration reduced the drag coefficient by 0.43 from the baseline value of 1.17 at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) in calm wind conditions.

  13. Fuel consumption improvement in current transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is conducted of improvements which can be made with respect to the fuel consumption of current engines and new production versions of current engines. A description is presented of an engine diagnostics program which has the objective to identify and quantify the causes and sources of performance deterioration in the JT9D turbofan engine and to develop basic data which will be applied to minimize performance degradation of current and future engines. General areas where performance losses occur are examined, taking into account seals, blades and vanes, and cases. Potential performance improvement concepts are related to improved component aerodynamics, improved flowpath sealing, blade tip clearance control, improved turbine cooling effectiveness, improved turbine materials and coatings, duct and nozzle aerodynamic refinements, nacelle aerodynamic refinements, forced exhaust mixers, advanced nacelle materials, and advanced fuel control.

  14. Propulsion. [NASA program for aircraft fuel consumption reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    NASA aims at developing propulsion technology to reduce the fuel consumption of present engines by 5%, that of new engines of the late 1980s by at least 12%, and that of an advanced early 1990s turboprop by an additional 15%. This paper reviews three separate NASA programs which take up these aims. They are, respectively, Engine Component Improvement, Energy Efficient Engine, and Advanced Turboprops.

  15. Fuel additive containing inner quaternary ammonium salt

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-05-06

    As a fuel additive is disclosed. It is the reaction product of a polymer having an amine group and an alpha-beta-unsaturated C3-C6 aliphatic carboxylic acid. Also disclosed herein is a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such a reaction product as a detergent.

  16. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  17. 77 FR 61313 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program, 75 FR 14670, 14681 (March 26, 2010). \\3\\ See CAA... EISA to reduce or replace the use of fossil fuels.\\4\\ \\4\\ 75 FR 14670, 14687 (March 26, 2010). The... Fuel and Fuel Additives; Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program,'' 75 FR 14670, available at...

  18. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Fuel consumption estimation for kerbside municipal solid waste (MSW) collection activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy T T; Wilson, Bruce G

    2010-04-01

    Fuel consumption during seven different daily activities of a garbage co-collection truck and a normal packer truck was estimated from the trucks' global positioning system (GPS) data and fuel consumption records. The co-collection and the normal garbage packer consumed approximately 1.8 L and 1.26 L of diesel per km, respectively, while travelling within the collection areas. Using these fuel rates and the GPS data, the results show that both types of trucks consumed more than 60% of daily total fuel while actually collecting waste on the route. The average daily fuel consumption was 2-4 times higher on rural routes compared to urban areas. Fuel consumption varied significantly depending on the housing density along the collection route. In addition, approximately 5-6 times as much fuel was required to collect a kilogram of waste on a rural route compared to an urban route. Potential methods of reducing fuel consumption were examined. Consistent use of optimal collection routes could potentially save an average of 7.5 L of fuel per truck per day. Reducing the loading time per stop was also studied, but the results suggest that this method does not have significant potential to reduce fuel consumption. PMID:19723822

  20. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  1. 78 FR 77119 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards-- Petition for International Aggregate Compliance Approach AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives:...

  2. Alcohol fuel anti-wear additive

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R. L.

    1985-11-05

    A novel fuel composition contains methanol or methanol/gasoline blends plus, as a wear-inhibiting additive, a reaction product of an aldehyde, e.g., paraformaldehyde, and N-alkyl-alkylene diamine, e.g., N-alkyl-1,3-propane diamine with a salicylic acid ester of a polyol, e.g., alpha-hydroxy-omega hydroxy-poly (oxyethylene) poly (oxypropylene) poly (oxyethylene) block copolymer.

  3. 76 FR 18066 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program... producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by the foreign...

  4. FTFc52 - freight train fuel consumption computer program. Software

    SciTech Connect

    Koper, J.; Muhlenberg, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    This tape contains a copy of a computer program for the prediction of fuel consumption of a freight train operated over track with known characteristics. The program is written in FORTRAN for the IBM VM/370 computer.

  5. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  6. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  7. Situ process for making multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carrier, R.C.; Allen, B.R.

    1984-02-28

    Disclosed is an in situ or ''one pot'' process for making a fuel additive comprising reacting an excess of at least one N-primary alkylalkylene diamine with maleic anhydride in the presence of from 20 to 36 weight percent of a mineral oil reaction diluent at a temperature ranging from ambient to about 225/sup 0/ F. and recovering a product containing a primary aliphatic hydrocarbon amino alkylene substituted asparagine, an N-primary alkylalkylene diamine in the reaction oil with the product having a by-product succinimide content not in excess of 1.0 weight percent, based on the weight of asparagine present.

  8. Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

  9. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...'') for the qualifying renewable fuels they produce through approved fuel pathways. See 75 FR 14670 (March 26, 2010); 75 FR 26026 (May 10, 2010); 75 FR 37733 (June 30, 2010); 75 FR 59622 (September 28, 2010); 75 FR 76790 (December 9, 2010); 75 FR 79964 (December 21, 2010); 77 FR 1320 (January 9, 2012); and...

  10. 78 FR 41703 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... renewable fuels they produce through approved fuel pathways. See 75 FR 14670 (March 26, 2010); 75 FR 26026 (May 10, 2010); 75 FR 37733 (June 30, 2010); 75 FR 59622 (September 28, 2010); 75 FR 76790 (December 9, 2010); 75 FR 79964 (December 21, 2010); 77 FR 1320 (January 9, 2012); 77 FR 74592 (December 17,...

  11. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... In a notice published in the Federal Register of April 8, 2010 (75 FR 17928), FDA announced that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  12. Dimethyl carbonate production for fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Y.; Kondo, T.; Asaoka, S.

    1996-12-31

    We have taken note of the transesterification reaction as a highly safe process of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production for fuel additives. The reaction proceeds under the low corrosiveness and in the relatively mild condition. We have aimed to use an inorganic solid catalyst for this process. The inorganic solid catalyst is thermally stable and can be used in the large-scale fixed bed reactors without a catalyst separation unit. Through the transesterification of ethylene carbonate (EG) with methanol, DMC and ethylene glycol (EG) are co-generated as the products. EG is one of the bulk chemicals produced in the large scale plant comparable to one for the fuel additives. The market balance is important in the coproduction process. On the assumption that the amount of the co-production meets the market balance, the coproduction of DMC and EG is commercially viable. If we can control the amount of the EG coproduction in this process, it makes the process more flexible in the commercial production. Accordingly we have proposed a conceptual process scheme to control the amount of the EG coproduction. In this symposium, the inorganic solid catalyst system applying to the transesterification process and the conceptual process scheme how to control the amount of co-product will be discussed.

  13. Estimating vehicle fuel consumption in urban areas. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, L.J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Traffic flow simulation and assignment techniques were used to model area-wide effects of traffic management measures. Relationships between fuel consumption under urban driving conditions and the inverse of average travel speed were inferred from experimental tests. From the results a relationship which gave urban fuel consumption as a function of journey distance, total delayed time, and number of stops, was suggested for the 'average urban passenger car' in the UK. A review of reported potential fuel savings from traffic management measures was also undertaken. The effects on fuel consumption of changing the common cycle time for a co-ordinated system of signalised intersections were evaluated using the SATURN traffic simulation/assignment model.

  14. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  15. 77 FR 61281 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program, 75 FR 14670, 14681 (March 26, 2010). \\4\\ See CAA... EISA to reduce or replace the use of fossil fuels.\\5\\ \\5\\ 75 FR 14670, 14687 (March 26, 2010). The... Renewable Fuel Standard Program,'' 75 FR 14670, available at...

  16. 40 CFR 80.8 - Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel... Provisions § 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels....

  17. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle's fuel system) and that is not intentionally removed prior to sale or use. (2) Neat biodiesel, also referred to as B100, when used as an additive. Diesel fuel additive does not mean neat biodiesel when used as a fuel or blended biodiesel fuel (e.g., B20). (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  18. 77 FR 462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... distribution section or the RFS2 rulemaking (75 FR 14793-14795). Based on these results, today's proposed rule... that were proposed on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38844). The first change adds ID letters to pathways to... Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program from Canola Oil'' (FR Vol. 75, No. 187, pg...

  19. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... on January 5, 2012 (77 FR 700) to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. The... direct final rule published at 77 FR 700, on January 5, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Vincent... rule also published on January 5, 2012 (77 FR 462). As stated in the direct final rule and the...

  20. Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Airport Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Developed a method to calculate fuel consumption and emissions of phases of taxi operations. Results at DFW showed that up to 18% of fuel can be saved by eliminating stop-and-go situations. Developed an energy efficient and environmentally friendly surface concept: Spot and Runway Departure Advisory (SARDA) tool. The SARDA tool has been identified as a potential candidate for a technology transfer to the FAA.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Lightweighting: Novel Mathematical Methods to Estimate Use-Phase Fuel Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Sullivan, John L; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2015-08-18

    Lightweighting is a key strategy to improve vehicle fuel economy. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting requires a quantitative description of the use-phase fuel consumption reduction associated with mass reduction. We present novel methods of estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs) from fuel economy and dynamometer test data in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database. In the past, FRVs have been measured using experimental testing. We demonstrate that FRVs can be mathematically derived from coast down coefficients in the EPA vehicle test database avoiding additional testing. MIF and FRVs calculated for 83 different 2013 MY vehicles are in the ranges 0.22-0.43 and 0.15-0.26 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively, and increase to 0.27-0.53 L/(100 km 100 kg) with powertrain resizing to retain equivalent vehicle performance. We show how use-phase fuel consumption can be estimated using MIF and FRVs in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of vehicle lightweighting from total vehicle and vehicle component perspectives with, and without, powertrain resizing. The mass-induced fuel consumption model is illustrated by estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits from lightweighting a grille opening reinforcement component using magnesium or carbon fiber composite for 83 different vehicle models. PMID:26168234

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Lightweighting: Novel Mathematical Methods to Estimate Use-Phase Fuel Consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Sullivan, John L; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2015-08-18

    Lightweighting is a key strategy to improve vehicle fuel economy. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting requires a quantitative description of the use-phase fuel consumption reduction associated with mass reduction. We present novel methods of estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs) from fuel economy and dynamometer test data in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database. In the past, FRVs have been measured using experimental testing. We demonstrate that FRVs can be mathematically derived from coast down coefficients in the EPA vehicle test database avoiding additional testing. MIF and FRVs calculated for 83 different 2013 MY vehicles are in the ranges 0.22-0.43 and 0.15-0.26 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively, and increase to 0.27-0.53 L/(100 km 100 kg) with powertrain resizing to retain equivalent vehicle performance. We show how use-phase fuel consumption can be estimated using MIF and FRVs in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of vehicle lightweighting from total vehicle and vehicle component perspectives with, and without, powertrain resizing. The mass-induced fuel consumption model is illustrated by estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits from lightweighting a grille opening reinforcement component using magnesium or carbon fiber composite for 83 different vehicle models.

  3. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  4. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  5. Vehicular emissions and fuel consumption estimation in passer IV. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, N.A.

    1995-04-01

    Gasoline consumed by vehicles traveling within urban signalized networks constitutes a large portion of the total fuel usage in the United States. In addition, pollutants emitted by these vehicles degrade urban air quality. It is well known that the optimal coordination of traffic signals on urban signalized arterials improves traffic flow and reduces gasoline consumption and vehicular emissions. The research performed in this project incorporated fuel consumption and emissions estimation procedures into PASSER IV, a program for optimizing bandwidth-based signal timings in traffic networks. The enhanced PASSER IV software will allow Traffic Engineers to better assess the impacts of alternate signal timing plans on fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles traveling in a signalized network.

  6. EAST ELEVATION OF HIGH BAY ADDITION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF HIGH BAY ADDITION OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0603-00-706-051286. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  8. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1989-06-20

    A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

  10. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  11. A historical reconstruction of ships' fuel consumption and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endresen, Øyvind; Sørgârd, Eirik; Behrens, Hanna Lee; Brett, Per Olaf; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    2007-06-01

    Shipping activity has increased considerably over the last century and currently represents a significant contribution to the global emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Despite this, information about the historical development of fuel consumption and emissions is generally limited, with little data published pre-1950 and large deviations reported for estimates covering the last 3 decades. To better understand the historical development in ship emissions and the uncertainties associated with the estimates, we present fuel-based CO2 and SO2 emission inventories from 1925 up to 2002 and activity-based estimates from 1970 up to 2000. The global CO2 emissions from ships in 1925 have been estimated to 229 Tg (CO2), growing to about 634 Tg (CO2) in 2002. The corresponding SO2 emissions are about 2.5 Tg (SO2) and 8.5 Tg (SO2), respectively. Our activity-based estimates of fuel consumption from 1970 to 2000, covering all oceangoing civil ships above or equal to 100 gross tonnage (GT), are lower compared to previous activity-based studies. We have applied a more detailed model approach, which includes variation in the demand for sea transport, as well as operational and technological changes of the past. This study concludes that the main reason for the large deviations found in reported inventories is the applied number of days at sea. Moreover, our modeling indicates that the ship size and the degree of utilization of the fleet, combined with the shift to diesel engines, have been the major factors determining yearly fuel consumption. Interestingly, the model results from around 1973 suggest that the fleet growth is not necessarily followed by increased fuel consumption, as technical and operational characteristics have changed. Results from this study indicate that reported sales over the last 3 decades seems not to be significantly underreported as previous simplified activity-based studies have suggested. The results confirm our previously reported modeling

  12. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule...

  13. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.103 - Gasoline fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gasoline fuel additives. 3201.103 Section 3201.103... Designated Items § 3201.103 Gasoline fuel additives. (a) Definition. Chemical agents added to gasoline to increase octane levels, improve lubricity, and provide engine cleaning properties to gasoline-fired...

  15. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  16. 77 FR 2979 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Modification to Octamix Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Modification to Octamix Waiver AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline-alcohol fuel, pursuant to section 211(f) of the Clean Air Act.\\1\\ A minor correction was made on... corrosion inhibitor, TOLAD\\TM\\ MFA-10A, to be used within Texas Methanol's gasoline-alcohol fuel, also...

  17. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed.

  18. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 2902.13 Section 2902.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to a...

  19. Fuel additives derived from amido-amines

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1993-08-24

    A process is described for producing a dispersant useful as an oil additive which comprises: (a) providing a long chain hydrocarbyl substituted mono- or dicarboxylic acid producing material formed by reacting an olefin polymer of C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] monoolefin having a number average molecular weight of about 300 to 10,000 and at least one of a C[sub 4] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated dicarboxylic acid material and a C[sub 3] to C[sub 10] monounsaturated monocarboxylic acid material, said acid producing material having an average of at least about 0.3 dicarboxylic acid producing moieties, per molecule of said olefin polymer present in the reaction mixture used to form said acid producing material; (b) providing an amido-amine compound having at least one primary amino group prepared by reacting at least one polyamine with at least one alpha, beta-unsaturated compound of the formula: R[sup 1]-(C-R[sup 2])[double bond](C-R[sup 3])-(C[double bond]X)-Y wherein X is sulfur or oxygen, Y is -OR[sup 4],-SR[sup 4], or -NR[sup 4](R[sup 5]), and R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], R[sup 4] and R[sup 5] are the same or different and are hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl; and (c) contacting the said acid producing material with said amido-amine compound under conditions sufficient to effect reaction of at least a portion of the primary amino groups on said amido-amine compound with at least a portion of the acid-producing groups in said acid producing material, to form said dispersant.

  20. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets (77 FR 14,482 (Mar. 12... Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets. With this Request for Information (RFI),...

  1. 78 FR 37883 - Information Collection Activities: Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption, and Surcharge Revenue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities: Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption, and..., Consumption, and Surcharge Revenue. Comments are requested concerning: (1) The accuracy of the Board's burden... Board's request for OMB approval. Description of Collection Title: Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption,...

  2. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-06-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126), temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39), pasture (n = 6, FC = 28), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5), chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  3. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Landscape fires occur on a large scale in (sub)tropical savannas and grasslands, affecting ecosystem dynamics, regional air quality and concentrations of atmospheric trace gasses. Fuel consumption per unit of area burned is an important but poorly constrained parameter in fire emission modelling. We combined satellite-derived burned area with fire radiative power (FRP) data to derive fuel consumption estimates for land cover types with low tree cover in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Australia. We developed a new approach to estimate fuel consumption, based on FRP data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in combination with MODIS burned-area estimates. The fuel consumption estimates based on the geostationary and polar-orbiting instruments showed good agreement in terms of spatial patterns. We used field measurements of fuel consumption to constrain our results, but the large variation in fuel consumption in both space and time complicated this comparison and absolute fuel consumption estimates remained more uncertain. Spatial patterns in fuel consumption could be partly explained by vegetation productivity and fire return periods. In South America, most fires occurred in savannas with relatively long fire return periods, resulting in comparatively high fuel consumption as opposed to the more frequently burning savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Strikingly, we found the infrequently burning interior of Australia to have higher fuel consumption than the more productive but frequently burning savannas in northern Australia. Vegetation type also played an important role in explaining the distribution of fuel consumption, by affecting both fuel build-up rates and fire return periods. Hummock grasslands, which were responsible for a large share of Australian biomass burning, showed larger fuel build-up rates than equally productive grasslands in

  4. 77 FR 33733 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Modification to Octamix Waiver (TXCeed)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... state implementation plan approved by EPA that includes low RVP fuel. \\18\\ See American Society for... October 28, 1988, in a Federal Register publication titled ``Fuel and Fuel Additives; Modification of a... (EPA or the Agency) last issued an interpretive rule on the phrase ``substantially similar'' at 73...

  5. Molecular Aluminum Additive for Burn Enhancement of Hydrocarbon Fuels.

    PubMed

    Guerieri, Philip M; DeCarlo, Samantha; Eichhorn, Bryan; Connell, Terrence; Yetter, Richard A; Tang, Xin; Hicks, Zachary; Bowen, Kit H; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-11-12

    Additives to hydrocarbon fuels are commonly explored to change the combustion dynamics, chemical distribution, and/or product integrity. Here we employ a novel aluminum-based molecular additive, Al(I) tetrameric cluster [AlBrNEt3]4 (Et = C2H5), to a hydrocarbon fuel and evaluate the resultant single-droplet combustion properties. This Al4 cluster offers a soluble alternative to nanoscale particulate additives that have recently been explored and may mitigate the observed problems of particle aggregation. Results show the [AlBrNEt3]4 additive to increase the burn rate constant of a toluene-diethyl ether fuel mixture by ∼20% in a room temperature oxygen environment with only 39 mM of active aluminum additive (0.16 wt % limited by additive solubility). In comparison, a roughly similar addition of nano-aluminum particulate shows no discernible difference in burn properties of the hydrocarbon fuel. High speed video shows the [AlBrNEt3]4 to induce microexplosive gas release events during the last ∼30% of the droplet combustion time. We attribute this to HBr gas release based on results of temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) experiments of the [AlBrNEt3]4 dosed with O2 and D2O. A possible mechanism of burn rate enhancement is presented that is consistent with microexplosion observations and TPR results. PMID:26488461

  6. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  7. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  8. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  9. Reductions in vehicle fuel consumption due to refinements in aerodynamic design. [for trailer trucks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Over-the-highway fuel consumption and coastdown drag tests were performed on cab-over-engine, van type trailer trucks and modifications of these vehicles incorporating refinements in aerodynamic design. In addition, 1/25-scale models of these configurations, and derivatives of these configurations were tested in a wind tunnel to determine the effects of wind on the magnitude of the benefits that aerodynamic refinements can provide. The results of these tests are presented for a vehicle incorporating major redesign features and for a relatively simple add-on modification. These results include projected fuel savings on the basis of annual savings per vehicle year as well as probable nationwide fuel savings.

  10. 78 FR 49411 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ....\\2\\ \\1\\ 76 FR 38844. \\2\\ 77 FR 59458. Petitioners, the American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers... Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental... entitled Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume....

  11. Feasibility of a simplified fuel additive evaluation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, S.J.; Hunzinger, R.D.; Taghizadeh, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the work carried out during the four stages of the first phase of a project that involved the determination of the feasibility of replacing the Association of American Railroads Recommended Practice (ARRP) 503 protocol for testing diesel fuel oil additives with a new procedure using the single cylinder research engine SCRE-251 as the laboratory test engine, which tests for both engine performance as well as emissions compliance. The report begins with a review of the literature on fuel additive testing, then reviews the new US Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding locomotive diesel emissions. This is followed by a review of the ARRP 503 protocol and the proposed new procedure, a comparison of the ARRP 503 test engines and the SCRE-251, and a study of the SCRE-251`s ability to represent a multi-cylinder medium-speed diesel engine. Appendices include fuel additive manufacturers` information sheets.

  12. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC is usually modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC for various biomes and fuel categories to understand FC and its variability better, and to provide a database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 77 studies covering 11 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1 with a standard deviation of 2.2), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126 ± 77), temperate forest (n = 12, FC = 58 ± 72), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 35 ± 24), pasture (n = 4, FC = 28 ± 9.3), shifting cultivation (n = 2, FC = 23, with a range of 4.0-43), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5 ± 9.0), chaparral (n = 3, FC = 27 ± 19), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314 ± 196), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42 [42-43]), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only three measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences in FC were found within the defined biomes: for example, FC of temperate pine forests in the USA was 37% lower than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that substantial uncertainties are associated with using biome-averaged values to represent FC for whole

  13. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  14. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  15. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  16. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of...

  19. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  20. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza. PMID:27101640

  1. 75 FR 26025 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... certain of the Renewable Fuel Standard regulations published on March 26, 2010, at 75 FR 14670 (the ``RFS2... Executive Order 12866, (58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993)) the Agency must determine whether the regulatory... definition of renewable fuel in order to qualify for RINs. Revised definition of ``biogas'' to clarify...

  2. 78 FR 62462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...-effective production and use of renewable fuels. \\2\\ 75 FR 14670, 14686 (March 26, 2010). \\3\\ See CAA... final rule published on March 26, 2010 (74 FR 14670), specifically addressing the category of ``home... replace the use of fossil fuels.\\4\\ \\4\\ 75 FR 14670, 14687 (March 26, 2010). The existing definition...

  3. Optimization to reduce fuel consumption in charge depleting mode

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Martini, Ryan D.

    2014-08-26

    A powertrain includes an internal combustion engine, a motor utilizing electrical energy from an energy storage device, and a plug-in connection. A Method for controlling the powertrain includes monitoring a fuel cut mode, ceasing a fuel flow to the engine based upon the fuel cut mode, and through a period of operation including acceleration of the powertrain, providing an entirety of propelling torque to the powertrain with the electrical energy from the energy storage device based upon the fuel cut mode.

  4. The EPA National Fuels Surveillance Network. I. Trace constituents in gasoline and commercial gasoline fuel additives.

    PubMed

    Jungers, R H; Lee, R E; von Lehmden, D J

    1975-04-01

    A National Fuels Surveillance Network has been established to collect gasoline and other fuels through the 10 regional offices of the Environmental Protection Agency. Physical, chemical, and trace element analytical determinations are made on the collected fuel samples to detect components which may present an air pollution hazard or poison exhaust catalytic control devices. A summary of trace elemental constituents in over 50 gasoline samples and 18 commercially marketed consumer purchased gasoline additives is presented. Quantities of Mn, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Sb, B, Mg, Pb, and S were found in most regular and premium gasoline. Environmental implications of trace constituents in gasoline are discussed. PMID:1157783

  5. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... February 2, 2012 (77 FR 5201), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4785) had been filed by... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  6. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  7. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  8. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  9. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  10. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  11. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment. PMID:25032239

  12. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? 80.592 Section 80.592... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? (a) Records that must...

  13. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2015-09-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the Composite Burn Index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire fuel structure. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  14. Drift-speed-depth characteristics of cultivators and discers and their effect on fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, D.G.; Kirk, T.G.; Wilson, J.N.; Dyck, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    A study on two specific tillage implements was done in which draft, speed, depth and tractor fuel consumption were measured during field operations. The implications of selecting forward speed, tillage depth, and engine RPM, on the per-acre fuel requirements, are outlined and discussed.

  15. Cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports using OPTIM and TRAGEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggs, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports are computed using OPTIM and TRAGEN. The savings in fuel and direct operating costs per nautical mile for each of the different types of optimal trajectories over a standard profile are shown.

  16. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  17. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced. PMID:23567705

  18. Effects of experimental fuel additions on fire intensity and severity: unexpected carbon resilience of a neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo M; Oliveria-Santos, Claudinei; Rocha, Wanderley; Cury, Roberta; Coe, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Global changes and associated droughts, heat waves, logging activities, and forest fragmentation may intensify fires in Amazonia by altering forest microclimate and fuel dynamics. To isolate the effects of fuel loads on fire behavior and fire-induced changes in forest carbon cycling, we manipulated fine fuel loads in a fire experiment located in southeast Amazonia. We predicted that a 50% increase in fine fuel loads would disproportionally increase fire intensity and severity (i.e., tree mortality and losses in carbon stocks) due to multiplicative effects of fine fuel loads on the rate of fire spread, fuel consumption, and burned area. The experiment followed a fully replicated randomized block design (N = 6) comprised of unburned control plots and burned plots that were treated with and without fine fuel additions. The fuel addition treatment significantly increased burned area (+22%) and consequently canopy openness (+10%), fine fuel combustion (+5%), and mortality of individuals ≥5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh; +37%). Surprisingly, we observed nonsignificant effects of the fuel addition treatment on fireline intensity, and no significant differences among the three treatments for (i) mortality of large trees (≥30 cm dbh), (ii) aboveground forest carbon stocks, and (iii) soil respiration. It was also surprising that postfire tree growth and wood increment were higher in the burned plots treated with fuels than in the unburned control. These results suggest that (i) fine fuel load accumulation increases the likelihood of larger understory fires and (ii) single, low-intensity fires weakly influence carbon cycling of this primary neotropical forest, although delayed postfire mortality of large trees may lower carbon stocks over the long term. Overall, our findings indicate that increased fine fuel loads alone are unlikely to create threshold conditions for high-intensity, catastrophic fires during nondrought years. PMID:26750627

  19. Effects of experimental fuel additions on fire intensity and severity: unexpected carbon resilience of a neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo M; Oliveria-Santos, Claudinei; Rocha, Wanderley; Cury, Roberta; Coe, Michael T

    2016-07-01

    Global changes and associated droughts, heat waves, logging activities, and forest fragmentation may intensify fires in Amazonia by altering forest microclimate and fuel dynamics. To isolate the effects of fuel loads on fire behavior and fire-induced changes in forest carbon cycling, we manipulated fine fuel loads in a fire experiment located in southeast Amazonia. We predicted that a 50% increase in fine fuel loads would disproportionally increase fire intensity and severity (i.e., tree mortality and losses in carbon stocks) due to multiplicative effects of fine fuel loads on the rate of fire spread, fuel consumption, and burned area. The experiment followed a fully replicated randomized block design (N = 6) comprised of unburned control plots and burned plots that were treated with and without fine fuel additions. The fuel addition treatment significantly increased burned area (+22%) and consequently canopy openness (+10%), fine fuel combustion (+5%), and mortality of individuals ≥5 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh; +37%). Surprisingly, we observed nonsignificant effects of the fuel addition treatment on fireline intensity, and no significant differences among the three treatments for (i) mortality of large trees (≥30 cm dbh), (ii) aboveground forest carbon stocks, and (iii) soil respiration. It was also surprising that postfire tree growth and wood increment were higher in the burned plots treated with fuels than in the unburned control. These results suggest that (i) fine fuel load accumulation increases the likelihood of larger understory fires and (ii) single, low-intensity fires weakly influence carbon cycling of this primary neotropical forest, although delayed postfire mortality of large trees may lower carbon stocks over the long term. Overall, our findings indicate that increased fine fuel loads alone are unlikely to create threshold conditions for high-intensity, catastrophic fires during nondrought years.

  20. 78 FR 12005 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... separately in the Federal Register on February 7, 2013. (78 FR 9282.) The hearing will be held in Ann Arbor... at 78 FR 9282, February 7, 2013. Public Hearing: The public hearing will provide interested parties... percentage standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and renewable fuels...

  1. 78 FR 9281 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... regulatory requirements on March 26, 2010.\\1\\ \\1\\ 75 FR 14670. The volumes of renewable fuel to be used under... establishing that applicable volume on September 27, 2012.\\5\\ \\5\\ 77 FR 59458. Under 211(o)(2)(B)(ii) EPA, in..., heating oil, biogas used as CNG, and ethanol. We are projecting that about 150 mill gal of...

  2. 75 FR 79964 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... implementing changes to the Renewable Fuel Standard program required by EISA on March 26, 2010, at 75 FR 14670... direct final rules published on May 10, 2010 (75 FR 26049, 75 FR 26026), included amendments to the... comment (75 FR 37733). The withdrawn provisions consist of the following: --Certain of the amendments...

  3. 75 FR 26049 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Standard program regulations that were published on March 26, 2010, at 75 FR 14670 (the ``RFS2 regulations... the Renewable Fuel Standard regulations published on March 26, 2010, at 75 FR 14670 (the ``RFS2..., (58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993)) the Agency must determine whether the regulatory action...

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The electricity generation and fuel consumption models of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provide forecasts of electricity generation from various types of energy sources and forecasts of the quantities of fossil fuels consumed for power generation. The structure of the electricity industry and the behavior of power generators varies between different areas of the United States. In order to capture these differences, the STEO electricity supply and fuel consumption models are designed to provide forecasts for the four primary Census regions.

  5. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the composite burn index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire vegetation type. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  6. Using field data to assess model predictions of surface and ground fuel consumption by wildfire in coniferous forests of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydersen, Jamie M.; Collins, Brandon M.; Ewell, Carol M.; Reiner, Alicia L.; Fites, Jo Ann; Dow, Christopher B.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Saah, David S.; Battles, John J.

    2014-03-01

    Inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wildfire provide essential information to the state of California, USA, and other governments that have enacted emission reductions. Wildfires can release a substantial amount of GHGs and other compounds to the atmosphere, so recent increases in fire activity may be increasing GHG emissions. Quantifying wildfire emissions however can be difficult due to inherent variability in fuel loads and consumption and a lack of field data of fuel consumption by wildfire. We compare a unique set of fuel data collected immediately before and after six wildfires in coniferous forests of California to fuel consumption predictions of the first-order fire effects model (FOFEM), based on two different available fuel characterizations. We found strong regional differences in the performance of different fuel characterizations, with FOFEM overestimating the fuel consumption to a greater extent in the Klamath Mountains than in the Sierra Nevada. Inaccurate fuel load inputs caused the largest differences between predicted and observed fuel consumption. Fuel classifications tended to overestimate duff load and underestimate litter load, leading to differences in predicted emissions for some pollutants. When considering total ground and surface fuels, modeled consumption was fairly accurate on average, although the range of error in estimates of plot level consumption was very large. These results highlight the importance of fuel load input to the accuracy of modeled fuel consumption and GHG emissions from wildfires in coniferous forests.

  7. 77 FR 75868 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to the Transmix Provisions Under the Diesel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ..., 77 FR 61281, October 9, 2012. Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel... Pollution from Nonroad Diesel Engines and Fuel, Final Rule, 69 FR 38958, June 24, 2004. Control of Emissions... increase transport-related emissions, costs, and safety risks of alternative transportation of jet...

  8. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  9. Measured effect of wind generation on the fuel consumption of an isolated diesel power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The Block Island Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island, Rhode Island, operates an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel generation and an experimental wind turbine. The 150-kW wind turbine, designated MOD-OA by the U.S. Department of Energy is typically operated in parallel with two diesel generators to serve an average winter load of 350 kW. Wind generation serves up to 60 percent of the system demand depending on wind speed and total system load. Results of diesel fuel consumption measurements are given for the diesel units operated in parallel with the wind turbine and again without the wind turbine. The fuel consumption data are used to calculate the amount of fuel displaced by wind energy. Results indicate that the wind turbine displaced 25,700 lbs. of the diesel fuel during the test period, representing a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of 6.7 percent while generating 11 percent of the total electric energy. The amount of displaced fuel depends on operating conditions and system load. It is also shown that diesel engine throttle activity resulting from wind gusts which rapidly change the wind turbine output do not significantly influence fuel consumption.

  10. Multifunctional fuel additives derived from aminodiols to improve the low-temperature properties of distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel composition comprising a major amount of a combustible liquid hydrocarbon fuel and a minor low-temperature properties improving amount of from about 0.001% to about 10 wt % based on the total weight of the composition of an additive comprising a product of reaction made by reacting comonomers. It comprises: an aminodiol or combination or mixture of aminodiols with a reactive acid/anhydride product alone or in combination with other monomers derived from the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or its acid equivalent.

  11. Economic incentives for additional critical experimentation applicable to fuel dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III; Waltz, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel dissolution operations involving soluble absorbers for criticality control are among the most difficult to establish economical subcritical limits. The paucity of applicable experimental data can significantly hinder a precise determination of a bias in the method chosen for calculation of the required soluble absorber concentration. Resorting to overly conservative bias estimates can result in excessive concentrations of soluble absorbers. Such conservatism can be costly, especially if soluble absorbers are used in a throw-away fashion. An economic scoping study is presented which demonstrates that additional critical experimentation will likely lead to reductions in the soluble absorber (i.e., gadolinium) purchase costs for dissolution operations. The results indicate that anticipated savings maybe more than enough to pay for the experimental costs.

  12. Engine Operation in Flight for Minimum Fuel Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, George

    1939-01-01

    Engine and airplane performance data have been gathered from various sources and analyzed to determine indications of the most economical methods of flight operation from a consideration of fuel expenditure. The analysis includes the influence of such facts as fuel-air ratio, engine speed, engine knock, altitude, cylinder cooling, spark timing, and limits of cruising brake mean effective pressure. The results indicate that the cheapest power is obtained with approximately correct mixture at low engine speed and highest permissible manifold pressure. If more power is desired, the methods of obtaining it are, in order of fuel economy: (a) increasing the engine speed and maintaining safe cylinder temperatures by cooling; (b) retarding the spark or cooling further to permit higher manifold pressure; and, (c) riching the mixture. The analysis further shows that the maximum time endurance of flight occurs at the air speed corresponding to minimum thrust horsepower required and with minimum practicable engine speed. Maximum mileage per pound of fuel is obtained at slightly higher air speed. The fuel-air ratio should be approximately the theoretically correct ratio in both cases. For an engine equipped with a geared supercharger, as in the example presented, and with knock as the limiting condition, a comparison of operation at sea level and at 6,000 feet shoes flight at altitude to be more economical on the basis of both range and endurance.

  13. Coking suppression in solid oxide fuel cells operating on ethanol by applying pyridine as fuel additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Ran, Ran; Park, Hee Jung; Jung, Doh Won; Kwak, Chan; Shao, Zongping

    2014-11-01

    In this study, pyridine was used to suppress the coke formation in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels. Pyridine can selectively occupy acidic sites of the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst layer and solves the problem of dehydration of ethanol in principle, resulting in a significant reduction in the coke formation rate for operating on ethanol fuel. At 600 °C, by adding 12.5 vol.% pyridine into the ethanol fuel, the coke formation rate over the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst is reduced by 64% while a cell power output comparable to that operating on hydrogen is still achieved based on total potential hydrogen available from ethanol. The effective reduction of carbon deposition on the catalyst layer thus protects the anode layer from carbon deposition by strongly suppressing coke formation, especially near the anode-electrolyte interface. Pyridine is adsorbed onto the acidic sites of the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst and the adsorbed pyridine may reduce the amount of carbonium ions formed, thereby reducing coke formation. This study suggested that the addition of pyridine could suppress the coke formation in SOFCs with Ni/Al2O3 catalyst layer operated on ethanol or some other similar liquid fuels.

  14. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  15. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  16. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway. PMID:24066845

  17. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  18. Reaction products of amido-amine and epoxide useful as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H.F.

    1988-04-12

    A method for reducing engine deposits in an internal combustion engine is described comprising the addition of a detergent fuel additive package to a hydrocarbon fuel for the engine. The fuel detergent is added in an amount effective to reduce deposits and the hydrocarbon fuel is used with detergent additive as fuel in an internal combustion engine. The detergent fuel additive package comprises: (1) a fuel detergent additive that is the reaction product prepared by reacting (a) vegetable oil or (b) higher carboxylic acid chosen from (i) aliphatic fatty acids having 10-25 carbon atoms and (ii) aralkyl acids having 12-42 carbon atoms with (c) multiamine to obtain a fist product mixture with the first product mixture reacted with alklylene oxide to produce a second product mixture and (2) a fuel detergent additive solvent compatible with the fuels.

  19. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces.

  20. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  1. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  2. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Gregg, JS; Losey, London M; Marland, Gregg; Boden, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

  3. [Trend of "zero energy consumption and wastewater" in fuel ethanol production].

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2008-06-01

    The energy consumption in a Chinese ethanol manufacturer with cassava as the feedstock, has been reduced to a zero-closed level. If the R & D on technical integration of high ethanol concentration fermentation, methane fermentation technique, steam and electricity co-generation system, new distillation technology, and the wastewater reutilization, is carried out continuously, the proposed "zero energy consumption and wastewater" technique could be realized in fuel ethanol production process.

  4. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  5. Contactless electric igniter for vehicle to lower exhaust emission and fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  6. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jye-Chau

    2014-01-01

    An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well. PMID:24672372

  7. Fuel Consumption Reduction and Weight Estimate of an Intercooled-Recuperated Turboprop Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, Roberto; Ghezzi, Umberto; Ingenito, Antonella; Gamma, Fausto

    2012-09-01

    The introduction of intercooling and regeneration in a gas turbine engine can lead to performance improvement and fuel consumption reduction. Moreover, as first consequence of the saved fuel, also the pollutant emission can be greatly reduced. Turboprop seems to be the most suitable gas turbine engine to be equipped with intercooler and heat recuperator thanks to the relatively small mass flow rate and the small propulsion power fraction due to the exhaust nozzle. However, the extra weight and drag due to the heat exchangers must be carefully considered. An intercooled-recuperated turboprop engine is studied by means of a thermodynamic numeric code that, computing the thermal cycle, simulates the engine behavior at different operating conditions. The main aero engine performances, as specific power and specific fuel consumption, are then evaluated from the cycle analysis. The saved fuel, the pollution reduction, and the engine weight are then estimated for an example case.

  8. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  9. Impact of source segregation intensity of solid waste on fuel consumption and collection costs.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    Fuel consumption and collection costs of solid waste were evaluated by the aid of a simulation model for a given collection area of a medium-sized Italian city. Using the model it is possible to calculate time, collected waste and fuel consumption for a given waste collection route. Starting from the data for the current waste collection scenario with a Source Segregated (SS) intensity of 25%, all the main model error evaluated was ⩽1.2. SS intensity scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35% and 52% were simulated. Results showed an increase in the average fuel consumed by the collection vehicles that went from about 3.3L/tonne for 25% SS intensity to about 3.8L/tonne for a SS intensity of 52%. Direct collection costs, including crews and vehicle purchase, ranged from about 40€/tonne to about 70€/tonne, respectively, for 25% and 52% SS intensity. The increase in fuel consumption and collection costs depends on the density of the waste collected, on the collection vehicle compaction ratio and on the waste collection vehicle utilization factor (WCVUF). In particular a reduction of about 50% of the WCVUF can lead to an average increase of about 80% in fuel consumption and 100% in collection costs. PMID:23871186

  10. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact from an Automated Mobility District

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Qi, Xuewei; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2015-10-19

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  11. Optimisation of MSW collection routes for minimum fuel consumption using 3D GIS modelling.

    PubMed

    Tavares, G; Zsigraiova, Z; Semiao, V; Carvalho, M G

    2009-03-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste (MSW) may account for more than 70% of the total waste management budget, most of which is for fuel costs. It is therefore crucial to optimise the routing network used for waste collection and transportation. This paper proposes the use of geographical information systems (GIS) 3D route modelling software for waste collection and transportation, which adds one more degree of freedom to the system and allows driving routes to be optimised for minimum fuel consumption. The model takes into account the effects of road inclination and vehicle weight. It is applied to two different cases: routing waste collection vehicles in the city of Praia, the capital of Cape Verde, and routing the transport of waste from different municipalities of Santiago Island to an incineration plant. For the Praia city region, the 3D model that minimised fuel consumption yielded cost savings of 8% as compared with an approach that simply calculated the shortest 3D route. Remarkably, this was true despite the fact that the GIS-recommended fuel reduction route was actually 1.8% longer than the shortest possible travel distance. For the Santiago Island case, the difference was even more significant: a 12% fuel reduction for a similar total travel distance. These figures indicate the importance of considering both the relief of the terrain and fuel consumption in selecting a suitable cost function to optimise vehicle routing. PMID:18835768

  12. Modeling transit bus fuel consumption on the basis of cycle properties.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Oscar F; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J

    2011-04-01

    A method exists to predict heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy and emissions over an "unseen" cycle or during unseen on-road activity on the basis of fuel consumption and emissions data from measured chassis dynamometer test cycles and properties (statistical parameters) of those cycles. No regression is required for the method, which relies solely on the linear association of vehicle performance with cycle properties. This method has been advanced and examined using previously published heavy-duty truck data gathered using the West Virginia University heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with the trucks exercised over limited test cycles. In this study, data were available from a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority emission testing program conducted in 2006. Chassis dynamometer data from two conventional diesel buses, two compressed natural gas buses, and one hybrid diesel bus were evaluated using an expanded driving cycle set of 16 or 17 different driving cycles. Cycle properties and vehicle fuel consumption measurements from three baseline cycles were selected to generate a linear model and then to predict unseen fuel consumption over the remaining 13 or 14 cycles. Average velocity, average positive acceleration, and number of stops per distance were found to be the desired cycle properties for use in the model. The methodology allowed for the prediction of fuel consumption with an average error of 8.5% from vehicles operating on a diverse set of chassis dynamometer cycles on the basis of relatively few experimental measurements. It was found that the data used for prediction should be acquired from a set that must include an idle cycle along with a relatively slow transient cycle and a relatively high speed cycle. The method was also applied to oxides of nitrogen prediction and was found to have less predictive capability than for fuel consumption with an average error of 20.4%.

  13. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  14. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Taconic Energy, Inc. TEA Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Center (GHG Center) is one of six verification organizations operating under EPA’s ETV program. One sector of significant interest to GHG Center stakeholders is transportation - particularly technologies that result in fuel economy improvements. Taco...

  15. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63404), announcing a public meeting and seeking comments... received, please refer to the October 15, 2010, notice (75 FR 63404). Issued in Washington, DC, on October... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New...

  16. 49 CFR 1243.3 - Report of fuel cost, consumption, and surcharge revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... days after the end of the quarter reported. Appendix to Section 49 CFR 1243.3 OMB Control No. 2140-0014... collection is required by law. Under 5 CFR 1320.5(b), persons are not required to respond to this collection... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Report of fuel cost, consumption, and...

  17. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exported; (viii) A copy of the bill of lading and the invoice indicating the net quantity (in kilograms) of... quantity of unexpended consumption rights; (F) The control period(s) to which the trade applies; and...

  18. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  19. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (a) For the purposes of BTS schedule P-12(a), type of service shall be either scheduled service...

  20. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (a) For the purposes of BTS schedule P-12(a), type of service shall be either scheduled service...

  1. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (a) For the purposes of BTS schedule P-12(a), type of service shall be either scheduled service...

  2. Using the Relationship between Vehicle Fuel Consumption and CO[subscript 2] Emissions to Illustrate Chemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    This instructional resource utilizes consumer product information by which students compare theoretical stoichiometric calculations to CO[subscript 2] car emissions and fuel consumption data. Representing graphically the emission of CO[subscript 2] versus consumption of fuel provides a tangible way of connecting concepts studied in chemistry…

  3. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  4. More efficiency in fuel consumption using gearbox optimization based on Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goharimanesh, Masoud; Akbari, Aliakbar; Akbarzadeh Tootoonchi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    Automotive emission is becoming a critical threat to today's human health. Many researchers are studying engine designs leading to less fuel consumption. Gearbox selection plays a key role in an engine design. In this study, Taguchi quality engineering method is employed, and optimum gear ratios in a five speed gear box is obtained. A table of various gear ratios is suggested by design of experiment techniques. Fuel consumption is calculated through simulating the corresponding combustion dynamics model. Using a 95 % confidence level, optimal parameter combinations are determined using the Taguchi method. The level of importance of the parameters on the fuel efficiency is resolved using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio as well as analysis of variance.

  5. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  6. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  7. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  8. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  9. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... minimum biobased content is 90 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c... solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum biobased content is 90 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c... solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... minimum biobased content is 90 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c... solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to...

  12. Aviation fuel additives. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of aviation fuel additives and their effectiveness. Articles include studies on antioxidant, antimist, antistatic, lubricity, corrosion inhibition, and icing inhibition additives. Other applications are covered in investigations of additives for vulnerability reduction, thermal stability, and storage stability of aviation fuels. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    PubMed

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  14. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allowances equivalent to the level of class I controlled substances (other than used controlled substances or... to baseline consumption allowances, the exporter of the class I controlled substances must submit to... Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone numbers of contact persons for the......

  15. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., consumption allowances equivalent to the quantity of class II controlled substances that the person exported... quantity of class II controlled substance was produced in the U.S. or imported into the U.S. with expended... exports; (ii) The exporter's Employer Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone......

  16. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances equivalent to the level of class I controlled substances (other than used controlled substances or... to baseline consumption allowances, the exporter of the class I controlled substances must submit to... Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone numbers of contact persons for the......

  17. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., consumption allowances equivalent to the quantity of class II controlled substances that the person exported... quantity of class II controlled substance was produced in the U.S. or imported into the U.S. with expended... exports; (ii) The exporter's Employer Identification Number; (iii) The names and telephone......

  18. Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft Using Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Literature Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzer, Alan J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is a major cost expense for air carriers. A typical airline spends 10% of its operating budget on the purchase of jet fuel, which even exceeds its expenditures on aircraft acquisitions. Thus, it is imperative that fuel consumption be managed as wisely as possible. The implementation of Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs at airlines may be able to assist in this management effort. The purpose of the study is to examine the literature regarding fuel consumption by air carriers, the literature related to air carrier fuel conservation efforts, and the literature related to the appropriate statistical methodologies to analyze the FOQA-derived data.

  19. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  20. Additional deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Pourentezari, M; Talebi, A R; Mangoli, E; Anvari, M; Rahimipour, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the impact of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in experimentally induced diabetic mice. A total of 32 adult male mice were divided into four groups: mice of group 1 served as control fed on basal diet, group 2 received streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg kg(-1) , single dose, intraperitoneal) and basal diet, group 3 received alcohol (10 mg kg(-1) , water soluble) and basal diet, and group 4 received STZ and alcohol for 35 days. The cauda epididymidis of each mouse was dissected and placed in 1 ml of pre-warm Ham's F10 culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analysed for count, motility, morphology and viability. Sperm chromatin quality was evaluated with aniline blue, toluidine blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining. The results showed that all sperm parameters had significant differences (P < 0.05), also when sperm chromatin was assessed with cytochemical tests. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between the groups. According to our results, alcohol and diabetes can cause abnormalities in sperm parameters and chromatin quality. In addition, alcohol consumption in diabetic mice can intensify sperm chromatin/DNA damage. PMID:26358836

  1. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  2. Study of operational parameters impacting helicopter fuel consumption. [using computer techniques (computer programs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized study of operational parameters affecting helicopter fuel consumption was conducted as an integral part of the NASA Civil Helicopter Technology Program. The study utilized the Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program (HESCOMP) developed by the Boeing-Vertol Company and NASA Ames Research Center. An introduction to HESCOMP is incorporated in this report. The results presented were calculated using the NASA CH-53 civil helicopter research aircraft specifications. Plots from which optimum flight conditions for minimum fuel use that can be obtained are presented for this aircraft. The results of the study are considered to be generally indicative of trends for all helicopters.

  3. Updated fuel consumption estimates for benefit-cost analysis of transportation alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, F.; McFarland, W.F.

    1994-08-01

    Extensive research has been completed on the fuel efficiency of different types of vehicles, but this information is either out-of-date or scattered in many sources and available in different formats. In this research study, the ARFCOM computer program was used to develop an improved fuel consumption data set representing typical vehicles currently operating on highways in the U.S.A. Using this data set updated statistical equations for the MicroBENCOST computer program were developed. These new equations were used in the MicroBENCOST computer program with example problems to demonstrate the use of the data set.

  4. Cold start fuel consumption of a diesel and a petrol car

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, T.C.; Waters, M.H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the fuel consumption of a petrol and a diesel car when starting from cold. The cars were the 1.1 liter petrol VW Golf and the 1.5 liter diesel version, which have the same passenger accommodation and nearly identical road performance. It was found that the diesel car used less fuel in the warm-up period than the petrol, both when being driven at constant speed on a test track and with the engine idling and the car stationary. (Copyright (c) Crown Copyright 1980.)

  5. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China's Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry. PMID:23365524

  6. Assessment for fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of China's vehicles: future trends and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Yuan; Mao, Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, China's auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China's vehicle population and finds that China's auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020-2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles' fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NO(x), and PM) and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1) by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2) China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017-2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3) developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  7. Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    baney, Ronald; Tulenko, James

    2012-11-20

    The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

  8. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  9. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  10. Effects of potential additives to promote seal swelling on the thermal stability of synthetic jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, D.D.; Gormley, R.G.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering of ground vehicles, aircraft and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. These additives can include oxygenates and compounds containing other heteroatoms that may adversely affect thermal stability. In order to understand what additives will be the most beneficial, a comprehensive experimental and computational study of conventional and additized fuels has been undertaken. The experimental approach includes analysis of the trace oxygenate and nitrogen-containing compounds present in conventional petroleum-derived fuels and trying to relate their presence (or absence) to changes in the desired properties of the fuels. This paper describes the results of efforts to test the thermal stability of synthetic fuels and surrogate fuels containing single-component additives that have been identified in earlier research as the best potential additives for promoting seal swelling in synthetic fuels, as well as mixtures of synthetic and petroleum-derived fuels.

  11. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  12. Facilitated solubilization of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by the cosolvent effect of oxygenated fuel additives and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.S.; Delfino, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Oxygenated and alternative fuels become popular because three different alternative fuel programs have been mandated in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to minimize combustion-related pollution. The alternative fuels have brought increased interest in the transport and fate of miscible organic liquids in the subsurface and the effect that these liquids have on the transport and fate of other contaminants. The addition of polar organic solvents that are completely miscible or highly soluble in water to a mixture of hydrocarbons and water has the potential of showing the cosolvent effect. Therefore, the use of oxygenated and alternative fuels leads to cosolvency becoming an important issue. The objective of this research is to investigate the redistribution and facilitated transport of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from contaminated sediment caused by cosolvent effects due to potential oxygenated/alternative fuel spills. Specifically, the phase redistribution of HOCs in aqueous and sediment systems upon the addition of oxygenated and alternative fuels is investigated. This study is expected to provide the basis to predict fate parameters (i.e., dissolution, sorption) for the facilitated transport of HOCs due to cosolvent effects of oxygenated additives and alternative fuels. These fate parameters will allow further assessment of the environmental and health effects of spills and leaks of oxygenated and alternative fuels.

  13. Studies of jet fuel additives using the quartz crystal microbalance and pressure monitoring at 140 C

    SciTech Connect

    Zabarnick, S.; Grinstead, R.R. . Aerospace Mechanics Div./KL-463)

    1994-11-01

    Recent advances in jet aircraft and engine technology have placed an ever increasing heat load on the aircraft. The bulk of this excess heat is absorbed by the aircraft fuel, as jet fuel is used as the primary coolant for the numerous heat sources. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and pressure monitoring are used for the evaluation of jet fuel additives for the improvement of jet fuel thermal stability. The mechanisms of additive behavior are determined by measuring the time-dependent deposition with the QCM and oxidation by pressure measurements. Studies at various additive concentrations permits the determination of optimum additive concentrations. Additive packages made of mixtures of antioxidants, detergent/dispersants, and metal deactivators are shown to yield good improvements in thermal stability over a wide range of jet fuel types.

  14. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  15. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an FA-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This presentation presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA FA-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom FA-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  16. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82

  17. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lina; Ci, Yusheng; Chu, Jiangwei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC) was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type (c) of the vehicular operating status was illustrated to be the worst way of reducing fuel consumption, the causes were analyzed and four improvement strategies were put forward. PMID:26367012

  18. Additional experiments on flowability improvements of aviation fuels at low temperatures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, F. J.; Deane, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study flow improver additives and scale-model fuel heating systems for use with aviation hydrocarbon fuel at low temperatures. Test were performed in a facility that simulated the heat transfer and temperature profiles anticipated in wing fuel tanks during flight of long-range commercial aircraft. The results are presented of experiments conducted in a test tank simulating a section of an outer wing integral fuel tank approximately full-scale in height, chilled through heat exchange panels bonded to the upper and lower horizontal surfaces. A separate system heated lubricating oil externally by a controllable electric heater, to transfer heat to fuel pumped from the test tank through an oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, and to recirculate the heated fuel back to the test tank.

  19. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  20. Using fuel cells or anode depolarization to reduce electrowinning energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Some existing and proposed metal electrowinning plant sites have hydrogen available to reduce the need for purchased energy. Hydrogen can reduce the energy consumption of electrowinning processes by depolarizing the anode; alternatively, it can be used in a fuel cell to generate dc electricity and heat at high efficiency. The use of H/sub 2/ to depolarize an anode in zinc electrowinning has been shown to reduce overall cell voltage by nearly 2 volts at 450 A/m/sup 2/. In a fuel cell, electricity can be produced with an efficiency of about 45 to 50% compared to about 30 to 32% for conventional generating equipment and the heat produced is available at temperatures which vary from about 150/sup 0/C for phosphoric acid fuel cells to 550 to 800/sup 0/C for advanced high temperature fuel cell systems. This paper examines the increased complexity that the depolarized anode and molten carbonate fuel cell technologies impose upon the electrowinning process, assesses the extent of energy savings that are available, and provides insight into the impact on capital and operating costs. 7 references.

  1. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  2. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  3. The effect of the molecular weight of additive on the properties of antimisting fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hadermann, A.F.; Trippe, J.C.; Waters, P.F.

    1983-09-01

    Antimisting aircraft fuels, when ignited, do not produce the roaring fireball which often accompanies aircraft crashes. This result is attributable to the suppression of the aerosolization of the fuel by added macromolecules which alter the structure of the droplets of fuel emanating from rent fuel tanks after the crash. The first studies of the antimisting effect of macromolecules on aviation fuel were carried out in Great Britain in 1968. In that early work it was established that there was a qualitative relationship between the suppression of the atomization of the fuel and the molecular weight of the additive above a certain critical concentration; the latter being inverse to the molecular weight of the additive. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated a dependence of the antimisting effectiveness of polyisobutylene in diesel fuel on the viscosity average molecular weight to a power exceeding 2, and in jet-A fuel to the 2..cap alpha.. + 1 power, where ..cap alpha.. is the exponent in the Mark-Houwink equation. In their study Chao et al, were able to demonstrate a strong correlation between the extent of antimisting effectiveness and flammability reduction with the maximum ductless siphon height supported by the solution. They introduced the ductless siphon to the study of antimisting fuels as a measure of the elongational viscosity impaired by the macromolecules to the fuel.

  4. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods. PMID:20108661

  5. Cancer Mortality in Relation to National Consumption of Cigarettes, Solid Fuel, Tea and Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, P.

    1970-01-01

    Comparison between the age-adjusted death rates in 1964-65 from cancers of different sites and the annual consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea and coffee as measured by trade statistics in 20 countries reveals the existence of significant correlations. Cigarette consumption per adult in the population is positively related with lung and bladder cancer in males and insignificantly with lung in females. Negative relations are indicated with the liver and biliary passages, prostate and uterus. Solid fuel is positively related with the intestine, lung and bladder in both sexes, with leukaemia in males and with breast in females. Nagative associations are indicated with the stomach. Tea is positively related with intestine except rectum in both sexes and with larynx, lung and breast in females. Negative associations are indicated with the stomach in both sexes and with uterus and leukaemia in females. Coffee is positively related with the pancreas, prostate and leukaemia in males and with ovary and leukaemia in females. Specially noteworthy were the contrasts between the intestine and stomach in their associations with solid fuel, cigarettes and tea for which a possible explanation has been suggested. PMID:5451565

  6. Modeling studies of water consumption for transportation fuel options: Hawaii, US-48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, C. W.; Webber, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are now major drivers to move from petroleum transportation: moving to low-carbon transport life cycles for climate change mitigation, fuel diversity to reduce reliance on imported oil, and economic concerns regarding the relatively high price of oil ( $100/barrel) and the resulting impact on discretionary income. Unfortunately many transportation fuel alternatives also have some environmental impacts, particularly with regard to water consumption and biodiversity. In this presentation we will discuss the water and energy sustainability struggle ongoing in Hawai'i on the island of Maui with a brief history and discussion of energy and water modeling scenarios. The vast majority of surface water on Maui is diverted via man-made ditches for irrigation on sugar cane plantations. Maui currently allocates between 250 and 300 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of irrigation water for sugarcane cultivation each day, and it is likely that the island could support a biofuel-focused sugarcane plantation by shifting production focus from raw sugar to ethanol. However, future water availability is likely to be less than existing water availability because Maui is growing, more water is being reserved for environmental purposes, and precipitation levels are on decline for the past two decades and some expect this trend to continue. While Maui residents cannot control precipitation patterns, they can control the levels of increased requirements for instream flow in Maui's streams. The Hawaii State Commission on Water Resource Management (CWRM) sets instream flow standards, and choosing not to restore instream flow could have what many locals consider negative environmental and cultural impacts that must be weighed against the effects of reducing surface water availability for agriculture. Instream flow standards that reduce legal withdrawals for streams that supply irrigation water would reduce the amount of surface water available for biofuel crop irrigation. Environmental

  7. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  8. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...” fees, i.e., service charges or gallonage levies assessed by or against the fuel vendor or... Type of Service and Entity. 291.44 Section 291.44 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity....

  9. On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vlieger, I.

    Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

  10. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available. PMID:21133374

  11. Power-law relationships for estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments.

    PubMed

    Caduff, Marloes; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Hendriks, A Jan

    2011-01-15

    To perform life-cycle assessment studies, data on the production and use of the products is required. However, often only few data or measurements are available. Estimation of properties can be performed by applying scaling relationships. In many disciplines, they are used to either predict data or to search for underlying patterns, but they have not been considered in the context of product assessments hitherto. The goal of this study was to explore size scaling for commonly used energy conversion equipment, that is, boilers, engines, and generators. The variables mass M, fuel consumption Q, and costs C were related to power P. The established power-law relationships were M = 10(0.73.. 1.89)P(0.64.. 1.23) (R(2) ≥ 0.94), Q = 10(0.06.. 0.68)P(0.82.. 1.02) (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and C = 10(2.46.. 2.86)P(0.83.. 0.85) (R(2) ≥ 0.83). Mass versus power and costs versus power showed that none of the equipment types scaled isometrically, that is, with a slope of 1. Fuel consumption versus power scaled approximately isometrically for steam boilers, the other equipments scaled significantly lower than 1. This nonlinear scaling behavior induces a significant size effect. The power laws we established can be applied to scale the mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments up or down. Our findings suggest that empirical scaling laws can be used to estimate properties, particularly relevant in studies focusing on early product development for which generally only little information is available.

  12. Reduction in Energy Consumption for Pretreatment Process and Transportation of Pulverized Wood Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Kenji; Sawai, Toru; Ohmasa, Mitsushi; Hirokawa, Noriyasu; Shibue, Tadashi; Kajimoto, Takeshi

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on the energy utilization of biomass to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas. Especially, woody biomass such as the forestry biomass derived from logging and thinning operations in forests is one of the most promising domestic resources in Japan. Woody biomass contributes not only to the improvement of energy self-sufficiency in Japan, but also to the environmental protection of Japanese forests. When the woody biomass is utilized, it is necessary to examine the energy consumption for collection of resources, pretreatment, transportation and after-treatment. In the present study, woody biomass is assumed to be utilized as pulverized wood fuel in local area. The pretreatment of pulverized wood fuel is consisted of three procedures; drying, semi-carbonizaion and fine comminution. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the comminution characteristic of the Japanese cedar thinning and the reduction in energy consumption for pretreatment process and transportation of pulverized wood fuel. The results obtained in the present study are as follows. (1) Comminution energy increases as the water content increases and the sieve of screen becomes small. The comminution energy of hammer mill is largely affected by the water content. Difference in comminution energy between the hammer and cutter mills is large. The ratio of comminution energy of the hammer mill to that of the cutter mill exceeds 10 for the water content of 40% and sieve of screen of 3mm. (2) To estimate the comminution energy of woody biomass, empirical equations of work index in Bond's Law are presented. In woody biomass region, the empirical equations of work index depend on the comminution method. In semi-carbonization and carbonization regions, the empirical equation of work index is presented regardless of comminution method and sieve of screen. The comminution energy can be estimated by using the present empirical equations within accuracy ±50

  13. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  14. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day. PMID:25587974

  15. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  16. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  18. New oxygen-fuel burner significantly improves electric arc furnace productivity with less energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Untz, J.; Knowles, D.

    1984-11-01

    This article describes a new system of electric arc steelmaking based on use of oxygen with newly designed burner for increased productivity and reduced energy consumption. The need for the oxygen-fuel burner has been recognized for years. Because of the shape of the flux lines of the arc between electrodes, some areas receive much more heat than others and consequently melt faster, leaving portions of the furnace charge unmelted for some time. Until these cold areas are melted into the bath, the arcing process must continue in a less efficient mode, delaying the completion of the process and therefore reducing productivity and using more energy. Steelmakers have been looking for a heat source to apply to these cold areas so that all material would melt at the same time. The oxygen-fuel burner was chosen because of its ability to deliver a directed flame at temperatures nearing 5000/sup 0/F.

  19. A high fuel consumption efficiency management scheme for PHEVs using an adaptive genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day.

  20. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  1. Chemical compounds to be used as solid carriers for fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Santambrogio, A.; Mattei, L.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes compositions of dosing additives to fuel for internal combustion engines, comprising (1) solid carrier chemical compounds, which have a melting point between 70/sup 0/C and 130/sup 0/C, are soluble in hydrocarbons and are selected from the group consisting of alkyl-substituted phenols, aromatic carbonates, alkyl-substituted pyrocatechols, and polymers of alkyl-substituted 1,2-dihydroquinoline; and (2) additives for fuel for internal combustion engines which are liquid at room temperature.

  2. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  3. Improvement of fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters with commercial additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability and oxidative stability of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) oil methyl esters (CSME) were improved with addition of commercial additives. Four commercial anti-gel additives: Technol® B100 Biodiesel Cold Flow Improver, Gunk® Premium Diesel Fuel Anti-Gel, Heet® Dies...

  4. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... produce the gum. B. Regulated Food Uses In the Federal Register of September 23, 1974 (39 FR 34203), we... the Federal Register on February 13, 2003 (68 FR 7381) to amend the food additive regulations in part.... Background In a notice published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78866), we...

  5. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... the Federal Register of December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66979), FDA announced that a food additive petition... rule (74 FR 11019) for the use of vitamin D 2 in soy-based food products. Lallemand concluded that... supplement in soy-based food products (74 FR 11019, March 16, 2009). The three earlier food...

  6. 77 FR 35677 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives; Modification to Octamix Waiver (TOLAD)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... specified in ASTM D-2 Proposal P-176 and Texas Methanol alcohol purity specifications. \\4\\ 53 FR at 3637. On... inhibitor, TOLAD MFA-10A, in Texas Methanol's gasoline-alcohol fuel, OCTAMIX. ADDRESSES: EPA has established...) last issued an interpretive rule on the phrase ``substantially similar'' at 73 FR 22281 (April 25,...

  7. Biological and health effects of exposure to kerosene-based jet fuels and performance additives.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Glenn; Still, Kenneth; Rossi, John; Bekkedal, Marni; Bobb, Andrew; Arfsten, Darryl

    2003-01-01

    Over 2 million military and civilian personnel per year (over 1 million in the United States) are occupationally exposed, respectively, to jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8), JP-8 +100 or JP-5, or to the civil aviation equivalents Jet A or Jet A-1. Approximately 60 billion gallon of these kerosene-based jet fuels are annually consumed worldwide (26 billion gallon in the United States), including over 5 billion gallon of JP-8 by the militaries of the United States and other NATO countries. JP-8, for example, represents the largest single chemical exposure in the U.S. military (2.53 billion gallon in 2000), while Jet A and A-1 are among the most common sources of nonmilitary occupational chemical exposure. Although more recent figures were not available, approximately 4.06 billion gallon of kerosene per se were consumed in the United States in 1990 (IARC, 1992). These exposures may occur repeatedly to raw fuel, vapor phase, aerosol phase, or fuel combustion exhaust by dermal absorption, pulmonary inhalation, or oral ingestion routes. Additionally, the public may be repeatedly exposed to lower levels of jet fuel vapor/aerosol or to fuel combustion products through atmospheric contamination, or to raw fuel constituents by contact with contaminated groundwater or soil. Kerosene-based hydrocarbon fuels are complex mixtures of up to 260+ aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (C(6) -C(17+); possibly 2000+ isomeric forms), including varying concentrations of potential toxicants such as benzene, n-hexane, toluene, xylenes, trimethylpentane, methoxyethanol, naphthalenes (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], and certain other C(9)-C(12) fractions (i.e., n-propylbenzene, trimethylbenzene isomers). While hydrocarbon fuel exposures occur typically at concentrations below current permissible exposure limits (PELs) for the parent fuel or its constituent chemicals, it is unknown whether additive or synergistic interactions among hydrocarbon constituents, up to six

  8. Motorcycle emissions and fuel consumption in urban and rural driving conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, K S; Wang, W C; Chen, H M; Lin, C F; Hsu, H C; Kao, J H; Hu, M T

    2003-08-01

    This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)=NO+NO(2)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)), as well as fuel consumption, were determined using a chassis dynamometer. The measurement results show that the representative driving cycles are almost identical in the three largest cities in Taiwan, but they differ significantly from the rural driving cycle. Irrespective of driving conditions, emission factors differ insignificantly between the urban and rural regions at a 95% confidence level. However, the fuel consumption in urban centers is approximately 30% higher than in the rural regions, with driving conditions in the former usually poor compared to the latter. Two-stroke motorcycles generally have considerably higher HC emissions and quite lower NO(x) emissions than those of four-stroke motorcycles. Comparisons with other studies suggest that factors such as road characteristics, traffic volume, vehicle type, driving conditions and driver behavior may affect motorcycle emission levels in real traffic situations. PMID:12873404

  9. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Dirk D.; Gormley, Robert J.; Baltrus, John P.; Anderson, Richard R.; Zandhuis, Paul H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic, fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350º C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol%) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  10. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  11. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  12. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  13. Life cycle assessment of vehicle lightweighting: a physics-based model of mass-induced fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J

    2013-12-17

    Lightweighting is a key strategy used to improve vehicle fuel economy. Replacing conventional materials (e.g., steel) with lighter alternatives (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, and composites) decreases energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during vehicle use, but often increases energy consumption and GHG emissions during materials and vehicle production. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of mass reduction requires a quantitative description of the mass-induced fuel consumption during vehicle use. A new physics-based method for estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) is proposed. We illustrate the utility of this method by using publicly available data to calculate MIF values in the range of 0.2-0.5 L/(100 km 100 kg) based on 106 records of fuel economy tests by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 2013 model year vehicles. Lightweighting is shown to have the most benefit when applied to vehicles with high fuel consumption and high power. Use of the physics-based model presented here would place future life cycle assessment studies of vehicle lightweighting on a firmer scientific foundation.

  14. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption

    PubMed Central

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Robino, Antonietta; van der Spek, Ashley; Navarini, Luciano; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption. PMID:27561104

  15. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption.

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Robino, Antonietta; van der Spek, Ashley; Navarini, Luciano; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Gasparini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using additive, recessive and dominant models for analysis. This has uncovered a significant association in the PDSS2 gene under the recessive model that has been replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (ERF). The identified gene has been shown to negatively regulate the expression of the caffeine metabolism genes and can thus be linked to coffee consumption. Further bioinformatics analysis of eQTL and histone marks from Roadmap data has evidenced a possible role of the identified SNPs in regulating PDSS2 gene expression through enhancers present in its intron. Our results highlight a novel gene which regulates coffee consumption by regulating the expression of the genes linked to caffeine metabolism. Further studies will be needed to clarify the biological mechanism which links PDSS2 and coffee consumption. PMID:27561104

  16. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling infrastructure. Because of their high

  17. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  18. Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2014-11-01

    Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

  19. Peak Seeking Control for Reduced Fuel Consumption with Preliminary Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation project seeks to accomplish the simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise, and emissions. A project at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is contributing to ERAs goals by exploring the practical application of real-time trim configuration optimization for enhanced performance and reduced fuel consumption. This peak-seeking control approach is based on Newton-Raphson algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of the performance function. In real-time operation, deflection of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of a modified F-18 are directly optimized, and the horizontal stabilators and angle of attack are indirectly optimized. Preliminary results from three research flights are presented herein. The optimization system found a trim configuration that required approximately 3.5% less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the given flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These preliminary results show the algorithm has good performance and is expected to show similar results at other flight conditions and aircraft configurations.

  20. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  1. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  2. Evaluation of fuel additives for reduction of material imcompatibilities in methanol-gasoline blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, C. F.; Barbee, J. G.; Knutson, W. K.; Cuellar, J. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Screening tests determined the efficacy of six commercially available additives as modifiers of methanol's corrosivity toward metals and its weakening of tensile properties of nonmetals in automotive fuel systems. From the screening phase, three additives which seemed to protect some of the metals were tested in higher concentrations and binary combinations in search of optimal application conditions. Results indicate that two of the additives have protective properties and combining them increases the protection of the metals corroded by methanol-gasoline blends. Half of the metals in the tests were not corroded. Testing at recommended concentrations and then at higher concentrations and in combinations shows that the additives would have no protective or harmful effects on the nonmetals. Two additives emerged as candidates for application to the protection of metals in automotive methanol-gasoline fuel systems. The additives tested were assigned letter codes to protect their proprietary nature.

  3. Sodium borohydride as an additive to enhance the performance of direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lianqin; Bambagioni, Valentina; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Bianchini, Claudio; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Vizza, Francesco; Fang, Xiang; Shen, Pei Kang

    The effect of adding small quantities (0.1-1 wt.%) of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) to the anolyte solution of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) with membrane-electrode assemblies constituted by nanosized Pd/C anode, Fe-Co cathode and anion-exchange membrane (Tokuyama A006) was investigated by means of various techniques. These include cyclic voltammetry, in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry, a study of the performance of monoplanar fuel cells and an analysis of the ethanol oxidation products. A comparison with fuel cells fed with aqueous solutions of ethanol proved unambiguously the existence of a promoting effect of NaBH 4 on the ethanol oxidation. Indeed, the potentiodynamic curves of the ethanol-NaBH 4 mixtures showed higher power and current densities, accompanied by a remarkable increase in the fuel consumption at comparable working time of the cell. A 13C and 11B { 1H}NMR analysis of the cell exhausts and an in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemical study showed that ethanol is converted selectively to acetate while the oxidation product of NaBH 4 is sodium metaborate (NaBO 2). The enhancement of the overall cell performance has been explained in terms of the ability of NaBH 4 to reduce the PdO layer on the catalyst surface.

  4. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  5. Effectiveness of iron-based fuel additives for diesel soot control

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, H.W.; Westphal, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated the effects of two iron-based fuel additives on diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions. The 5.6-L, six-cylinder test engine is typical of engines used in underground mines. One additive, ferrous picrate, did not measurably affect exhaust emissions. This report is mainly about a ferrocene-based additive that reduced DPM between 4 and 45 pct, depending on engine operating conditions. The report concludes that the DPM reductions were caused by the catalytic oxidation properties of a ferric oxide coating that developed inside the engine's combustion chamber. The ferric oxide coating also decreased gas-phase hydrocarbons and O[sub 2], but it increased CO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. The increase in NO[sub x], of about 12 pct, is considered the only adverse effect of the ferrocene-based fuel additive. The results suggest that the effectiveness of ferrocene was partially offset by increased sulfates because of the high-sulfur fuel used. Recommendations for continuing fuel additive research are presented.

  6. Predicting the Effects of Nano-Scale Cerium Additives in Diesel Fuel on Regional-Scale Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel vehicles are a major source of air pollutant emissions. Fuel additives containing nanoparticulate cerium (nCe) are currently being used in some diesel vehicles to improve fuel efficiency. These fuel additives also reduce fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissio...

  7. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  8. Investigation of fuel-additive effects on sooting flames. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bonczyk, P.A.

    1987-06-30

    The objective of this research is to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the suppression of soot in flames by fuel additives. Measurements are limited to well-defined hydrocarbon/air prevaporized liquid- and gaseous-fueled flames. Emphasis is given to ferrocene in a diffusion flame fueled by prevaporized iso-octane. Nonperturbing laser/optical diagnostic techniques are used to relate changes in soot particulate size, number density, and volume fraction to additive concentration. Ferrocene is observed to suppress a visible soot plume completely and, in general, to intervene at a late combustion stage. Suppression is due to both size and number density reduction, which suggests that ferrocene enhances the oxidative burn-out of soot. In contrast, at an early combustion stage nearer the burner lip, a slight enhancement of soot observed with ferrocene seeding.

  9. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  10. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel additives from glycerol using green chemistry and supercritical fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For every 3 moles of fatty acid esters produced, 1 mole of glycerol remains, ~11% of the biodiesel volume. One new method of glycerol use could be as a biodiesel fuel additive/extender using eco-friendly heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical fluids (SFs). SFs have advantages such as greater diff...

  11. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. 291.44 Section 291.44 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44...

  12. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind

  13. Dry additives-reduction catalysts for flue waste gases originating from the combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Hard coal is the basic energy generating raw material in Poland. In 1990, 60% of electricity and thermal energy was totally obtained from it. It means that 100 million tons of coal were burned. The second position is held by lignite - generating 38% of electricity and heat (67.3 million tons). It is to be underlined that coal combustion is particularly noxious to the environment. The coal composition appreciably influences the volume of pollution emitted in the air. The contents of incombustible mineral parts - ashes - oscillates from 2 to 30%; only 0.02 comes from plants that had once originated coal and cannot be separated in any way. All the rest, viz. the so-called external mineral substance enters the fuel while being won. The most indesirable hard coal ingredient is sulfur whose level depends on coal sorts and its origin. The worse the fuel quality, the more sulfur it contains. In the utilization process of this fuel, its combustible part is burnt: therefore, sulfur dioxide is produced. At the present coal consumption, the SO{sub 2} emission reaches the level of 3.2 million per year. The intensifies the pressure on working out new coal utilization technologies, improving old and developing of pollution limiting methods. Research is also directed towards such an adaptation of technologies in order that individual users may also make use thereof (household furnaces) as their share in the pollution emission is considerable.

  14. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  15. Screening of Potential O-Ring Swelling Additives for Ultraclean Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, J.P.; Link, D.D.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Gormley, R.J.; Anderson, R.R.

    2007-03-01

    Several classes of organic compounds and mixtures of organic compounds were evaluated as potential additives to Fischer-Tropsch fuels to promote swelling of nitrile rubber o-rings that come in contact with the fuels. Computational modeling studies were also carried out to predict which compounds might be best at promoting o-ring swelling. The combined experimental-theoretical approach showed that steric factors strongly influence the interactions between additives and the nitrile sites in the rubber that result in swelling. Select compounds incorporating both oxygenate and aromatic functionalities appear to be the best candidates for additives because of a "dual" interaction between complementary functionalities on these compounds and the nitrile rubber.

  16. Effects of NaOH addition on performance of the direct hydrazine fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wen Xia; Li, Zhou Peng; Zhu, Jing Ke; Qin, Hai Ying

    In this work, we suggested a figuration of the direct hydrazine fuel cell (DHFC) using non-precious metals as the anode catalyst, ion exchange membranes as the electrolyte and alkaline hydrazine solutions as the fuel. NaOH addition in the anolyte effectively improved the open circuit voltage and the performance of the DHFC. A power density of 84 mW cm -2 has been achieved when operating the cell at room temperature. It was found that the cell performance was mainly influenced by anode polarization when using alkaline N 2H 4 solutions with low NaOH concentrations. However, when using alkaline N 2H 4 solutions with high NaOH concentrations as the fuel, the cell performance was mainly influenced by cathode polarization.

  17. Effect of a chromium-containing fuel additive on hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Four superalloys were tested at 900 C in high velocity combustion gases containing synthetic sea salt and, in some cases, a chromium containing fuel additive. While the additive reduced hot corrosion of the alloys over the 100 hour test period, the attack was not eliminated nor was the mode of attack changed. Reduction of the number of thermal cycles had as large a beneficial effect as the Cr additive. Intermittent washing during testing had either small beneficial or adverse effects depending on the alloy.

  18. 40 CFR 80.591 - What are the product transfer document requirements for additives to be used in diesel fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... content requirements for use in diesel motor vehicles and nonroad engines.”; or (2) For those additives... requirements for use in model year 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles or model year 2011 and newer...

  19. 40 CFR 80.591 - What are the product transfer document requirements for additives to be used in diesel fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... content requirements for use in diesel motor vehicles and nonroad engines.”; or (2) For those additives... requirements for use in model year 2007 and newer diesel motor vehicles or model year 2011 and newer...

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. [Electricity generation of surplus sludge microbial fuel cells enhanced by additional enzyme].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Fang, Li; Huang, Hua-Jun; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the feasibility of enhanced electricity generation of microbial fuel cell fed surplus sludge by additional enzymes (neutral protease and alpha-amylase) was discussed. The effect of dosage of additional enzyme on characteristics of electricity generation of the surplus sludge microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) and the reduction of surplus sludge were investigated. The results indicated that the maximum output power destiny of the group of experiment was higher than that of control under the same condition. Moreover, the maximum output power density, coulomb efficiency, efficiency of reducing TCOD, efficiency of reducing TSS and efficiency of reducing VSS reached up to 507 W x m(-2) (700 mW x m(-2)), 3.98% (5.11%), 88.31% (94.09%), 83.18% (98.02%) and 89.03% (98.80%) respectively for protease (alpha-amylase) at the dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). This study demonstrated that additional enzyme greatly enhanced the electricity generation of MFC with simultaneous accomplishments of sludge treatment, providing a novel approach for the practical application of microbial fuel cell.

  2. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  3. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's psychosocial determinants of vegetables consumption.

    PubMed

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; van Dongen, Ellen J I; Meester, Hante J; van den Top-Pullen, Rinelle; de Graaf, Kees; van 't Veer, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Experiential learning methods seem to be promising to enhance healthy eating behaviour in children. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of the Dutch programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption. In a quasi-experimental design, 800 children aged 8-11 years old from 34 elementary schools participated in a Taste Lessons (TL: 5 lessons) group, a Taste Lessons Vegetable Menu (TLVM: TL with 3 added experiential learning activities) group, and a control group. During a baseline and follow-up measurement, children completed a questionnaire on psychosocial determinants towards vegetables consumption. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare changes in the determinants between the TLVM group and the TL group, and between the two intervention groups and the control group. The TLVM group showed a significantly higher increase in knowledge (p < 0.001), attitude and subjective norm of the teacher (both p < 0.05), whereas the TL group only showed a significantly higher increase in knowledge (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Increases in knowledge (p < 0.10), subjective norm (p < 0.10) and cooking self-efficacy (p < 0.05) were higher in the TLVM group than in the TL group. Therefore, more and stronger effects were found in children who participated in the additional hands-on activities. PMID:27317617

  4. Influences of vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on the trip cost without late arrival under car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we use car-following model to explore the influences of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on each commuter’s trip cost without late arrival on one open road. Our results illustrate that considering the vehicle’s fuel cost and emission cost only enhances each commuter’s trip cost and the system’s total cost, but has no prominent impacts on his optimal time headway at the origin of each open road under the minimum total cost.

  5. Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium in Current and Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

    2003-07-01

    A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup, and improved waste form characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium oxide fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in 233U. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly in the reduction of plutonium inventories. While uranium-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium in discharged fuel, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the 238U. Here, we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed-oxide fuel in a light water reactor. Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2, where >70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnups of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels for similar plutonium enrichments. For equal specific burnups of ~60 MWd/kg (i.e., using variable plutonium weight percentages to give the desired burnup), the thorium-based fuels still outperform the uranium-based fuels by more than a factor of 2, where the total plutonium consumption in a three-batch, 18-month cycle was 60 to 70%. This is fairly significant considering that 10 to 15% (by weight) more plutonium is needed in the thorium-based fuels as compared to the uranium

  6. Effect of primary-zone equivalence ratio and hydrogen addition on exhaust emission in a hydrocarbon-fueled combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of reducing the primary-zone equivalence ratio on the exhaust emission levels of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons in experimental hydrocarbon-fueled combustor segments at simulated supersonic cruise and idle conditions were investigated. In addition, the effects of the injection of hydrogen fuel (up to 4 percent of the total weight of fuel) on the stability of the hydrocarbon flame and exhaust emissions were studied and compared with results obtained without hydrogen addition.

  7. Full-scale altitude engine test of a turbofan exhaust-gas-forced mixer to reduce thrust specific fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullom, R. R.; Johnson, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The specific fuel consumption of a low-bypass-ratio, confluent-flow, turbofan engine was measured with and without a mixer installed. Tests were conducted for flight Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.4 and altitudes from 10,670 to 14,630 meters (35,000 to 48,000 ft) for core-stream-to-fan-stream temperature ratios of 2.0 and 2.5 and mixing-length-to-diameter ratios of 0.95 and 1.74. For these test conditions, the reduction in specific fuel consumption varied from 2.5 percent to 4.0 percent. Pressure loss measurements as well as temperature and pressure surveys at the mixer inlet, the mixer exit, and the nozzle inlet were made.

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-39 - Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles....105-39 Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks. Each vessel that carries a vehicle with fuel in its tank must meet the requirements of ABS Steel Vessel...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-39 - Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles....105-39 Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks. Each vessel that carries a vehicle with fuel in its tank must meet the requirements of ABS Steel Vessel...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-39 - Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles....105-39 Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks. Each vessel that carries a vehicle with fuel in its tank must meet the requirements of ABS Steel Vessel...

  11. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell--A detailed study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m(-3) per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    PubMed Central

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m−3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  13. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m-3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  14. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  15. Basic laws of the processes and the principle of minimum energy consumption during pneumatic transport and distribution of pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leykin, V. Z.

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents analysis of the basic laws and a calculation-based investigation of processes related to the low-concentration pneumatic transport and the distribution of finely dispersed pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems of boiler units. Based on the principle of the minimum energy consumption, it is shown that, at high (standard) velocities of the turbulent gas flow—of 25-30 m/s, which is by 1.5-2 times higher than the critical speeds—the finely dispersed pulverized fuel can be transported simultaneously in the form of a low-concentration flow in pipelines and a concentrated, to 30% of the flow rate, thin layer on the pipeline walls with the height of the layer equal to 0.02-0.04 of the pipe radius. Consideration of this phenomenon is of great significance in terms of securing the efficient operation of pulverized fuel distribution units. The basic characteristics of the process have been determined and validated by test bench investigations using both model systems and pulverized fuel distribution systems of a number of power-generating units. The obtained results underlie a methodological approach to developing high-efficiency adjustable pulverized fuel distribution units. Also, results of industrial testing are presented that confirm the results of the analysis and of experimental studies.

  16. An additive solution to the problem of wax settling in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.I.; Tack, R.D.; Chandler, J.E

    1988-01-01

    Wax formed in cold diesel fuels can settle, causing fuel storage and distribution problems and unexpected vehicle failures. The extent of these wax settling problems depends upon fuel, storage conditions, and the design of vehicle fuel systems. New Wax Anti-settling Flow Improvers, WAFI, reduce crystal sizes and keep wax dispersed in the fuel. Improved performance of cold fuels treated with WAFI has been demonstrated in storage tests, a diesel fuel rig, and in diesel trucks on a cold climate chassis dynamometer.

  17. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    SciTech Connect

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  18. Diesel engine experiments with oxygen enrichment, water addition and lower-grade fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO{sub x} emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO{sub x}. Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO{sub x} emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    PubMed

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations. PMID:26867100

  20. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    PubMed

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  1. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  2. NOx formation from the combustion of monodisperse n-heptane sprays doped with fuel-nitrogen additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarv, Hamid; Cernansky, Nicholas P.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments with simulated synthetic fuels were conducted in order to investigate the effect of droplet size on the conversion of fuel-nitrogen to NOx. Pyridine and pyrrole were added to n-heptane as nitrogen-containing additives and burned as monodisperse fuel droplets under various operating conditions in a spray combustion facility. The experimental results indicate that under stoichiometric and fuel-rich conditions, reducing the droplet size increases the efficiency of fuel-N conversion to NOx. This observation is associated with improved oxidation of the pyrolysis fragments of the additive by better oxygen penetration through the droplet flame zone. The dominant reactions by which fuel-N is transformed to NOx were also considered analytically by a premixed laminar flame code. The calculations are compared to the small droplet size results.

  3. Proton transport in functionalised additives for PEM fuel cells: contributions from atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Tölle, Pia; Köhler, Christof; Marschall, Roland; Sharifi, Monir; Wark, Michael; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The conventional polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) materials for fuel cell applications strongly rely on temperature and pressure conditions for optimal performance. In order to expand the range of operating conditions of these conventional PEM materials, mesoporous functionalised SiO(2) additives are developed. It has been demonstrated that these additives themselves achieve proton conductivities approaching those of conventional materials. However, the proton conduction mechanisms and especially factors influencing charge carrier mobility under different hydration conditions are not well known and difficult to separate from concentration effects in experiments. This tutorial review highlights contributions of atomistic computer simulations to the basic understanding and eventual design of these materials. Some basic introduction to the theoretical and computational framework is provided to introduce the reader to the field, the techniques are in principle applicable to a wide range of other situations as well. Simulation results are directly compared to experimental data as far as possible.

  4. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed.

  5. Experimental copper and chromium deficiency and additional molybdenum supplementation in goats. I. Feed consumption and weight development.

    PubMed

    Frank, A; Anke, M; Danielsson, R

    2000-04-17

    Secondary Cu deficiency, Cr deficiency and molybdenosis were suggested causes of the 'mysterious' disease afflicting moose (Alces alces L.) in a region in south-west Sweden affected by acid rain. A model experiment with goats was performed to study the clinical chemical parameters, determine the tissue contents of trace and minor elements, to perform pathological and histopathological investigations and to compare the findings with those in moose disease. Twenty 3-month-old male goats were assigned to four dietary treatments (five animals each) in an experiment lasting for 20 months. The four groups in the study were: control group, Cu-deficient group (group 1), Cr-deficient group (group 2), and Cu- and Cr-deficient group (group 3). The animals were fed a basic semi-synthetic diet. At the end of the study the three surviving animals of group 3 were supplemented with additional tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) during the last 2 months. Feed consumption and weight development of the animals were monitored and are presented. The feed consumption of the two Cu-deficient groups of goats (group 1 and group 3) supported the previously described observations in copper deficiency in ruminants, e.g. decreased appetite and feed intake. A previously unreported effect of Cr deficiency in ruminants is now described in goats. Chromium deficiency at adequate Cu supplementation (group 2), caused increased lipid synthesis and a weight gain of 32 kg compared with that of the control group (20 kg). A possible explanation for this unexpected weight increase in only Cr deficiency is discussed. It is concluded that the feeding experiment does not support the hypothesis concerning the relation of Cr deficiency to the moose disease.

  6. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  7. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  8. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  9. Effect of organometallic fuel additives on nanoparticle emissions from a gasoline passenger car.

    PubMed

    Gidney, Jeremy T; Twigg, Martyn V; Kittelson, David B

    2010-04-01

    Particle size measurements were performed on the exhaust of a car operating on a chassis dynamometer fueled with standard gasoline and gasoline containing low levels of Pb, Fe, and Mn organometallic additives. When additives were present there was a distinct nucleation mode consisting primarily of sub-10 nm nanoparticles. At equal molar dosing Mn and Fe gave similar nanoparticle concentrations at the tailpipe, whereas Pb gave a considerably lower concentration. A catalytic stripper was used to remove the organic component of these particles and revealed that they were mainly solid and, because of their association with inorganic additives, presumably inorganic. Solid nucleation mode nanoparticles of similar size and concentration to those observed here from a gasoline engine with Mn and Fe additives have also been observed from modern heavy-duty diesel engines without aftertreatment at idle, but these solid particles are a small fraction of the primarily volatile nucleation mode particles emitted. The solid nucleation mode particles emitted by the diesel engines are likely derived from metal compounds in the lubrication oil, although carbonaceous particles cannot be ruled out. Significantly, most of these solid nanoparticles emitted by both engine types fall below the 23 nm cutoff of the PMP number regulation.

  10. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  11. 76 FR 15855 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of renewable fuel production and use. On February 17, 2011...'' in the final analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of renewable fuel... Administrator to reconsider an EPA rule, published on March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14670), which amended the...

  12. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, G. D.; Christian, J. E.; Mixon, W. R.; Jackson, W. L.

    1980-07-01

    The procedures and data sources used to develop an energy consumption and system cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total energy systems in the nonindustrial building market are described. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings; office buildings; retail stores; hotels and motels; schools; hospitals; and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system.

  13. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  14. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe.

  15. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  16. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  17. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  18. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B T; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L; Albuquerque, Ulysses P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP (Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  19. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B. T.; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L.; Albuquerque, Ulysses P.

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP ( Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  20. Acute toxicity evaluation of JP-8 jet fuel and JP-8 jet fuel containing additives. Final report, November 1995-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.E.; Kinead, E.R.; Feldmann, M.L.; Leahy, H.F.; Jederberg, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    To reduce fuel fouling in current U.S Navy and Air Force aircraft systems and to provide additional heat sink and thermal stability for future systems, the Air Force is developing an improved JP-8 jet fuel (JP-8 + 100). Two companies (Betz and Mobil) have developed additive packages that are currently being tested in aircraft systems. To determine if the additive packages will produce health effects for flightline personnel, acute testing was performed on JP-8 and the two JP-8 + 100 jet fuels. A single oral dose at 5 mg jet fuel/kg body weight to five male and five female F-344 rats, and a single dermal application of 2 g jet fuel/kg body weight applied to five male and five female NZW rabbits resulted in no deaths. No signs of toxic stress were observed, and all animals gained weight over the 14-day observation periods. Single treatment of 0.5 mL neat jet fuel to rabbit skin produced negative results for skin irritation. Guinea pigs tailed to elicit a sensitization response following repeated applications of the jet fuels. Inhalation vapor exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 (Mobil) were determined to be >3.43, >3.52, and >3.57 mg/L, respectively. LD% values for aerosol exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 + 100 (Mobil) were >4.44, >4.39, and >4.54 mg/L, respectively. Under the conditions of these tests, the additive packages did not potentiate the acute effects normally associated with JP-8 jet fuel exposures.

  1. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel.

    PubMed

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-04

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell.

  2. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell.

  3. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel

    PubMed Central

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell. PMID:27142725

  4. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel.

    PubMed

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell. PMID:27142725

  5. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  6. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  7. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  8. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ..., including but not limited to hybrid electric vehicles, LSEVs, electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric... fuel economy through the acquisition of smaller-sized vehicles ] and/or hybrid, electric, or other..., ``Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management,'' 72 FR 3919 (Jan. 26, 2007), and...

  9. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    F. Stodolsky; L. Gaines; A. Vyas

    2000-06-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  10. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  11. 77 FR 66074 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Modification to Octamix Waiver (TOLAD MFA-10A)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... gasoline- alcohol fuel, OCTAMIX.\\2\\ \\1\\ EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0894-0001. \\2\\ 77 FR 35677. In that June 14, 2012... January 20, 2012, EPA published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 2979) announcing receipt of Baker... final decision, see the Unit IV, in the Federal Register of June 14, 2012.\\6\\ \\6\\ 77 FR 35679....

  12. The influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in NEDC test and real traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, P.; Wędrychowicz, D.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in a city passenger car. The simulations were conducted for a particular vehicle characterized by its mass, body shape, size of tires and equipped with a combustion engine for which the characteristic of fuel consumption in dynamic states was already designated on the basis of engine test bed measurements. Several designs of transmission with different number of gears and their ratios were used in virtual simulations of road traffic, particularly in the NEDC test, to calculate mileage fuel consumption. This allows for a quantitative assessment of transmission parameters in terms of both vehicle economy and dynamic properties. Also, based on obtained results, recommendations for the selection of a particular vehicle for a specific type of exploitation have been formulated.

  13. Thermal modeling in an engine cooling system to control coolant flow for fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Minho; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-09-01

    The design and evaluation of engine cooling and lubrication systems is generally based on real vehicle tests. Our goal here was to establish an engine heat balance model based on mathematical and interpretive analysis of each element of a passenger diesel engine cooling system using a 1-D numerical model. The purpose of this model is to determine ways of optimizing the cooling and lubrication components of an engine and then to apply these methods to actual cooling and lubrication systems of engines that will be developed in the future. Our model was operated under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode conditions, which represent the fuel economy evaluation mode in Europe. The flow rate of the cooling system was controlled using a control valve. Our results showed that the fuel efficiency was improved by as much as 1.23 %, cooling loss by 1.35 %, and friction loss by 2.21 % throughout NEDC modes by modification of control conditions.

  14. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  15. Reducing Fuel Consumption through Semi-Automated Platooning with Class 8 Tractor Trailer Combinations (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.; Gonder, J.

    2014-07-01

    This poster describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's evaluation of the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning. Platooning involves reducing aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and decreasing the distance between them through the use of electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. The NREL study addressed the need for data on American style line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics and over a range of trucking speeds common in the United States.

  16. The Effect of Fuel Consumption on Cylinder Temperatures and Performance of a Cowled Wright J-5 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W

    1929-01-01

    Given here are the results of tests made to determine the effect of fuel consumption on the cylinder temperatures and the performance of a cowled Wright J-5 engine. The results of these tests indicate that enriching the mixture by increasing the carburetor size results in a reduction in cylinder head and barrel temperatures. The cylinders shielded by the magnetos or the points on the cylinder that do not receive a free flow of cooling air increase most rapidly in temperature as the mixture is leaned. A free flow of air past the cylinders is essential for satisfactory operation on a lean mixture. The results of these tests show that the Wright J-5 engine can withstand severe temperatures for short periods of operation. The test results also show to what extent destructive temperatures may be avoided by enriching the mixture.

  17. JT9D-70/59 Improved High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control System. [for specific fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT9D-70/59 high pressure turbine active clearance control system was modified to provide reduction of blade tip clearance when the system is activated during cruise operation. The modification increased the flow capacity and air impingement effectiveness of the cooling air manifold to augment turbine case shrinkage capability, and increased responsiveness of the airseal clearance to case shrinkage. The simulated altitude engine testing indicated a significant improvement in specific fuel consumption with the modified system. A 1000 cycle engine endurance test showed no unusual wear or performance deterioration effects on the engine or the clearance control system. Rig tests indicated that the air impingement and seal support configurations used in the engine tests are near optimum.

  18. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  19. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  20. Trajectory Optimization Using Adjoint Method and Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation for Minimizing Fuel Consumption During Climb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hornby, Gregory; Ishihara, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes two methods of trajectory optimization to obtain an optimal trajectory of minimum-fuel- to-climb for an aircraft. The first method is based on the adjoint method, and the second method is based on a direct trajectory optimization method using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation and cubic spine approximation. The approximate optimal trajectory will be compared with the adjoint-based optimal trajectory which is considered as the true optimal solution of the trajectory optimization problem. The adjoint-based optimization problem leads to a singular optimal control solution which results in a bang-singular-bang optimal control.

  1. Investigation of fuel-additive effects on sooting flames. Annual technical report, 1 June 1987-31 May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bonczyk, P.A.

    1988-06-30

    The objective of this research is to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the suppression of soot in flames by fuel additives. Measurements are limited to well-defined hydrocarbon air prevaporized liquid- and gaseous-fueled flames. Gas-phase hydrocarbon species measurements were made in an axisymmetric prevaporized iso-octane/air diffusion flame with and without ferrocene present as a fuel additive. The concentrations have been determined using quartz probe sampling and chromatographic analysis. Of the roughly twenty species detected, most were unaffected by the ferrocene. Expections were C2H2 and H2 which showed a decrease and increase, respectively, with ferrocene seeding. Solid effluent was collected and analyzed by ESCA (Electron Scattering for Chemical Analysis) for the seeded flame. For seeding levels sufficient to suppress a soot plume, the effluent was hematite.

  2. How a new uncertainty estimate of global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption affects our understanding of the source/sink nature of the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.

    2012-12-01

    A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the global total of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production is based on approaching the emissions estimates from a different perspective than the approach used by Marland and Rotty (1984, Tellus 36B: 232-261). This new evaluation is based on quantifying the qualitative national error classes shown in Andres et al. (1996, GBC 10:419-429) and assuming that the energy data for each nation are independent of each other nation's data. Global total emissions for the years 1950 to 2011 are calculated from the sum of emissions from individual nations plus an additional term which accounts for emissions not included in national totals (e.g., bunker fuels, Andres et al., 2012, Biogeosci. 9:1845-1871). The uncertainty on this global total is then calculated from square root(Σ((emissions*uncertainty)^2)) where the summation is done over all nations. The result of this calculation is the uncertainty expressed in terms of mass in a given year. Calculations are now underway for the 1950-2011 time series. Based on previous calculations, for the years 1950 to 2010, the 2 σ uncertainty on global fossil fuel emissions was 2.6 to 4.8% (41 Tg C in 1950 and 415 Tg C in 2010, respectively). To examine one implication of this new uncertainty estimate, it is propagated into the rest of the global carbon cycle via a five-component box model. For simplicity, this uncertainty is accommodated entirely within the terrestrial biosphere. We conclude that for most years since 1950, the propagated uncertainty results in a terrestrial biosphere that may have acted as either a source or sink of carbon.

  3. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G.D.; Christian, J.E.; Mixon, W.R.; Jackson, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes the procedures and data sources used to develop an energy-consumption and system-cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total-energy systems in the nonindustrial building market. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings - office buildings, retail stores, hotels and motels, schools, hospitals, and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system. The systems were simulated for a single building size for each building type. Methods were developed to extrapolate the system cost and performance data to other building sizes.

  4. 76 FR 33121 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... was published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2011 (76 FR 17019). This direct final rule amended....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 28, 2011 (76 FR 17019), the NRC published a direct final... 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY:...

  5. 40 CFR 80.620 - What are the additional requirements for diesel fuel or distillates produced by foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., diesel fuel additives or blendstock, dyes and chemical markers and interviewing employees. (vii) Any.... 7413). (k) Bond posting. Any foreign refiner shall meet the requirements of this paragraph (k) as a... shall post a bond of the amount calculated using the following equation: Bond = G × $ 0.01 Where:...

  6. 40 CFR 80.620 - What are the additional requirements for diesel fuel or distillates produced by foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., diesel fuel additives or blendstock, dyes and chemical markers and interviewing employees. (vii) Any.... 7413). (k) Bond posting. Any foreign refiner shall meet the requirements of this paragraph (k) as a... shall post a bond of the amount calculated using the following equation: Bond = G × $ 0.01 Where:...

  7. 40 CFR 80.620 - What are the additional requirements for diesel fuel or distillates produced by foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., diesel fuel additives or blendstock, dyes and chemical markers and interviewing employees. (vii) Any.... 7413). (k) Bond posting. Any foreign refiner shall meet the requirements of this paragraph (k) as a... shall post a bond of the amount calculated using the following equation: Bond = G × $ 0.01 Where:...

  8. 40 CFR 80.620 - What are the additional requirements for diesel fuel or distillates produced by foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., diesel fuel additives or blendstock, dyes and chemical markers and interviewing employees. (vii) Any.... 7413). (k) Bond posting. Any foreign refiner shall meet the requirements of this paragraph (k) as a... shall post a bond of the amount calculated using the following equation: Bond = G × $ 0.01 Where:...

  9. A Thrust and Impulse Study of Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate as an Additive for Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J.; Wright, A. M.; Dunn, L.; Alford, B.

    2000-03-01

    A thrust and impulse study of the hybrid rocket fuel additive Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (GAT) was conducted at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility. GAT is an organic salt with a high percentage of nitrogen. GAT was mixed with the standard hybrid rocket fuel, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), in the concentration of 15%, by mass. The fuel grains with the GAT additive were fired for 4 second runs with the oxygen flows of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, and 0.12 lbm/sec. For each run average thrust, total impulse, and specific impulse were measured. Average thrust, specific impulse, and total impulse vs. oxygen flow were plotted. Similar data was collected for plain HTPB/PAPI fuels for comparison. GAT was found to increase the thrust output when it was added to the standard hybrid rocket fuel, HTPB. GAT also increased the total impulse during the run. The thrust and total impulse were increased at all flows, but especially at the lower oxygen flow rates. Specific impulse only increased during the lower oxygen flow runs, and decreased slightly for the higher oxygen flow runs.

  10. NOx reduction in diesel fuel flames by additions of water and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.C.

    1997-12-31

    Natural gas has the highest heating value per unit mass (50.1 MJ/kg, LHV) of any of the hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., butane, liquid diesel fuel, gasoline, etc.). Since it has the lowest carbon content per unit mass, combustion of natural gas produces much less carbon dioxide, soot particles, and oxide of nitrogen than combustion of liquid diesel fuel. In view of anticipated strengthening of regulations on pollutant emissions from diesel engines, alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been experimentally introduced to replace the traditional diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks, transit buses, off-road vehicles, locomotives, and stationary engines. To help in applying natural gas in Diesel engines and increasing combustion efficiency, the emphasis of the present paper is placed on the detailed flame chemistry of methane-air combustion. The present work is the continued effort in finding better methods to reduce NO{sub x}. The goal is to identify a reliable chemical reaction mechanism for natural gas in both premixed and diffusion flames and to establish a systematic reduced mechanism which may be useful for large-scale numerical modeling of combustion behavior in natural gas engines.

  11. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Stachulak, Jozef S; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D; Cauda, Emanuele G

    2016-03-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  12. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Stachulak, Jozef S; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D; Cauda, Emanuele G

    2016-03-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  13. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System

    PubMed Central

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D.; Hummer, Jon A.; Stachulak, Jozef S.; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D.; Cauda, Emanuele G.

    2015-01-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  14. EFFECT OF NITRATE ADDITION ON BIORESTORATION OF FUEL-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER: FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A spill of JP-4 jet fuel at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan, contaminated a water-table aquifer. An infiltration gallery (30 ft × 30 ft) was installed above a section of the aquifer containing 700 gal JP-4. Purge wells recirculated three million gallon...

  15. 76 FR 39477 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...-forming emissions, and projected fuel costs and savings, and also includes a smartphone interactive code...., confidential business information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain... Economy ARB California Air Resources Board CBI Confidential Business Information CD Charge Depleting...

  16. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  17. Near-Road Modeling and Measurement of Particles Generated by Nanoparticle Diesel Fuel Additive Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (n-Ce) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the ceria-doped diesel exhaust aerosols are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission mea...

  18. Fire in the Amazon: impact of experimental fuel addition on responses of ants and their interactions with myrmecochorous seeds.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Lucas N; Maia, Maria L B; Solar, Ricardo R C; Campos, Ricardo I; Schoereder, José H; Andersen, Alan N

    2016-10-01

    The widespread clearing of tropical forests causes lower tree cover, drier microclimate, and higher and drier fuel loads of forest edges, increasing the risk of fire occurrence and its intensity. We used a manipulative field experiment to investigate the influence of fire and fuel loads on ant communities and their interactions with myrmecochorous seeds in the southern Amazon, a region currently undergoing extreme land-use intensification. Experimental fires and fuel addition were applied to 40 × 40-m plots in six replicated blocks, and ants were sampled between 15 and 30 days after fires in four strata: subterranean, litter, epigaeic, and arboreal. Fire had extensive negative effects on ant communities. Highly specialized cryptobiotic and predator species of the litter layer and epigaeic specialist predators were among the most sensitive, but we did not find evidence of overall biotic homogenization following fire. Fire reduced rates of location and transport of myrmecochorous seeds, and therefore the effectiveness of a key ecosystem service provided by ants, which we attribute to lower ant abundance and increased thermal stress. Experimental fuel addition had only minor effects on attributes of fire severity, and limited effects on ant responses to fire. Our findings indicate that enhanced fuel loads will not decrease ant diversity and ecosystem services through increased fire severity, at least in wetter years. However, higher fuel loads can still have a significant effect on ants from Amazonian rainforests because they increase the risk of fire occurrence, which has a detrimental impact on ant communities and a key ecosystem service they provide.

  19. Fire in the Amazon: impact of experimental fuel addition on responses of ants and their interactions with myrmecochorous seeds.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Lucas N; Maia, Maria L B; Solar, Ricardo R C; Campos, Ricardo I; Schoereder, José H; Andersen, Alan N

    2016-10-01

    The widespread clearing of tropical forests causes lower tree cover, drier microclimate, and higher and drier fuel loads of forest edges, increasing the risk of fire occurrence and its intensity. We used a manipulative field experiment to investigate the influence of fire and fuel loads on ant communities and their interactions with myrmecochorous seeds in the southern Amazon, a region currently undergoing extreme land-use intensification. Experimental fires and fuel addition were applied to 40 × 40-m plots in six replicated blocks, and ants were sampled between 15 and 30 days after fires in four strata: subterranean, litter, epigaeic, and arboreal. Fire had extensive negative effects on ant communities. Highly specialized cryptobiotic and predator species of the litter layer and epigaeic specialist predators were among the most sensitive, but we did not find evidence of overall biotic homogenization following fire. Fire reduced rates of location and transport of myrmecochorous seeds, and therefore the effectiveness of a key ecosystem service provided by ants, which we attribute to lower ant abundance and increased thermal stress. Experimental fuel addition had only minor effects on attributes of fire severity, and limited effects on ant responses to fire. Our findings indicate that enhanced fuel loads will not decrease ant diversity and ecosystem services through increased fire severity, at least in wetter years. However, higher fuel loads can still have a significant effect on ants from Amazonian rainforests because they increase the risk of fire occurrence, which has a detrimental impact on ant communities and a key ecosystem service they provide. PMID:27206792

  20. Investigation of fuel-additive effects on sooting flames. Final report, 1 June 1986-31 May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bonczyk, P.A.

    1989-07-28

    Research was conducted to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the suppression of soot in flames by selected fuel additives. Measurements were limited to well-defined prevaporized liquid- and gaseous-fueled hydrocarbon/air flames. Emphasis was given to ferrocene in a diffusion flame fueled by prevaporized iso-octane, as well as to alkali and alkaline-earth additives in premixed ethylene/air flames. Nonperturbing laser optical diagnostic techniques were used to measure flame temperature, as well as to relate changes in soot particulate size, number density, and volume fraction to additive type and concentration. Quartz probe sampling and gas chromatography were used to determine the additive's effect on soot precursor hydrocarbon and other species. For the diffusion flame, the time of the first appearance of soot is shortened when ferrocene is present. Following its appearance, the particulate's size and number density are perturbed by ferrocene. Ferrocene accelerates acetylene oxidation. Ferrocene is very effective at late stages, appearing to enhance soot burnout. Attempts were not successful to find iron occluded by soot as a possible mechanism of enhanced soot oxidation. Alkali metals were effective.

  1. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  2. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  3. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Yanan; Qiao, Li

    2011-02-15

    The burning characteristics of fuel droplets containing nano and micron-sized aluminum particles were investigated. Particle size, surfactant concentration, and the type of base fluid were varied. In general, nanosuspensions can last much longer than micron suspensions, and ethanol-based fuels were found to achieve much better suspension than n-decane-based fuels. Five distinctive stages (preheating and ignition, classical combustion, microexplosion, surfactant flame, and aluminum droplet flame) were identified for an n-decane/nano-Al droplet, while only the first three stages occurred for an n-decane/micron-Al droplet. For the same solid loading rate and surfactant concentration, the disruption and microexplosion behavior of the micron suspension occurred later with much stronger intensity. The intense droplet fragmentation was accompanied by shell rupture, which caused a massive explosion of particles, and most of them were burned during this event. On the contrary, for the nanosuspension, combustion of the large agglomerate at the later stage requires a longer time and is less complete because of formation of an oxide shell on the surface. This difference is mainly due to the different structure and characteristics of particle agglomerates formed during the early stage, which is a spherical, porous, and more-uniformly distributed aggregate for the nanosuspension, but it is a densely packed and impermeable shell for the micron suspension. A theoretical analysis was then conducted to understand the effect of particle size on particle collision mechanism and aggregation rate. The results show that for nanosuspensions, particle collision and aggregation are dominated by the random Brownian motion. For micron suspensions, however, they are dominated by fluid motion such as droplet surface regression, droplet expansion resulting from bubble formation, and internal circulation. And the Brownian motion is the least important. This theoretical analysis explains the

  4. Opportunities to reduce consumption of natural uranium in reactor SVBR-75/100 when changing over to the closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Mel'nikov, K.G.; Novikova, N.N.

    2007-07-01

    contrast to the cost of electricity produced by thermal power plants using fossil fuel. At the same time, the available resources of natural uranium are increasing progressively with increase of its cost. The expenditure caused by changeover to the closed NFC will be less, if plutonium extracted from the own SNF of uranium loads is used in fabrication of the first MOX fuel loads. If the oxide uranium fuel is used, by the end of the lifetime a comparatively high breeding ratio (BR) ({approx}0.84) provides a sufficiently high content of plutonium in the SNF that may be used in the next fuel lifetimes when organizing the closed fuel cycle. Moreover, the own SNF of starting loads from oxide uranium fuel contains large quantity of unburned uranium-235 that is expedient to use for forming load for the next lifetime. From the very beginning of realization of the extended program on implementation of reactors SVBR-75/100 in the NP, use of plutonium extracted from the TRs' SNF for forming the starting loads of those reactors for the purpose of total elimination of natural uranium consumption will be more expensive as compared with the considered variant of changeover from the opened NFC to the closed NFC. This is conditioned by the fact that for the plutonium extracted from the TRs' SNF, the plutonium cost determined by a volume of SNF reprocessing per ton of plutonium will be several times higher as compared with its cost in case of using the own SNF because of considerably less content of plutonium in the TRs' SNF. It should be taken into account that the organization of the enterprise on large-scale reprocessing of TRs' SNF and MOX fuel fabrication must precede the construction of NPPs with FRs. Thus, the demands in investments are increased. At the same time, for the proposed changeover from the opened NFC to the closed one the construction of the closed NFC enterprise may be long postponed from FR launching that reduces the investment demands. At this, as the assessments have

  5. A SnO2-samarium doped ceria additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Baolong; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2016-02-01

    The role of a SnO2-samarium doped ceria (SDC) additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) with SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite electrolyte and lithiated NiO-SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite cathode is investigated and compared with a NiO-SDC extra anode layer. Catalytic grown carbon fiber mixed with (Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 is used as a fuel. At 750 °C, the maximum power outputs of 192 and 143 mW cm-2 are obtained by the cells with SnO2-SDC and NiO-SDC layers, respectively. In the SnO2-SDC layer, the reduction of SnO2 and the oxidation of Sn happen simultaneously during the cell operation, and the Sn/SnO2 redox cycle provides an additional route for fuel conversion. The formation of an insulating dense interlayer between the anode and electrolyte layers, which usually happens in DCFCs with metal anodes, is avoided in the cell with the SnO2-SDC layer, and the stability of the cell is improved consequently.

  6. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  7. Improved performance of U-Mo dispersion fuel by Si addition in Al matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y S; Hofman, G L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to collect in one publication and fit together work fragments presented in many conferences in the multi-year time span starting 2002 to the present dealing with the problem of large pore formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates first observed in 2002. Hence, this report summarizes the excerpts from papers and reports on how we interpreted the relevant results from out-of-pile and in-pile tests and how this problem was dealt with. This report also provides a refined view to explain in detail and in a quantitative manner the underlying mechanism of the role of silicon in improving the irradiation performance of U-Mo/Al.

  8. Analysis of the CO2, NOx emission and fuel consumption from a heavy-duty vehicle designed for carriage of timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuc, P.; Lijewski, P.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements of the CO2 and NOx emission and fuel consumption recorded under actual operating conditions of a heavy-duty vehicle designed for loading and carriage of timber. The tests were performed on a specially designed test route that reflected the arrival of the vehicle to the felling site in the forest, the loading process and return to the lumberyard. The route ran through paved (asphalt) and unpaved (forest) portions. Its total length was 8.6 km. An advanced PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) device was used for the measurement of the exhaust emissions - SEMTECH DS by Sensors Inc. The paper analyses the CO2 and NOx emission and fuel consumption on all portions of the test route and presents a comparison between the forest and asphalt roads.

  9. Understanding the role of multifunctional nanoengineered particulate additives on supercritical pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels/propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Hyung Sub

    This dissertation aims to understand the fundamental effects of colloidal nanostructured materials on the supercritical pyrolysis, injection, ignition, and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels/propellants. As a fuel additive, functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) without or with the decoration of metal catalysts, such as platinum (Pt) or polyoxometalates (POM) nanoparticles, were examined against conventional materials including nanometer sized fumed silica and aluminum particles. Supercritical pyrolysis experiments were performed as a function of temperature, residence time, and particle type, using a high pressure and temperature flow reactor designed to provide isothermal and isobaric flow conditions. Supercritical pyrolysis results showed that the addition of FGS-based particles at a loading concentration of 50 ppmw increased the conversion rates and reduced apparent activation energies for methylcyclohexane (MCH) and n-dodecane (n-C12H26) fuels. For example, conversion rates, and formations of C1-C5 n-alkanes and C2-C6 1-alkenes were significantly increased by 43.5 %, 59.1 %, and 50.0 % for MCH decomposition using FGS 19 (50 ppmw) at a temperature of 820 K and reduced pressure of 1.36. In addition, FGS decorated with 20 wt % Pt (20wt%Pt FGS) at a loading concentration of 50 ppmw exhibited additional enhancement in the conversion rate of n-C12H26 by up to 24.0 % compared to FGS. Especially, FGS-based particles seem to alter initiation mechanisms, which could result in higher hydrogen formation. Hydrogen selectivities for both MCH and n-C12H26 decompositions were observed to increase by nearly a factor of 2 and 10, respectively. Supercritical injection and combustion experiments were conducted using a high pressure and temperature windowed combustion chamber coupled to the flow reactor through a feed system. Supercritical injection/combustion experiments indicated that the presence of a small amount of particles (100 ppmw) in the fuel affected the injection, ignition

  10. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  11. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  12. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region. PMID:24898296

  13. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  14. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I-VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P 95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI.

  15. Saturated fat consumption and the Theory of Planned Behaviour: exploring additive and interactive effects of habit strength.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2008-09-01

    The additive and interactive effects of habit strength in the explanation of saturated fat intake were explored within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Cross-sectional data were gathered in a Dutch adult sample (n=764) using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses. Results showed that habit strength was a significant correlate of fat intake (beta=-0.11) and significantly increased the amount of explained variance in fat intake (R(2-change)=0.01). Furthermore, based on a significant interaction effect (beta=0.11), simple slope analyses revealed that intention was a significant correlate of fat intake for low levels (beta=-0.29) and medium levels (beta=-0.19) of habit strength, but a weaker and non-significant correlate for high levels (beta=-0.07) of habit strength. Higher habit strength may thus make limiting fat intake a non-intentional behaviour. Implications for information and motivation-based interventions are discussed. PMID:18471932

  16. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 2, November 1, 1987--January 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  17. 75 FR 58077 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... for model years 2012- 2016.\\8\\ \\8\\ 75 FR 25324, May 7, 2010. The agencies believe these new labeling... FR 25324 (May 7, 2010). Finally, given the goals described above and the need to provide additional...\\ 75 FR 25324, May 7, 2010. D. What are the estimated costs and benefits of the proposed label...

  18. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  19. Physical characteristics of LWRs and SCLWRs loaded by ({sup 233}U-Th-{sup 238}U) oxide fuel with small additions of {sup 231}Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, E.G.; Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G.

    2007-07-01

    The paper investigates the possibility and attractiveness of using (U-Th) fuel in light-water reactors (LWRs) and in light-water reactors with super-critical coolant parameters (SCLWRs). It is proposed to dilute {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U to enhance the proliferation resistance of this fissionable isotope. If is noteworthy that she idea was put forward for the first time by she well known American physicist and participant of the Manhattan Project Dr. T. Taylor. Various fuel compositions are analyzed and compared on fuel breeding, achievable values of fuel burn-up and cross-sections of parasitic neutron absorption. It is also demonstrated that small {sup 231}Pa additions (several percent) into the fuel allows: to increase fuel burn-up, to achieve more negative temperature reactivity coefficient of coolant and to enhance nonproliferation of the fuel. (authors)

  20. Multifunctional additives to improve the low-temperature properties of distillate fuels and compositions containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a product of the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or its acid equivalent and an aminoalcohol or mixture of aminoalcohols or a combination of an aminoalcohol or mixture of aminoalcohols and a secondary amine the reactants being reacted in substantially molar, less than molar or more than molar amounts at temperatures varying from about 85[degrees] to about 250[degrees] C under pressures varying from about ambient or autogeneous to slightly higher for a time sufficient to obtain the desired ester or ester/amide additive product of reaction and wherein the aminoalcohol is derived from an olefin epoxide and a secondary amine.

  1. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  2. Peak-Seeking Control For Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results For The Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed FA-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. This presentation also focuses on the design of the flight experiment and the practical challenges of conducting the experiment.

  3. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. PMID:27043380

  4. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD.

  5. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, Emily A.; Beach, Fred C.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs.

  6. Thermal Stability Testing of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel and Various Blends with Jet A, as Well as Aromatic Blend Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, J.; Rich, R.; Yen, C.; Surgenor, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer-Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline conventional Jet A, a commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel in Jet A. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  7. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project: Feasibility of BNFP Site as MOX Fuel Supply Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    An evaluation was made of the technical feasibility, cost, and schedule for converting the existing unused Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Facility (BNFP) into a Mixed Oxide (MOX) CANDU fuel fabrication plant for disposition of excess weapons plutonium. This MOX fuel would be transported to Ontario where it would generate electricity in the Bruce CANDU reactors. Because CANDU MOX fuel operates at lower thermal load than natural uranium fuel, the MOX program can be licensed by AECB within 4.5 years, and actual Pu disposition in the Bruce reactors can begin in 2001. Ontario Hydro will have to be involved in the entire program. Cost is compared between BNFP and FMEF at Hanford for converting to a CANDU MOX facility.

  8. Evaluation of a zirconium additive for the mitigation of molten ash formation during combustion of residual fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FP&L) currently fires a residual fuel oil (RFO) containing catalyst fines, which results in a troublesome black aluminosilicate liquid phase that forms on heat-transfer surfaces, remains molten, and flows to the bottom of the boiler. When the unit is shut down for a scheduled outage, this liquid phase freezes to a hard black glass that damages the contracting waterwalls of the boiler. Cleaning the boiler bottom and repairing damaged surfaces increase the boiler downtime, at a significant cost to FP&L. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) proposed to perform a series of tests for FP&L to evaluate the effectiveness of a zirconium additive to modify the mechanism that forms this liquid phase, resulting in the formation of a dry refractory phase that may be easily handled during cleanup of the boiler.

  9. Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

  10. Monthly estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in Brazil during the late 1990s and early 2000s

    SciTech Connect

    Losey, London M; Andres, Robert Joseph; Marland, Gregg

    2006-12-01

    Detailed understanding of global carbon cycling requires estimates of CO2 emissions on temporal and spatial scales finer than annual and country. This is the first attempt to derive such estimates for a large, developing, Southern Hemisphere country. Though data on energy use are not complete in terms of time and geography, there are enough data available on the sale or consumption of fuels in Brazil to reasonably approximate the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel use and CO2 emissions. Given the available data, a strong annual cycle in emissions from Brazil is not apparent. CO2 emissions are unevenly distributed within Brazil as the population density and level of development both vary widely.

  11. Fuel consumption reduction for diesel power generator sets through the application of an advanced turbocharger operating at constant speed. Final report 30 Mar-8 Oct 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Arvin, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of the current research is to demonstrate that a 30KW-400Hz precision gen set, equipped with a VATN (variable area turbine nozzles) turbocharger, can comply with DoD gen set transient specifications. Heretofore poor turbocharger transient response (turbo lag) caused the turbocharged, DED gen set to lose frequency beyond acceptable DoD limits during an instantaneous change in load from 0 to full load. Engine operating conditions were calculated using a computer math model. The turbocharger, with controller, was installed on a four cylinder diesel engine and tested at the engine manufacturer's (White Engine Co.) facility. Fuel consumption data was used to further refine the engine math model. Calculations confirmed at least a 9% fuel savings for the 30KW-400Hz gen set. From the effort of this contract, it can be concluded that a DED precision gen set equipped with a VATN turbocharger can comply with DoD transient requirements.

  12. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  13. 76 FR 17019 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... part 72, entitled ``General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR 29181... Reactor (BWR) fuel with high initial enrichment (up to 4.8 weight percent uranium-235 planer average... Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) basket allowing transportation of 5 weight percent uranium-235 fuel...

  14. Effects of diesel fuel combustion-modifier additives on In-cylinder soot formation in a heavy-duty Dl diesel engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dietz, Jeff

    2005-07-01

    Based on a phenomenological model of diesel combustion and pollutant-formation processes, a number of fuel additives that could potentially reduce in-cylinder soot formation by altering combustion chemistry have been identified. These fuel additives, or ''combustion modifiers'', included ethanol and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, polyethylene glycol dinitrate (a cetane improver), succinimide (a dispersant), as well as nitromethane and another nitro-compound mixture. To better understand the chemical and physical mechanisms by which these combustion modifiers may affect soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured, using an optically-accessible, heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the diesel jets (''jetsoot'') as well as the rates of deposition of soot on the piston bowl-rim (''wall-soot''). An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was utilized to measure the lift-off lengths of the diesel diffusion flames so that fresh oxygen entrainment rates could be compared among the fuels. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions, using blends of a base commercial diesel fuel with various combinations of the fuel additives. The ethanol additive, at 10% by mass, reduced jet-soot by up to 15%, and reduced wall-soot by 30-40%. The other fuel additives also affected in-cylinder soot, but unlike the ethanol blends, changes in in-cylinder soot could be attributed solely to differences in the ignition delay. No statistically-significant differences in the diesel flame lift-off lengths were observed among any of the fuel additive formulations at the operating conditions examined in this study. Accordingly, the observed differences in in-cylinder soot among the fuel formulations cannot be attributed to differences in fresh oxygen entrainment upstream of the soot-formation zones after ignition.

  15. Overview of existing European food consumption databases: critical aspects in relation to their use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Leclercq, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    A critical analysis of existing food consumption databases was performed with particular regard for their current and potential use for the assessment of dietary exposure to additives, flavourings and residues of food contact materials. Within the European Food Consumption Validation project (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire on critical aspects of such datasets was developed and administered to researchers responsible for the collection/analysis of national food consumption data in European countries. Information collected was complemented through a review of the literature and of grey publications in order to provide an inventory of the main food consumption surveys performed in Europe from 1994 to 2007, for a total of 23 countries and 37 surveys. It appeared that existing European food consumption surveys have as a main objective the assessment of nutrient intake in the population. On the other hand, most of the databases were shown to be used also for the purpose of dietary exposure assessment.

  16. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole. PMID:16475341

  17. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole.

  18. Soil carbon sequestration in semi-arid soil through the addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu; Oh, Chamteut

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated a new strategy for increasing carbon retention in slightly alkaline soils through addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG, CaSO4•2H2O). FGDG is moderately soluble and thus the FGDG amendment may be effective to reduce microbial respiration, to accelerate calcite (CaCO3) precipitation, and to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces, but rates of these processes need to be understood. The effects of FGDG addition were tested in laboratory soil columns with and without FGDG-amended layers, and in greenhouse soil columns planted with switchgrass, a biofuel crop. The results of laboratory column experiments demonstrated that additions of FGDG promote soil carbon sequestration through suppressing microbial respiration to the extent of ~200 g per m2 soil per m of supplied water, and promoting calcite precipitation at similar rates. The greenhouse experiments showed that the FGDG treatments did not adversely affect biomass yield (~600 g dry biomass/m2/harvest) at the higher irrigation rate (50 cm/year), but substantially reduced recoverable biomass under the more water-limited conditions (irrigation rate = 20 cm/year). The main achievements of this study are (1) the identification of conditions in which inorganic and organic carbon sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils, (2) development of a method for measuring the total carbon balance in unsaturated soil columns, and (3) the quantification of different pathways for soil carbon sequestration in response to FGDG amendments. These findings provide information for evaluating land use practices for increased soil carbon sequestration under semi-arid region biofuel crop production.

  19. Fuel reduction and electricity consumption impact of different charging scenarios for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2011-08-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) consume both gasoline and grid electricity. The corresponding temporal energy consumption and emission trends are valuable to investigate in order to fully understand the environmental benefits. The 24-h energy consumption and emission profile depends on different vehicle designs, driving, and charging scenarios. This study assesses the potential energy impact of PHEVs by considering different charging scenarios defined by different charging power levels, locations, and charging time. The region selected for the study is the South Coast Air Basin of California. Driving behaviors are derived from the National Household Travel Survey 2009 (NHTS 2009) and vehicle parameters are based on realistic assumptions consistent with projected vehicle deployments. Results show that the reduction in petroleum consumption is significant compared to standard gasoline vehicles and the ability to operate on electricity alone is crucial to cold start emission reduction. The benefit of higher power charging on petroleum consumption is small. Delayed and average charging are better than immediate charging for home, and non-home charging increases peak grid loads.

  20. Predicting contamination by the fuel additive cerium oxide engineered nanoparticles within the United Kingdom and the associated risks.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Park, Barry

    2012-11-01

    As a fuel additive, cerium oxide nanoparticles may become widely dispersed throughout the environment. Commercial information from the United Kingdom (UK) on the use of cerium oxide nanoparticles was used to perform a modeling and risk assessment exercise. Discharge from exhausts took into account the likely removal by filters fitted to these vehicles. For predicting current soil exposure, scenarios were examined, ranging from dispersion occurring across the entire UK landmass to only within the urban area to only 20 m on either side of road networks. For soils, the highest predicted contamination level was 0.016 mg/kg within 20 m of a road following seven years of continuous deposition. This value would represent 0.027% of reported natural background cerium. If usage were to double for five more years, levels would not be expected to exceed 0.04 mg/kg. River water contamination considered direct aerial deposition and indirect contamination via runoff in the water and entrained soil sediment, with the highest level of 0.02 ng/L predicted. The highest predicted water concentration of 300 ng/L was associated with water draining from a road surface, assuming a restricted deposition spread. These predictions are well below most toxicological levels of concern.

  1. Optimal adaptation of equivalent factor of equivalent consumption minimization strategy for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles under active state inequality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jihun; Park, Youngjin; Kum, Dongsuk

    2014-12-01

    Among existing energy management strategies (EMSs) for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV), the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is often considered as a practical approach because it can be implemented in real-time, while achieving near-optimal performance. However, under real-world driving conditions with uncertainties such as hilly roads, both near-optimality and charge-sustenance of ECMS are not guaranteed unless the equivalent factor (EF) is optimally adjusted in real-time. In this paper, a methodology of extracting the globally optimal EF trajectory from dynamic programming (DP) solution is proposed for the design of EF adaptation strategies. In order to illustrate the performance and process of the extraction method, a FCHEV energy management problem under hilly road conditions is investigated as a case study. The main goal is to learn how EF should be adjusted and the impact of EF adaptation on fuel economy under several hilly road cases. Using the extraction method, the DP-based EF is computed, and its performance is compared with those of Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP) and conventional ECMS. The results show that the optimal EF adaptation significantly improves fuel economy when the battery SoC constraint becomes active, and thus EF must be properly adjusted under severely hilly road conditions.

  2. 76 FR 17037 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 RIN 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI... regulations to add the HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks... 13, 2011. SAR Submitted by: Holtec International, Inc. SAR Title: Safety Analysis Report on the...

  3. Mechanical and Combustion Performance of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive to Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth, K.; Koo, Joseph H.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Paraffin-based solid fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications are recognized as a fastburning alternative to other fuel binders such as HTPB, but efforts to further improve the burning rate and mechanical properties of paraffin are still necessary. One approach that is considered in this study is to use multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as an additive to paraffin wax. Carbon nanotubes provide increased electrical and thermal conductivity to the solid-fuel grains to which they are added, which can improve the mass burning rate. Furthermore, the addition of ultra-fine aluminum particles to the paraffin/MWNT fuel grains can enhance regression rate of the solid fuel and the density impulse of the hybrid rocket. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes also present the possibility of greatly improving the mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength) of the paraffin-based solid-fuel grains. For casting these solid-fuel grains, various percentages of MWNT and aluminum particles will be added to the paraffin wax. Previous work has been published about the dispersion and mixing of carbon nanotubes.1 Another manufacturing method has been used for mixing the MWNT with a phenolic resin for ablative applications, and the manufacturing and mixing processes are well-documented in the literature.2 The cost of MWNT is a small fraction of single-walled nanotubes. This is a scale-up advantage as future applications and projects will require low cost additives to maintain cost effectiveness. Testing of the solid-fuel grains will be conducted in several steps. Dog bone samples will be cast and prepared for tensile testing. The fuel samples will also be analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM will allow for examination of the solid fuel grain for uniformity and consistency. The paraffin-based fuel grains will also be tested using two hybrid rocket test motors located at the Pennsylvania State University s High Pressure

  4. Propeller charts for the determination of the rotational speed for the maximum ratio of the propulsive efficiency to the specific fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Conway, Robert N

    1942-01-01

    A set of propeller operating efficiency charts, based on a coefficient from which the propeller rotational speed has been eliminated, is presented. These charts were prepared with data obtained from tests of full-size metal propellers in the NACA propeller-research tunnel. Working charts for nine propeller-body combinations are presented, including results from tests of dual-rotating propellers. These charts are to be used in the calculation of the range and the endurance of airplanes equipped with constant-speed propellers in which, for given flight conditions, it is desired to determine the propeller revolution speed that gives the maximum ratio of the propulsive efficiency to the specific fuel consumption. The coefficient on which the charts are based may be written in the form of a thrust coefficient or a thrust-power coefficient. A method of using the charts is outlined and sample computations for a typical airplane are included.

  5. An investigation of the effects of smoke suppressant fuel additives on engine and test cell exhaust gas opacities. Final report for 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Thornburg, D.W.; Darnell, T.R.; Netzer, D.W.

    1982-05-01

    Tests were conducted in a one-eighth scale turbojet test cell with a ramjet type combustor to investigate the effects of fuel additives on smoke reduction. Particle size and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using three wavelength optical detector systems. Particulate samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Combustor temperature and fuel additives were found to significantly affect particulate mass concentrations emitted from the engine while particle size appeared to be unaffected. No significant changes in the particulate size or mass occurred from the engine exhaust to the stack exhaust. The optical determination of exhaust mean particulate size/mass concentration with three wavelength optical detector systems appears to be reasonably accurate technique for evaluating the effects of engine and test cell operating conditions and fuel composition changes on the emitted particulates.

  6. Sectoral CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Nagpur City of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Gajghate, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Emission inventory of CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 has been prepared for Nagpur city in Central India for the year 2004. Data on fossil fuel (coal, light diesel oil, high speed diesel, petrol/gasoline, low sulphur heavy stock, furnace oil and kerosene) consumption in thermal power, industrial, transport and domestic sectors were collected. Thermal power sector had the maximum coal consumption followed by the industrial and domestic sectors, whereas kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline were used only in any single sector. Total annual CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from these fuels in Nagpur city for the year 2004 was found to be 14792418 MT (14.8 Tg), 4649 (4.6 Tg), 1529 (1.5 Tg) and 69093 (6.9 Tg), respectively, in which thermal power and domestic sector had the maximum share. Coal was found to be the major contributor to Green House Gas (GHG) and SO 2 emissions in all the sectors barring transport and domestic sectors. Carbon dioxide was the predominant GHG emitted by the selected sectors in terms of absolute emissions and also global warming contribution (GWC), though the share in the latter was lesser in magnitude due to higher global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O than CO 2. Thermal power sector had a share of 51% in total CO 2 emissions from all the sectors, followed by domestic, industrial and transport sectors having 27, 12 and 10% contributions, respectively. Share of thermal power sector in total SO 2 emissions was 61%, followed by 24% from industrial, 10% from domestic and 5% from transport sector.

  7. Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Present the implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson engine and use steady state fuel consumption maps to estimate the technologies’ potential fuel economy improvements over the FTP and Highway tests. In addition to use fuel weighted modes to determine possible fuel economy...

  8. 40 CFR 80.620 - What are the additional requirements for diesel fuel or distillates produced by foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... documents that reflect movement and storage of the certified DFR-Diesel from the refinery to the load port... as specified in paragraph (n)(1) of this section, and a description of the diesel fuel's movement and... the United States related to the requirements of this subpart. (3) The forum for any civil or...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-39 - Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that carries a vehicle with fuel in its tank must meet the requirements of ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), section 5-10-4/3, except as follows: (a) If the ventilation... SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations §...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-39 - Additional requirements for vessels carrying vehicles with fuel in their tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that carries a vehicle with fuel in its tank must meet the requirements of ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), section 5-10-4/3, except as follows: (a) If the ventilation... SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations §...

  11. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 7, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1989-06-20

    A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

  12. Near-road modeling and measurement of cerium-containing particles generated by nanoparticle diesel fuel additive use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCe) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the exhaust particles are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission measurements and ambient impac...

  13. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  14. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  15. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, J; Andres, Robert Joseph; Marland, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  16. Oxygen consumption rates in hovering hummingbirds reflect substrate-dependent differences in P/O ratios: carbohydrate as a 'premium fuel'.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kenneth C; Altshuler, Douglas L; Suarez, Raul K

    2007-06-01

    The stoichiometric relationship of ATP production to oxygen consumption, i.e. the P/O ratio, varies depending on the nature of the metabolic substrate used. The latest estimates reveal a P/O ratio approximately 15% higher when glucose is oxidized compared with fatty acid oxidation. Because the energy required to produce aerodynamic lift for hovering is independent of the metabolic fuel oxidized, we hypothesized that the rate of oxygen consumption, VO2, should decline as the respiratory quotient, RQ (VCO2/VO2), increases from 0.71 to 1.0 as hummingbirds transition from a fasted to a fed state. Here, we show that hovering VO2 values in rufous (Selasphorus rufus) and Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) are significantly greater when fats are metabolized (RQ=0.71) than when carbohydrates are used (RQ=1.0). Because hummingbirds gained mass during our experiments, making mass a confounding variable, we estimated VO2 per unit mechanical power output. Expressed in this way, the difference in VO2 when hummingbirds display an RQ=0.71 (fasted) and an RQ=1.0 (fed) is between 16 and 18%, depending on whether zero or perfect elastic energy storage is assumed. These values closely match theoretical expectations, indicating that a combination of mechanical power estimates and ;indirect calorimetry', i.e. the measurement of rates of gas exchange, enables precise estimates of ATP turnover and metabolic flux rates in vivo. The requirement for less oxygen when oxidizing carbohydrate suggests that carbohydrate oxidation may facilitate hovering flight in hummingbirds at high altitude.

  17. On the flexibility of high temperature reactor cores for high-and low-enriched fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bzandes, S.; Lonhert, G.

    1982-07-01

    The operational flexibility of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is not restricted to either a low- or a high-enriched fuel cycle. Both fuel cycles are possible for the same core design. The fuel cycle cost is, however, penalized for low-enriched fuel; in addition, higher uranium consumption is required. Hence, an HTR is most economical to operate in the high-enriched thorium-uranium fuel cycle.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  19. Tomorrow's engines and fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Douaud, A. )

    1995-02-01

    The paper discusses global views and trends in vehicles and fuels. This includes important progress in Europe in vehicle fuel consumption; lower consumption being stimulated by CO[sub 2] emission limits; reduced vehicle emission; and new air quality strategy on ozone and toxic gas controls. The paper then discusses new engine and fuel technologies for low consumption and emissions. These include three-way catalyst engines; advanced after-treatments; clean and efficient fuels; reformulated gasoline in the US and Europe; diesel fuel reformulation; new fuels and dedicated engines for specialized markets; and gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG, biofuels, and hydrogen).

  20. Influence of aluminum salt addition on in situ sintering of electrolyte matrices for molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Insung; Kim, Wonsun; Moon, Youngjoon; Lim, Heechun; Lee, Dokyol

    Three aluminum salts are investigated as a sintering aid for the in situ sintering of electrolyte matrices for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Only aluminum acetylacetonate shows a potential. At or above 420°C, aluminum acetylacetonate changes to Al 2O 3 and reacts with Li 2CO 3 in the electrolyte to produce γ-LiAlO 2. This reaction product forms necks between matrix particles. Necks grow with increasing sintering time and correspondingly, the mechanical strength of the electrolyte matrix shows an abrupt increase, starting at a sintering time of about 100 h until it levels off at about 250 h. The porosity of the matrices fabricated with aluminum acetylacetonate is in the range acceptable for use in MCFCs.

  1. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW(th) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel.

  2. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS

  3. [Fire behavior of Quercus mongolica leaf litter fuelbed under zero-slope and no-wind conditions. II. Analysis and modelling of fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2013-12-01

    Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) is an important constructive and accompanying species in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Northeast China, In this paper, a laboratory burning experiment was conducted under zero-slope and no-wind conditions to study the effects of fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness on the fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency of the Mongolian oak leaf litter fuelbed. The fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness all had significant effects on the three fire behavior indices, and there existed interactions between these three affecting factors. Among the known models, the Byram model could be suitable for the prediction of local leaf litter fire intensity only after re-parameterization. The re-estimated alpha and beta parameters of the re-parameterized Byram model were 98.009 and 1.099, with an adjusted determination coefficient of 0.745, the rooted mean square error (RMSE) of 8.676 kW x m(-1), and the mean relative error (MRE) of 21%, respectively (R2 = 0.745). The re-estimated a and b by the burning efficiency method proposed by Albini were 0.069 and 0.169, and the re-estimated values were all higher than 93%, being mostly overestimated. The Consume model had a stronger suitability for the fuel. The R2 of the general linear models established for fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and burning efficiency was 0.82, 0.73 and 0.53, and the RMSE was 8.266 kW x m(-1) 0.081 kg x m(-2), and 0.203, respectively. In low intensity surface fires, the fine fuels could not be completely consumed, and thus, to consider the leaf litter and fine fuel in some forest ecosystems being completely consumed would overestimate the carbon release from forest fires. PMID:24697055

  4. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  5. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  6. Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium and Minor Actinides in Current and Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

    2002-06-01

    A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup and improved wasteform characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in U-233. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle; particularly in the reduction of plutonium. While uranium-based mixedoxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the U-238. Here we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed oxide fuel in a light water reactor (LWR). Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2; where more than 70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnup of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels. Furthermore, use of a thorium-based fuel could also be used as a strategy for reducing the amount of long-lived nuclides (including the minor actinides), and thus the radiotoxicity in spent nuclear fuel. Although the breeding of U-233 is a concern, the presence of U-232 and its daughter products can aid in making this fuel self-protecting, and/or enough U-238 can be added to denature the fissile uranium. From these calculations, it appears that thorium-based fuel for plutonium incineration is superior as

  7. Study of stability and thermodynamic properties of water-in-diesel nanoemulsion fuels with nano-Al additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rakhi N.; More, Utkarsh; Malek, Naved; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Parikh, Parimal A.

    2015-11-01

    The present work addresses the formation of water-in-diesel (W/D) nanoemulsion by blending different percentages of water along with nano-Al additive in various propositions to enhance the combustion characteristics. The roles of various surfactants such as Sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), Triton X-100, Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and newly synthesized and characterized dicationic surfactants were discussed based upon their ability to stabilize the nanoemulsions. Surface active properties of the surfactants were determined by measuring their interfacial tension and subsequently by measuring the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants. Triton X-100 was found to be the most efficient surfactant for the current water-in-diesel nanoemulsion as it stabilized the suspensions for more than 8 h. Particle size analysis proved emulsion size to be in the order of nanometer, and zeta potential values were found to have neutral behavior at water-diesel interface. Experimental studies confirmed that that blends W/D [1 % (vol.) water] and W/DA [1 % (vol.) water, 0.1 % (wt.) nano-Al] were thermodynamically stable.

  8. Transcriptome Changes in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Induced by Exposure to Diesel Emissions Generated with CeO2 Nanoparticle Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    When cerium oxide nanoparticles are added to diesel fuel, fuel burning efficiency increases, producing emissions (DECe) with characteristics that differ from conventional diesel exhaust (DE). It has previously been shown that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects in rats on...

  9. Inhibition of ammonia poisoning by addition of platinum to Ru/α-Al2 O3 for preferential CO oxidation in fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Yagi, Sho; Zaitsu, Shuhei; Kitayama, Godai; Kayada, Yuto; Teramura, Kentaro; Takita, Yusaku; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2014-12-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems, small amounts of ammonia (NH3 ) present in the reformate gas deactivate the supported ruthenium catalysts used for preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide (CO). In this study, we investigated how the addition of a small amount of platinum to a Ru/α-Al2 O3 catalyst (Pt/Ru=1:9 w/w) affected the catalyst's PROX activity in both the absence and the presence of NH3 (130 ppm) under conditions mimicking the reformate conditions during steam reforming of natural gas. The activity of undoped Ru/α-Al2 O3 decreased sharply upon addition of NH3 , whereas Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 exhibited excellent PROX activity even in the presence of NH3 . Ruthenium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra indicated that in the presence of NH3 , some of the ruthenium in the undoped catalyst was oxidized in the presence of NH3 , whereas ruthenium oxidation was not observed with Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 . These results suggest that ruthenium oxidation is retarded by the platinum, so that the catalyst shows high activity even in the presence of NH3 .

  10. The effect of the potential fuel additive isobutanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene degradation in aerobic soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; Cupples, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Isobutanol is being considered as a fuel additive; however, the effect of this chemical on gasoline degradation (following a spill) has yet to be fully explored. To address this, the current study investigated the effect of isobutanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene (BTEX) degradation in 14 sets of experiments in saturated soils. This involved four hydrocarbons for three soils (12 experiments) and two extra experiments with a lower level of isobutanol (for toluene only). Each soil and hydrocarbon combination involved four abiotic control microcosms and 12 sample microcosms (six with and six without isobutanol). The time for complete degradation of each hydrocarbon varied between treatments. Both toluene and ethylbenzene were rapidly degraded (5-13 days for toluene and 3-13 days for ethylbenzene). In contrast, the time for complete degradation for benzene ranged from 5 to 47 days. The hydrocarbon p-xylene was the most recalcitrant chemical (time for removal ranged from 14 to 86 days) and, in several microcosms, no p-xylene degradation was observed. The effect of isobutanol on hydrocarbon degradation was determined by comparing degradation lag times with and without isobutanol addition. From the 14 treatments, isobutanol only affected degradation lag times in three cases. In two cases (benzene and p-xylene), an enhancement of degradation (reduced lag times) was observed in the presence of isobutanol. In contrast, toluene degradation in one soil was inhibited (increased lag time). These results indicate that co-contamination with isobutanol should not inhibit aerobic BTEX degradation rates.

  11. Landing on empty: estimating the benefits from reducing fuel uplift in US Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, Megan S.; Hansen, Mark; Hao, Lu; Seelhorst, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Airlines and Air Navigation Service Providers are united in their goal to reduce fuel consumption. While changes to flight operations and technology investments are the focus of a number of studies, our study is among the first to investigate an untapped source of aviation fuel consumption: excess contingency fuel loading. Given the downside risk of fuel exhaustion of diverting to an alternate airport, airline dispatchers may load excess fuel onto an aircraft. Such conservatism comes at a cost of consuming excess fuel, as fuel consumed is a function of, among other factors, aircraft weight. The aim of this paper is to quantify, on a per-flight basis, the fuel burned due to carrying fuel beyond what is needed for foreseeable contingencies, and thereby motivate research, federal guidance, and investments that allow airline dispatchers to reduce fuel uplift while maintaining near zero risks of fuel exhaustion. We merge large publicly available aviation and weather databases with a detailed dataset from a major US airline. Upon estimating factors that capture the quantity fuel consumed due to carrying a pound of weight for a range of aircraft types, we calculate the cost and greenhouse gas emissions from carrying unused fuel on arrival and additional contingency fuel above a conservative buffer for foreseeable contingencies. We establish that the major US carrier does indeed load fuel conservatively. We find that 4.48% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying unused fuel and 1.04% of the fuel consumed by an average flight is due to carrying additional contingency fuel above a reasonable buffer. We find that simple changes in flight dispatching that maintain a statistically minimal risk of fuel exhaustion could result in yearly savings of 338 million lbs of CO2, the equivalent to the fuel consumed from 4760 flights on midsized commercial aircraft. Moreover, policy changes regarding maximum fuel loads or investments that reduce uncertainty or increase

  12. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  13. The effects of fuel composition and ammonium sulfate addition on PCDD, PCDF, PCN and PCB concentrations during the combustion of biomass and paper production residuals.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Jansson, Stina

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, the higher levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can promote the formation of deposits and organic pollutants. Here, the effect of fuel composition and the inhibitory effects of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the flue gas of a lab-scale combustor was investigated. Ammonium sulfate is often used as a corrosion-preventing additive and may also inhibit formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In addition to PCDDs and PCDFs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN) and biphenyls (PCB) were also analyzed. It was found that the flue gas composition changed dramatically when (NH4)2SO4 was added: CO, SO2, and NH3 levels increased, while those of HCl decreased to almost zero. However, the additive's effects on POP formation were less pronounced. When (NH4)2SO4 was added to give an S:Cl ratio of 3, only the PCDF concentration was reduced, indicating that this ratio was not sufficient to achieve a general reduction in POP emissions. Conversely, at an S:Cl ratio of 6, significant reductions in the WHO-TEQ value and the PCDD and PCDF contents of the flue gas were observed. The effect on the PCDF concentration was especially pronounced. PCN formation seemed to be promoted by the elevated CO concentrations caused by adding (NH4)2SO4.

  14. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-03-01

    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  15. Effects of cobalt addition on the catalytic activity of the Ni-YSZ anode functional layer and the electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Dong, Xiaolei; Shirolkar, Mandar M; Song, Xiao; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian

    2014-09-24

    The effects of cobalt (Co) addition in the Ni-YSZ anode functional layer (AFL) on the structure and electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that the active metallic phase is a Ni(1-x)Co(x) alloy under the operation conditions of the SOFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicate that the grain size of Ni(1-x)Co(x) increases with increasing Co content. Thermogravimetric analyses on the reduction of the Ni(1-x)Co(x)O-YSZ powders show that there are two processes: the chemical-reaction-controlled process and the diffusion-controlled process. It is found that the reduction peak corresponding to the chemical-reaction-controlled process in the DTG curves moves toward lower temperatures with increasing Co content, suggesting that the catalytic activity of Ni(1-x)Co(x) is enhanced by the doping of Co. It is observed that the SOFC shows the best performance at x = 0.03, and the corresponding maximum power densities are 445, 651, and 815 mW cm(-2) at 700, 750, and 800 °C, respectively. The dependence of the SOFC performance on the Co content can be attributed to the competing results between the decreased three-phase-boundary length in the AFL and the enhanced catalytic activity of the Ni(1-x)Co(x) phase with increasing Co content.

  16. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E.; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2015-03-01

    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  17. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Carbon dioxide addition to microbial fuel cell cathodes maintains sustainable catholyte pH and improves anolyte pH, alkalinity, and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Fornero, Jeffrey J; Rosenbaum, Miriam; Cotta, Michael A; Angenent, Largus T

    2010-04-01

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) pH imbalances develop due to anodic proton-generating oxidation reactions and cathodic hydroxide-ion-generating reduction reactions. Until now, workers added unsustainable buffers to reduce the pH difference between the anode and cathode because the pH imbalance contributes to BES potential losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gas to the cathode, which creates a CO(2)/bicarbonate buffered catholyte system, can diminish microbial fuel cell (MFC) pH imbalances in contrast to the CO(2)/carbonate buffered catholyte system by Torres, Lee, and Rittmann [Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 8773]. We operated an air-cathode and liquid-cathode MFC side-by-side. For the air-cathode MFC, CO(2) addition resulted in a stable catholyte film pH of 6.61 +/- 0.12 and a 152% increase in steady-state power density. By adding CO(2) to the liquid-cathode system, we sustained a steady catholyte pH (pH = 5.94 +/- 0.02) and a low pH imbalance (DeltapH = 0.65 +/- 0.18) over a 2-week period without external salt buffer addition. By migrating bicarbonate ions from the cathode to the anode (with an anion-exchange membrane), we increased the anolyte pH (DeltapH = 0.39 +/- 0.31), total alkalinity (494 +/- 6 to 582 +/- 6 as mg CaCO(3)/L), and conductivity (1.53 +/- 0.49 to 2.16 +/- 0.03 mS/cm) relative to the feed properties. We also verified with a phosphate-buffered MFC that our reaction rates were limited mainly by the reactor configuration rather than limitations due to the bicarbonate buffer.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  20. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  1. Technical documentation for the Nonresidential-Buildings Energy-Consumption Survey: 1979-1980, building characteristics, energy end use and fuel oil tank data, public use data tapes. Users' guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    This document provides basic information and technical specifications necessary for using the machine-readable magnetic tapes containing the Building Characteristics, Energy End Use and Fuel Oil Tank data from the 1979-1980 Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS). Included in this document are a brief overview of the NBECS, technical specifications for reading the tapes and descriptions of the contents of each of the files contained on the tape. The remaining sections are devoted to technical topics of special interest to users of the data. Appended to this document are copies of the questionnaire used in the survey, a listing of the contents of the SPSS labels file, COBOL file description and TPL codebook. The results of the NBECS have been reported in a series of publications which are available to the public. A list of the reports currently available is included here as Appendix H.

  2. Technical Project Plan for The Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Oxide Fuels Through the Addition of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and Microstructural Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Besmann, Theodore M; Armstrong, Beth L; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Lin, Hua-Tay; Ellis, Ronald James; Becher, Paul F; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Voit, Stewart L

    2010-09-01

    The commercial nuclear power industry is investing heavily in advanced fuels that can produce higher power levels with a higher safety margin and be produced at low cost. Although chemically stable and inexpensive to manufacture, the in-core performance of UO{sub 2} fuel is limited by its low thermal conductivity. There will be enormous financial benefits to any utility that can exploit a new type of fuel that is chemically stable, has a high thermal conductivity, and is inexpensive to manufacture. At reactor operating temperatures, UO{sub 2} has a very low thermal conductivity (<5 W/m {center_dot}K), which decreases with temperature and fuel burnup. This low thermal conductivity limits the rate at which energy can be removed from the fuel, thus limiting the total integrated reactor power. If the fuel thermal conductivity could be increased, nuclear reactors would be able to operate at higher powers and larger safety margins thus decreasing the overall cost of electricity by increasing the power output from existing reactors and decreasing the number of new electrical generating plants needed to meet base load demand. The objective of the work defined herein is to produce an advanced nuclear fuel based on the current UO{sub 2} fuel with superior thermal conductivity and structural integrity that is suitable for current and future nuclear reactors, using the existing fuel fabrication infrastructure with minimal modifications. There are two separate components to the research: (1) Enhanced Thermal Conductivity (ETC) - adding high conductivity fibers to the UO{sub 2} prior to sintering, which act as conduits for moving the heat energy generated within the pellet to the outer surface, (2) Microstructural Engineering (ME) - adding second phase particulates to UO{sub 2} bodies to retard grain growth and to increase thermal conductivity, as well as improve fracture and creep resistance. Different groups will perform the laboratory work for each of these research

  3. Lean consumption.

    PubMed

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  4. Addition of sulfonated silicon dioxide on an anode catalyst layer to improve the performance of a self-humidifying proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Ho, Wei-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated SiO2 was added on an anode catalyst layer to manufacture a hygroscopic electrode for self-humidifying proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The inherent humidity of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) determines the electrical performance of PEMFCs. To maintain the high moisture content of the PEM, self-humidifying PEMFCs can use the water produced by the fuel cell reaction and, thus, do not require external humidification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement tests were performed to characterize the structures and properties of sulfonated SiO2 and the related electrodes, and the electric current and voltage (I-V) performance curve tests for the fuel cells were conducted under differing gas humidification conditions. When 0.01mg/cm2 of sulfonated SiO2 was added, the electrical performance of the fuel cells (50∘C) increased 29% and 59% when the fuel cell reaction gases were humidified at 70∘C and 50∘C, respectively.

  5. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  6. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  7. Solid fuel oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutter, P.R.; Veal, C.J.

    1984-11-27

    Fuel composition comprises 15 to 60% be weight, preferably 40 to 55%, of a friable solid fuel, e.g. coal, a stabilizing additive composition and a fuel oil. The additive comprises the combination of a polymer containing functional groups, e.g., maleinized polybutadiene, and a surfactant. The composition is suitable for use as a liquid fuel for industrial burners.

  8. Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.

  9. Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Kumar, R.

    On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5-2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6 V per cell than the base case 0.7 V per cell at the rated power point, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are projected to offer essentially the same fuel economy multiplier. The key to obtaining high fuel economy as measured on standardized urban and highway drive schedules lies in maintaining high efficiency of the fuel cell (FC) system at low loads. To achieve this, besides a high performance fuel cell stack, low parasitic losses in the air management system (i.e., turndown and part load efficiencies of the compressor-expander module) are critical.

  10. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, C.; Liousse, C.

    2006-06-01

    Country by country emission inventories for carbonaceous aerosol for the period 1860 to 1997 have been constructed on the basis of historic fuel production, use and trade data sets published by the United Nation's Statistical Division UNSTAT (1997), Etemad et al. (1991) and Mitchell (1992, 1993, 1995). The inventories use emission factors variable over time, which have been determined according to changes in technological development. The results indicate that the industrialisation period since 1860 was accompanied by a steady increase in black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) emissions up to 1910. The calculations show a moderate decrease of carbonaceous aerosol emissions between 1920 and 1930, followed by an increase up to 1990, the year when emissions began to decrease again. Changes in BC and OC emissions prior to the year 1950 are essentially driven by the USA, Germany and the UK. The USSR, China and India become substantial contributors to carbonaceous aerosol emissions after 1950. Emission maps have been generated with a 1°×1° resolution based on the relative population density in each country. They will provide a helpful tool for assessing the effect of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on observed climate changes of the past.

  11. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, C.; Liousse, C.

    2008-03-01

    Country by country emission inventories for carbonaceous aerosol for the period 1860 to 1997 have been constructed on the basis of historic fuel production, use and trade data sets published by the United Nation's Statistical Division UNSTAT (1997), Etemad et al. (1991) and Mitchell (1992, 1993, 1995). The inventories use emission factors variable over time, which have been determined according to changes in technological development. The results indicate that the industrialisation period since 1860 was accompanied by a steady increase in black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC) emissions up to 1910. The calculations show a moderate decrease of carbonaceous aerosol emissions between 1920 and 1930, followed by an increase up to 1990, the year when emissions began to decrease again. Changes in BC and POC emissions prior to the year 1950 are essentially driven by the USA, Germany and the UK. The USSR, China and India become substantial contributors to carbonaceous aerosol emissions after 1950. Emission maps have been generated with a 1°×1° resolution based on the relative population density in each country. They will provide a helpful tool for assessing the effect of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on observed climate changes of the past.

  12. Fuel gas from biodigestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. C.; Wolverton, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Biodigestion apparatus produces fuel gas (primarily methane) for domestic consumption, by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic matter such as aquatic vegetation. System includes 3,786-1 cylindrical container, mechanical agitator, and simple safe gas collector for short term storage.

  13. Caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Barone, J J; Roberts, H R

    1996-01-01

    Scientific literature cites a wide range of values for caffeine content in food products. The authors suggest the following standard values for the United States: coffee (5 oz) 85 mg for ground roasted coffee, 60 mg for instant and 3 mg for decaffeinated; tea (5 oz): 30 mg for leaf/bag and 20 mg for instant; colas: 18 mg/6 oz serving; cocoa/hot chocolate: 4 mg/5 oz; chocolate milk: 4 mg/6 oz; chocolate candy: 1.5-6.0 mg/oz. Some products from the United Kingdom and Denmark have higher caffeine content. Caffeine consumption survey data are limited. Based on product usage and available consumption data, the authors suggest a mean daily caffeine intake for US consumers of 4 mg/kg. Among children younger than 18 years of age who are consumers of caffeine-containing foods, the mean daily caffeine intake is about 1 mg/kg. Both adults and children in Denmark and UK have higher levels of caffeine intake. PMID:8603790

  14. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development points to consumption as one of the four interlinked global problems including population, environment, and development, and the least tractable of the four. Consumption patterns and expectations are deeply entrenched in most cultures, and hard to change, though change will come whether by design or defaults. Among the topics commented on are artificially priced fossil fuels, toxic pollutants, use of nonrenewable resources, etc. Also discussed are policy options and the role of science. A response is included. 21 refs.

  15. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Fuel for the Future: Development of New Fuels, e.g. Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Gitte; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Hansen, Hans Ove; Nygaard, Sune D.

    Whether we like it or not, climate change is to some extent affiliated with the emission of green house gasses, and specifically CO2 emissions, which are rising due to the global increased use of fossil fuels. As a result, political enthusiasm is high when it comes to implementing new initiatives aimed at better protection of the global environment. However, environmental concerns are just one aspect of the issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, since fossil fuels are a natural reserve and, therefore, a limited resource. Prognoses vary, but within the next decades the fossil fuel reserves will be exhausted leading to reduced oil production, rising oil prices, and the risk of international bellicose conflicts caused by adverse national interests. Additionally, fossil fuel as a natural reserve is unevenly distributed, meaning that a few countries possess the main energy reserve of the entire world. The incorporation of alternatives to fossil fuel into the existing fuel infrastructure is currently under intense development in the Western world, both to cut the oil dependency and to counter the depletion of oil reserves. This political enthusiasm to decrease the use of fossil fuel is emphasised by the fact that according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) more than 80% of the global primary energy consumption in 2007 accounts from fossil fuels and half of this is oil. More than 60% of the oil is used in the transport sector.

  17. International rail freight transportation in south Texas: Decreasing fuel consumption, roadway damage, and hazardous materials movement on Texas roadways. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, S.S.; Dickinson, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of the research were to examine impediments to the greater use of rail in the transport of freight, and to document projected reductions in congestion, roadway damage, hazards, and energy usage resulting from such a modal shift. In pursuing these objectives, an examination was made of the roles that are performed by decision-making agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. The findings of this examination are discussed in terms of how these roles interfere with the adoption of increased use of intermodal transportation. Additionally, the logistics associated with cross-border freight transportation are described, documenting the institutional and governmental inefficiencies hindering smooth flow of trade across the border. The balance of the research concerns itself with the potential of rail transportation to mitigate the negative impacts associated with truck transportation.

  18. Comparison of Theoretically and Experimentally Determined Effects of Oxide Coatings Supplied by Fuel Additives on Uncooled Turbine-blade Temperature During Transient Turbojet-engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Louis J; Stepka, Francis S; Brown, W Byron

    1953-01-01

    An analysis was made to permit the calculation of the effectiveness of oxide coatings in retarding the transient heat flow into turbine blades when the combustion gas temperature of a turbojet engine is suddenly changed. The analysis is checked with experimental data obtained from a turbojet engine whose blades were coated with two different coating materials (silicon dioxide and boric oxide) by adding silicone oil and tributyl borate to the engine fuel. The very thin coatings (approximately 0.001 in.) that formed on the blades produced a negligible effect on the turbine-blade transient temperature response. With the analysis discussed here, it was possible to predict the turbine rotor-blade temperature response with a maximum error of 40 F.

  19. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  20. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  1. A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    LITZKE,W.

    2004-08-01

    Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

  2. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  3. Improved activity and stability of Ni-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 anode for solid oxide fuel cells fed with methanol through addition of molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Yu, Baolong; Li, Jiang; Yao, Xueli; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Mo-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) composites are prepared and investigated as anodes of solid oxide fuel cells with methanol as fuel. The addition of Mo improves the catalytic activity for methanol pyrolysis and the resistance to carbon deposition of Ni-SDC anode. The anode with a mole ratio of Mo to Ni of 0.03:1 exhibits the lowest polarization resistance. The cell with that anode and SDC-carbonate composite electrolyte shows a maximum power density of 680 mW cm-2 at 700 °C. The stability of the cell is enhanced with the increase of the content of Mo in the anode, which is mainly attributed to the decreased amount of carbon deposits with a high graphitization degree.

  4. Long-term operation of a turbocharged diesel engine on soybean oil fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemke, M.C.; Peters, J.F.; Schroer, B.

    1983-08-01

    It has been known for more than 50 years that some diesel engines could be fueled for short periods with vegetable oils, either neat or with hydrocarbon fuel additives. World overproduction of soybean oil is increasing its potential as an economical diesel fuel extender. The subject test program was undertaken to determine long-term effects of this alternate fuel on a modern, high-speed diesel engine. The choice of a vegetable oil (soybean oil) as an alternative diesel engine fuel or fuel extender rather than the other major biomass motor fuel (ethanol) is related to the relative properties of these fuels. The common U.S. vegetable oils are much closer to hydrocarbon (No. 2D) diesel fuel than is ethanol in both cetane rating and volumetric energy content. Unlike ethanol, the vegetable oils can be blended 1:1 with No. 2D fuel to produce engine power and volumetric fuel consumption levels practically identical to those obtained with 100% No. 2D fuel. However, engine operation and laboratory bench tests demonstrated that some fuel blends were unsatisfactory for continuous use. The reasons for these difficulties were determined and a satisfactory fuel blend was proven through prolonged testing.

  5. The addition of ortho-hexagon nano spinel Co3O4 to improve the performance of activated carbon air cathode microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ge, Baochao; Li, Kexun; Fu, Zhou; Pu, Liangtao; Zhang, Xi

    2015-11-01

    Commercial Co3O4 and ortho-hexagon spinel nano-Co3O4 (OHSNC) were doped in the AC at a different percentage (5%, 10% and 15%) to enhance the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The maximum power density of MFC with 10% OHSNC doped cathode was 1500±14 mW m(-2), which was 97.36% and 41.24% higher than that with the bare AC air cathode and commercial Co3O4 respectively. The electrocatalytic behavior for their better performance was discussed in detail with the help of various structural and electrochemical techniques. The OHSNC was characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the improved performance owed to the enhancement of both kinetics activity and the number of electron transfer in the ORR, and the internal resistance was largely reduced. Therefore, OHSNC was proved to be an excellent cathodic catalyst in AC air cathode MFC.

  6. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hao, Ji-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Guang; Xiao, Jian-Hua

    The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NO x emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NO x have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion efficiency, engine's speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake specific energy consumption.

  7. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  8. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  9. Production of bio-jet fuel from microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmoraghy, Marian

    The increase in petroleum-based aviation fuel consumption, the decrease in petroleum resources, the fluctuation of the crude oil price, the increase in greenhouse gas emission and the need for energy security are motivating the development of an alternate jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel has to be a drop in fuel, technically and economically feasible, environmentally friendly, greener than jet fuel, produced locally and low gallon per Btu. Bic jet fuel has been produced by blending petro-based jet fuel with microalgae biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, or simply FAME). Indoor microalgae growth, lipids extraction and transetrification to biodiesel are energy and fresh water intensive and time consuming. In addition, the quality of the biodiesel product and the physical properties of the bio-jet fuel blends are unknown. This work addressed these challenges. Minimizing the energy requirements and making microalgae growth process greener were accomplished by replacing fluorescent lights with light emitting diodes (LEDs). Reducing fresh water footprint in algae growth was accomplished by waste water use. Microalgae biodiesel production time was reduced using the one-step (in-situ transestrification) process. Yields up to 56.82 mg FAME/g dry algae were obtained. Predicted physical properties of in-situ FAME satisfied European and American standards confirming its quality. Lipid triggering by nitrogen deprivation was accomplished in order to increase the FAME production. Bio-jet fuel freezing points and heating values were measured for different jet fuel to biodiesel blend ratios.

  10. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.

  11. Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

  12. Fuel efficient lubricants and the effect of special base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kiovsky, T.E.; Yates, N.C.; Bales, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The demand for improved fuel economy is placing increasing pressure upon engine manufacturers world-wide. Lubricants that can provide additional fuel efficiency benefits are being vigorously sought. Such lubricants must achieve the current performance specifications that are also increasing in severity. To meet all of these requirements, passenger car lubricant formulations will need special base oils. This paper presents data on comparable 5W-30 formulations based on either hydrogenated mineral oil, or hydrocracked or poly alpha olefin basestocks. These blends clearly demonstrate the effect of improved volatility on oil consumption and oxidation stability in a range of bench engine tests. Equivalent engine test performance is observed for the hydrocracked and polyalphaolefin blends. Both exhibit performance superior to that attained by the hydrogenated mineral oil-based blend. Predicted Sequence VI fuel savings for these blends show additional fuel efficiency benefits for hydrocracked vs. hydrogenated mineral oil-based blends. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... regulation that were proposed on July 1, 2011(76 FR 38844). The first change adds ID letters to pathways to... gas, biogas, and/or biomass as the only process energy sources -- qualifying as cellulosic biofuel... with catalytic upgrading Any other process that uses biogas and/or biomass as the only process...

  14. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990. Supplement, Regional

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990.

  15. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  16. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  17. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  18. Concentric layer ramjet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burdette, G.W.; Francis, J.P.

    1988-03-08

    This patent describes a solid fuel ramjet grain comprising concentric layers of solid ramjet fuel having a perforation therethrough along the center axis of the grain. The performation is connected to a combustion after-chamber. The solid ramjet fuel layers comprises a pure hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel or a mixture of a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel and from about 5 to about 60 percent by weight of an additive to increase the fuel regression rate selected from the group consisting of magnesium, boron carbide, aluminum, and zirconium such that, when buried in the operation of the ramjet, each fuel layer produces a different level of thrust.

  19. In Brief: President proposes new fuel standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    U.S. President George W. Bush in a 14 May speech proposed several steps meant to decrease U.S. gasoline consumption by 20% over the next 10 years. Proposed legislation the administration sent to the U.S. Congress would increase the supply of renewable and alternative fuels to 35 billion gallons by 2017, which would displace about 15% of projected fuel use, and would set tighter fuel standards for cars. In addition, in response to the April U.S. Supreme Court ruling against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on regulating greenhouse gas emissions, the president instructed federal agencies to coordinate their activities when developing regulations that may affect greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles.

  20. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  1. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  2. Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

    2004-02-01

    In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

  3. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  4. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant. PMID:21608490

  5. Addition of genes for cellobiase and pectinolytic activity in Escherichia coli for fuel ethanol production from pectin-rich lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meredith C; Henriksen, Emily Decrescenzo; Yomano, Lorraine P; Gardner, Brian C; Sharma, Lekh N; Ingram, Lonnie O; Doran Peterson, Joy

    2011-08-01

    Ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 was sequentially engineered to contain the Klebsiella oxytoca cellobiose phosphotransferase genes (casAB) as well as a pectate lyase (pelE) from Erwinia chrysanthemi, yielding strains LY40A (casAB) and JP07 (casAB pelE), respectively. To obtain an effective secretion of PelE, the Sec-dependent pathway out genes from E. chrysanthemi were provided on a cosmid to strain JP07 to construct strain JP07C. Finally, oligogalacturonide lyase (ogl) from E. chrysanthemi was added to produce strain JP08C. E. coli strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C possessed significant cellobiase activity in cell lysates, while only strains JP07C and JP08C demonstrated extracellular pectate lyase activity. Fermentations conducted by using a mixture of pure sugars representative of the composition of sugar beet pulp (SBP) showed that strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C were able to ferment cellobiose, resulting in increased ethanol production from 15 to 45% in comparison to that of KO11. Fermentations with SBP at very low fungal enzyme loads during saccharification revealed significantly higher levels of ethanol production for LY40A, JP07C, and JP08C than for KO11. JP07C ethanol yields were not considerably higher than those of LY40A; however, oligogalacturonide polymerization studies showed an increased breakdown of biomass to small-chain (degree of polymerization, ≤6) oligogalacturonides. JP08C achieved a further breakdown of polygalacturonate to monomeric sugars, resulting in a 164% increase in ethanol yields compared to those of KO11. The addition of commercial pectin methylesterase (PME) further increased JP08C ethanol production compared to that of LY40A by demethylating the pectin for enzymatic attack by pectin-degrading enzymes.

  6. Addition of Genes for Cellobiase and Pectinolytic Activity in Escherichia coli for Fuel Ethanol Production from Pectin-Rich Lignocellulosic Biomass▿

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Gardner, Brian C.; Sharma, Lekh N.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Doran Peterson, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 was sequentially engineered to contain the Klebsiella oxytoca cellobiose phosphotransferase genes (casAB) as well as a pectate lyase (pelE) from Erwinia chrysanthemi, yielding strains LY40A (casAB) and JP07 (casAB pelE), respectively. To obtain an effective secretion of PelE, the Sec-dependent pathway out genes from E. chrysanthemi were provided on a cosmid to strain JP07 to construct strain JP07C. Finally, oligogalacturonide lyase (ogl) from E. chrysanthemi was added to produce strain JP08C. E. coli strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C possessed significant cellobiase activity in cell lysates, while only strains JP07C and JP08C demonstrated extracellular pectate lyase activity. Fermentations conducted by using a mixture of pure sugars representative of the composition of sugar beet pulp (SBP) showed that strains LY40A, JP07, JP07C, and JP08C were able to ferment cellobiose, resulting in increased ethanol production from 15 to 45% in comparison to that of KO11. Fermentations with SBP at very low fungal enzyme loads during saccharification revealed significantly higher levels of ethanol production for LY40A, JP07C, and JP08C than for KO11. JP07C ethanol yields were not considerably higher than those of LY40A; however, oligogalacturonide polymerization studies showed an increased breakdown of biomass to small-chain (degree of polymerization, ≤6) oligogalacturonides. JP08C achieved a further breakdown of polygalacturonate to monomeric sugars, resulting in a 164% increase in ethanol yields compared to those of KO11. The addition of commercial pectin methylesterase (PME) further increased JP08C ethanol production compared to that of LY40A by demethylating the pectin for enzymatic attack by pectin-degrading enzymes. PMID:21666025

  7. Exploratory fuel-cell research: I. Direct-hydrocarbon polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. II. Mathematical modeling of fuel-cell cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.L.; McLarnon, F.R.; Newman, J.S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1996-12-01

    A strong need exists today for more efficient energy-conversion systems. Our reliance on limited fuel resources, such as petroleum for the majority of our energy needs makes it imperative that we utilize these resources as efficiently as possible. Higher-efficiency energy conversion also means less pollution, since less fuel is consumed and less exhaust created for the same energy output. Additionally, for many industrialized nations, such as the United States which must rely on petroleum imports, it is also imperative from a national-security standpoint to reduce the consumption of these precious resources. A substantial reduction of U.S. oil imports would result in a significant reduction of our trade deficit, as well as costly military spending to protect overseas petroleum resources. Therefore, energy-conversion devices which may utilize alternative fuels are also in strong demand. This paper describes research on fuel cells for transportation.

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator, and (ii) an additive selected from the group consisting of alkenyl substituted succinimide, alkenyl substituted succinamide and mixtures thereof. The alkenyl substituent contains about 12-36 carbon atoms, the additive being made by the process comprising (a) isomerizing the double bond of an ..cap alpha..-olefin containing about 12-36 carbon atoms to obtain a mixture of internal olefins, (b) reacting the mixture of internal olefins with maleic acid, anhydride or ester to obtain an intermediate alkenyl substituted succinic acid, anhydride or ester, and (c) reacting the intermediate with ammonia to form a succinimide, succinamide or mixture thereof. The combination is present in an amount sufficient to minimize the coking characteristics of such fuel, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel.

  10. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result

  11. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter; Kornish, Brian

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  13. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  14. Adolescent energy drink consumption: An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Caffeinated Energy Drinks (EDs) are not recommended for consumption by children, yet there is a lack of age-specific recommendations and restrictions on the marketing and sale of EDs. EDs are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. In the current study we examined ED consumption patterns among 399 Australian adolescents aged 12-18 years. Participants completed a self-report survey of consumption patterns, physiological symptoms, and awareness of current ED consumption guidelines. Results indicated that ED consumption was common among the sample; 56% reported lifetime ED consumption, with initial consumption at mean age 10 (SD = 2.97). Twenty-eight percent of the sample consumed EDs at least monthly, 36% had exceeded the recommended two standard EDs/day, and 56% of consumers had experienced negative physiological health effects following ED consumption. The maximum number of EDs/day considered appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults varied, indicating a lack of awareness of current consumption recommendations. These findings add to the growing body of international evidence of adolescent ED consumption, and the detrimental impact of EDs to adolescent health. Enforced regulation and restriction of EDs for children's and adolescents' consumption is urgently needed in addition to greater visibility of ED consumption recommendations. PMID:27389033

  15. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  16. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-08-01

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  17. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  18. Regenerative Fuel Cell Test Rig at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Bents, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell development effort at Glenn Research Center (GRC) involves the integration of a dedicated fuel cell and electrolyzer into an energy storage system test rig. The test rig consists of a fuel cell stack, an electrolysis stack, cooling pumps, a water transfer pump, gas recirculation pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), heat exchangers, isolation valves, pressure regulators, interconnecting tubing, nitrogen purge provisions, and instrumentation for control and monitoring purposes. The regenerative fuel cell (RFC) thus formed is a completely closed system which is capable of autonomous cyclic operation. The test rig provides direct current (DC) load and DC power supply to simulate power consumption and solar power input. In addition, chillers are used as the heat sink to dissipate the waste heat from the electrochemical stack operation. Various vents and nitrogen (N2) sources are included in case inert purging is necessary to safe the RFC test rig.

  19. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  20. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  1. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  2. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  3. Operational and environmental benefits of oxy-fuel combustion in the steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, L.M. ); Pavlack, T.T. . Linde Division); Rich, L. )

    1993-07-01

    A number of patented, field-tested 100% oxy-fuel burner systems have been developed which provide fuel savings, reduced emissions (CO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]) and improved operational performances. These systems can be applied to high-temperature continuous and batch reheat furnaces, soaking pits and ladle preheaters. Fuel consumption and carbon dioxide and NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced by 40 to 60%. Burner design (including nonwater cooled models), commercial experience, measured and projected emissions reductions, and additional operating benefits associated with new and retrofitted applications are described.

  4. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Song, Zhi-Tang; Ling, Yun; Liu, Yan; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfacial layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  5. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  6. Precursor solution additives improve desiccated La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell cathode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burye, Theodore E.; Nicholas, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the addition of the surfactant Triton X-100 or the chelating agent citric acid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x (LSCF) precursor nitrate solutions is shown via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to reduce average infiltrate nano-particle size and improve infiltrate phase purity. In addition, the desiccation of LSCF precursor solutions containing the aforementioned organic solution additives further reduces the average LSCF infiltrate nano-particle size and improves the low-temperature infiltrate phase purity. In particular, CaCl2-desiccation reduces the average size of Triton X-100 derived (TXD) LSCF particles fired at 700 °C from 48 to 22 nm, and reduces the average size of citric acid derived LSCF particles fired at 700 °C from 50 to 41 nm. Modeling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that particle size reductions alone are responsible for desiccation-induced cathode performance improvements such as CaCl2-desiccated TXD La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSCF-GDC) cathodes reaching a polarization resistance of 0.17 Ωcm2 at 540 °C, compared to 600 °C for undesiccated TXD LSCF-GDC cathodes. This excellent low-temperature performance, combined with a low open-circuit 540 °C degradation rate, suggests that the desiccation of organic-additive-containing infiltrate precursor solutions may be useful for the development of durable, high-power, low-temperature SOFCs.

  7. Effect of battery state of charge on fuel use and pollutant emissions of a full hybrid electric light duty vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, G. O.; Varella, R. A.; Gonçalves, G. A.; Farias, T. L.

    2014-01-01

    This research work focuses on evaluating the effect of battery state of charge (SOC) in the fuel consumption and gaseous pollutant emissions of a Toyota Prius Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle, using the Vehicle Specific Power Methodology. Information on SOC, speed and engine management was obtained from the OBD interface, with additional data collected from a 5 gas analyzer and GPS receiver with barometric altimeter. Compared with average results, 40-50% battery SOC presented higher fuel consumption (57%), as well as higher CO2 (56%), CO (27%) and NOx (55.6%) emissions. For battery SOC between 50 and 60%, fuel consumption and CO2 were 9.7% higher, CO was 1.6% lower and NOx was 20.7% lower than average. For battery SOC between 60 and 70%, fuel consumption was 3.4% lower, CO2 was 3.6% lower, CO was 6.9% higher and NOx was 24.4% higher than average. For battery SOC between 70 and 80%, fuel consumption was 39.9% lower, CO2 was 38% lower, CO was 33.9% lower and NOx was 61.4% lower than average. The effect of engine OFF periods was analyzed for CO and NOx emissions. For OFF periods higher than 30 s, increases of 63% and 73% respectively were observed.

  8. Jet fuel instability mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanisms of the formation of fuel-insoluble deposits were studied in several real fuels and in a model fuel consisting of tetralin in dodecane solution. The influence of addition to the fuels of small concentrations of various compounds on the quantities of deposits formed and on the formation and disappearance of oxygenated species in solution was assessed. The effect of temperature on deposit formation was also investigated over the range of 308-453 K.

  9. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  10. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  11. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  12. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  13. 10 CFR 490.804 - Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. 490.804 Section 490.804 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490.804 Eligible reductions in petroleum consumption. (a) Motor...

  14. Fuel system design concepts for broad property fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study assessing the impact of using jet fuel with relaxed specification properties on an aircraft fuel system are given. The study objectives were to identify credible values for specific fuel properties which might be relaxed, to evolve advanced fuel system designs for airframe and engines which would permit use of the specified relaxed properties fuels, and to evaluate performance of the candidate advanced fuel systems and the relaxed property fuels in a typical transport aircraft. The study used, as a baseline, the fuel system incorporated in the Lockheed Tristar. This aircraft is powered by three RB.211-524 Rolls-Royce engines and incorporates a Pratt and Whitney ST6C-421 auxiliary power unit for engine starting and inflight emergency electrical power. The fuel property limits examined are compared with commercial Jet A kerosene and the NASA RFP fuel properties. A screening of these properties established that a higher freezing point and a lower thermal stability would impact fuel system design more significantly than any of the other property changes. Three candidate fuel systems which combine the ability to operate with fuels having both a high freeze point and a low thermal stability are described. All candidates employ bleed air to melt fuel freeze-out prior to starting the APU or an inoperable engine. The effects of incorporating these systems on aircraft weight and engine specific fuel consumption are given.

  15. Study of the consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite pouch cells and evidence of positive-negative electrode interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Madec, L.; Rotermund, L. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES) in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite (NMC(111)/graphite) pouch cells during the first cycle and after hold periods at different cell potentials was measured using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS measurements of the electrolyte of NMC(111)/graphite pouch cells during the first charge showed that the amount of PES consumed, and the cell impedance, increased with increasing starting concentration up to a starting concentration of 5 wt% and then seemed to slow down at higher starting concentration. Additive consumption measurements after holding periods showed that PES is consumed in measurable amounts at the positive electrode, suggesting that PES oxidizes at potentials as low as 4.27 V vs. Li/Li+ on the NMC(111) surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of electrodes salvaged from NMC(111)/graphite cells after hold periods at various cell potentials strongly support the existence of a positive-negative electrode interaction.

  16. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  17. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel at VVER-1000 operation in closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, P. N.; Bobrov, E. A. Chibinyaev, A. V.; Teplov, P. S.; Dudnikov, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    The basic features of loading the VVER-1000 core with a new variant of REMIX fuel (REgenerated MIXture of U–Pu oxides) are considered during its multiple recycle in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The fuel composition is produced on the basis of the uranium–plutonium regenerate extracted at processing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from a VVER-1000, depleted uranium, and the fissionable material: {sup 235}U as a part of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from warheads superfluous for defense purposes or {sup 233}U accumulated in thorium blankets of fusion (electronuclear) neutron sources or fast reactors. Production of such a fuel assumes no use of natural uranium in addition. When converting a part of the VVER-1000 reactors to the closed fuel cycle based on the REMIX technology, the consumption of natural uranium decreases considerably, and there is no substantial degradation of the isotopic composition of plutonium or change in the reactor-safety characteristics at the passage from recycle to recycle.

  18. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel at VVER-1000 operation in closed fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Bobrov, E. A.; Chibinyaev, A. V.; Teplov, P. S.; Dudnikov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The basic features of loading the VVER-1000 core with a new variant of REMIX fuel (REgenerated MIXture of U-Pu oxides) are considered during its multiple recycle in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The fuel composition is produced on the basis of the uranium-plutonium regenerate extracted at processing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from a VVER-1000, depleted uranium, and the fissionable material: 235U as a part of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from warheads superfluous for defense purposes or 233U accumulated in thorium blankets of fusion (electronuclear) neutron sources or fast reactors. Production of such a fuel assumes no use of natural uranium in addition. When converting a part of the VVER-1000 reactors to the closed fuel cycle based on the REMIX technology, the consumption of natural uranium decreases considerably, and there is no substantial degradation of the isotopic composition of plutonium or change in the reactor-safety characteristics at the passage from recycle to recycle.

  19. Motor fuel additive and ori-inhibited motor fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a composition. It is obtained by reacting, at a temperature of 30{sup 0}C-200C 0.5-2.5 moles of one or more aliphatic carboxylic acids selected from the group consisting of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, pivalic, acrylic, propiolie, methacylic, crotonic, isocrfotonic, maleic and fumaric acid; and 0.5-1.5 moles of a polyoxyalkylene diamine.

  20. Energy use and emissions from marine vessels: a total fuel life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Meyer, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Regional and global air pollution from marine transportation is a growing concern. In discerning the sources of such pollution, researchers have become interested in tracking where along the total fuel life cycle these emissions occur. In addition, new efforts to introduce alternative fuels in marine vessels have raised questions about the energy use and environmental impacts of such fuels. To address these issues, this paper presents the Total Energy and Emissions Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model. TEAMS can be used to analyze total fuel life cycle emissions and energy use from marine vessels. TEAMS captures "well-to-hull" emissions, that is, emissions along the entire fuel pathway, including extraction, processing, distribution, and use in vessels. TEAMS conducts analyses for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to residual oil, (2) petroleum to conventional diesel, (3) petroleum to low-sulfur diesel, (4) natural gas to compressed natural gas, (5) natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and (6) soybeans to biodiesel. TEAMS calculates total fuel-cycle emissions of three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 10 microm or less, and sulfur oxides). TEAMS also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption associated with each of its six fuel cycles. TEAMS can be used to study emissions from a variety of user-defined vessels. This paper presents TEAMS and provides example modeling results for three case studies using alternative fuels: a passenger ferry, a tanker vessel, and a container ship.

  1. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  2. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  3. Postmarketing surveillance of food additives.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N

    1994-08-01

    Postmarketing surveillance of consumption and of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects has been recognized by a number of regulatory authorities as a potentially useful method to provide further assurance of the safety of new food additives. Surveillance of consumption is used to estimate more reliably actual consumption levels relative to the acceptable daily intake of a food additive. Surveillance of anecdotal reports of adverse health effects is used to determine the presence of infrequent idiosyncratic responses that may not be predictable from premarket evaluations. The high-intensity sweetner, aspartame, is a food additive that has been the subject of extensive evaluation during the postmarketing period and is thus used as an example to discuss postmarketing surveillance.

  4. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be

  5. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Hilson Schneider

    2007-06-06

    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available

  8. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy... reference; see § 430.3) and the fossil fuel energy consumption during the standby test, Qp, in Btu. Ambient... switch, the average electric power consumption during the off mode, PW,OFF = 0, and the fossil...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  10. Electrical start-up for diesel fuel processing in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Tschauder, Andreas; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    As auxiliary power units in trucks and aircraft, fuel cell systems with a diesel and kerosene reforming capacity offer the dual benefit of reduced emissions and fuel consumption. In order to be commercially viable, these systems require a quick start-up time with low energy input. In pursuit of this end, this paper reports an electrical start-up strategy for diesel fuel processing. A transient computational fluid dynamics model is developed to optimize the start-up procedure of the fuel processor in the 28 kWth power class. The temperature trend observed in the experiments is reproducible to a high degree of accuracy using a dual-cell approach in ANSYS Fluent. Starting from a basic strategy, different options are considered for accelerating system start-up. The start-up time is reduced from 22 min in the basic case to 9.5 min, at an energy consumption of 0.4 kW h. Furthermore, an electrical wire is installed in the reformer to test the steam generation during start-up. The experimental results reveal that the generation of steam at 450 °C is possible within seconds after water addition to the reformer. As a result, the fuel processor can be started in autothermal reformer mode using the electrical concept developed in this work.

  11. Fuel Cell Handbook update

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.R.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Engleman, R.R. Jr.; Stauffer, D.B.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work was to update the 1988 version of DOE`s Fuel Cell Handbook. Significant developments in the various fuel cell technologies required revisions to reflect state-of-the-art configurations and performance. The theoretical presentation was refined in order to make the handbook more useful to both the casual reader and fuel cell or systems analyst. In order to further emphasize the practical application of fuel cell technologies, the system integration information was expanded. In addition, practical elements, such as suggestions and guidelines to approximate fuel cell performance, were provided.

  12. Natural gas production and consumption 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Total marketed production of natural gas in the United States during 1979 was 20,471 billion cubic feet, an increase of approximately 497 billion cubic feet, or 2.5 percent over 1978. Texas and Louisiana, the two leading producing states, accounted for 70.5 percent of total 1979 marketed production. In 1979, deliveries of natural gas to residential, commercial, industrial, electric utilities, and other consumers totaled 18,141 billion cubic feet. Total consumption, which includes lease, plant, and pipeline fuel in addition to deliveries to consumers, was 20,241 billion cubic feet in 1979 compared to 19,627 billion cubic feet in 1978, an increase of 3.1 percent. Movements of natural gas into and out of each state are presented. Louisiana accounted for the largest quantity of net deliveries, 5,107 billion cubic feet, followed by Texas and Oklahoma with net deliveries of 2,772 billion cubic feet and 914 billion cubic feet, respectively. Imports of natural gas by pipeline from Canada and as liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Algeria totaled 1,253 billion cubic feet in 1979. Total imports increased 288 billion cubic feet, or 29.8 percent, from 1978 levels. Exports of LNG to Japan and pipeline shipments to Canada and Mexico increased 6.0 percent from 52.5 billion cubic feet in 1978 to 55.7 billion cubic feet in 1979. LNG shipments to Japan accounted for 92.1 percent of total exports in 1979.

  13. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  14. High-alcohol microemulsion fuel performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.H.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necssitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated. The apparent cetane numbers ranged from around 20 to above 50 with the majority between 30 and 45. Emissions of nitric oxide were measured for a few select fuels and were found to be 10 to 20% lower than No. 2 diesel fuel. 36 refs., 87 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  16. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, OH, Oct. 17 to 18, 2007 (ref. 1).

  17. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  18. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  19. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  20. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.