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Sample records for additional gasification experiments

  1. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  2. Plasma gasification of carbonaceous wastes: thermodynamic analysis and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mosse, A. L.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of the plasma gasification process of carbonaceous wastes in air and steam ambient were carried out. A maximum yield of synthesis gas in such processes is predicted to be achieved at a temperature of 1600 K. On a specially developed plasma facility, plasma gasification experiments were performed for carbonaceous wastes. From the organic mass of carbonaceous waste and from its mineral mass, respectively, a high-calorific syngas and a neutral slag consisting predominantly of ferric carbide, calcium monosilicate, silica and iron, were obtained. A comparison between the experiment and the calculations has shown a good consistency between the data.

  3. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  4. Effect of petroleum coke addition on coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnathambi, Chandra Mohan; Najib, Nur Khadijah Mohamad

    2014-10-01

    The main fuel for power generation is combustion of coal and/or natural gas. Natural gas is expensive but clean and less problematic, whereas coal is the reverse of natural gas. Natural gas resources are expected to last until 2020 where else coal has another 200 years expectancy. To replace the natural gas, synthetic gas (syngas) can be used as a substitute fuel. Syngas can be produced using coal as fuel. In this study we blend petcoke, a cheap solid carboneous fuel as an alternative to coal for the production of syngas using a 30 Kwattheat bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. The equivalent ratio (ER) was set at 2.8 and a gasification temperature was maintained between 680 to 710°C by manipulating between the feed flow rates and fluidizing medium. This condition was chosen as it proved to be the optimum based on the work by the same group. Various blend of coal:petcoke between 0 to 100% was analyzed. It was found that a 20:80, petcoke to coal gives a good correlation with 100% coal gasification.

  5. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater with methanol addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification effluent is a typical refractory industrial wastewater with a very poor anaerobic biodegradability due to its toxicity. Methanol was introduced to improve anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater, and the effect of methanol addition on the performance was investigated in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hr. Experimental results indicated that anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater was feasible with the addition of methanol. The corresponding maximum COD and phenol removal rates were 71% and 75%, respectively, with methanol concentration of 500 mg COD/L for a total organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/(m3 x day) and a phenol loading rate of 0.6 kg/(m3 x day). The phenol removal rate was not improved with a higher methanol concentration of 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization rate (SUR) tests indicated that the SURs of phenol were 106, 132, and 83 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) at methanol concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 mg COD/L, respectively, and only 45 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) in the control reactor. The presence of methanol could reduce the toxicity of coal gasification wastewater and increase the biodegradation of phenolic compounds.

  6. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Francine; Agblevor, Foster; Klein, Michael; Sheikhi, Reza

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  7. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  8. Wood Gasification in a Lab-Scale Bubbling Fluidized Bed: Experiment and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Schotte, E.; Thomas, S.; Schlinkert, A.; Herrmann, A.; Mosch, V.; Rajendran, V.; Heinrich, S.

    In theory, an integrated biomass gasification and fuel cell system has a higher overall plant efficiency when compared to the efficiency of biomass gasification combined with simple combustion systems and gas engines. In order to develop a prototype of this new concept of power plant operating in the range of l50kW to 5MW, several institutes of the Max Planck Society and the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Germany have been working on the ProBio project with focus on the theoretical and experimental investigation of an integrated 1-2kWe system. The paper will firstly describe the gasification unit of the system: a lab-scale atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Wood gasification experiments were conducted and the influence of operation parameters, i.e. gasification agents, equivalence ratio ER and steam to biomass ratio SIB on gas yield and gas composition was analyzed. In parallel with the experimental work, chemical kinetics of wood gasification was studied and simulated. Furthermore, simulation of bubbling fluidized bed hydrodynamics at high temperature, using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT, was also conducted to better understand the phenomenon of fluidization inside the bed.

  9. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  10. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  11. Gasification technologies 2005. Conference papers and presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    A total of 43 papers and two keynote addresses were presented at the conference in eight sessions entitled Four perspectives on gasification industry trends and new developments; Federal gasification incentives: opportunities and challenges; Carbon sequestration ready: What does it mean and who can do it?; Experience with gasifying low rank coals (panel discussion); What are current gasification-based offerings in the energy marketplace?; Coal to liquids and chemicals: prospects and challenges; Gasification market drivers panel; and Gasification technologies advancements continue. The CD-ROM contains 43 presentations plus on keynote address, all in slide/overview form as pdfs. In addition, the text of four presentations is included. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  12. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

    2008-05-15

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  13. Mutagenic and toxic activity of environmental effluents from underground coal gasification experiments.

    PubMed

    Timourian, H; Felton, J S; Stuermer, D H; Healy, S; Berry, P; Tompkins, M; Battaglia, G; Hatch, F T; Thompson, L H; Carrano, A V; Minkler, J; Salazar, E

    1982-01-01

    Using bacterial bioassays, we have screened for the presence of mutagens and toxins in extracts from groundwater, and in tar from product gas, at the sites of two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in situ experiments: Hoe Creek II and Hoe Creek III. The sites exhibited different potential biological hazards, suggesting that different gasification processes may represent different human health concerns. We found that mutagens are present in groundwater, persist for at least 2 yr after gasification has been terminated, and show a change in activity with time-possibly in parallel with changes in chemical composition. Preliminary evidence suggests that the mutagens in groundwater are quinoline and aniline derivatives, while the toxins in groundwater may be phenolic compounds. In tar from the product gas, the organic bases and neutrals were found to be genotoxic in both bacterial and mammalian cells; the neutral compounds appear to be the major mutagenic health hazards. Neutral compounds constitute most of the tar (85-97 wt%) and were mutagenic in both the bacterial and mammalian cell assays. Tar in the gas stream may be a problem for the aboveground environment if gas escapes through fractures in the overburden. Because it is mutagenic and induces chromosomal damage to mammalian cells, the tar may represent a disposal problem as well. However, it is difficult to assess tar quantitatively as a health hazard because its mutagenic activity is low, possibly due to contaminants in the neutral fraction that act to suppress mutagenicity.

  14. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    PubMed Central

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  15. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    PubMed

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  16. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  17. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  18. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Pradeep K

    2016-07-29

    , similar approach for biomass gasification was not very useful and was the impetus for this study. Specifically, we aimed this study at three broad objectives: (i) defining operating conditions at which C2-C4 hydrocarbons are formed since these represent loss of carbon efficiency, (ii) understanding the formation of tar species which create downstream processing difficulties in addition of carbon efficiency loss, and (iii) kinetics of biomass gasification where it would be possible to understand the effect of operating conditions and gas phase composition.

  19. Exploration of the effect of process variables on the production of high-value fuel gas from glucose via supercritical water gasification.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Doug; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Jacoby, William

    2011-02-01

    A new continuous supercritical water gasification reactor was designed to investigate glucose gasification in supercritical water at high temperatures and low residence times. A 2(3) full factorial experiment was performed to determine the effects of feed concentration, temperature, and residence time on glucose gasification. The temperature levels (750°C and 800°C) were higher than ever used, while the residence times (4 and 6.5s) were shorter than ever used in previous supercritical water gasification studies. The reactor proved capable of attaining higher gasification rates than previously shown with high efficiencies and yields. In addition, the glucose gasification reaction was modeled by estimating activation energy and reaction order of glucose gasification in supercritical water.

  20. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  1. Remanent and rock magnetic properties at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site: Hanna II phases 2 and 3 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Geissman, J.W.; Callian, J.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-09-01

    Several underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been conducted in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam. During the fall, 1980, the Laramie Energy Technology Center performed a post-burn field study of the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 experiment at the Hanna UCG site. The field work consisted of high resolution seismic, drilling, coring, and geophysical logging. The Paleomagnetism Laboratory, Department of Geology, Colorado School of Mines, contributed to the post-burn study by doing remanent and rock magnetic measurement laboratory work on the core material. Funding was provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. The purpose of the study was to determine the nature of the remanent magnetism of the overburden Hanna Formation and changes in the remanence and magnetic mineralogy attending underground coal gasification experiments. With this information, further estimates of the thermal and chemical conditions reached during the conversion experiment could be made. The magnetization data, together with previous petrographic observations, suggest that magnetite is being formed in a reducing process at the expense of detrital ferromagnesian silicates and possible hematite and geothite in the overburden sediments. Thermal gradients immediately above the burn cavity are difficult to estimate; changes in magnetic properties of unaltered Hanna Formation overburden are activated at temperatures as low as 300/sup 0/C. The magnetic expression of the burn cavity should be able to be modelled as being due to a thin slab overlying the cavity. Pyrometamorphosed material that has collapsed into the cavity, should have any magnetization which is randomized due to collapse and therefore should be able to be incorporated into a magnetic anomaly model. 32 references, 27 figures.

  2. Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít

    Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled based on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass based on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water production heat exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined Heat and Power plant.

  3. Recent developments in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, M.K.; Hafke, C.F.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reports on how Lurgi, as one of the major engineering companies with extensive experience in coal gasification, has expanded the application of the fixed-bed gasifier. Improvements have been made to the type and size of coal which can be gasified and the quality of gas produced. Lurgi's development efforts are continuous, and are directed not only to search for new process methods but also to reduce the investment, operating and maintenance costs. It is manifested in the achievement of higher specific gasification rates and the layer size of the gasifiers, both of which reduce the complexity of a gasification plant and improve its supervision and controllability.

  4. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  5. Thermic and electric power production and use from gasification of biomass and RDF: Experience at CFBG Plant at Greve in Chianti

    SciTech Connect

    Barducci, G.L.; Daddi, P.; Polzinetti, G.C.

    1995-11-01

    With the gasification plant of Greve in Chianti, it is easy to produce electric power, starting from sorghum bagasse and RDF. The experiment demonstrated the possibility of gasifying the biomass sorghum bagasse in CFBG, obtaining a low gas with a sufficiently high heat value. It is possible to use the lean gas, obtained from gasification of sorghum bagasse and RDF, as fuel in the cement production. With the realization of the second line of gas combustion and heat recovery system, the plant will be able to produce electric power of 6,7 MW and thermic treatment about 200 ton/day of RDF or biomass. At the same time the new configuration of the second line will be able to avoid the fouling problems on the boiler section.

  6. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  7. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  8. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  9. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass.

  10. Kinetics characteristics of straw semi-char gasification with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruirui; Yang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The gasification process has promising potential as a solution for the current global energy problem. Kinetics characteristics of straw semi-char gasification were investigated. The main influence factors of gasification, which include bio-char particle size, pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis atmosphere, were studied. The smaller the particle size is, the higher is the conversion rate. The gasification reactivity of semi-chars increases with pyrolysis temperature and reaches its maximum at approximately 400°C. The straw semi-char obtained in an H2 pyrolysis atmosphere has the best gasification reactivity, while the semi-char obtained in a CO2 atmosphere has the worst reactivity. In addition, characteristics of semi-char were systematically tested. A random pore model, unreacted core shrinking model and integrated model were employed to describe the reactive behavior of semi-chars. Gasification kinetics parameters were calculated. The random pore model fitting result is in better agreement with the experiments than that of the other two models.

  11. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  12. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  13. Catalysis in biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

  14. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  15. Gasification at Navy Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    Battalion Center at Port Hueneme, CA. The title of the contract was ’ Coal Gasification Feasibility Study.’ Coal gasification is recognized as a way...operated. A conceptual design study comparing coal gasification with central direct coal-fired boilers at five bases was performed.

  16. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  17. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  18. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Allan Kardec

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  19. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  20. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  1. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  2. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  3. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Gary Stiegel

    2016-07-12

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  4. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  5. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  6. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Characteristics of rice husk gasification in an entrained flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yijun; Sun, Shaozeng; Tian, Hongming; Qian, Juan; Su, Fengming; Ling, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor to better understand the characteristics of biomass gasification. Rice husk was used in this study. Effects of the gasification temperature (700, 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C) and the equivalence ratio in the range of 0.22-0.34 on the biomass gasification and the axial gas distribution in the reactor were studied. The results showed that reactions of CnHm were less important in the gasification process except cracking reactions which occurred at higher temperature. In the oxidization zone, reactions between char and oxygen had a more prevailing role. The optimal gasification temperature of the rice husk could be above 900 degrees C, and the optimal value of ER was 0.25. The gasification process was finished in 1.42 s when the gasification temperature was above 800 degrees C. A first order kinetic model was developed for describing rice husk air gasification characteristics and the relevant kinetic parameters were determined.

  9. Software reliability: Additional investigations into modeling with replicated experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, P. M.; Schotz, F. M.; Skirvan, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of programmer experience level, different program usage distributions, and programming languages are explored. All these factors affect performance, and some tentative relational hypotheses are presented. An analytic framework for replicated and non-replicated (traditional) software experiments is presented. A method of obtaining an upper bound on the error rate of the next error is proposed. The method was validated empirically by comparing forecasts with actual data. In all 14 cases the bound exceeded the observed parameter, albeit somewhat conservatively. Two other forecasting methods are proposed and compared to observed results. Although demonstrated relative to this framework that stages are neither independent nor exponentially distributed, empirical estimates show that the exponential assumption is nearly valid for all but the extreme tails of the distribution. Except for the dependence in the stage probabilities, Cox's model approximates to a degree what is being observed.

  10. Hybrid coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.

    2007-01-15

    Retrofitting gas, oil and coal-fired boilers can reduce operating costs and meet EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rules (CAIR) when firing most Eastern and Midwest bituminous coals. The trademarked Clean Combustion System (CCS) concept, conceived at Rockwell International, evolved from a confluence of advanced combustion modelling know-how, experience in coal gasification and wet-bottom boiler operation and design. The CCS is a high temperature air-feed entrained flow gasifier that replaces a boiler's existing burners. It fires pulverized coal with some limestone added to provide calcium to capture sulfur and provide a clean hot fuel-rich gas to the boiler furnace. Subsequent over-fire air (OFA) staging completes the combustion. A 'sulfur bearing glass' waste product results from the coal ash and the calcium sulfide. The CCS process prevents formation of NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen. The initial commercialisation of CCS is the update and retrofit an industrial stoker design boiler. Steps for the retrofit are described in the article. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  11. Experimental study on temperature profile of fixed - bed gasification of oil-palm fronds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atnaw, Samson M.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Moni, M. Nazmi Z.

    2012-06-01

    Currently the world's second largest palm oil producer Malaysia produces large amount of oil palm biomass each year. The abundance of the biomass introduces a challenge to utilize them as main feedstock for heat and energy generation. Although some oil palm parts and derivatives like empty fruit bunch and fibre have been commercialized as fuel, less attention has been given to oil palm fronds (OPF). Initial feasibility and characterization studies of OPF showed that it is highly feasible as fuel for gasification to produce high value gaseous fuel or syngas. This paper discusses the experimental gasification attempt carried out on OPF using a 50 kW lab scale downdraft gasifier and its results. The conducted study focused on the temperature distributions within the reactor and the characteristics of the dynamic temperature profile for each temperature zones during operation. OPF feedstock of one cubic inch in individual size with 15% average moisture content was utilized. An average pyrolysis zone temperature of 324°Cand an average oxidation zone temperature of 796°Cwere obtained over a total gasification period of 74 minutes. A maximum oxidation zone temperature of 952°Cwas obtained at 486 lpm inlet air flow rate and 10 kg/hr feedstock consumption rate. Stable bluish flare was produced for more than 70% of the total gasification time. The recorded temperature profiles produced closely similar patterns with the temperature profiles recorded from the gasification of woody materials. Similar temperature profile was obtained comparing the results from OPF gasification with that of woody biomass. Furthermore, the successful ignition of the syngas produced from OPF gasification ascertained that OPF indeed has a higher potential as gasification feedstock. Hence, more detailed studies need to be done for better understanding in exploiting the biomass as a high prospect alternative energy solution. In addition, a study of the effect of initial moisture content of OPF

  12. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  13. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  14. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars.

  15. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  16. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    PubMed

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350 °C-550 °C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20 kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable.

  17. Municipal solid waste gasification: Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, R.; Overend, R.P.; Chornet, E.; Craig, K.R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of the transparencies that were used during the presentation. Flowcharts are presented for processing options for municipal solid wastes and refuse derived fuels, and for the gasification of refuse derived fuels. Summaries are presented on gasification and gas conditioning goals, the history of MSW gasification, clean gas requirements for engines, and recent history of several gasification processes (Lurgi CFB, TPS CFB, Thermoselect pilot plant, and Proler pilot plant). Challenges are listed and a flowchart for a typical gasification/gas conditioning process is given.

  18. Advanced gasification projects. [Support research needs; contains list of advanced gasification projects supported by US DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    An analysis of the needs for coal gasification reveals the following principal categories of information gaps that can be filled by programs already in progress or those readily initiated. The gaps are technology base needs required for successful application of both currently available and advanced gasification processes. The need areas are classified as follows: Reactor design/performance, gas cleaning/cooling separation, acid-gas removal/gas shift/gas conversion, wastewater treatment, and general data base on both state-of-the-art and advanced technologies. During the future operating and optimization phases of most of the coal gasification projects, when additional troubles will surface, the technical support program described herein will have provided the additional data base needed to correct deficiencies and/or to advance the state-of-the-art. The report describes US DOE supported projects in this area: brief description, title, contractor, objective, accomplishments, current work and possible application.

  19. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  20. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  1. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  2. Catalytic gasification of biomass (Miscanthus) enhanced by CO2 sorption.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, I; Debal, M; Matt, M; Girods, P; Kiennemann, A; Rogaume, Y; Courson, C

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this work concerns the coupling of biomass gasification reaction and CO2 sorption. The study shows the feasibility to promote biomass steam gasification in a dense fluidized bed reactor with CO2 sorption to enhance tar removal and hydrogen production. It also proves the efficiency of CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine bi-functional materials to reduce heavy tar production. Experiments have been carried out in a fluidized bed gasifier using steam as the fluidizing medium to improve hydrogen production. Bed materials consisting of CaO-based oxide for CO2 sorption (CaO-Ca12Al14O33) deposited on olivine for tar reduction were synthesized, their structural and textural properties were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) methods, and the determination of their sorption capacity and stability analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It appears that this CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine sorbent/catalyst presents a good CO2 sorption stability (for seven cycles of carbonation/decarbonation). Compared to olivine and Fe/olivine in a fixed bed reactor for steam reforming of toluene chosen as tar model compound, it shows a better hydrogen production rate and a lower CO2 selectivity due to its sorption on the CaO phase. In the biomass steam gasification, the use of CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine as bed material at 700 °C leads to a higher H2 production than olivine at 800 °C thanks to CO2 sorption. Similar tar concentration and lighter tar production (analyzed by HPLC/UV) are observed. At 700 °C, sorbent addition allows to halve tar content and to eliminate the heaviest tars.

  3. Hydrogen production via the KBW gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, H.J.; Cannon, J.F.; Probert, P.B.

    1982-03-01

    In October, 1981, Koppers Company, Inc. and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (an operating unit of McDermott, Inc.) formed a joint venture, KBW Gasification Systems, Inc. to serve the expanding synthetic fuels market. KBW is offering commercially an atmospheric pressure, oxygen blown, slagging type entrained flow gasification system. The KBW coal gasification system was designed to offer the synthetic fuels industry an efficient, reliable and advanced system that uses proven modern technology. It can gasify any rank of coal. This includes both Eastern and Western U.S. Coals. Caking properties of the coal do not affect the gasification process. The KBW gasifier can handle wide variations in ash quantity, ash fusion temperature, and sulfur content. It can gasify 100 percent of the mine output. It has major environmental advantages. Tar, phenols, and heavy hydrocarbons are not produced in the KBW gasifier because of the high gasification temperature. It does not produce methane. This eliminates the need for costly and energy intensive steam reforming. It is based on design data, knowledge, and experience possessed by Koppers and Babcock and Wilcox in the areas of coal preparation and handling, mass transfer, heat transfer equipment fabrication, and plant construction. The KBW gasifier has a larger internal volume than existing entrained flow gasifiers. This results in high throughput rates. Both the KBW gasifier and heat recovery boiler use components that have been proven through years of fabrication and service. Membrane walls constructed of vertical, water cooled tubes (which have been widely used in boilers) are used in the KBW gasifier and heat recovery boiler. This feature enables the gasifier to produce high pressure saturated steam that is subsequently superheated in the heat recovery boiler. The water cooled tubes can withstand much higher heat fluxes than jacket type cooling systems while assuring nucleate boiling.

  4. Sewage sludge gasification: First studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Wastewater treatment installations produce a large quantity of sewage sludge, the disposal and treatment of which causes several problems because of its volume, its toxic organic constituents and the heavy metals that it contains. Certain methods of treatment and disposal do exist, but they are not entirely satisfactory. Moreover, it is important to develop a technology for the adequate treatment of sewage sludge in order to reduce the environmental problem and the costs of treatment. It can be assumed that gasification is a suitable technology because it reduces the waste volume, destroys the toxic organic compounds and fixes the heavy metals in the resultant solid. In order to gain knowledge of the processes occurring in the gasifier, the results obtained in experiments on the thermal decomposition of sewage sludge at different heating rates are shown.

  5. Considerations Based on Reaction Rate on Char Gasification Behavior in Two-stage Gasifier for Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Miki; Nishiyama, Akio; Sasauchi, Kenichi; Ito, Yusuke; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planned a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the appropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth load. We considered the results by calculating reaction rates of representative reactions on char gasification part and found that water gas reaction is dominant in the reduction area and its behavior gives important information to decide the adequate length of the char layer.

  6. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  7. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the colting took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO[sub x] catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO[sub x]-KO[sub x] catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  8. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the coking took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO{sub x} catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO{sub x}-KO{sub x} catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  9. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  10. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies

  11. Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor applied in underground coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping; Jin, Yongxing; Shen, Changyu

    2010-12-01

    Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) for underground coal gasification (UCG) system using is studied in this paper. By measuring temperature of reacting mine gasification process can be controlled. Calibration of DTS and experiment result are introduced. The results show that, DTS can play an important role in UCG systems.

  12. Experimental study on air-stream gasification of biomass micron fuel (BMF) in a cyclone gasifier.

    PubMed

    Guo, X J; Xiao, B; Zhang, X L; Luo, S Y; He, M Y

    2009-01-01

    Based on biomass micron fuel (BMF) with particle size of less than 250 microm, a cyclone gasifier concept has been considered in our laboratory for biomass gasification. The concept combines and integrates partial oxidation, fast pyrolysis, gasification, and tar cracking, as well as a shift reaction, with the purpose of producing a high quality of gas. In this paper, experiments of BMF air-stream gasification were carried out by the gasifier, with energy for BMF gasification produced by partial combustion of BMF within the gasifier using a hypostoichiometric amount of air. The effects of ER (0.22-0.37) and S/B (0.15-0.59) and biomass particle size on the performances of BMF gasification and the gasification temperature were studied. Under the experimental conditions, the temperature, gas yields, LHV of the gas fuel, carbon conversion efficiency, stream decomposition and gasification efficiency varied in the range of 586-845 degrees C, 1.42-2.21 N m(3)/kg biomass, 3806-4921 kJ/m(3), 54.44%-85.45%, 37.98%-70.72%, and 36.35%-56.55%, respectively. The experimental results showed that the gasification performance was best with ER being 3.7 and S/B being 0.31 and smaller particle, as well as H(2)-content. And the BMF gasification by air and low temperature stream in the cyclone gasifier with the energy self-sufficiency is reliable.

  13. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  14. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  15. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a

  16. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a

  17. A NOVEL CONCEPT FOR PREFERENTIAL PRODUCTION OF METHANE RICH SYNGAS FROM COAL GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Majed, Toqan; Prabhat, Naredi

    2011-11-04

    The overall objective of this multi-phase SBIR project is to develop a coal gasifier concept that yields higher methane (CH4) concentration in the syngas without compromising on the heating value of the syngas. Higher concentration of CH4 in syngas is desirable because it has higher calorific value (per unit mass) than any other hydrocarbon. In addition, utilization of the CH4 rich syngas in fuel cells facilitates better control of fuel cell stack temperature which improves power generation efficiency. However, existing commercial gasifiers predominantly produce CO and H2 rich syngas that contains minimal amount of CH4. In order to obtain high heating value syngas with preferential production of CH4, this proposal proposes to gasify coal in combination with a renewable, liquid, waste feedstock in a novel gasification process design. The proposed liquid feedstock is rich in oxygen which reduces amount of oxygen needed to carryout the gasification process and thus the cost. In addition, CPS conducted a 1-D kinetic and equilibrium calculation which showed that the renewable feedstock reduces tar formation, and helps in achieving higher heating value and CH4 in the syngas. In recent proof-of-concept experiments, we have determined that methanol (CH3OH) addition during steam gasification or coal pyrolysis enhances methane formation. We hypothesize that the tars released during coal devolatilization react with the methanol generated radicals to form low molecular weight hydrocarbons, primarily CH4 has been proved correct. It also appears that because the ratio of methanol to coal and steam to coal ratio was too high during the batch reactor experiments, significant fraction of tar was also converted to CO. Therefore, in order to achieve higher methane in a cost effective manner, experiments need to be done in a continuous flow reactor at isothermal temperatures where the ratio of the additive and steam needs to be carefully controlled.

  18. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  19. Coal gasification cogeneration process

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for the coproduction of a combustible first gas stream usable as an energy source, a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream usable as a source for oxidant in the gasification of coal and a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream usable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. It comprises: reacting coal in a coal gasification zone in the presence of an oxidant under partial coal-gasifying conditions to produce carbonaceous char and a crude gas stream; separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream in a sulfur recovery zone to produce a combustible first gas stream and elemental sulfur; reacting the carbonaceous char and gypsum in a reaction zone in proportions such that the non-gypsum portion of the carbonaceous char and gypsum mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to reduce sulfur in the gypsum to gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state under reducing conditions to produce first a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream which contains weaker SO{sub 2} produced in an early stage of the reaction zone and removed from the reaction zone, and then a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream which contains concentrated SO{sub 2} recovered from a later stage of the reaction zone.

  20. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  1. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  2. Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M.

    1994-12-31

    This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

  3. Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lara; Furusjö, Erik; Kirtania, Kawnish; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Anheden, Marie; Wolf, Jens

    2017-02-08

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130€/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25€/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  4. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  5. Active dentate granule cells encode experience to promote the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Gregory W; Shen, Jia; Tian, Mu; Schroeder, Bryce; Wang, Jia; Man, Guoming; Wu, Song; Ge, Shaoyu

    2017-04-03

    The continuous addition of new dentate granule cells, exquisitely regulated by brain activity, renders the hippocampus plastic. However, how neural circuits encode experiences to impact the addition of adult-born neurons remains unknown. Here, we used endoscopic Ca(2+) imaging to track the real-time activity of individual dentate granule cells in freely-behaving mice. For the first time, we found that active dentate granule cells responded to a novel experience by preferentially increasing their Ca(2+) event frequency. This elevated activity, which we found to be associated with object exploration, returned to baseline by one hour in the same environment, but could be dishabituated via introduction to a novel environment. To seamlessly transition between environments, we next established a freely-controllable virtual reality system for unrestrained mice. We again observed increased firing of active neurons in a virtual enriched environment. Interestingly, multiple novel virtual experiences accumulatively increased the number of newborn neurons when compared to a single experience. Finally, optogenetic silencing of existing dentate granule cells during novel environmental exploration perturbed experience-induced neuronal addition. Together, our study shows that the adult brain conveys novel, enriched experiences to increase the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons by increasing the firing of active dentate granule cells.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAdult brains are constantly reshaping themselves from synapses to circuits as we encounter novel experiences from moment to moment. Importantly, this reshaping includes the addition of newborn hippocampal neurons. However, it remains largely unknown how our circuits encode experience-induced brain activity to govern the addition of new hippocampal neurons. By coupling in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of dentate granule neurons with a novel unrestrained virtual reality system for rodents, we discovered that a new experience rapidly

  6. Response of non-added solutes during nutrient addition experiments in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Koenig, L.; Coble, A. A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient addition experiments, such as Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC), have become widely popular as a means to study nutrient uptake dynamics in stream ecosystems. However, the impact of these additions on ambient concentrations of non-added solutes is often overlooked. TASCC addition experiments are ideal for assessing interactions among solutes because it allows for the characterization of multiple solute concentrations across a broad range of added nutrient concentrations. TASCC additions also require the addition of a conservative tracer (NaCl) to track changes in conductivity during the experimental manipulation. Despite its use as a conservative tracer, chloride (Cl) and its associated sodium (Na) might change the concentrations of other ions and non-added nutrients through ion exchange or other processes. Similarly, additions of biologically active solutes might change the concentrations of other non-added solutes. These methodological issues in nutrient addition experiments have been poorly addressed in the literature. Here we examine the response of non-added solutes to pulse additions (i.e. TASCC) of NaCl plus nitrate (NO3-), ammonium, and phosphate across biomes including temperate and tropical forests, and arctic taiga. Preliminary results demonstrate that non-added solutes respond to changes in the concentration of these added nutrients. For example, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in suburban headwater streams of New Hampshire both increase and decrease in response to NO3- additions, apparently due to biotic processes. Similarly, cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium also increase during TASCC experiments, likely due to cation exchange processes associated with Na addition. The response of non-added solutes to short-term pulses of added nutrients and tracers needs to be carefully assessed to ensure that nutrient uptake metrics are accurate, and to detect biotic interactions that may

  7. New projects for CCGTs with coal gasification (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovskii, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    Perspectives of using coal in combined-cycle gas turbine units (CCGTs), which are significantly more efficient than steam power plants, have been associated with preliminary coal gasification for a long time. Due to gasification, purification, and burning the resulting synthesis gas at an increased pressure, there is a possibility to intensify the processes occurring in them and reduce the size and mass of equipment. Physical heat evolving from gasification can be used without problems in the steam circuit of a CCGT. The downside of these opportunities is that the unit becomes more complex and expensive, and its competitiveness is affected, which was not achieved for CCGT power plants with coal gasification built in the 1990s. In recent years, based on the experience with these CCGTs, several powerful CCGTs of the next generation, which used higher-output and cost-effective gas-turbine plants (GTPs) and more advanced systems of gasification and purification of synthesis gas, were either built or designed. In a number of cases, the system of gasification includes devices of CO vapor reforming and removal of the emitted CO2 at a high pressure prior to fuel combustion. Gasifiers with air injection instead of oxygen injection, which is common in coal chemistry, also find application. In this case, the specific cost of the power station considerably decreases (by 15% and more). In units with air injection, up to 40% air required for separation is drawn from the intermediate stage of the cycle compressor. The range of gasified coals has broadened. In order to gasify lignites in one of the projects, a transfer reactor was used. The specific cost of a CCGT with coal gasification rose in comparison with the period when such units started being designed, from 3000 up to 5500 dollars/kW.

  8. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the

  9. Calculation of the fixed bed coal gasification regimes by the use of thermodynamic model with macrokinetic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donskoi, I. G.; Keiko, A. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.; Shamanskii, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss an equilibrium model of a fixed-bed solid fuel gasification process that takes into account macrokinetic constraints imposed on the rates of heterophase processes and allows the pyrolysis and gasification processes to be described in a fairly simple manner with the use of thermal analysis data. The results of calculations are compared with the measured parameters characterizing the Azeisk coal steam-air gasification process that were obtained in experiments on a laboratory setup.

  10. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point

  11. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  12. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic.

  13. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  14. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  15. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  16. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-cang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji; Xiao, Rui; Li, Da-ji

    2005-01-01

    The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification.

  17. Integrated gasification combined cycle overview of FETC--S program

    SciTech Connect

    Stiegel, G.J.; Maxwell, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    Changing market conditions, brought about by utility deregulation and increased environmental regulations, have encouraged the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) to restructure its Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) program. The program emphasis, which had focused on baseload electricity production from coal, is now expanded to more broadly address the production of a suite of energy and chemical products. The near-term market barrier for baseload power applications for conventional IGCC systems combines with increasing opportunities to process a range of low- and negative-value opportunity feedstocks. The new program is developing a broader range of technology options that will increase the versatility and the technology base for commercialization of gasification-based technologies. This new strategy supports gasification in niche markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in industrial coproduction applications today, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation and coproduction as these markets begin to open.

  18. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

  19. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  20. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 19. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Liu, B.Y.H.; Pui, D.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-12-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed, Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas Group (MIFGA). This report is the nineteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This volume briefly summarizes the results of eighteen different gasification tests in which fourteen different fuels were gasified from May 1982 to August 1985. The design gasification performance of all coals evaluated are summarized. In addition, summary design and economic data for industrial coal gasification systems are presented. 28 refs., 2 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-01

    The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  3. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-12-31

    The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate and feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During this project, it was shown that the middle distillate (360--440 F) fraction of liquids derived from the mild gasification of coal, and unfractionated liquids can be biodesulfurized. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lysed cell preparations and freeze-dried cells can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids. The importance of the finding that freeze-dried biocatalysts can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids is that freeze-dried cells can be produced at one location, stored indefinitely, and then shipped (at reduced weight, volume, and cost) to another location for coal biodesulfurization. Moreover, freeze-dried biocatalysts can be added directly to mild coal gasification liquids with only minimal additions of water so that reactor volumes can be minimized.

  4. Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgae.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Silva, L; López-González, D; Garcia-Minguillan, A M; Valverde, J L

    2013-02-01

    Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgae (NG microalgae) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). NG microalgae pyrolysis and combustion could be divided into three main stages: dehydration, proteins and polysaccharides degradation and char decomposition. The effects of the initial sample mass, particle size and gas flow on the pyrolysis and combustion processes were studied. In addition, gasification operation conditions such as temperature, initial sample mass, particle size, sweep gas flow and steam concentration, were experimentally evaluated. The evolved gases were analyzed online using mass spectroscopy (MS). In pyrolysis and combustion processes, most of the gas products were generated at the second degradation step. N-compounds evolution was associated with the degradation of proteins. Furthermore, SO(2) release from combustion could be related to sulphated polysaccharides decomposition. The main products detected during gasification were CO(2), CO, H(2), indicating that oxidation reactions, water gas and water gas shift reactions, were predominant.

  5. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus

  6. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidian, Arash

    and the pilot-scale continuous system was designed in 2010 to demonstrate the feasibility of mixed sludge biodrying for efficient combustion in biomass boilers. Mixed sludge was biodried in the reactor to 45% moisture level, which was the suitable level for boiler application. Techno-economic analysis also revealed the potential economic benefits for pulp and paper mills. However, considerable uncertainties existed in terms of feasibility of the biodrying technology for other types of biomass that are usually used in the gasification process, mainly because of low nutrient level of typical lignocellulosic biomass used as feedstock. Furthermore, the technology had not been shown to be economically viable in conjunction with gasification process at pulp and paper mills. In this work the feasibility of low-nutrient biomass biodrying was tested by experiments and techno-economic model was developed to identify the performance of biodrying process for commercial-scale application. In the economic analysis, a comprehensive approach for biodrying cost assessment was introduced that is based on the well-known approach widely used in the process industry and few sources of benefits were identified.

  7. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  8. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  9. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    PubMed

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Francetič, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements.

  10. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  11. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  12. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation.

  13. Gasification of Gulf Coast Lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Smoller, R.K.

    1983-11-01

    Gulf Coast lignites are examined as a feedstock for a gasification facility making substitute natural gas (SNG). Advantages and disadvantages are explored in the areas of project development factors, gasification technology and physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite. The Texas Gasification Project currently under study at Phillips Coal is used to exemplify these factors. It has been found that the use of Gulf Coast lignite has several natural developmental advantages over fuels from other parts of the U.S. A project is relatively close to markets for all of its products including SNG, carbon dioxide and all by-products. The Gulf Coast has adequate supplies of basic commodities such as water. Most potential gasification plant locations have a good local infrastructure in existence. Labor can be drawn from one or more metropolitan areas within commuting distance. State regulatory agencies interact with energy development projects of all sizes on a regular basis providing a solid working knowledge of energy policies and accepted project development guidelines. Finally, a positive business climate exists at both the state and local levels providing support and encouragement to go forward with projects. The physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite are shown to have a major effect on the operability of the gasification process. Lignite properties examined include moisture content, friability, and ash content.

  14. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  15. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  16. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  17. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  18. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  19. Successful implementation of biochar carbon sequestration in European soils requires additional benefits and close collaboration with the bioenergy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten T.

    2014-05-01

    Biochar soil application has been proposed as a measure to mitigate climate change and on the same time improve soil fertility by increased soil carbon sequestration. However, while on tropical soils the beneficial effects of biochar application on crop growth often become immediately apparent, it has been shown to be more difficult to demonstrate these effects on the more fertile soils in temperate regions. Therefore and because of the lack of carbon credits for farmers, it is necessary to link biochar application to additional benefits, both related to agricultural as well as to bioenergy production. Thermal gasification of biomass is an efficient (95% energy efficiency) and flexible way (able to cope with many different and otherwise difficult-to-handle biomass fuels) to generate bioenergy, while producing a valuable by-product - gasification biochar, containing recalcitrant carbon and essential crop nutrients. The use of the residual char product in agricultural soils will add value to the technology as well as result in additional soil benefits such as providing plant nutrients and improving soil water-holding capacity while reducing leaching risks. From a soil column (30 x 130 cm) experiment with gasification straw biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil increased root density of barley at critical depths in the soil profile reducing the mechanical resistance was shown, increasing yields, and the soil's capacity to store plant available water. Incorporation of residuals from a bioenergy technology like gasification show great potentials to reduce subsoil constraints increasing yield potentials on poor soils. Another advantage currently not appropriately utilized is recovery of phosphorus (P). In a recent pot experiments char products originating from low-temperature gasification of various biofuels were evaluated for their suitability as P fertilizers. Wheat straw gasification biochar generally had a low P content but a high P plant availability. To improve

  20. In-situ coal-gasification data look promising

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-21

    According to a report given at the 6th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium (Afton, Oklahoma 1980), the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal-gasification experiments Oil Gas J. 77 sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute and directed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of in-situ coal conversion and featured the use of a directionally drilled channel to connect the injection and production wells rather than the reverse-burn ordinarily used to produce the connecting channel. In the test, 2816 cu m of coal weighing (APPROX) 4200 tons was consumed, with (APPROX) 18% of the product gas escaping through the overburden or elsewhere. When air injection was used, the average heating value was 217 Btu/std cu ft. The average thermal efficiency of the burn was 65%, and the average gas composition was 35% hydrogen, 5% methane, 11% carbon monoxide, and 44% carbon dioxide. Subsidence occurred after completion of the test. The Uniwell gasification method, scheduled for use in the final experiment in the Deep-1 series of underground coal-gasification tests in Wyoming, seeks to prevent subsidence by use of concentric pipes which are inserted into the vertical well to control the combustion zone. Underground coal-gasification prospects and the mechanics of subsidence are discussed.

  1. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  2. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    } separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  3. Chemical kinetics parameters and model validation for the gasification of PCEA nuclear graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel P.; Contescu, Cristian I.

    2014-01-01

    A series of gasification experiments, using two right cylinder specimens (∼12.7 × 25.4 mm and 25.4 × 25.4 mm) of PCEA nuclear graphite in ambient airflow, measured the total gasification flux at weight losses up to 41.5% and temperatures (893-1015 K) characteristics of those for in-pores gasification Mode (a) and in-pores diffusion-limited Mode (b). The chemical kinetics parameters for the gasification of PCEA graphite are determined using a multi-parameters optimization algorithm from the measurements of the total gasification rate and transient weight loss in experiments. These parameters are: (i) the pre-exponential rate coefficients and the Gaussian distributions and values of specific activation energies for adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO gas; (ii) the specific activation energy and pre-exponential rate coefficient for the breakup of stable un-dissociated C(O2) oxygen radicals to form stable (CO) complexes; (iii) the specific activation energy and pre-exponential coefficient for desorption of CO2 gas and; (iv) the initial surface area of reactive free sites per unit mass. This area is consistently 13.5% higher than that for nuclear graphite grades of NBG-25 and IG-110 and decreases inversely proportional with the square root of the initial mass of the graphite specimens in the experiments. Experimental measurements successfully validate the chemical-reactions kinetics model that calculates continuous Arrhenius curves of the total gasification flux and the production rates of CO and CO2 gases. The model results at different total weight losses agree well with measurements and expand beyond the temperatures in the experiments to the diffusion-limited mode of gasification. Also calculated are the production rates of CO and CO2 gases and their relative contributions to the total gasification rate in the experiments as functions of temperature, for total weight losses of 5% and 10%.

  4. Chemical kinetics parameters and model validation for the gasification of PCEA nuclear graphite

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S; Tournier, Jean-Michel; Contescu, Cristian I

    2014-01-01

    A series of gasification experiments, using two right cylinder specimens (~ 12.7 x 25.4 mm and 25.4 x 25.4 mm) of PCEA nuclear graphite in ambient airflow, measured the total gasification flux at weight losses up to 41.5% and temperatures (893-1015 K) characteristics of those for in-pores gasification Mode (a) and in-pores diffusion-limited Mode (b). The chemical kinetics parameters for the gasification of PCEA graphite are determined using a multi-parameters optimization algorithm from the measurements of the total gasification rate and transient weight loss in experiments. These parameters are: (i) the pre-exponential rate coefficients and the Gaussian distributions and values of specific activation energies for adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO gas; (ii) the specific activation energy and pre-exponential rate coefficient for the breakup of stable un-dissociated C(O2) oxygen radicals to form stable (CO) complexes; (iii) the specific activation energy and pre-exponential coefficient for desorption of CO2 gas and; (iv) the initial surface area of reactive free sites per unit mass. This area is consistently 13.5% higher than that for nuclear graphite grades of NBG-25 and IG-110 and decreases inversely proportional with the square root of the initial mass of the graphite specimens in the experiments. Experimental measurements successfully validate the chemical-reactions kinetics model that calculates continuous Arrhenius curves of the total gasification flux and the production rates of CO and CO2 gases. The model results at different total weight losses agree well with measurements and expand beyond the temperatures in the experiments to the diffusion-limited mode of gasification. Also calculated are the production rates of CO and CO2 gases and their relative contributions to the total gasification rate in the experiments as functions of temperature, for total weight losses of 5% and 10%.

  5. Gasification and effect of gasifying temperature on syngas quality and tar generation: A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion, erosion and plugging of the downstream equipments by tar and ash particle and, low energy content of syngas are the main problems of biomass gasification process. This paper attempts to review the findings of literature on the effect of temperature on syngas quality, and in alleviating the tar and ash problems in the gasification process. The review of literature indicates that as the gasification temperature increases, concentration of the resulting H2 and carbon conversion efficiency increase, the amount of tar in the syngas decreases. For the same condition, CH4 and CO concentration do not show consistent trend when the feedstock and gasification process varies. These necessitate the need for conducting an experiment for a particular gasification process and feedstock to understand fully the benefits of controlling the gasification temperature. This paper also tries to propose a method to improve the syngas quality and to reduce the tar amount by using preheated air and superheated steam as a gasifying media for oil palm fronds (OPF) gasification.

  6. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  7. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  8. Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-09-01

    The mild gasification of coal is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness. Biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. Previously it was shown that the middle distillate (360--440{degrees}F) fraction of liquids derived from the mild gasification of coal could be biodesulfurized. During this quarter it was demonstrated that unfractionated liquids can be biodesulfurized. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lysed cell preparations and freeze-dried cells can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids. The importance of the finding that freeze-dried biocatalysts can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids is that freezedried cells can be produced at one location, stored indefinitely, and then shipped to another location for coal biodesulfurization. Moreover, freeze-dried biocatalysts can be added directly to mild coal gasification liquids with only minimal additions of water so that reactor volumes can be minimized.

  9. Goodness-of-fit methods for additive-risk models in tumorigenicity experiments.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis

    2003-09-01

    In tumorigenicity experiments, a complication is that the time to event is generally not observed, so that the time to tumor is subject to interval censoring. One of the goals in these studies is to properly model the effect of dose on risk. Thus, it is important to have goodness of fit procedures available for assessing the model fit. While several estimation procedures have been developed for current-status data, relatively little work has been done on model-checking techniques. In this article, we propose numerical and graphical methods for the analysis of current-status data using the additive-risk model, primarily focusing on the situation where the monitoring times are dependent. The finite-sample properties of the proposed methodology are examined through numerical studies. The methods are then illustrated with data from a tumorigenicity experiment.

  10. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  11. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  12. Preventing ash agglomeration during gasification of high-sodium lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Dahlin; Johnny R. Dorminey; WanWang Peng; Roxann F. Leonard; Pannalal Vimalchand

    2009-01-15

    Various additives were evaluated to assess their ability to prevent ash agglomeration during the gasification of high-sodium lignite. Additives that showed promise in simple muffle furnace tests included meta-kaolin, vermiculite, two types of silica fume, and one type of bauxite. Additives that were tested and rejected included dolomite, calcite, sand flour, kaolinite, fine kaolin, and calcined bauxite. Based on the muffle furnace test results, the meta-kaolin was selected for a follow-on demonstration in a pilot-scale coal gasifier. Pilot-scale testing showed that the addition of coarse (minus 14-mesh, 920-{mu}m mean size) meta-kaolin at a feed rate roughly equivalent to the ash content of the lignite (10 wt %) successfully prevented agglomeration and deposition problems during gasification of high-sodium lignite at a maximum operating temperature of 927{sup o}C (1700{sup o}F). 13 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  14. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  15. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  16. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    PubMed

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata.

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC20

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2006-09-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of the Transport Gasifier following significant modifications of the gasifier configuration. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC20, occurring from August 8 to September 23, 2006. The modifications proved successful in increasing gasifier residence time and particulate collection efficiency, two parameters critical in broadening of the fuel operating envelope and advancing gasification technology. The gasification process operated for over 870 hours, providing the opportunity for additional testing of various gasification technologies, such as PCD failsafe evaluation and sensor development.

  18. Heterogeneous kinetics of coal gasification. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1983-30 June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Ganapathi, R.

    1983-01-01

    In the current quarterly technical progress report we present data and results on transient kinetic studies of the steam-char reaction system for activated coconut and lignite chars. These experiments were conducted in a fashion similar to the previous char-CO/sub 2/ studies, under approximately the same experimental conditions. The two principal product species, H/sub 2/ and CO, were monitored using the automatic mass programming system developed especially for this project. In order to perform the steam-char experiments, the original apparatus was modified by the addition of a steam generation/condensate removal system. The steam-char reaction system, being somewhat more complex than the CO/sub 2/-char reaction system, was modeled with a six-parameter, elementary kinetic scheme. The ''effective'' active site concentrations determined from the steam gasification data were of the same order of magnitude, and behaved in a similar fashion, to those obtained for the CO/sub 2/ gasification studies. The implications of this result are briefly discussed. 21 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Additional experiments relative to the shelf life of Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Armijo, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    A continuing effort to develop a new thermal battery technology based on the Li(Si)/FeS2 electrochemical couple is reported. The results relate to the long shelf life requirement for thermal batteries designed by Sandia, and include topics relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal and accelerated aging experiments with materials new to the technology. Conclusions relevant to leakage through the hermetic seal are that the maximum leak rate must not exceed 1.8 x 10(-7) w, where w is the grams of Li(Si) contained by a battery, and that a bomb type leak test can be designed that is adequate for most Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. Conclusions relevant to long term compatibility of new materials include the following: nickel is not compatible with the iron disulfide in the cathode; the CaSi2 additive used to suppress the initial voltage transient does not react or degrade during accelerated aging experiments, but the use of that material can lead to an increase in the variability of the activated lives, especially for long life batteries; Grafoil current collectors used with the cathode do not degrade in accelerated aging experiments.

  20. Behaviors of Char Gasification Based on Two-stage Gasifier of Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Miki; Sasauchi, Kenichi; Ahn, Chulju; Ito, Yusuke; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planed a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the apropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth load. The following results was found: 1) the air supply into the char bed is more effective than that into the gas phase, 2) we can have the maximum cold gas efficiency of 80% on the following conditions: air supply location: char layer, air temperature: 20°C, air ratio: 0.2. 3) As air temperature is higher, the cold gas efficiency is larger. As for the hearth load, the cold gas efficiency becomes higher and reaches the constant level. It is expected from the results that high temperature in the char layer is effective on the char gasification.

  1. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar

  2. A parametric study on supercritical water gasification of Laminaria hyperborea: a carbohydrate-rich macroalga.

    PubMed

    Cherad, Ramzi; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T; Ross, Andrew B

    2014-10-01

    The potential of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of macroalgae for hydrogen and methane production has been investigated in view of the growing interest in a future macroalgae biorefinery concept. The compositions of syngas from the catalytic SCWG of Laminaria hyperborea under varying parameters including catalyst loading, feed concentration, hold time and temperature have been investigated. Their effects on gas yields, gasification efficiency and energy recovery are presented. Results show that the carbon gasification efficiencies increased with reaction temperature, reaction hold time and catalyst loading but decreased with increasing feed concentrations. In addition, the selectivity towards hydrogen and/or methane production from the SCWG tests could be controlled by the combination of catalysts and varying reaction conditions. For instance, Ru/Al2O3 gave highest carbon conversion and highest methane yield of up to 11 mol/kg, whilst NaOH produced highest hydrogen yield of nearly 30 mol/kg under certain gasification conditions.

  3. Chemometric Study of the Ex Situ Underground Coal Gasification Wastewater Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of the study was the analysis of the parameters of wastewater generated during the ex situ underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments on lignite from Belchatow, and hard coal from Ziemowit and Bobrek coal mines, simulated in the ex situ reactor. The UCG wastewater may pose a potential threat to the groundwater since it contains high concentrations of inorganic (i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, chlorides, free and bound cyanides, sulfates and trace elements: As, B, Cr, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, Se, Ti, Fe) and organic (i.e., phenolics, benzene and their alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis enabled to effectively explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the samples generated in lignite and hard coal oxygen gasification process in terms of the amounts and concentrations of particular components. The total amount of wastewater produced in lignite gasification process was higher than the amount generated in hard coal gasification experiments. The lignite gasification wastewater was also characterized by the highest contents of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, whereas hard coal gasification wastewater was characterized by relatively higher concentrations of nitrites, As, Cr, Cu, benzene, toluene, xylene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene.

  4. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  5. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  6. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-08-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.

  7. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  8. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  9. TPD study on SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char

    SciTech Connect

    Takarada, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    1996-10-01

    Elementary sulfur can be recovered from SO{sub 2}-containing gas by a gasification reaction between carbon and SO{sub 2}. Gasification of coal chars ranging from brown coal to anthracite was carried out in SO{sub 2} atmosphere using thermo-balance. The gasification temperature ranged from 923 to 1123 K. The SO{sub 2} concentration was 5.3 vol%. Yallourn coal, Australian brown coal, was impregnated with several catalysts. Potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and iron nitrate were used as the starting materials for catalyst impregnation. The active site for SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char was evaluated with TPD technique. The gasification profile was strongly depended on the coal type. High reactivities were observed for low rank coal chars. The gasification rate was enormously enhanced by the addition of alkaline metal catalyst. TPD pattern was depended on the coal type and the catalyst addition. The amount of CO and CO{sub 2} desorbed during TPD procedure in fairly correlated to the reaction rate of sample.

  10. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  11. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  12. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  13. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  14. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  15. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  16. Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balgaranova, Janetta

    2003-02-01

    The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion.

  17. Coal gasification players, projects, prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-07-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been running refineries and chemical plants for decades. Power applications have dotted the globe. Two major IGCC demonstration plants operating in the United States since the mid-1900s have helped set the stage for prime time, which is now approaching. Two major reference plant designs are in the wings and at least two major US utilities are poised to build their own IGCC power plants. 2 figs.

  18. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  19. Evaluation of the changes induced by gasification biochar in a peat-sand substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muter, Olga; Lebedeva, Galina; Telysheva, Galina

    2014-10-01

    Gasification biochar represents one of the biochar types tested for agricultural needs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physico-chemical and biological changes occurring in a peat-sand substrate amended with hardwood-derived gasification biochar in the rates of 2, 4 and 20 g l-1. The pH(H2O) of the substrate with 4 g l-1 and 20 g l-1 biochar was increased from 5.6 to 6.2 and 6.7, respectively. The testing of the substrate in the respirometry device showed that the increase in the biochar rate led to a decrease in the amount of CO2 evolved at the maximum pressure drop. The continuous decrease in pressure observed in the respirometry bottles filled with pure biochar allows explaining this effect by biochar sorption activity. Addition of 2 and 4 g l-1 biochar to the peat-sand substrate stimulated the growth of cucumbers in an 18-day pot vegetation experiment. An increase in the number of root tips and root volume with a decreasing average root diameter was shown in the presence of biochar. Stimulation of plant growth on the background of low rates of biochar requires a further study with emphasis on the specific combination of biochar, soil type, plant species, and climatic conditions.

  20. Air-based coal gasification in a two-chamber gas reactor with circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, A. M.; Tuponogov, V. G.; Kagramanov, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    During the bed gasification of solid fuels, the process temperature in the reaction zone is not high enough for reaching the maximum rate of the chemical efficiency factor of the gasification process. In order to increase the chemical efficiency factor, it is necessary to supply extra heat to the reaction zone to increase the reaction temperature. In this article, coal gasification in a chamber with forced fluidized bed is considered and it is proposed to supply extra heat with a circulating flow of an inert particulate heat transfer agent. Circulating inert particulate material is successively heated by coal combustion in a cone chamber with bubbling fluidized bed and in a combustion chamber with a spherical nozzle that inhibits the forced fluidized bed. After that, the heat transfer agent heated to 930-950°C enters first in a gasification chamber with bubbling bed and then in a chamber with forced fluidized bed, where it transfers the physical heat to the air fuel mixture. The experiments conducted with crushed Borodinsky coal and inert particulate heat transfer agent (electrocorundum) showed the temperature rise in a gasification chamber with from 760 to 870°C and the increase in the combustible component (CO) concentration in the gasification products by 5.5%. Based on the kinetic equations of the fuel combustion reactions and the CO2 reduction to CO and on the thermal balance equations of combustion and gasification chambers, the simulation model for the gas composition and the temperature rate calculated by the height of reaction chambers was developed. The experimental temperature rates and product gas compositions are in good agreement with the simulation results based on the proposed kinetic gasification model.

  1. A market-driven commercialization strategy for gasification-based technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Klara, J.M.; Tomer, B.J.; Stiegel, G.J.

    1998-07-01

    In the wake of deregulation of power generation in the US, market-based competition is driving electricity generators to low-cost risk system. In such an environment, gasification-based technologies will not be competitive with low capital cost, efficient, and reliable natural gas-fired facilities for baseload power generation in the foreseeable future. The lack of a near-term market application poses a serious threat to the progress of gasification technology. With a reduction in direct federal funding of large-scale demonstration plants as the trend to reduce the size of government continues, an alternate approach to commercialize gasification-based technologies has been developed at DOE/FETC. This new strategy employs gasification in near-term markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in near-term coproduction applications, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation when this market begins to open domestically, sometime after 2005.

  2. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  3. An experiment in software reliability: Additional analyses using data from automated replications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Janet R.; Lauterbach, Linda A.

    1988-01-01

    A study undertaken to collect software error data of laboratory quality for use in the development of credible methods for predicting the reliability of software used in life-critical applications is summarized. The software error data reported were acquired through automated repetitive run testing of three independent implementations of a launch interceptor condition module of a radar tracking problem. The results are based on 100 test applications to accumulate a sufficient sample size for error rate estimation. The data collected is used to confirm the results of two Boeing studies reported in NASA-CR-165836 Software Reliability: Repetitive Run Experimentation and Modeling, and NASA-CR-172378 Software Reliability: Additional Investigations into Modeling With Replicated Experiments, respectively. That is, the results confirm the log-linear pattern of software error rates and reject the hypothesis of equal error rates per individual fault. This rejection casts doubt on the assumption that the program's failure rate is a constant multiple of the number of residual bugs; an assumption which underlies some of the current models of software reliability. data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults.

  4. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  5. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  6. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  7. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  9. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  10. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  11. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  12. Police arrest and self-defence skills: performance under anxiety of officers with and without additional experience in martial arts.

    PubMed

    Renden, Peter G; Landman, Annemarie; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were especially interested to find out whether training once a week would already lead to better performance under high anxiety. Officers with additional experience in kickboxing or karate/jiu-jitsu (training several times per week), or krav maga (training once a week) and officers with no additional experience performed several arrest and self-defence skills under low and high anxiety. Results showed that officers with additional experience (also those who trained once a week) performed better under high anxiety than officers with no additional experience. Still, the additional experience did not prevent these participants from performing worse under high anxiety compared to low anxiety. Implications for training are discussed. Practitioner summary: Dutch police officers train their arrest and self-defence skills only four to six hours per year. Our results indicate that doing an additional martial arts training once a week may lead to better performance under anxiety, although it cannot prevent that performance decreases under high anxiety compared to low anxiety.

  13. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  14. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Tank, Jennifer; Sobota, Daniel; O'Brien, Jon; Webster, Jackson; Valett, H. Maurice; Dodds, Walter; Poole, Geoff; Peterson, Chris G.; Meyer, Judy; McDowell, William; Johnson, Sherri; Hamilton, Stephen; Gregory, Stanley; Grimm, Nancy; Dahm, Cliff; Cooper, Lee W; Ashkenas, Linda; Thomas, Suzanne; Sheibley, Rich; Potter, Jody; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Johnson, Laura; Helton, Ashley; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Burgin, Amy; Bernot, Melody; Beaulieu, Jake; Arango, Clay

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S{sub Wtot}). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Gross primary production shortened S{sub Wtot}, while increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} lengthened S{sub Wtot} resulting in no net effect of land use on NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal.

  15. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.O.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  16. Thermogravimetric characterization and gasification of pecan nut shells.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Hugo; Lozano, Francisco J; Acevedo, Joaquín; Mendoza, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of pecan nut shells as an alternative source of energy through pyrolysis and gasification. The physicochemical characteristics of the selected biomass that can influence the process efficiency, consumption rates, and the product yield, as well as create operational problems, were determined. In addition, the thermal decomposition kinetics necessary for prediction of consumption rates and yields were determined. Finally, the performance of a downdraft gasifier fed with pecan nut shells was analyzed in terms of process efficiency and exit gas characteristics. It was found that the pyrolytic decomposition of the nut shells can be modeled adequately using a single equation considering two independent parallel reactions. The performance of the gasification process can be influenced by the particle size and air flow rate, requiring a proper combination of these parameters for reliable operation and production of a valuable syngas.

  17. Two stage coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shoebotham, N.M.

    1984-06-26

    This invention relates to a two stage coal gasification plant which comprises a gasifier 1 and a predistillation retort 2. The gasifier has a plurality of gas extraction outlets 4 located in the periphery thereof which feed into a manifold 5 from where a percentage of the gas from the gasifier is extracted. Gas from the predistillation retort is extracted through an outlet near the top of the retort. An agitator 8 is provided for agitation of the coal in the agglomeration zone. The agitator is preferably automatically controlled by means of a temperature sensing device 10 located on an arm thereof.

  18. Coal gasification tests at TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, M.C.; Williamson, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results obtained from the EPRI cofunded tests conducted at TVA's 200 tpd Texaco coal gasification facility equipped with a water quench gasifier. Four US coals were tested at TVA: (1) Utah coal from the SUFCO mine, (2) Illinois No. 6 coal from the Amax Delta mine, (3) Pittsburgh No. 8 coal from the Blacksville No. 2 mine and (4) a high ash-fusion Maryland coal. The TVA tests were of short term duration totaling approximately 10 to 20 days of cumulative operation on each coal. The gasification behavior of each coal was tested under a wide range of process conditions and feed characteristics. All four coals produced carbon conversion of 92% or higher. Utah and Illinois No. 6 coals achieved carbon conversions of 95 to 97%. The high heating value Pittsburgh No. 8 coal had lower carbon conversion because the maximum allowable gasifier temperature was reached at relatively low O/C ratios. The high-ash fusion Maryland coal was gasified with a fluxing agent at temperatures within the design limit of the TVA gasifier. The gasification behavior of the coals was similar to that observed from tests at other Texaco gasifiers. However, earlier experiments at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratories showed higher values for both carbon conversion and coal gas efficiency. 27 figs., 35 tabs.

  19. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  20. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Snell, George J.; Kydd, Paul H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  1. Crystalline structure transformation of carbon anodes during gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Kien N. Tran; Adam J. Berkovich; Alan Tomsett; Suresh K. Bhatia

    2008-05-15

    The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that crystalline structure transformation occurred in two stages during gasification. The first stage involved the consumption of disorganized carbon matter in the initial 15% conversion. Oxygen was found to be more reactive toward disorganized carbon at this stage of the gasification process compared to carbon dioxide. Following this stage, as more carbon was consumed, especially with the removal of smaller crystallites, it was found that the crystalline structure became more ordered with increasing conversion levels. This is due to the merging of neighboring crystallites, required to maintain the minimum energy configuration. In addition, the interaction between the pitch and the coke components was found to be strongly linked to the initial coke structure. 'Stress graphitization' occurred at the pitch-coke interface, which helps to enhance the structural development of the anodes. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  3. Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1996-08-05

    Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

  4. Microwave-enhanced CO2 gasification of oil palm shell char.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2014-04-01

    CO2 gasification of oil palm shell (OPS) char to produce CO through the Boudouard reaction (C + CO2 ↔ 2CO) was investigated under microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to carry out the CO2 gasification in a packed bed of OPS char. The influence of char particle size, temperature and gas flow rate on CO2 conversion and CO evolution was considered. It was attempted to improve the reactivity of OPS char in gasification reaction through incorporation of Fe catalyst into the char skeleton. Very promising results were achieved in our experiments, where a CO2 conversion of 99% could be maintained during 60 min microwave-induced gasification of iron-catalyzed char. When similar gasification experiments were performed in conventional electric furnace, the superior performance of microwave over thermal driven reaction was elucidated. The activation energies of 36.0, 74.2 and 247.2 kJ/mol were obtained for catalytic and non-catalytic microwave and thermal heating, respectively.

  5. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  6. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as additional treatment in deep sternal wound infections – a single center's experience

    PubMed Central

    Bryndza, Magdalena; Chrapusta, Anna; Kobielska, Ewa; Kapelak, Bogusław; Grudzień, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is one of the most serious complications after cardiac surgery procedures, observed in 5% of patients. Current standard medical therapy for DSWI includes antibiotics, surgical debridement, resuturing or negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Unfortunately, in some cases these methods are insufficient, and additional therapeutic options are needed. Aim To assess the effects and usefulness of additional hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in patients with DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. Material and methods A retrospective analysis of 10 patients after cardiac surgery who developed DSWI in the period 2010–2012 was performed. After 3 months of ineffective conventional therapy including targeted antibiotic, surgical sternal debridement and NPWT, patients were qualified for additional HBO2 therapy. A total of 20 sessions of HBO2 therapy were performed, each 92 minutes long. Results After 4 weeks of HBO2 treatment, 7 patients presented complete wound healing with fibrous scar formation. One patient was qualified for the another cycle of HBO2 therapy with 20 additional sessions, and complete wound healing was observed. In 2 cases, after 5 and 19 sessions, HBO2 was interrupted because of improper qualifications. Conclusions The HBO2 as an additional therapy in DSWI was successful in 80% of cases, and no complications were observed. However, due to the small number of published studies with a small number of patients, randomized, clinical trials are needed to assess the clinical results of HBO2 in DSWI after cardiac surgery procedures. PMID:27785131

  8. Exposure and Experience: Additional Criteria for Selecting Future Operational Theater Commanders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    Kaufmann. From Plato to Derrida . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. 8 Experience Comparison of Former...Forrest E., and Walter Kaufmann. From Plato to Derrida . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Bell, William Gardner. Center

  9. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Pradeep K.

    2016-12-20

    (~104 °C/sec), encountered in entrained flow gasifiers. The char morphology, also a function of the heating rate, would influence the transport rates during the char gasification phase. Thus, heating rate plays a critical role through which both, pyrolysis and char gasification, are interconnected. We utilized two complementary gasification experiments: PEFR (pressurized entrained flow gasifier) and PTGA (pressurized thermo-gravimetric analyzer). The PEFR allowed us to study gasification at pressures, temperatures, and heating rates relevant for coal-biomass gasifiers. The PTGA work was useful in understanding the basic chemistry of the evolution of various gaseous species during pyrolysis. These results helped improved our understanding of the chemistry and chemical changes during pyrolysis. The role alkali metals and other inorganics in char gasification using steam and/or CO2 was investigated. Finally, the mathematical models for char gasification without the transport effects were developed at commercial operating conditions.

  10. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Douglas W.; Spiro, Clifford L.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  11. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W.

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  12. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  13. Designing Location-Based Learning Experiences for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Additional Sensory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…

  14. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized.

  15. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability of the process model.

  16. Dakota Gasification Company - ammonia scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Wallach, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Amain stack BACT assessment for sulfur dioxide emissions conducted in 1990 for the Dakota Gasification Company`s (DGC) Great Plains Synfuels Plant identified wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system as BACT. During the development of the design specification for the wet limestone FGD, GE Environmental Systems Inc. and DGC jointly demonstrated a new ammonia-based process for flue gas desulfurization on a large pilot plant located at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant. The production of saleable ammonium sulfate, rather than a waste product, was of interest to DGC as it fit into the plant`s on-going by-product recovery efforts. With the success of the pilot plant, DGC and GEESI entered into an agreement to build the first commercial scale Ammonium Sulfate Forced Oxidation FGD system. Construction of this system is well in progress with an anticipated start-up date of August, 1996.

  17. Laser Additive Melting and Solidification of Inconel 718: Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, John; Ladani, Leila; Sadowski, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The field of powdered metal additive manufacturing is experiencing a surge in public interest finding uses in aerospace, defense, and biomedical industries. The relative youth of the technology coupled with public interest makes the field a vibrant research topic. The authors have expanded upon previously published finite element models used to analyze the processing of novel engineering materials through the use of laser- and electron beam-based additive manufacturing. In this work, the authors present a model for simulating fabrication of Inconel 718 using laser melting processes. Thermal transport phenomena and melt pool geometries are discussed and validation against experimental findings is presented. After comparing experimental and simulation results, the authors present two correction correlations to transform the modeling results into meaningful predictions of actual laser melting melt pool geometries in Inconel 718.

  18. Additive Manufacture (3D Printing) of Plasma Diagnostic Components and Assemblies for Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinley, Morgan; Chun, Katherine; Melnik, Paul; Sieck, Paul; Smith, Trevor; Stuber, James; Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; Card, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    We are investigating the potential impact of additive manufacturing (3D printing) on the cost and complexity of plasma diagnostics. We present a survey of the current state-of-the-art in additive manufacture of metals, as well as the design of diagnostic components that have been optimized for and take advantage of these processes. Included among these is a set of retarding field analyzer probe heads that have been printed in tungsten with internal heat sinks and cooling channels. Finite element analysis of these probe heads shows the potential for a 750K reduction in peak temperature, allowing the probe to take data twice as often without melting. Results of the evaluation of these probe heads for mechanical strength and outgassing, as well as their use on Alcator C-Mod will be presented. Supported by DOE SBIR Grant DE-SC0011858.

  19. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  20. Biomass-oxygen gasification in a high-temperature entrained-flow gasifier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinsong; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Hui; Cao, Xiaowei; Mei, Qinfeng; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2009-01-01

    The technology associated with indirect biomass liquefaction is currently arousing increased attention, as it could ensure a supply of transportation fuels and reduce the use of petroleum. The characteristics of biomass-oxygen gasification in a bench-scale laminar entrained-flow gasifier were studied in the paper. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of some key factors, including reaction temperature, residence time and oxygen/biomass ratio, on the gasification. The results indicated that higher temperature favored H2 and CO production. Cold gas efficiency was improved by N10% when the temperature was increased from 1000 to 1400 degrees C. The carbon conversion increased and the syngas quality was improved with increasing residence time. A shorter residence resulted in incomplete gasification. An optimal residence time of 1.6 s was identified in this study. The introduction of oxygen to the gasifier strengthened the gasification and improved the carbon conversion, but lowered the lower heating value and the H2/CO ratio of the syngas. The optimal oxygen/biomass ratio in this study was 0.4. The results of this study will help to improve our understanding of syngas production by biomass high-temperature gasification.

  1. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C.

  2. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150°C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  3. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  4. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  5. High temperature solid oxide fuel cell integrated with novel allothermal biomass gasification. Part II: Exergy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panopoulos, K. D.; Fryda, L.; Karl, J.; Poulou, S.; Kakaras, E.

    Biomass gasification derived gas is a renewable fuel, which can be used for SOFC applications. This work investigates the integration of a near atmospheric solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a novel allothermal biomass steam gasification process into a combined heat and power (CHP) system of less than MW e range. Heat for steam gasification is supplied from SOFC depleted fuel in a fluidised bed (FB) combustor via high temperature sodium heat pipes. In the first paper, the integrated system was modelled in Aspen Plus™ and critical aspects for its feasibility were identified. The aim of this second part is the evaluation of the integrated system in exergy terms. Satisfying allothermal gasification heat demand is illustrated by examining each sub-process involved separately as well as combined. For a relatively low STBR = 0.6, the SOFC fuel utilisation for which the system operates under optimum conditions is U f = 0.7. Above that value additional biomass has to be used in the FB combustor to provide gasification heat with considerable exergy losses. For SOFC operation at current density 2500 A m -2, the system uses 90 kg h -1 biomass, operates with electrical exergetic efficiency 32% producing 140 kW e, while the combined electrical and thermal exergetic efficiency is 35%.

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.

    1990-10-23

    Research continued on the production of coproducts from continuous mild gasification. During the third quarter of 1990, work focused on start-up and operation of the 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU). Start-up procedures have been finalized for the methane production reactor, and the design temperature has been achieved. Flows and pressures for the overall process have been balanced and optimized. We have achieved temperatures above 1500{degree}F in the carbon formation reactor. Upgrading experiments on mild gasification pitch have also continued on a pitch produced in run MG-122. Results of heat treating and catalytic treating tests are reported.

  7. Waste gasification vs. conventional Waste-to-Energy: a comparative evaluation of two commercial technologies.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2012-04-01

    A number of waste gasification technologies are currently proposed as an alternative to conventional Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Assessing their potential is made difficult by the scarce operating experience and the fragmentary data available. After defining a conceptual framework to classify and assess waste gasification technologies, this paper compares two of the proposed technologies with conventional WtE plants. Performances are evaluated by proprietary software developed at Politecnico di Milano and compared on the basis of a coherent set of assumptions. Since the two gasification technologies are configured as "two-step oxidation" processes, their energy performances are very similar to those of conventional plants. The potential benefits that may justify their adoption relate to material recovery and operation/emission control: recovery of metals in non-oxidized form; collection of ashes in inert, vitrified form; combustion control; lower generation of some pollutants.

  8. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice.

  9. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  10. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Larry, E.

    2007-04-30

    The Mississippi Ethanol (ME) Project is a comprehensive effort to develop the conversion of biomass to ethanol utilizing a proprietary gasification reactor technology developed by Mississippi Ethanol, LLC. Tasks were split between operation of a 1/10 scale unit at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University (MSU) and the construction, development, and operation of a full scale pilot unit located at the ME facility in Winona, Mississippi. In addition to characterization of the ME reactor gasification system, other areas considered critical to the operational and economic viability of the overall ME concept were evaluated. These areas include syngas cleanup, biological conversion of syngas to alcohol, and effects of gasification scale factors. Characterization of run data from the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units has allowed development of the factors necessary for scale-up from the small unit to the larger unit. This scale range is approximately a factor of 10. Particulate and tar sampling gave order of magnitude values for preliminary design calculations. In addition, sampling values collected downstream of the ash removal system show significant reductions in observed loadings. These loading values indicate that acceptable particulate and tar loading rates could be attained with standard equipment additions to the existing configurations. Overall operation both the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units proceeded very well. The Pilot Unit was operated as a system, from wood receiving to gas flaring, several times and these runs were used to address possible production-scale concerns. Among these, a pressure feed system was developed to allow feed of material against gasifier system pressure with little or no purge requirements. Similarly, a water wash system, with continuous ash collection, was developed, installed, and tested. Development of a biological system for alcohol production was conducted at Mississippi State University with

  11. Assessment of quality of platelets preserved in plasma and platelet additive solution: A Malaysian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Munirah Binti; Hashim, Hasna Binti; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2016-01-01

    Background: A use of platelet additives solution (PAS) improves storage conditions so as to give increased shelf life to platelets and to maintain hemostatic function. Objective: The present study was aimed to compare in vitro quality of platelet rich plasma (PRP)-derived platelet concentrate (PC) during extended period of storage in plasma and in additive solution (Composol PS and Fresenius). Study Design: Randomized 19 PCs each were used in the study for plasma and PAS as the storage medium. The measurement parameters, including pH, total white blood cell (WBC) count, total platelet count, and platelet activation rate, were studied on day 1, day 5, and day 8 of the storage period. The sterility test was carried out on the eighth day of storage. Results: pH of PC suspended in PAS was significantly lower as compared to that in plasma (P < 0.001) for all the three days of sampling. The WBC count, both in plasma and in PAS, showed an acceptable values of being <0.2 Χ 109 /unit during the storage period. Platelet count in PAS was higher as compared to that in plasma, though it was not statistically significant. While both the groups showed increased platelet activation rate during the storage, the PCs suspended in PAS showed significantly higher platelet activation rate (p0.001). Results from sterility test showed no bacterial growth in the PCs in both the groups. Conclusion: Most parameters studied on platelet storage in suspending medium of native plasma and PAS remained well within the acceptable limits. However, the pH values and platelet activation rate significantly differed in PAS as compared with plasma. PMID:27011678

  12. Supercritical water gasification of microalga Nannochloropsis over supported Ni and Ru catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijenayake, A. G. B. S. P.; Hassan, M.; Komiyama, M.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of a marine microalga Nannochloropsis was performed in the presence and the absence of supported Ru and Ni catalysts at 385 °C and 26 MPa using a batch reactor. The product gas of the non-catalytic reaction mainly comprised of CO2 while that of catalytic reaction produced CH4, CO2, H2 and some C2-C4 compounds. The addition of catalysts enhanced the decomposition and conversion (water-gas shift and methanation) reactions, consequently increasing the total gasification efficiency up to 92% for 60 min reaction time. Between the supported Ru and Ni catalysts, Ru resulted in higher gasification efficiency than Ni. Catalyst deactivation during SCWG of Nannochloropsis was also examined.

  13. Summary and overview of the CYCLOPS P addition Lagrangian experiment in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krom, M. D.; Thingstad, T. F.; Brenner, S.; Carbo, P.; Drakopoulos, P.; Fileman, T. W.; Flaten, G. A. F.; Groom, S.; Herut, B.; Kitidis, V.; Kress, N.; Law, C. S.; Liddicoat, M. I.; Mantoura, R. F. C.; Pasternak, A.; Pitta, P.; Polychronaki, T.; Psarra, S.; Rassoulzadegan, F.; Skjoldal, E. F.; Spyres, G.; Tanaka, T.; Tselepides, A.; Wassmann, P.; Wexels Riser, C.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Zodiatis, G.; Zohary, T.

    2005-11-01

    CYCLOPS was a European Framework 5 program to further our understanding of phosphorus cycling in the Eastern Mediterranean. The core of CYCLOPS was a Lagrangian experiment in which buffered phosphoric acid was added to a <4×4 km patch of water together with SF 6 as the inert tracer. The patch was followed for nine days in total. Results obtained prior to the experiment showed that the system was typically ultra-oligotrophic and P-starved with DON:DOP, PON:POP and DIN:DIP all having ratios greatly in excess of 16:1 in surface waters. To our surprise, we found that although the added phosphate was rapidly taken up by the microbial biota, there was a small but significant decrease in chlorophyll a and no increase in primary production, together with an increase in heterotrophic bacterial activity, ciliate numbers and in the gut fullness and egg numbers in the zooplankton community. A microcosm experiment carried out using within-patch and out-of-patch water showed that the phytoplankton community were N and P co-limited while the bacteria and micrograzers were P-limited. Thus this system tends to N and P co-limitation of phytoplankton productivity in summer possibly caused by bioavailable DIN being converted into non-bioavailable forms of DON. On the basis of the data collected within the programme it was concluded that this behavior could be explained by three non-mutually exclusive processes described as (1) trophic by-pass in which the added phosphate gets directly to the grazing part of the predatory food chain from the heterotrophic bacteria bypassing the phytoplankton compartment phosphate, (2) trophic tunnelling in which phosphate is rapidly taken up by both phytoplankton and bacteria via rapid luxury consumption. This causes an immediate change in the phosphorus content but not the abundance of the prey organisms. The added P then "reappears" as responses at the predator level much more rapidly than expected, and (3) mixotrophic by-pass in which inorganic

  14. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    PubMed

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits.

  15. Effects of biochar addition to soil on nitrogen fluxes in a winter wheat lysimeter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Neftel, Albrecht; Conen, Franz; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous residue from pyrolysis of biomass that potentially increases crop yields by reducing losses of nitrogen from soils and/or enhancing the uptake of applied fertiliser by the crops. Previous research is scarce about biochar's ability to increase wheat yields in temperate soils or how it changes nitrogen dynamics in the field. In a lysimeter system with two different soils (sandy/silt loam) nitrogen fluxes were traced by isotopic 15N enriched fertiliser to identify changes in nitrous oxide emissions, leaching and plant uptake after biochar addition. 20t/ha woodchip-waste biochar (pH=13) was applied to these soils in four lysimeters per soil type; the same number of lysimeters served as a control. The soils were cropped with winter wheat during the season 2012/2013. 170 kg-N/ha ammonium nitrate fertiliser with 10% 15N was applied in 3 events during the growing season and 15N concentrations where measured at different points in time in plant, soil, leachate and emitted nitrous oxide. After one year the lysimeter system showed no difference between biochar and control treatment in grain- and straw yield or nitrogen uptake. However biochar did reduce nitrous oxide emissions in the silt loam and losses of nitrate leaching in sandy loam. This study indicates potential reduction of nitrogen loss from cropland soil by biochar application but could not confirm increased yields in an intensive wheat production system.

  16. Solid fuel gasification in the global energy sector (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2015-07-01

    In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented.

  17. Balancing the process of hydrating gasification of brown coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Schuster, P.; Roertgen, H.

    1980-03-01

    A method is presented for the hydrating gasification of brown coal to synthetic natural gas by employing heat from a nuclear reactor. Attention is given to the layout and flow scheme of the gasification plant as well as to graphs of gasification percentages versus gasification temperatures and pressure. The irreversibilities of various plant components are determined by using detailed exergy balance sheets, and the thermal and exergy efficiencies of the entire plant are noted.

  18. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: 2. Denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Hall, Robert; Sobota, Daniel; Dodds, Walter; Findlay, Stuart; Grimm, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; McDowell, William; O'Brien, Jon; Tank, Jennifer; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Gregory, Stanley; Johnson, Sherri; Meyer, Judy; Peterson, Bruce; Poole, Geoff; Valett, H. Maurice; Webster, Jackson; Arango, Clay; Beaulieu, Jake; Bernot, Melody; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; Niederlehner, Bobbie; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Thomas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S{sub Wden}) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N{sub 2} production rates far exceeded N{sub 2}O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling S{sub Wden} were specific discharge (discharge/width) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (U{sub den}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although U{sub den} increased with increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, the efficiency of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup -} load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration.

  19. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Hall, R.O.; Sobota, D.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; McDowell, W.H.; O'Brien, J. M.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, S.V.; Johnson, S.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.J.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomasn, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field 15N-NO- 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (SWden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N2 production rates far exceeded N2O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO-3 removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NHz 4 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling SWden were specific discharge (discharge / width) and NO-3 concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (Uden) and NO- 3 concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although Uden increased with increasing NO- 3 concentration, the efficiency of NO-3 removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO-3 load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO-3 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO-3 concentration. ?? 2009.

  20. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon Kramer

    2003-09-01

    This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC coproduction projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-99FT40342. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This non-optimized plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW.1 This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for

  1. Effect of Additives on Green Sand Molding Properties using Design of Experiments and Taguchi's Quality Loss Function - An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhagyashree; Mokashi, Pavani; Anand, R. L.; Burli, S. B.; Khandal, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental study aims to underseek the effect of various additives on the green sand molding properties as a particular combination of additives could yield desired sand properties. The input parameters (factors) selected were water and powder (Fly ash, Coconut shell and Tamarind) in three levels. Experiments were planned using design of experiments (DOE). On the basis of plans, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of sand mould properties such as compression strength, shear strength, permeability number with various additives. From the experimental results it could be concluded that the factors have significant effect on the sand properties as P-value found to be less than 0.05 for all the cases studied. The optimization based on quality loss function was also performed. The study revealed that the quality loss associated with the tamarind powder was lesser compared to other additives selected for the study. The optimization based on quality loss function and the parametric analysis using ANOVA suggested that the tamarind powder of 8 gm per Kg of molding sand and moisture content of 7% yield better properties to obtain sound castings.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic generator of electrical energy using gasification products of lignite coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, V. A.; Slavin, V. S.; Sokolov, V. S.

    1980-10-01

    An investigation is presented of an MHD generator of electrical energy fueled by gasification products of lignite coals using the T-layer effect which eliminates caustic additives. A quasi-one-dimensional theory of linear MHD processes is constructed on the basis of MHD equations; a design of an industrial generator is discussed.

  3. MHD generator of electrical energy working on the gasification products of lignites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, V. A.; Slavin, V. S.; Sokolov, V. S.

    1981-03-01

    An investigation is presented of an MHD generator of electrical energy fueled by gasification products of lignite coals using the T-layer effect which eliminates caustic additives. A quasi-one-dimensional theory of linear MHD processes is constructed on the basis of MHD equations; a design of an industrial generator is discussed.

  4. Dry coal feeder development program at Ingersoll-Rand Research, Incorporated. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mistry, D. K.; Chen, T. N.

    1977-01-01

    A dry coal screw feeder for feeding coal into coal gasification reactors operating at pressures up to 1500 psig is described. Results on the feeder under several different modes of operation are presented. In addition, three piston feeder concepts and their technical and economical merits are discussed.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  6. Hydrothermal Gasification for Waste to Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden; Laser, Mark; Choo, Yeunun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal gasification is a promising technology for harvesting energy from waste streams. Applications range from straightforward waste-to-energy conversion (e.g. municipal waste processing, industrial waste processing), to water purification (e.g. oil spill cleanup, wastewater treatment), to biofuel energy systems (e.g. using algae as feedstock). Products of the gasification process are electricity, bottled syngas (H2 + CO), sequestered CO2, clean water, and inorganic solids; further chemical reactions can be used to create biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. We present a comparison of gasification system architectures, focusing on efficiency and economic performance metrics. Various system architectures are modeled computationally, using a model developed by the coauthors. The physical model tracks the mass of each chemical species, as well as energy conversions and transfers throughout the gasification process. The generic system model includes the feedstock, gasification reactor, heat recovery system, pressure reducing mechanical expanders, and electricity generation system. Sensitivity analysis of system performance to various process parameters is presented. A discussion of the key technological barriers and necessary innovations is also presented.

  7. Solar coal gasification - Plant design and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiman, W. R.; Thorsness, C. B.; Gregg, D. W.

    A plant design and economic analysis is presented for solar coal gasification (SCG). Coal pyrolysis and char gasification to form the gasified product are reviewed, noting that the endothermic gasification reactions occur only at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, an energy input of 101-136 kJ/mol of char reformed. Use of solar heat offers the possibility of replacing fuels needed to perform the gasification and the oxygen necessary in order to produce a nitrogen-free product. Reactions, energetics, and byproducts from the gasification of subbituminous coal are modeled for a process analysis code used for the SCG plant. Gas generation is designed to occur in a unit exposed to the solar flux focus from a heliostat field. The SCG gas would have an H2 content of 88%, compared to the 55% offered by the Lurgi process. Initial capital costs for the SCG plant are projected to be 4 times those with the Lurgi process, with equality being achieved when coal costs $4/gJ.

  8. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  9. Biomass gasification: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-03-01

    The solid fuels, biomass and coal, can be converted by gasification into clean gaseous fuels that are easier to distribute and required for many technical processes. The simplest method of conversion is air gasification, producing a low-energy gas well suited for direct-heat or engine applications but unsuitable for pipeline use. Oxygen gasification produces a medium-energy gas composed primarily of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used industrial pipelines for operation of turbines for power and heat cogeneration or for chemical synthesis of methanol or ammonia. Steam or hydrogen gasification are also possible but external heat and energy sources are required. Slow pyrolysis produces a medium-energy gas, charcoal, and oil. Gases resulting from fast pyrolysis contain a high concentration of olefins (primarily ethylene), which are quite useful for synthesis of fuels or chemicals. This paper presents some of the most pertinent material from the three-volume SERI report, A Survey of Biomass Gasification.

  10. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  11. Impacts of Asian Dust and Haze Particles Addition on Phytoplankton in Incubation Experiments in the Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Y.; Shi, J.; Yao, X.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition (AD) induced by dust events and air pollutants has been considered as an important source of bio-available nutrients such as N, P, Si and trace metals (e.g., Fe, Cu, Pb) to the oceans. The coastal seas of China are severely affected by AD from Asian dust events and haze episodes, especially in spring and winter. In this study, several on-board incubation experiments were performed in the Yellow Sea of China during 2011 - 2014, to explore the responses of micro-, nano- and pico-phytoplankton to various combinations of Asian dust, nutrients and haze particles by measuring the size-fractionated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. In the experiments of Asian dust addition, the concentration of Chl a and the conversion efficiency index of N into Chl a increased by up to ~40 % and ~30 %, respectively, compared to the control, showing enhancement effects on the growth of phytoplankton. The addition of haze particles exhibited more obvious promotions of pico-phytoplankton growth, but more severe inhibitions of micro-phytoplankton growth than other treatments. The incubation experiments conducted in the Yellow Sea also indicated P limitation variations in spring and summer. It was inferred that both Asian dust and haze particles additions had significant impacts on the growth and structure of phytoplankton by modulating the limiting factors.

  12. Coal gasification using solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

    1983-01-01

    An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

  13. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  14. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  15. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  16. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  17. Barium carbonate catalysis of carbon gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Ersolmaz, C.; Falconer, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of barium carbonate with carbon black was studied to understand catalyzed CO/sub 2/ gasification of carbon. Temperature-programmed reaction with isotopic labeling of the carbonate and the carbon showed that carbon dramatically accelerated with rate of BaCO/sub 3/ decomposition to form BaO and CO/sub 2/, which rapidly gasified carbon to form CO. Pure BaCO/sub 3/ was observed to exchange carbon dioxide with the gas-phase, and the exchange rate was significantly increased by carbon at higher temperatures, due to formation of a carbon-carbonate complex. The interaction of BaCO/sub 3/ and C to form a complex occurred well below gasification temperatures, and BaCO/sub 3/ did not decompose until after gasification began and the gas phase CO/sub 2/ concentration was low.

  18. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  19. Recent design and cost studies for air blown gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.G.; Mordecai, M.; Welford, G.B.; Otter, N.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) (formerly known as the British Coal Topping Cycle) is a high efficiency low cost system for producing power with excellent environmental performance. High efficiency is achieved without the complexity associated with other advanced cycles and the technology can be introduced in a modular fashion. Being a simple air blown fluid bed gasifier and combustor combination it is capable of using a wide range of fuels and is particularly suited for dealing with high ash melting point fuels found in areas of the world short of natural gas. An extensive program of pilot plant testing of a variety of fuels is now being completed on the test facility at the Coal Technology Development Division (CTDD) of British Coal as part of a UK program to develop the Air Blown Gasification Cycle. This program is supplying data to produce a design specification for a Prototype Integrated Plant (PIP) of around 90 MWe, and is managed by a consortium, the Clean Coal Power Generation Group. The paper summarizes recent results and operating experience for the pilot plant including fuel behavior studies, research in hot gas cleaning (particulate and gaseous contaminants), and gas combustion experience. The various cost studies undertaken on the ABGC are outlined and compared, including recent studies by EPRI.

  20. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable.

  1. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  2. Circulating fluidized bed gasification of low rank coal: Influence of O2/C molar ratio on gasification performance and sulphur transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Yukui; Zhu, Zhiping; Lu, Qinggang

    2016-08-01

    To promote the utilization efficiency of coal resources, and to assist with the control of sulphur during gasification and/or downstream processes, it is essential to gain basic knowledge of sulphur transformation associated with gasification performance. In this research we investigated the influence of O2/C molar ratio both on gasification performance and sulphur transformation of a low rank coal, and the sulphur transformation mechanism was also discussed. Experiments were performed in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier with O2/C molar ratio ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol. The results showed that increasing the O2/C molar ratio from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol can increase carbon conversion from 57.65% to 91.92%, and increase sulphur release ratio from 29.66% to 63.11%. The increase of O2/C molar ratio favors the formation of H2S, and also favors the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms. Due to the reducing conditions of coal gasification, H2S is the main form of the released sulphur, which could be formed by decomposition of pyrite and by secondary reactions. Bottom char shows lower sulphur content than fly ash, and mainly exist as sulphates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements also show that the intensity of pyrite declines and the intensity of sulphates increases for fly ash and bottom char, and the change is more obvious for bottom char. During CFB gasification process, bigger char particles circulate in the system and have longer residence time for further reaction, which favors the release of sulphur species and can enhance the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms.

  3. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  4. Great Plains Gasification Project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, D.C.

    1985-08-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Project is the first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion in the US. The goal is to convert North Dakota lignite into pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). The project consists of an open pit coal mine, a gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline in Mercer County, North Dakota. The project took 12 years from its conception to the production in 1984 of SNG for users. The author describes the plant's basic processes, the start-up activities and schedule, and some of the more interesting start-up problems.

  5. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  6. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  7. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process.

  8. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    PubMed

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  9. Mild coal gasification screw pyrolyzer development and design

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    Our objective is to produce information and design recommendations needed for the development of an efficient continuous process for the mild gasification of caking bituminous coals. We have focused on the development of an externally heated pyrolyzer in which the sticky, reacting coal is conveyed by one or more screws. We have taken a multifaceted approach to forwarding the development of the externally-heated screw pyrolyzer. Small scale process experiments on a 38-mm single screw pyrolyzer have been a major part of our effort. Engineering analyses aimed at producing design and scaleup equations have also been important. Process design recommendations follow from these. We critically review our experimental data and experience, and information from the literature and equipment manufactures for the purpose of making qualitative recommendations for improving practical pyrolyzer design and operation. Benchscale experiments are used to supply needed data and test some preliminary concepts. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Development of nano-niO/Al2O3 catalyst to be used for tar removal in biomass gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfen; Yan, Rong; Xiao, Bo; Liang, David Tee; Du, Lijuan

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study isto develop a novel supported nano-NiO catalyst for tar removal in biomass gasification/pyrolysis, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gases. For this purpose, the supported nano-NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation (DP) method. Different analytical approaches such as XRD, BET, TEM and SEM/EDX were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed thatthe prepared nano-NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts had a coated structure with a loading of NiO in catalysts over 12 wt %, and they had also a higher BET surface area over commercial nickel based catalysts. The active components of catalyst were spherical NiO nanoparticles coated on the surface of supports with a size range of 12-18 nm. Furthermore, the activity of the catalysts to remove tar in the process of biomass pyrolysis was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments demonstrated that the tar yield after addition of the catalyst was reduced significantly; the tar removal efficiency reached to 99% for catalytic pyrolysis at 800 degrees C, and the gas yield after addition of the catalyst increased markedly. The compositions of gas products before and after addition of the catalyst in the process also changed significantly. The percentages of CO2 and CH4 in the product gas after addition of the catalysts were obviously reduced, while those of the valuable H2 and CO strongly increased. Therefore, using the prepared NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst in biomass gasification/pyrolysis can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and meanwhile efficiently eliminate the tar generation.

  12. CAVSIM. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A., Thorsness, C.B. )

    1989-03-03

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  14. Fate of catechols in coal gasification condensate waters

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrich, K.E.

    1986-02-01

    Even after the wastewater has been subjected to rigorous cleaning, many chemicals still remain. In order to remove these compounds, they must be identified. Catechol is a compound which appears in the condensate water and, because its concentration changes, its fate is somewhat uncertain. In recent experiments modeling the condensate water conditions, catechol solutions were aerated in the presence of ammonia. Upon acidification of the solutions, a polymer precipitates. This polymer was compared to the black compound isolated from the condensate water by spectral and elemental analyses. The structures of the two polymers were reasonably similar. The kinetics of oxidation, as determined by the uptake of oxygen, indicates that the reaction was first order in catechol and oxygen. The rate was significantly enhanced by an increase in pH. Assuming that catechol is the only subunit of the polymers isolated from the different condensate waters, calculations would indicate that the initial catechol concentration varies from 440 to 1700 ppM. An attempt is being made to account for all of the carbon that appears in the water from the gasification process. Presently, only 60% to 70% of the carbon-containing products have been identified. Part of the remaining total organic carbon can be accounted for by the catechol polymer. Studying the fate of catechol in the coal gasification condensate water will help to develop an environmentally and financially feasible treatment of the wastewater. 4 refs.

  15. Calcium nitrate addition to control the internal load of phosphorus from sediments of a tropical eutrophic reservoir: microcosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T M; Sueitt, A P E; Beraldo, D A S; Botta, C M R; Fadini, P S; Nascimento, M R L; Faria, B M; Mozeto, A A

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to perform laboratory experiments on calcium nitrate addition to sediments of a tropical eutrophic urban reservoir (Ibirité reservoir, SE Brazil) to immobilize the reactive soluble phosphorus (RSP) and to evaluate possible geochemical changes and toxic effects caused by this treatment. Reductions of 75 and 89% in the concentration of RSP were observed in the water column and interstitial water, respectively, after 145 days of nitrate addition. The nitrate application increased the rate of autotrophic denitrification, causing a consumption of 98% of the added nitrate and oxidation of 99% of the acid volatile sulfide. As a consequence, there were increases in the sulfate and iron (II) concentrations in the sediment interstitial water and water column, as well as changes in the copper speciation in the sediments. Toxicity tests initially indicated that the high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in the sediment interstitial water (up to 2300 mg L(-1) and 260 mg L(-1), respectively) were the major cause of mortality of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Chironomus xanthus. However, at the end of the experiment, the sediment toxicity was completely removed and a reduction in the 48 h-EC50 of the water was also observed. Based on these results we can say that calcium nitrate treatment proved to be a valuable tool in remediation of eutrophic aquatic ecosystems leading to conditions that can support a great diversity of organisms after a restoration period.

  16. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  17. Demonstration plant for pressurized gasification of biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R. ); Kinoshita, C.M.; Takahashi, P.K.; Phillips, V.D. ); Caldwell, C. Co., Pasadena, CA ); Kwok, R. ); Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology

    1991-01-01

    A project to design, construct, and operate a pressurized biomass gasification plant in Hawaii will begin in 1991. Negotiations are underway with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) which is co-funding the project with the state of Hawaii and industry. The gasifier is a scale-up of the pressurized fluidized-bed RENUGAS process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project team consists of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC S), The Ralph M. Parsons Company, and IGT. The gasifier will be designed for 70 tons per day of sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and will be located at the Paia factory of HC S on the island of Maui. In addition to bagasse, other feedstocks such as wood, biomass wastes, and refuse-derived-fuel may be evaluated. The demonstration plant will ultimately supply part of the process energy needs for the sugar factory. The operation and testing phase will provide process information for both air- and oxygen-blown gasification, and at both low and high pressures. The process will be evaluated for both fuel gas and synthesis gas production, and for electrical power production with advanced power generation schemes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Low-Temperature Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Butner, R. Scott

    2004-10-27

    Low-temperature hydrothermal gasification can be applied to biorefinery residues as an efficient energy recovery process. Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to medium heating value gas at relatively low temperature (350 degrees Celsius). In the pressurized-water environment (21 MPa) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas is produced with high-levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. Processing systems and results will be described for both bench-scale and scaled-up reactor systems. The bench-scale systems include both short-term 1-liter batch reactor tests and longer-term continuous flow reactor tests using a 1-liter fixed bed of catalyst in a tubular reactor. The scaled-up reactor is a 4.4 liter version of the continuous flow system, which also includes a high-pressure heat exchanger to demonstrate process efficiency.

  19. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC21

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2007-01-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of gasification operation with lignite coal following the 2006 gasifier configuration modifications. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC21, occurring from November 7, 2006, through January 26, 2007. The test campaign began with low sodium lignite fuel, and after 304 hours of operation, the fuel was changed to high sodium lignite, for 34 additional hours of operation. Both fuels were from the North Dakota Freedom mine. Stable operation with low sodium lignite was maintained for extended periods, although operation with high sodium lignite was problematic due to agglomeration formation in the gasifier restricting solids circulation.

  20. Process characteristics and products of olive kernel high temperature steam gasification (HTSG).

    PubMed

    Skoulou, V; Swiderski, A; Yang, W; Zabaniotou, A

    2009-04-01

    Exploitation of olive kernel for bioenergy production, with respect to the green house gases (GHGs) mitigation, is the main aim of this work. In this study, olive kernels were used as a solid biofuel, and high temperature steam gasification (HTSG) was investigated, in the fixed bed unit at KTH Sweden, with regard to hydrogen maximization in the produced gasification gas. Experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 750-1050 degrees C, with steam as the gasifying agent. The behaviour of olive kernels, under residence times from 120 up to 960 s, has been studied. At 1050 degrees C, a medium to high calorific value gas was obtained (LHVgas=13.62 MJ/Nm3), while an acquired H2/CO molar ratio equal to four proved that olive kernel HTSG gasification could be an effective technology for a hydrogen-rich gas production (approximately 40%vv H2 in the produced gasification gas at 1050 degrees C). The produced char contained 79%ww of fixed carbon, low chlorine and sulphur content, which enables it for further re-use for energetic purposes. Tar content in the produced gas at 750 degrees C was 124.07 g/Nm3, while a 1050 degrees C at 79.64% reduction was observed and reached the value of 25.26 g/Nm3.

  1. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 2, Production of IFG (industrial fuel gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of industrial fuel gas (IFG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based upon a plant producing 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of IFG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant feed, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of industrial fuel gas. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, seven Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots facility located in the area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 39 refs., 33 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen in biomass during high temperature pyrolysis and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Pyrolysis and gasification of two biomass feedstocks with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content were investigated to determine the effect of operating conditions on the partitioning of FBN among gas species. Experiments were performed in a bench-scale, indirectly-heated, fluidized bed reactor. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components of the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Results indicate that: (1) NH{sub 3} is the dominant nitrogenous gas species produced during pyrolysis of biomass; (2) the majority of FBN is converted to NH{sub 3} or N{sub 2} during gasification; relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions which are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be produced from NH{sub 3} in the gas phase.

  3. Experimental and predicted approaches for biomass gasification with enriched air-steam in a fluidised bed.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qirang; Huang, Yaji; Niu, Miaomiao; Yang, Gaoqiang; Shao, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-chemical gasification of sawdust refuse-derived fuel was performed on a bench-scale fluidised bed gasifier with enriched air and steam as fluidising and oxidising agents. Dolomite as a natural mineral catalyst was used as bed material to reform tars and hydrocarbons. A series of experiments were carried out under typical operating conditions for gasification, as reported in the article. A modified equilibrium model, based on equilibrium constants, was developed to predict the gasification process. The sensitivity analysis of operating parameters, such as the fluidisation velocity, oxygen percentage of the enriched air and steam to biomass ratios on the produced gas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the predicted syngas composition was in better agreement with the experimental data compared with the original equilibrium model. The higher fluidisation velocity enhanced gas-solid mixing, heat and mass transfers, and carbon fines elutriation, simultaneously. With the increase of oxygen percentage from 21% to 45%, the lower heating value of syngas increased from 5.52 MJ m(-3) to 7.75 MJ m(-3) and cold gas efficiency from 49.09% to 61.39%. The introduction of steam improved gas quality, but a higher steam to biomass ratio could decrease carbon conversion and gasification efficiency owing to a low steam temperature. The optimal value of steam to biomass ratio in this work was 1.0.

  4. Noble-metal-free bimetallic alloy nanoparticle-catalytic gasification of phenol in supercritical water

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Lijuan; Yu, Jiangdong; Chen, Yuan; ...

    2017-02-27

    The exploration of non-noble-metal catalysts for high efficiency gasification of biomass in supercritical water (SCW) is of great significance for the sustainable development. A series of Ni–M (M = Co or Zn) bimetallic nanoparticles supported on graphitized carbon black were synthesized and examined as catalysts for gasification of phenol in SCW. We found that a nearly complete gasification of phenol can be achieved even at a low temperature of 450 °C with the bimetallic nanoparticles catalysts. Kinetic study indicated the activation energy for phenol gasification were 20.4 ± 2.6 and 43.6 ± 2.6 kJ/mol for Ni20Zn15 and Ni20Co15 catalyst, respectively.more » Furthermore, XRD, XPS and TEM were performed to characterize the catalysts and the results showed the formation of NiCo and NiZn alloy phase. Catalyst recycling experiments were also conducted to evaluate the stability of the catalysts. The characterization of used catalysts suggest that the severe agglomeration of nanoparticles leads to the decrease in catalytic activity.« less

  5. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  6. Study on CO₂ gasification properties and kinetics of biomass chars and anthracite char.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Jianliang; Hou, Xinmei; Shao, Jiugang; Geng, Weiwei

    2015-02-01

    The CO2 gasification properties and kinetics of three biomass chars (WS-char, RL-char and PS-char) and anthracite char (AC-char) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis method. Three nth-order representative gas-solid reaction models, random pore model (RPM), volume reaction model (VM) and unreacted core model (URCM) were employed to describe the reactive behavior of chars. Results show that gasification reactivity order of different chars from high to low was WS-char, PS-char, RL-char and AC-char. In addition, the chemical components as well as physical structures of four chars were systematically tested. It was found that gasification properties of char were determined by carbonaceous structure. It was concluded from kinetics analysis that RPM model was the best model for describing the reactivities of biomass chars and VM was the model that best fitted the gasification process of anthracite char. The activation energies obtained for the biomass and anthracite char samples lie in the range of 236.4-284.9 kJ/mol.

  7. Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock.

  8. Motor imagery of locomotion with an additional load: actual load experience does not affect differences between physical and mental durations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Blischke, Klaus; Krüger, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Motor imagery relies strongly on motor representations. Currently, it is widely accepted that both the imagery and execution of actions share the same neural representations (Jeannerod, Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001). Comparing mental with actual movement durations opens a window through which to examine motor representations and how they relate to cognitive motor processes. The present experiment examined mental durations reported by participants standing upright who imagined walking either with or without an additional load while actually carrying or not carrying that same load. Results showed a robust effect of longer durations when imagining the additional load during mental walking, whereas physical walking with an additional load did not extend movement durations accordingly. However, experiencing an actual load during imagery did not influence mental durations substantially. This dissociation of load-related effects can be interpreted as being due to an interaction of motor processes and their cognitive representation along with a reduction in neural activity in vestibular and somatosensory areas during imagery of locomotion. It is argued that this effect might be specific to locomotion and not generalize to a broader range of movements.

  9. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project... availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project Preliminary... the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, which would...

  10. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested

  11. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power

  12. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  13. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification.

  14. CO2 gasification reactivity of biomass char: catalytic influence of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal salts.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of alkali (Na, K), alkaline earth (Ca, Mg) and transition (Fe) metal nitrates on CO2 gasification reactivity of pistachio nut shell (PNS) char. The preliminary gasification experiments were performed in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and the results showed considerable improvement in carbon conversion; Na-char>Ca-char>Fe-char>K-char>Mg-char>raw char. Based on TGA studies, NaNO3 (with loadings of 3-7 wt%) was selected as the superior catalyst for further gasification studies in bench-scale reactor; the highest reactivity was devoted to 5 wt% Na loaded char. The data acquired for gasification rate of catalyzed char were fitted with several kinetic models, among which, random pore model was adopted as the best model. Based on obtained gasification rate constant and using the Arrhenius plot, activation energy of 5 wt% Na loaded char was calculated as 151.46 kJ/mol which was 53 kJ/mol lower than that of un-catalyzed char.

  15. Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single

  16. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  17. Proceedings of the fifth advanced coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, A.; Alpert, S.; Beck, B.; Chen, C.; Dalrymple, D.; Gummel, P.; Henley, J.; Hileman, E.; Holmgren, J.; Lau, F.

    1987-01-01

    The Fifth Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China in September 1987, was sponsored by the Shanxi Provincial Government, Shanxi Science and Technology Association, Shanxi Energy Research Association, and the Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation. Opening and closing speeches, summaries of the technical sessions, and lists of delegates are included. Thirteen papers presented by the international delegation of specialists discuss current coal gasification processes and research and development activities. Papers have been indexed separately.

  18. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery.

  19. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  20. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Coal to electricity - Integrated gasification combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corman, J. C.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced energy conversion system - the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) - has been identified as an efficient and economical means of converting coal to electricity for utility application. Several demonstration projects on a near-commercial scale are approaching the construction stage. A coal conversion facility has been constructed to simulate the operational features of an IGCC. This process evaluation facility (PEF-scale) performs a dual function: (1) acquiring and processing data on the performance of the individual components - coal gasifier, gas clean up, and turbine simulator - that comprise the IGCC concept and (2) simulating the total system in an operational control mode that permits evaluation of system response to imposed load variations characteristic of utility operation. The results to date indicate that an efficient, economical IGCC can be designed so that the gasification/gas clean up plant and the power generation system operate compatibly to meet utility requirements in an environmentally acceptable manner.

  2. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, L. K.; Weber, S. L.; Mitchell, D. H.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Robertus, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass are evaluated. Results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980 are presented. Laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycling. A process development unit was designed and constructed to evaluate laboratory systems at conditions approximating commercial operations. The economic analyses evaluated the feasibility of adapting the wood-to-methane and wood-to-methanol processes to full-scale commercial operations. Plants were designed in the economic analyses to produce fuel-grade methanol from wood and substitute natural gas from wood via catalytic gasification with steam.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Weil, S. A.; Babu, S. P.

    1980-09-01

    Thermodynamic analysis for evaluating and improving coal gasification process efficiency requires estimation of enthalpy, entropy, and availability transformations in various process steps. A compilation of procedures and data relevant to coal gasification processes is presented for calculating the above thermodynamic properties. Enthalpy and availability transformations are estimated for significant process steps in the HYGAS process for producing substitute natural gas from coal. The thermal efficiencies based on the first law of thermodynamics are compared with the availability efficiencies based on the second law. Work intensive process steps, such as gas compression and separation, are shown to have extremely low thermal efficiencies and fairly high availability efficiencies. Heat intensive process steps, such as steam generation, have high thermal efficiencies but generally poor availability efficiencies.

  4. Catalytic gasification: Isotopic labeling and transient reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Saber, J.M.; Falconer, J.L.; Brown, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature-programmed reaction was used with labeled isotopes (/sup 13/C and /sup 18/O) to study interactions between carbon black and potassium carbonate in pure He and 10% CO/sub 2//90% He atmospheres. Catalytic gasification precursor complexes were observed. Carbon and oxygen-bearing carbon surface groups interacted with the carbonate above 500 K to form surface complexes. Between 500 K and 950 K, and in the presence of gaseous carbon dioxide, the complexes promoted carbon and oxygen exchange between the gas-phase CO/sub 2/ and the surface. Oxygen exchanged between the surface complexes; but carbon did not exchange between the carbonate and the carbon black. As the temperature rose, the complexes decomposed to produce carbon dioxide, and catalytic gasification then began. Elemental potassium formed, and the active catalyst appears to alternate between potassium metal and a potassium-oxygen-carbon complex.

  5. Technology of Gasification of Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkonog, V. G.; Bayanov, I. M.; Tonkonog, M. I.; Mubarakshin, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    A flow diagram of gasification of a cryogenic liquid, which is based on the utilization of the liquid's internal energy to obtain a vapor phase, has been presented. The limiting steam fractions of the two-phase flow in a gasifier have been evaluated as applied to the problems of gasification of methane. Consideration has been given to the conditions of phase separation in the field of mass forces. A numerical scheme of solution of a system of gasdynamic equations for the two-phase flow in a cylindrical coordinate system in a three-dimensional formulation has been implemented. The results of numerical modeling of the conditions of precipitation of particles with a diameter of 2 to 10 μm from a swirling dispersed flow have been presented; the role of the particle size in the dynamics of the process of phase separation has been established.

  6. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  7. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  8. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    PubMed

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up.

  9. Commercial scale gasification test with Kentucky coal

    SciTech Connect

    Roeger, A.; Jones, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    The paper describes in some detail the coal testing programme carried out by Tri-State Synfuels. One of the major elements in the programme was a commercial-scale gasification test with Kentucky 9 coal in a Lurgi dry-bottom gasifier. This was carried out at the Sasol One plant in Sasolburg, S. Africa, in 1981. Other parts of the programme included coal selection, characterisation, stockpile weatherability, corrosion testing, by-product characterisation and waste water treatability.

  10. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  11. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter

  12. Gasification combined cycle R&A assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J. H.; Neely, M. C.

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology for assessing the reliability and availability of coal gasification combined cycle (GCC) power plant designs. The methodology was developed for and applied to a design of an 1100-megawatt baseload GCC power plant. The specific objectives of the analysis were to obtain baseline reliability and availability values for the GCC plant design and to develop criticality rankings of the plant's components based on their impact on the system's reliability and availability measures

  13. Process for gasification of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Gorin, E.

    1984-04-03

    A process of tar destruction in gasification of carbonaceous material comprises providing a mixture of finely divided calcium compound of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh and finely divided carbonaceous material of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh, the calcium compound to carbonaceous material ratio being from about 0.5 to 1.0 and contacting the mixture with CO/sub 2/ and tar exothermally whereby the tar is destroyed.

  14. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  15. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

  16. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  17. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  18. International energy technology assessment: status of materials for coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, S.M.; Natesan, K.

    1981-11-01

    The difficulties in obtaining information on foreign technologies lead to serious limitations on the level of detail in the technology assessment. The extensive commercial operating experience with gasifiers of the Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek varieties has no counterpart in the US. This situation translates into a great deal of engineering data on the operating envelopes of ceramics and alloys. This type of information is crucial to the operation of a Lurgi gasifier, and some of it is translatable to other types of gasifiers. However, the emerging technologies envisaged for the US gasification programs and the developmental foreign programs require a much higher level of materials technology than is represented in current commercial practice. In the area of new materials for coal gasification applications, we find a rough equivalence between the levels of US and foreign technologies. In fact, our assessment indicates that the US holds a lead in the development and testing of alloys for high-temperature service in corrosive environments. However, a few significant technical developments have occurred in foreign countries without comparable domestic advances. These include the pilot-plant experience on refractories for slagging gasifiers (Shell-Koppers, Texaco, and BGC); the development of corrosion-resistant alloys based on refractory metals (BGC); and the long-term high-temperature creep tests (Karslruhe). Foreign organizations can almost always present the disclosure of large amounts of detailed technical information, if they so desire. Information-exchange agreements with the foreign organizations identified in this report may prove fruitful in providing the type of information needed for the US program.

  19. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  20. Low-Temperature Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Zacher, Alan H.; Butner, R SCOTT.

    2003-11-16

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 degrees Celsius). In the pressurized-water environment (3000 psig) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high-levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. Processing systems and results are described for both bench-scale and scaled-up reactor systems.

  1. Lock hopper values for coal gasification plant service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeneweis, E. F.

    1977-01-01

    Although the operating principle of the lock hopper system is extremely simple, valve applications involving this service for coal gasification plants are likewise extremely difficult. The difficulties center on the requirement of handling highly erosive pulverized coal or char (either in dry or slurry form) combined with the requirement of providing tight sealing against high-pressure (possibly very hot) gas. Operating pressures and temperatures in these applications typically range up to 1600 psi (110bar) and 600F (316C), with certain process requirements going even higher. In addition, and of primary concern, is the need for reliable operation over long service periods with the provision for practical and economical maintenance. Currently available data indicate the requirement for something in the order of 20,000 to 30,000 open-close cycles per year and a desire to operate at least that long without valve failure.

  2. Determination of Unknown Concentrations of Sodium Acetate Using the Method of Standard Addition and Proton NMR: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajabzadeh, Massy

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students learn how to find the unknown concentration of sodium acetate using both the graphical treatment of standard addition and the standard addition equation. In the graphical treatment of standard addition, the peak area of the methyl peak in each of the sodium acetate standard solutions is found by integration using…

  3. Heterogeneous kinetics of coal gasification. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 February-30 April 1982. [680 to 770/sup 0/C; 8 to 30 atm

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    The operation of the gradientless reactor system designed to study heterogeneous gas-char reactions under transient conditions was successfully demonstrated. CO/sub 2/ char gasification was studied at temperatures from 680 to 770/sup 0/C and at pressures from 8 to 30 atm. The transient response of the reactor resulting from a step change from inert gas (Ar) to pure CO/sub 2/ is adequately described by a simple, two-step mechanism. The determination of the rate parameters from the transient data was accomplished with the Marquardt optimization code developed for this purpose. For what is believed to be the first time in the same experiment, the active site concentration was uncoupled from the intrinsic rate constants. The active site concentration of the coconut char exhibits an Arrhenius type temperature dependence with an apparent negative activation energy. A preliminary design has been developed for a steam addition system to be used for steam-char gasification studies. This system will be constructed during the next reporting period. Various chars have been generated in a high temperature furnace system from fresh coals. These chars are to be used in the gradientless reactor system to determine the effects of char type on the intrinsic rate parameters and char reactivity.

  4. Conceptual design and assessments of a coal gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume V. Assessments and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains additional technical and environmental assessment data for all three gasification processes. This report contains the task reports that were produced to establish the facility design, the facility design criteria issued by TVA, and the Gas Cost Guideline which defines the method used to calculate gas cost. Also included are sketches of various structures of the facility which were used for estimating the cost of the facility.

  5. Significant Change in Marine Plankton Structure and Carbon Production After the Addition of River Water in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Fouilland, E; Trottet, A; Alves-de-Souza, C; Bonnet, D; Bouvier, T; Bouvy, M; Boyer, S; Guillou, L; Hatey, E; Jing, H; Leboulanger, C; Le Floc'h, E; Liu, H; Mas, S; Mostajir, B; Nouguier, J; Pecqueur, D; Rochelle-Newall, E; Roques, C; Salles, C; Tournoud, M-G; Vasseur, C; Vidussi, F

    2017-03-16

    Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters. The addition of water led to initial increases (days 1-2) in bacterial production as well as increases in the abundances of bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes. After day 3, the increases were more significant for diatoms and dinoflagellates that were already present in the Thau Lagoon water (mainly Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima and Prorocentrum triestinum) and other larger organisms (tintinnids, rotifers). At the same time, the abundances of bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria, and picoeukaryote fell, some nutrients (NH4(+), SiO4(3-)) returned to pre-input levels, and the plankton structure moved from a trophic food web based on secondary production to the accumulation of primary producers in the mesocosms with added river water. Our results also show that, after freshwater inputs, there is rapid emergence of plankton species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. This suggests that flash flood events may lead to sanitary issues, other than pathogens, in exploited marine areas.

  6. Materials testing at the Hanna IV in situ coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, D W; Scoonover, T M

    1980-01-01

    Candidate structural alloy specimens were exposed for about 800 hours to the direct product gas stream from the Hanna IV underground coal gasification experiment. When the specimens were removed from the line, they were coated with a high-sulfur deposit from the product gas. A chemical analysis and the physical appearance of the coatings suggest that they are mixtures of condensed hydrocarbons, coal char, coal ash, and mineral particles from the overburden. Attack on the specimens was primarily corrosion rather than erosion. Mean penetration rates expressed in millimetres per year (mm/y) were calculated from weight loss data. Microscopic examination revealed areas of rather severe local attack on all alloys tested. There was no consistent difference in the amount of material removed from specimens with welds and those without welds. All specimens exposed at 45/sup 0/ to the product gas flow had surface dents from impacting particles, while parallel specimens had none. Energy-dispersive X-ray and Auger electron spectra indicate that the few particles of deposits and/or corrosion products still clinging to the specimen surfaces after cleaning were oxides, rather than sulfides, with significant contents of aluminum and silicon in addition to iron.

  7. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  8. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  9. Simulation of blast-furnace tuyere and raceway conditions in a wire mesh reactor: extents of combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

    2007-08-15

    A wire mesh reactor has been modified to investigate reactions of coal particles in the tuyeres and raceways of blast furnaces. At temperatures above 1000{sup o}C, pyrolysis reactions are completed within 1 s. The release of organic volatiles is probably completed by 1500{sup o}C, but the volatile yield shows a small increase up to 2000{sup o}C. The additional weight loss at the higher temperature may be due to weight loss from inorganic material. The residence time in the raceway is typically 20 ms, so it is likely that pyrolysis of the coal will continue throughout the passage along the raceway and into the base of the furnace shaft. Combustion reactions were investigated using a trapped air injection system, which admitted a short pulse of air into the wire mesh reactor sweep gas stream. In these experiments, the temperature and partial pressure of O{sub 2} were limited by the oxidation of the molybdenum mesh. However, the tests have provided valid insight into the extent of this reaction at conditions close to those experienced in the raceway. Extents of combustion of the char were low (mostly, less than 5%, daf basis). The work indicates that the extent of this reaction is limited in the raceway by the low residence time and by the effect of released volatiles, which scavenge the O{sub 2} and prevent access to the char. CO{sub 2} gasification has also been studied and high conversions achieved within a residence time of 5-10 s. The latter residence time is far longer than that in the raceway and more typical of small particles travelling upward in the furnace shaft. The results indicate that this reaction is capable of destroying most of the char. However, the extent of the gasification reaction appears limited by the decrease in temperature as the material moves up through the furnace. 44 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  11. Report to Congress on Contracting Approaches to Coal Gasification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    of specific contracting approaches to coal gasification technology projects and submit a report on the findings by March 1, 2007. The report requests...if any, that may prevent the Department from effectively implementing coal gasification technology projects and recommendations for new authorities necessary to enable the effective implementation of such projects."

  12. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  13. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  14. Intermediates and kinetics for phenol gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Huelsman, Chad M; Savage, Phillip E

    2012-02-28

    We processed phenol with supercritical water in a series of experiments, which systematically varied the temperature, water density, reactant concentration, and reaction time. Both the gas and liquid phases were analyzed post-reaction using gas chromatographic techniques, which identified and quantified the reaction intermediates and products, including H(2), CO, CH(4), and CO(2) in the gas phase and twenty different compounds--mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons--in the liquid phase. Many of these liquid phase compounds were identified for the first time and could pose environmental risks. Higher temperatures promoted gasification and resulted in a product gas rich in H(2) and CH(4) (33% and 29%, respectively, at 700 °C), but char yields increased as well. We implicated dibenzofuran and other identified phenolic dimers as precursor molecules for char formation pathways, which can be driven by free radical polymerization at high temperatures. Examination of the trends in conversion as a function of initial water and phenol concentrations revealed competing effects, and these informed the kinetic modeling of phenol disappearance. Two different reaction pathways emerged from the kinetic modeling: one in which rate ∝ [phenol](1.73)[water](-16.60) and the other in which rate ∝ [phenol](0.92)[water](1.39). These pathways may correspond to pyrolysis, which dominates when there is abundant phenol and little water, and hydrothermal reactions, which dominate in excess water. This result confirms that supercritical water gasification of phenol does not simply follow first-order kinetics, as previous efforts to model phenol disappearance had assumed.

  15. Experimental and numerical study of steam gasification of a single charcoal particle

    SciTech Connect

    Mermoud, F.; Van de Steene, L.; Salvador, S.; Dirion, J.L.

    2006-04-15

    The present work deals with a study coupling experiments and modeling of charcoal gasification by steam at large particle scale. A reliable set of experiments was first established using a specially developed 'macro-TG' apparatus where a particle was suspended and continuously weighed during its gasification. The main control parameters of a fixed-bed process were modified separately: steam gasification of beech charcoal spheres of different diameters (10 to 30 mm) was studied at different temperatures (830 to 1030{sup o}C), different steam partial pressures (0.1 to 0.4 atm H{sub 2}O), and different gas velocities around the particle (0.09 to 0.30 m/s). Simulations with the particle model were performed for each case. Confrontations with experimental data indicate that the model predictions are both qualitatively and quantitatively satisfactory, with an accuracy of 7%, until 60% of conversion, despite the fact that the phenomena of reactive surface evolution and particle fracturing are not well understood. Anisotropy and peripheral fragmentation make the end of the process difficult to simulate. Finally, an analysis of the thermochemical situation is proposed: it is demonstrated that the usual homogeneous or shrinking core particle models are not satisfying and that only the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the particle and the surrounding gas is valid for a model at bed scale. (author)

  16. Environmental report for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Norris, E.S.; Duck, R.R.; Hass, R.B.; Morgan, M.E.; Helble, J.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fossil Energy Program has a mission to develop energy systems that utilize national coal resources in power systems with increased efficiency and environmental compatibility. Coal gasification technology is a versatile candidate that meets this goal. This two phased project consists primarily of the design, construction and operation of a 5-foot inside diameter (minimum) fixed-bed gasifier called PyGas{trademark} and supporting infrastructure (Phase I), and an additional follow on phase consisting of the design, construction and operation of a hot fuel gas cleanup unit (Phase II). Issues expected to be successfully overcome by PyGas{trademark} through its application in this test facility include the processing of high-swelling coals, which causes agglomeration in conventional fixed-bed gasifiers. Such coals comprise 87% of all eastern coals. Other issues expected to be eliminated or significantly reduced include: production of ash clinkers, production of ammonia, the presence of significant tars and fines, and the volatilization of alkalinity in the product fuel gas. A second portion of the NEPA report is concerned with the emission of toxic metal compounds by the gasification process improvement facility (GPIF). The GPIF facility will be located on site at the Fort Martin facility of Allegheny Power Company, and the energy produced (steam) will be directly used by Fort Martin to produce electricity. The coal used at the GPIF facility will be the same coal used by the utility. Therefore, the emissions of the GPIF will be put in context of the entire facility. The GPIF assessment will be divided into four sections: Estimation of the toxic metals content of the raw coal; calculation of the emissions from Fort Martin normally; an estimate of the emission from the GPIF; and a comparison of the two flows.

  17. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2010-11-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted.

  18. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

  19. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas

  20. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  1. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  2. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  3. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  4. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  5. Age and School Experience as Factors in Rule Utilization: Use of a Simple Addition Rule. Final Report, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, L. R.

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of school experience on performance on visual perception tests involving line figures and forms. The subjects were 120 first grade students selected from two public schools in the same community. The experiment involved an Experimental Treatments X Age X Time of Testing factorial design. All subjects…

  6. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  7. Supercritical gasification for the treatment of o-cresol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-hai; Hu, Cheng-sheng; Wu, Chao-fei; Yan, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification of phenolic wastewater without oxidant was performed to degrade pollutants and produce hydrogen-enriched gases. The simulated o-cresol wastewater was gasified at 440-650 degrees C and 27.6 MPa in a continuous Inconel 625 reactor with the residence time of 0.42-1.25 min. The influence of the reaction temperature, residence time, pressure, catalyst, oxidant and the pollutant concentration on the gasification efficiency was investigated. Higher temperature and longer residence time enhanced the o-cresol gasification. The TOC removal rate and hydrogen gasification rate were 90.6% and 194.6%, respectively, at the temperature of 650 degrees C and the residence time of 0.83 min. The product gas was mainly composed of H2, CO2, CH4 and CO, among which the total molar percentage of H2 and CH4 was higher than 50%. The gasification efficiency decreased with the pollutant concentration increasing. Both the catalyst and oxidant could accelerate the hydrocarbon gasification at a lower reaction temperature, in which the catalyst promoted H2 production and the oxidant enhanced CO2 generation. The intermediates of liquid effluents were analyzed and phenol was found to be the main composition. The results indicate that the supercritical gasification is a promising way for the treatment of hazardous organic wastewater.

  8. Launch Vehicle with Combustible Polyethylene Case Gasification Chamber Design Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemets, V.

    A single-stage launch vehicle equipped with a combustible tank shell of polyethylene and a moving propulsion plant is proposed. The propulsion plant is composed of a chamber for the gasification of the shell, a compressor of pyrolysed polyethylene and a magnetic powder obturator. It is shown that the “dental” structure of the gasification chamber is necessary to achieve the necessary contact area with the polyethylene shell. This conclusion is drawn from consideration of the thermo- physical properties of polyethylene, calculating quasisteady temperature field in the gasification chamber, estimating gasification rate of polyethylene, launch vehicle shortening rate and area of gasification. Experimental determination of the gasification rate is described. The gasification chamber specific mass as well as the propulsion plant weight-to-thrust ratio are estimated under some assumptions concerning the obturator and compressor. Combustible launch vehicles are compared with conventional launch vehicles taking into consideration their payload mass ratios. Combustible launchers are preferable as small launchers for micro and nano satellites. Reusable versions of such launchers seem suitable if polyethylene tank shells filled with metal or metal hydride fine dusts are used.

  9. Fluidized bed gasification of industrial solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluates the technical feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification of three solid recovered fuels (SRFs), obtained as co-products of a recycling process. The SRFs were pelletized and fed to a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor, operated in gasification and co-gasification mode. The tests were carried out under conditions of thermal and chemical steady state, with a bed of olivine particles and at different values of equivalence ratio. The results provide a complete syngas characterization, in terms of its heating value and composition (including tars, particulates, and acid/basic pollutants) and of the chemical and physical characterization of bed material and entrained fines collected at the cyclone outlet. The feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification process of the different SRFs was evaluated with the support of a material and substance flow analysis, and a feedstock energy analysis. The results confirm the flexibility of fluidized bed reactor, which makes it one of the preferable technologies for the gasification of different kind of wastes, even in co-gasification mode. The fluidized bed gasification process of the tested SRFs appears technically feasible, yielding a syngas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration.

  10. Gasification characteristics of MSW and an ANN prediction model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Ni, Ming-jiang; Chi, Yong; Jin, Bao-sheng; Xiao, Rui; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji

    2009-01-01

    Gasification characteristics make up the important parts of municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology. These characteristics are closely related to the composition of MSW, which alters with climates and seasons. It is important to find a practical way to predict gasification characteristics. In this paper, five typical kinds of organic components (wood, paper, kitchen garbage, plastic, and textile) and three representative types of simulated MSW are gasified in a fluidized-bed at 400-800 degrees C with the equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.2-0.6. The lower heating value (LHV) of gas, gasification products, and gas yield are reported. The results indicate that gasification characteristics are different from sample to sample. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural networks (ANN) model is developed to predict gasification characteristics. The training and validating relative errors are within +/-15% and +/-20%, respectively, and predicting relative errors of an industrial sample are below +/-25%. This indicates that it is acceptable to predict gasification characteristics via ANN model.

  11. Nitrogen mineralization from sludge in an alkaline, saline coal gasification ash environment.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Ikenna; De Jager, Pieter C; Annandale, John G; Matema, Taurai

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitating coal gasification ash dumps by amendment with waste-activated sludge has been shown to improve the physical and chemical properties of ash and to facilitate the establishment of vegetation. However, mineralization of organic N from sludge in such an alkaline and saline medium and the effect that ash weathering has on the process are poorly understood and need to be ascertained to make decisions regarding the suitability of this rehabilitation option. This study investigated the rate and pattern of N mineralization from sludge in a coal gasification ash medium to determine the prevalent inorganic N form in the system and assess the effect of ash weathering on N mineralization. An incubation experiment was performed in which fresh ash, weathered ash, and soil were amended with the equivalent of 90 Mg ha sludge, and N mineralization was evaluated over 63 d. More N (24%) was mineralized in fresh ash than in weathered ash and soil, both of which mineralized 15% of the initial organic N in sludge. More nitrification occurred in soil, and most of the N mineralized in ash was in the form of ammonium, indicating an inhibition of nitrifying organisms in the ash medium and suggesting that, at least initially, plants used for rehabilitation of coal gasification ash dumps will take up N mostly as ammonium.

  12. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  13. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  14. High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

    Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash

  15. Oxidation/gasification of carbon residue on retorted oil shale. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, W. J.

    1984-01-16

    Studies of the oxidation and gasification of oil shale char were extended to an investigation of the effects of mineral catalysis. Six shales with differing mineral compositions were studied, including samples from the saline zone in the Western Colorado and from the Antrim shales of Michigan. Oxidation kinetics data, corrected for mass transfer effects, were compared for all six samples. A high assay shale from Utah and a sample from the saline zone were found to have the highest oxidation rates. By examining the data for shales which were water leached and thermally pretreated, it was concluded that both NaO and CaO act as oxidation catalysts. However, as a result of mineral decomposition experiments conducted with a sample from the C-a lease tract, it appears as though the ankeritic dolomite fraction will not decompose as long as there is a minimal CO/sub 2/ over pressure. Rather, low temperature silication reactions appear to take place once the temperature exceeds 925/sup 0/K. An extensive evaluation was also completed for the gasification of an Antrim shale from Michigan. Both the rates of CO/sub 2/ and steam gasification of the char were found to be markedly lower than that observed for a shale sample from the Parachute Creek member in Colorado. However, unlike the Colorado shale, the make gas resulting from the steam gasification of the Antrim shale produced nearly equal quantities of CO and CO/sub 2/. Thus, despite the high concentration of iron in the Antrim shale, the water gas shift reaction is not catalyzed nearly to the same extent as in western shales.

  16. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 1, Production of SNG (substitute material gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-09-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based on a mine mouth plant producing 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant food, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, twenty-six Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, shift conversion, acid gas removal, methanation, compression and drying of product gas, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots, mine mouth facility located in a Western location similar to the town of Colstrip in Rosebud County, Montana. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 52 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  17. Practical achievements on biomass steam gasification in a rotary tubular coiled-downdraft reactor.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Renny; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-12-01

    Today, the impending stringent environmental norms and concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves have added impetus on development of cutting edge technologies for production of alternative fuels from renewable sources, like biomass. The concept of biomass pyro-gasification offers a platform for production of (a) hydrogen, (b) hydrocarbons and (c) value added chemicals, etc. In this context, there exists potential for hydrogen production from biomass by superheated steam gasification. Apart from H2, gaseous products of biomass steam gasification contain CO, CH4 and other hydrocarbons that can be converted to hydrogen through cracking, steam reforming and water gas shift reactions. In the present work, the characteristics of biomass steam gasification in an indigenously designed rotary tubular coiled-downdraft reactor for high value gaseous fuel production from rice husk was studied through a series of experiments. The robust reactor system enhances biomass conversion to gaseous products by improved mass and heat transfer within the system induced by a coiled flow pattern with increased heat transfer area. Also, the system has improved upon the reliability of operation and offered greater continuity of the process and easier control in comparison with a conventional process by making use of an innovative gas cooler assembly and efficient venturi-mixing system for biomass and steam. Subsequently, the effects of reactor temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio and residence time on overall product gas yield and hydrogen yield were investigated. From the experimental results, it can be deduced that an optimum reactor temperature of 750 °C, steam-to-biomass ratio of 2.0 and a residence time of 3.0 min contributed highest gas yield (1.252 Nm(3) kg(-1) moisture-free biomass). Based on the obtained experimental results, a projected potential hydrogen yield of 8.6 wt% of the moisture-free biomass could be achieved, and is also practical for production of

  18. Soviet underground coal gasification on the rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-13

    According to the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the U.S.S.R. has abandoned large-scale development plans for coal-gasification projects, due to the low heating value of the gas produced at test burns at Angren, and to the cost, estimated at 132% of the standard Lurgi value, in contrast to the cost of approx. 65% of the standard Lurgi value in U.S. experimental burns. The U.S.S.R. coal-gasification effort has been in development since 1950, with a peak production of approx. 2 billion cu m/yr in 1966. The poor test burn results might have been caused by: drilling the boreholes too close to each other, which would increase drilling costs; the loss of a large amount of heat through a porous overburden; the lack of good underground diagnostics before and during a burn; and a lack of a good laboratory support program. The gas heating value was too low to warrant transportation far from the burn site, but most suitable burn sites are in remote areas. In the U.S.S.R., natural gas and open-pit lignite mining appear to be cheaper sources of energy.

  19. Economics of synfuel and gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several gasification systems are discussed. Cost estimates of various synthetic fuels are presented. The lowest cost synthetic fuel is significantly above the current natural gas price of about $2.75/MMBtu and about equivalent to present oil prices at the plant gate. Gas prices for the Welman-Galusha gasifier would have to be increased significantly if the plant ran on two shifts only or if the gasifiers were not fully loaded. For industrial application the lowest cost fuel is probably the direct use of low sulfur coal with some post combustion pollution control. This is followed by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. Coal/oil mixtures and solvent refined coal liquids (SRC I or SRC II) are the next options. High Btu gas from a large coal gasification plant will be more competitive for industrial use. Large industrial uses in the range of 1000 tons of coal a day may find reduced costs with an entrained coal conversion unit such as a Texaco or the Saarberg-Otto Gasifiers. However, before 1985 when the gas price decontrol has been felt, it is unlikely that low Btu gas, medium Btu gas and methanol will be an economical choice for industrial users.

  20. Site clean up of coal gasification residues

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The coal gasification plant residues tested in this research consists of various particle sizes of rock, gravel, tar-sand agglomerates, fine sand and soil. Most of the soils particles were tar free. One of the fractions examined contained over 3000 ppM polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The residues were subjected to high pressure water jet washing, float and sink tests, and soil washing. Subsequent PAH analyses found less than 1 ppM PAHs in the water jet washing water. Soils washed with pure water lowered PAH concentrations to 276 ppM; the use of surfactants decreased PAHs to 47, 200, and 240 ppM for different test conditions. In the 47 ppM test, the surfactant temperature had been increased to 80 C, suggesting that surfactant washing efficiency can be greatly improved by increasing the solution temperature. The coal tar particles were not extracted by the surfactants used. Coke and tar-sand agglomerates collected from the float and sink gravimetric separation were tested for heating value. The tar exhibited a very high heating value, while the coke had a heating value close to that of bituminous coal. These processes are believed to have the potential to clean up coal gasification plant residues at a fairly low cost, pending pilot-scale testing and a feasibility study.

  1. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980. The study was comprised of laboratory studies, process development, and economic analyses. The laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycling. A process development unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to evaluate laboratory systems at conditions approximating commercial operations. The economic analyses, performed by Davy McKee, Inc. for PNL, evaluated the feasibility of adapting the wood-to-methane and wood-to-methanol processes to full-scale commercial operations. Plants were designed in the economic analyses to produce fuel-grade methanol from wood and substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam.

  2. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  3. Independent and additive contributions of postvictory testosterone and social experience to the development of the winner effect.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Oyegbile, Temitayo O; Marler, Catherine A

    2011-09-01

    The processes through which salient social experiences influence future behavior are not well understood. Winning fights, for example, can increase the odds of future victory, yet little is known about the internal mechanisms that underlie such winner effects. Here, we use the territorial California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) to investigate how the effects of postvictory testosterone (T) release and winning experience individually mediate positive changes in future winning ability and antagonistic behavior. Male mice were castrated and implanted with T capsules to maintain basal levels of this hormone. We found that males form a robust winner effect if they win three separate territorial disputes and experience a single T surge roughly 45 min after each encounter. Meanwhile, males exhibit only an intermediate winner effect if they either 1) acquire three previous wins but do not experience a change in postvictory T or 2) acquire no previous wins but experience three separate T pulses. The results indicate that the effect of postvictory T must be coupled with that of winning experience to trigger the maximum positive shift in winning ability, which highlights the importance of social context in the development of the winner effect. At the same time, however, postvictory T and winning experience are each capable of increasing future winning ability independently, and this finding suggests that these two factors drive plasticity in antagonistic behavior via distinct mechanistic channels. More broadly, our data offer insight into the possible ways in which various species might be able to adjust their behavioral repertoire in response to social interactions through mechanisms that are unlinked from the effects of gonadal steroid action.

  4. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qinglong; Borges, Fernanda Cabral; Cheng, Yanling; Wan, Yiqin; Li, Yun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Yuhuan; Hussain, Fida; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study.

  5. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  6. The role of high-Btu coal gasification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, M. I.

    An analysis is given of the role and economic potential of Lurgi-technology gasification of coal to the year 2000, in relation to other gas-supply options, the further development of gasifier designs, and probable environmental impact. It is predicted that coal gasification may reach 10% of total gas supplies by the year 2000, with Eastern U.S. coal use reaching commercially significant use in the 1990's. It is concluded that coal gasification is the cleanest way of using coal, with minimal physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic impacts.

  7. First U. S. coal gasification facility in commercial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes the first commercial scale coal gasification plant in America, located in Mercer County, North Dakota. Seven of the fourteen gasifier vessels have been operating, producing the medium-Btu raw gas steam necessary for further processing into pipeline quality gas. Coal gasification technology is by means of the Lurgi process. The complex, estimated at about $2.1 billion, is diagrammed. Plant input and output is also shown. There are 125 million recoverable tons of lignite with sufficient reserves for expansion as input for gasification. The complex is composed of numerous processing units and a block flow diagram of the complex is given.

  8. Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-05-31

    The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

  9. Hazardous air pollutant testing at the LGTI coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherold, R.G.; Williams, W.A.; Maxwell, D.P.; Mann, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive hazardous air pollutant test program was conducted in November 1994 at the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI), plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. This program was sponsored by DOE/PETC, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Destec Energy. In May of 1995, additional testing of the hot syngas stream was conducted at the LGTI facility under this same program. DOE/METC provided additional technical support for the hot gas testing effort. In this paper, the sampling and analytical methods used during the November and May test program are summarized. The hot gas testing is described in greater detail. In particular, the hot gas sampling probe and probe insertion/withdrawal system are discussed. The sampling probe was designed to collect particulate and extract gas samples at process temperature and pressure. The design of the probe system is described, and the operating procedures are summarized. The operation of the probe during the testing is discussed, and photographs of the testing are provided. In addition to the summaries and descriptions of the test methodologies, selected preliminary emissions results of the November sampling are included in the paper.

  10. Reflections on Doctoral Supervision: Drawing from the Experiences of Students with Additional Learning Needs in Two Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Bethan

    2015-01-01

    Supervision is an essential part of doctoral study, consisting of relationship and process aspects, underpinned by a range of values. To date there has been limited research specifically about disabled doctoral students' experiences of supervision. This paper draws on qualitative, narrative interviews about doctoral supervision with disabled…

  11. Examining the Influence of Additional Field-Based Experiences on Pre-Service Teachers and Their Perceived Ability to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse more closely the training experiences of pre-service teachers, the author conducted an exploratory quasi-experimental study at a university located in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. All students who were enrolled in the same reading methods course (but enrolled in different sections) were invited to participate in…

  12. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  13. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  14. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was

  16. [Additional memory load causes changes in induced EEG beta-rhythm in experiments with a visual set formed to facial expression].

    PubMed

    Iakovenko, I A; Kozlov, M K; Cheremushkin, E A

    2012-01-01

    Subjects were divided into two equal groups 35 healthy subjects each. Formation of the visual set to facial emotion recognition was supplemented with two types of additional task: either visuospatial (to find a target stimulus among others) or verbal (to tell a word from a pseudoword). The results of the experiments were compared to those obtained in similar experiments without the memory load. Changes in the EEG beta rhythm during visual set forming and testing were studied. The EEG was analyzed by wavelet transformation. Changes in the mean level, maximum and latency of the maximum of wavelet coefficient were rated at different stages of the experiment. All these characteristics for the beta rhythm were higher in experiments with both types of additional memory load as compared to those without the memory load.

  17. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  18. East Asian International Student Experiences as Learners of English as an Additional Language: Implications for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.; Marshall, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In the school counselling literature, little focus is placed on international students who are learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL) and on school counselling support related to their language acquisition. Using the Critical Incident Technique, we analyzed transcripts of 21 international EAL students from China, Japan, and Korea who…

  19. The effects of the addition of a pediatric surgery fellow on the operative experience of the general surgery resident.

    PubMed

    Raines, Alexander; Garwe, Tabitha; Adeseye, Ademola; Ruiz-Elizalde, Alejandro; Churchill, Warren; Tuggle, David; Mantor, Cameron; Lees, Jason

    2015-06-01

    Adding fellows to surgical departments with residency programs can affect resident education. Our specific aim was to evaluate the effect of adding a pediatric surgery (PS) fellow on the number of index PS cases logged by the general surgery (GS) residents. At a single institution with both PS and GS programs, we examined the number of logged cases for the fellows and residents over 10 years [5 years before (Time 1) and 5 years after (Time 2) the addition of a PS fellow]. Additionally, the procedure related relative value units (RVUs) recorded by the faculty were evaluated. The fellows averaged 752 and 703 cases during Times 1 and 2, respectively, decreasing by 49 (P = 0.2303). The residents averaged 172 and 161 cases annually during Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, decreasing by 11 (P = 0.7340). The total number of procedure related RVUs was 4627 and 6000 during Times 1 and 2, respectively. The number of cases logged by the PS fellows and GS residents decreased after the addition of a PS fellow; however, the decrease was not significant. Programs can reasonably add an additional PS fellow, but care should be taken especially in programs that are otherwise static in size.

  20. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  1. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    PubMed

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2011-02-15

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities.

  2. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  3. Update on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect

    Imler, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant is the US's first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion. The ANG Coal Gasification Company is the administer of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project for the United States Department of Energy. The Project is designed to convert 14 M TPD of North Dakota of lignite into 137.5 MM SCFD of pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). Located in Mercer County, North Dakota, the gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline. Some 12 years passed from the time the project was conceived unit it became a reality by producing SNG into the Northern Border pipeline in 1984 for use by millions of residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. In this paper, the basic processes utilized in the plant are presented. This is followed by a discussion of the start-up activities and schedule. Finally, some of the more interesting start-up problems are described.

  4. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  5. Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong

    1995-12-01

    A pressurized catalytic gasification process, operated at 600{degrees}C, 34.5 MPa, efficiently produces a hydrogen rich synthesis gas from high-moisture content biomass. Glucose was selected as a model compound for catalytic biomass gasification. A proprietary heterogeneous catalyst X was extremely effective for the gasification of both the model compound and whole biomass feeds. The effect of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration on the gasification of glucose with catalyst X were investigated. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to gas was obtained at a weight hourly space velocity of 22.2 (g/h)/g in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversion of whole biomass feeds including water hyacinth, depithed bagasse liquid extract, sewage sludge, and paper sludge was also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The propriety catalyst X is inexpensive and extremely effective.

  6. Steam gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, L. K.; Mitchell, D. H.; Baker, E. G.; Robertus, R. J.; Brown, M. D.

    1982-09-01

    Catalytic steam gasification of wood, including sawdust, chipped forest slash, and mill shavings, is investigated. Results of laboratory, process development unit (PDR), and feasibility studies illustrate attractive processes for conversion of wood to methanol and a substitute natural gas (SNG). Recent laboratory studies developed a long-lived alloy catalyst for generation of a methanol synthesis gas by steam gasification of wood. Modification of the PDU for operation at 10 atm (150 psia) is complete and initial tests are completed. The modified PDU will be operated at elevated pressures to confirm yields and design parameters used in process feasibility studies. A computer program for evaluating the effect of yield changes on process economics was completed. The base case was the study on economics of methanol-from-wood using catalytic gasification. It was found that methanol-from-wood by catalytic gasification was competitive with the process for methanol production from natural gas.

  7. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  8. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar.

  9. Mathematical model of the pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinenko, R.A.; Levitskii, A.A.; Mirokhin, Yu.A.; Polak, L.S.

    1987-12-01

    A kinetic model of the pyrolysis and gasification of coal at moderate (1100-1300 K) and high (2000-3000 K) temperatures, which includes reactions resulting in the release of volatile substances and their further conversions and takes into account the processes of heat and mass transfer, has been developed. A calculation of the composition of the gasification products of brown coals on the basis of the model has displayed good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Matthew R.

    or an anticipated 1,766 tonnes of biomass. The levelized cost of electricity (COE) ranged from 65.6/GJ (236/MWh) to 208.9/GJ (752/MWh) with the price of generated electricity being most sensitive to the biomass feedstock cost and the levelized COE being significantly impacted by the high cost of compressed storage. The resulting electrical energy available to the grid has an approximate wholesale value of 13.5/GJ (48.6/MWh) based on year 2007 Midwest Reliability Organization (MRO) regional averages [1]. Therefore, the annual average wholesale value of the generated electricity is lower than the cost to produce the electricity. A significant deficiency of this simple comparison is that it does not consider the fact that the proposed wind and biomass gasification hybrid is now a dispatchable source of electricity with a near net-zero lifetime carbon footprint and storage capability. Dispatchable power can profit from market fluctuations that dramatically increase the value of available electricity so that in addition to providing base power the hybrid facility can store energy during low price points in the market and generate at full capacity during points of high prices. Any financial incentive for energy generated from reduced carbon technologies will also increase the value of electricity produced. Also, alternative operational parameters that do not require the costly storage of synthetic natural gas (SNG) will likely result in a more competitive levelized COE. Additional benefits of the system are in the flexibility of transporting wind and biomass energy produced as well as the end use of the energy. Instead of high-voltage electrical transmission a gas line can now be used to transport energy produced by the wind. Syngas can also be further processed into higher energy density liquefied syngas. Liquid fuels can then be transported via commercial freight on existing road infrastructure.

  11. Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R L; Gallagher, J E; Lessard, R R; Wesslhoft, R D

    1982-01-08

    Catalytic coal gasification is being developed as a more efficient and less costly approach to producing methane from coal. With a potassium catalyst all the reactions can take place at one temperature, so that endothermic and exothermic reactions can be integrated in a single reactor. A key aspect of the concept involves continuous recycling of product carbon monoxide and hydrogen to the gasifier following separation of methane. Development of the process has advanced steadily since the basic concept was proposed in 1971. A 23-day demonstration run was recently completed in a process development unit with a coal feed rate of 1 ton per day. The next major step in the program will be to design and construct a large pilot plant to bring the technology to commercial readiness in the late 1980's.

  12. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  13. Biomass gasification: A demonstration in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, P.

    1994-09-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification-Gas Turbine (BIG-GT) cycles offer considerable opportunities for improved efficiency in biomass power systems. As a result of international collaboration, a full-scale plant in Brazil will be the first commercial scale demonstration plant to utilise this system. The project, if successful, will lead to the commercial development of highly efficient, relatively easily installed biomass energy plants. The global implications could be significant, with biomass possibly contributing to power supplies in a scale similar to nuclear and hydro by the mid 21st century. It could provide a basis for rural development and employment in developing countries, and utilization of excess crop land in the industrial world.

  14. Method for control of subsurface coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Komar, Charles A.

    1976-12-14

    The burn front in an in situ underground coal gasification operation is controlled by utilizing at least two parallel groups of vertical bore holes disposed in the coalbed at spaced-apart locations in planes orthogonal to the plane of maximum permeability in the coalbed. The combustion of the coal is initiated in the coalbed adjacent to one group of the bore holes to establish a combustion zone extending across the group while the pressure of the combustion supporting gas mixture and/or the combustion products is regulated at each well head by valving to control the burn rate and maintain a uniform propagation of the burn front between the spaced-apart hole groups to gasify virtually all the coal lying therebetween.

  15. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  16. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this

  17. Gasification of cyanobacterial in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Zhirong; Gong, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial collected from eutrophic freshwater lakes constituted intractable waste with a rich algae biomass content. Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was proposed to treat the cyanobacterial and to produce hydrogen for energy. The H 2 yield reached 2.92 mol/kg at reaction conditions of 500 °C, 30 min and 22 MPa; this yield accounted for 26% of the total gaseous products. Abundant ammonia and dissolved reactive phosphorous were concentrated in the liquid product, which could be recovered and used as a liquid fertilizer. Solid residue, which accounted only for about 1% of the wet weight, was mainly composed of coke and ash. The efficiency of H 2 production was better than that from other biomass, because of the abundant organic matter in cyanobacterial. Thus, cyanobacterial are an ideal biomass feedstock for H 2 production from SCWG.

  18. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  19. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  20. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R.; Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J.; Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Distribution of nitrogen species during vitrinite pyrolysis and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.Y.; Li, W.Y.; Chang, L.P.; Feng, J.; Zhao, W.; Xie, K.C.

    2006-08-15

    The formation of HCN and NH3 during pyrolysis in Ar and gasification in CO{sub 2} and steam/Ar was investigated. Vitrinites were separated and purified from different rank coal from lignite to anthracite. Pyrolysis and gasification were carried out in the drop-tube/fixed-bed reactor at temperatures of 600-900{sup o}C. Results showed that with increase of reaction temperature the yield of HCN increased significantly during pyrolysis and gasification. Decrease of coal rank also increased the yield of HCN. Vitrinite from lower rank of coal with high volatile content released more HCN. The yield of NH3 was the highest at 800 {sup o}C during pyrolysis and gasification. And the yield of NH3 from gasification in steam/Ar was far higher than that from gasification in CO{sub 2}, where the hydrogen radicals play a key role. Nitrogen retained in char was also investigated. The yield of char-N decreased with an increase of pyrolysis temperature. Vitrinite from lower rank coal had lower yield of char-N than that from the high rank coal.

  2. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Influence of the reactant carbon-hydrogen-oxygen composition on the key products of the direct gasification of dewatered sewage sludge in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Gong, Miao; Zhu, Wei; Fan, Yujie; Zhang, Huiwen; Su, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The supercritical water gasification of ten different types of dewatered sewage sludges was investigated to understand the relationship between sludge properties and gasification products. Experiments were performed in a high-pressure autoclave at 400°C for 60 min. Results showed that gasification of sewage sludge in supercritical water consists mainly of a gasification reaction, a carbonization reaction and a persistent organic pollutants synthesis reaction. Changes in the reactant C/H/O composition have significant effects on the key gasification products. Total gas production increased with increasing C/H2O of the reactant. The char/coke content increased with increasing C/H ratio of the reactant. A decrease in the C/O ratio of the reactant led to a reduction in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation. This means that we can adjust the reactant C/H/O composition by adding carbon-, hydrogen-, and oxygen-containing substances such as coal, algae and H2O2 to optimize hydrogen production and to inhibit an undesired by-product formation.

  4. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL[number sign]830331, MG-122IBP-420[degree]F, MG-122 420--720[degree]F, and MG-122 720[degree]F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC[number sign]11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC[number sign]11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  5. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL{number_sign}830331, MG-122IBP-420{degree}F, MG-122 420--720{degree}F, and MG-122 720{degree}F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC{number_sign}11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC{number_sign}11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  6. Integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) demonstration test

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Sanderson, R.; Abens, S.

    2000-07-01

    As concern about the environment generates interest in ultra-clean energy plants, fuel cell power plants can respond to the challenge. Fuel cells convert hydrocarbon fuels to electricity at efficiencies exceeding conventional heat engine technologies while generating extremely low emissions. Emissions of SOx and NOx are expected to be well below current and anticipated future standards. Nitrogen oxides, a product of combustion, will be extremely low in this power plant because power is produced electrochemically rather than by combustion. Due to its higher efficiencies, a fuel cell power plant also produces less carbon dioxide. Fuel cells in combination with coal gasification, are an efficient and environmentally acceptable means to utilize the abundant coal reserves both in the US and around the world. To demonstrate this technology, FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), is planning to build and test a 2-MW Fuel Cell Power Plant for operation on coal derived gas. This power plant is based on Direct Fuel Cell (DFC{trademark}) technology and will be part of a Clean Coal V IGCC project supported by the US DOE. A British Gas Lurgi (BGL) slagging fixed-bed gasification system with cold gas clean up is planned as part of a 400 MW IGCC power plant to provide a fuel gas slip stream to the fuel cell. The IGFC power plant will be built by Kentucky Pioneer Energy, A subsidiary of Global Energy, in Clark County, KY. This demonstration will result in the world's largest fuel cell power plant operating on coal derived gas. The objective of this test is to demonstrate fuel cell operation on coal derived gas at a commercial scale and to verify the efficiency and environmental benefits.

  7. New results gained with the GSP process for the gasification of pulverized coal, description of the feeding system and solution of environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, F.; Brandt, H.; Kretschmer, H.; Richter, H.; Schingnitz, M.

    1988-01-01

    Both economic analyses and analyses concerning the solution of problems of environmental protection have shown that gasification of coal and the conversion of the produced gas into electrical energy, SNG or syntheses gas is getting more and more attractive. Since 1983 a gasification complex working according to the GSP process has been in operation at Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe in the GDR. It produces more than 50 000 m/sup 3/ raw gas per hour from these coals. The present paper describes technical and technological solutions, practical results and experience gained during operation as a precondition for the construction of large-scale gas works with an annual output of two to four billions m/sup 3/ raw gas. When discussing these problems it is demonstrated that the environmental compatibility of this coal gasification process meets the highest requirements even if coal that is rich in ash and sulphur and contains salt is used.

  8. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H(2)S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

  9. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water

  10. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Li

    ), fast growing energy crops (switchgrass), and popular forage crop (alfalfa), as well as biochar derived from those materials and their mixtures. It demonstrated that Py-MBMS coupled with MVA could be used as fast analytical tools for the study of not only biomass composition but also its thermal decomposition behaviors. It found that the impact of biomass composition heavily depends on the thermal decomposition temperature because at different temperature, the composition of biomass decomposed and the impact of minerals on the decomposition reaction varies. At low temperature (200-500°C), organic compounds attribute to the majority of variation in thermal decomposition products. At higher temperature, inorganics dramatically changed the pyrolysis pathway of carbohydrates and possibly lignin. In gasification, gasification tar formation is also observed to be impacted by ash content in vapor and char. In real reactor, biochar structure also has interactions with other fractions to make the final pyrolysis and gasification product. Based on the evaluation of process efficiencies during torrefaction, temperature ranging from 275°C to 300°C with short residence time (<10min) are proposed to be optimal torrefaction conditions. 500°C is preferred to 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature in two stage gasification because higher primary pyrolysis temperature resulted in more tar and less gasification char. Also, in terms of carbon yield, more carbon is lost in tar while less carbon is retained in gas product using 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature. In addition, pyrolysis char is found to produce less tar and more gas during steam gasification compared with gasification of pyrolysis vapor. Thus it is suggested that torrefaction might be an efficient pretreatment for biomass gasification because it can largely improve the yield of pyrolysis char during the primary pyrolysis step of gasification thus reduce the total tar of the overall gasification products. Future work

  11. Microstructural Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper through the Addition of Antimony Dopants at Grain Boundaries: Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rajgarhia, Rahul K.; Saxena, Ashok; Spearot, Douglas; Hartwig, Ted; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Kenik, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Experiments and simulations show that the microstructural stability of nanocrystalline Cu can be improved by adding impurity atoms, such as Sb, which migrate to the grain boundaries. Cu100-xSbx alloys are cast in three compositions (Cu-0.0, 0.2 and 0.5 at.%Sb) and subsequently processed into nanocrystalline form by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). The presence of Sb atoms at the grain boundaries increases the recrystallization temperature to 400 C compared to 200 C for pure nanocrystalline Cu, which was verified by measurements of microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, grain size using TEM, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using a wider range of Sb compositions (0.0 to 1.0 at.%Sb) to study the underlying mechanisms associated with stability. MD simulations show that Sb atoms reduce excess grain boundary energy and that 0.2 and 0.5 at.%Sb is enough to stabilize the nanocrystalline Cu microstructure.

  12. Complete study of the pyrolysis and gasification of scrap tires in a pilot plant reactor.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Martín-Gullón, I; Font, R; Jauhiainen, J

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of tires was studied in a pilot plant reactor provided with a system for condensation of semivolatile matter. The study comprises experiments at 450, 750, and 1000 degrees C both in nitrogen and 10% oxygen atmospheres. Analysis of all the products obtained (gases, liquids, char, and soot) are presented. In the gas phase only methane and benzene yields increase with temperature until 1000 degrees C. In the liquids the main components are styrene, limonene, and isoprene. The solid fraction (including soot) increases with temperature. Zinc content of the char decreases with increasing temperature.

  13. The newer aspect of dexmedetomidine use in dentistry: As an additive to local anesthesia, initial experience, and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Thepra, Manju; Bhagol, Amrish; Priya, Kannu; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the availability of a wide variety of pharmacological agents in the field of anesthesia, there has always been a continuous search for newer local anesthetic agents with improved efficacy, potency, and better handling properties. Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, is an emerging agent for provision of additive local anesthetic effect if used with conventional local anesthetics, which can be implicated in dentistry for performing many minor oral surgical procedures. The present paper reports a pilot study comparing clinical efficacy and potency of this newer emerging drug in combination with lignocaine. Materials and Methods: Ten patients undergoing orthodontic extraction for correction of malocclusion and other dentofacial deformities requiring orthodontic treatment were locally infiltrated with 2% lignocaine plus dexmedetomidine 1μ/ml and 2% lignocaine plus adrenaline in 1:200,000 dilution at two different appointments. The onset of action, duration of action, and pain threshold were assessed. Results: Onset of action was found to be faster with longer duration of action with the newer drug dexmedetomidine and lignocaine combination when compared with combination of lignocaine and adrenaline. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the combination of dexmedetomidine with lignocaine enhances the local anesthetic potency of lignocaine without significant systemic effects when locally injected into oral mucosa. PMID:28163484

  14. Forestry Impacts on Mercury Mobility, Methylation, and Bioaccumulation - A Field Experiment with Enriched Stable Mercury Isotope Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Carl; Haynes, Kristine; Mazur, Maxwell; Fidler, Nathan; Eckley, Chris; Kolka, Randy; Eggert, Susan; Sebestyen, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Forest harvesting has clear impacts on terrestrial hydrology at least over the short term. Similar biogeochemical impacts, such as augmented mercury fluxes or downstream impacts on ecosystems are not as clear, and recent studies have not demonstrated consistent or predictable impacts across systems. To gain a better process understanding of mercury cycling in upland forest-lowland peatland ecosystems, we undertook a field-scale experiment at a study site in northern Minnesota (USA) where shallow subsurface hillslope runoff flows into an adjacent peatland ecosystem. Starting in 2009, three upland forest plots (< 1 hectare each) were delineated and hydrometric infrastructure such as runoff trenches, snow lysimeters, soil moisture probes, shallow piezometers, and throughfall gauges were installed in each plot. We added 14.2 to 16.7 μg/m2 of enriched mercury-200 and mercury-204 (as dilute mercuric nitrate) in the spring of 2011 and 2012, respectively, to distinguish between contemporary and legacy mercury and to provide some insight into the duration of contemporary mercury mobility in impacted terrestrial ecosystems. During the late winter of 2012, one of the study plots was clearcut and approximately 80% of slash was removed. We clearcut a second plot without slash removal, and left the third plot as a control. Throughout the study, we have monitored (including isotopes): mercury in runoff, soil-air gaseous Hg fluxes, methylation potentials in the adjacent peatland, and bioaccumulation into invertebrates inhabiting the adjacent peatland. Early results mostly indicate that slash removal actually lessens the impacts of clearcutting on mercury mobility (although forest harvesting in general does have a significant impact) and that forestry operations at this scale have little to no impact on methylation or bioaccumulation in downstream peatlands. Thus far, the greatest impact of slash removal in forest harvested systems is an increase in mercury evasion, likely as a

  15. Corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1980-05-01

    A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/, and COS) as well as oxidants (CO/sub 2//CO and H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed. 54 references, 65 figures, 24 tables.

  16. 75 FR 17397 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kern County, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kern County, CA--Notice of... proposed by HECA would demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology with carbon... emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, and particulates compared to conventional...

  17. Effect of pore size on bone ingrowth into porous titanium implants fabricated by additive manufacturing: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Otsuki, Bungo; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique with the ability to produce metallic scaffolds with accurately controlled pore size, porosity, and interconnectivity for orthopedic applications. However, the optimal pore structure of porous titanium manufactured by SLM remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pore size with constant porosity on in vivo bone ingrowth in rabbits into porous titanium implants manufactured by SLM. Three porous titanium implants (with an intended porosity of 65% and pore sizes of 300, 600, and 900μm, designated the P300, P600, and P900 implants, respectively) were manufactured by SLM. A diamond lattice was adapted as the basic structure. Their porous structures were evaluated and verified using microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Their bone-implant fixation ability was evaluated by their implantation as porous-surfaced titanium plates into the cortical bone of the rabbit tibia. Bone ingrowth was evaluated by their implantation as cylindrical porous titanium implants into the cancellous bone of the rabbit femur for 2, 4, and 8weeks. The average pore sizes of the P300, P600, and P900 implants were 309, 632, and 956μm, respectively. The P600 implant demonstrated a significantly higher fixation ability at 2weeks than the other implants. After 4weeks, all models had sufficiently high fixation ability in a detaching test. Bone ingrowth into the P300 implant was lower than into the other implants at 4weeks. Because of its appropriate mechanical strength, high fixation ability, and rapid bone ingrowth, our results indicate that the pore structure of the P600 implant is a suitable porous structure for orthopedic implants manufactured by SLM.

  18. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

    2002-09-19

    This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

  20. Assessment of selexolVAcid gas removal powers for use with Lurgi gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, A.J.; Fein, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Selexol acid gas removal as used with entrained-bed gasification is less expensive than the Rectisol process configuration generally used with Lurgi gasification. The objective of this study was to determine whether cost savings could be derived from using the Selexol process with Lurgi gasification or whether the Lurgi gas composition required use of a Rectisol clean-up unit. 5 refs.

  1. Wastewater treatment train for fixed bed coal gasification. Semi-annual progress report, May 1-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, R.D.; Muretti, C.; Ali, F.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a series of procedures that enable wastewater from a stirred fixed bed gasification process to be treated in an environmentally acceptable manner. Experiments are conducted on a laboratory scale using samples of gasifier wastewater. The linkage of processes used include sulfide stripping, pH adjustment followed by free and fixed ammonia removal, pH adjustment for chemical precipitation of organics, and biological treatment in an activated sludge type configuration. The pre-treatment technique employed provides almost 50% organic removal from the wastewater prior to biological processing; with the organics being accumulated into the sludge phase. The interaction of generated sludges with RCRA regulations is the subject of additional research. A series of continuous biological reactors is operational with hydraulic detention times of 1.0 days, and sludge ages in excess of 20 days. A removal in excess of 80% of COD is accomplished by the biological reactors when the wastewater is pre-treated by the manner developed.

  2. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of primary paper sludge using a homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst: Experimental vs thermodynamic equilibrium results.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-02-01

    H2, CH4, CO and CO2 yields were measured during supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of primary paper waste sludge (PWS) at 450°C. Comparing these yields with calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values offer an improved understanding of conditions required to produce near-equilibrium yields. Experiments were conducted at different catalyst loads (0-1g/gPWS) and different reaction times (15-120min) in a batch reactor, using either K2CO3 or Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 as catalyst. K2CO3 up to 1g/gPWS increased the H2 yield significantly to 7.5mol/kgPWS. However, these yields and composition were far from equilibrium values, with carbon efficiency (CE) and energy recovery (ER) of only 29% and 20%, respectively. Addition of 0.5-1g/gPWS Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 resulted in high H2 and CH4 yields (6.8 and 14.8mol/kgPWS), CE of 84-90%, ER of 83% and a gas composition relatively close to the equilibrium values (at hold times of 60-120min).

  3. Gasification of agricultural residues (biomass): Influence of inorganic constituents

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroot, W.F.; Kannan, M.P.; Richards, G.N. ); Theander, O. )

    1990-01-01

    Four different biomass samples are included in this study, viz., sphagnum peat, wheat straw, sugar beet pulp, and potato pulp. They were chosen to represent a wide range of plant origin and inorganic content. This paper represents a preliminary investigation of an approach based on pyrolysis of biomass to produce volatile products and chars, followed by gasification of the chars. The particular interest lies in the investigation of the influence of the indigenous metal ions on the rate of gasification. Carbon dioxide has been used for the gasification, and the biomass was analyzed for nine metals, uronic acids (which are implicated in the binding of inorganic counterions), protein, and Klason lignin. The highest individual metal ion content was 13,964 ppm of potassium in potato pulp, and the gasification rates, under constant conditions, covered up to a 20-fold range, with char from potato pulp being the most readily gasified and char from peat the most resistant. The correlation of gasification rates with content of the major metal ions (alkali metals and alkaline earths) was poor. However, a high level of correlation was observed when wheat straw was omitted. It is speculated that the latter biomass may be anomalous with respect to the other three because of its high silica content.

  4. Thermodynamics Analysis of Refinery Sludge Gasification in Adiabatic Updraft Gasifier

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M.; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9–55.5%, 43.7–72.4%, and 42.5–50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values. PMID:24672368

  5. Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2011-06-15

    Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2).

  6. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  7. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic.

  8. Countercurrent fixed-bed gasification of biomass at laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Portoricco, G.

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale countercurrent fixed-bed gasification plant has been designed and constructed to produce data for process modeling and to compare the gasification characteristics of several biomasses (beechwood, nutshells, olive husks, and grape residues). The composition of producer gas and spatial temperature profiles have been measured for biomass gasification at different air flow rates. The gas-heating value always attains a maximum as a function of this operating variable, associated with a decrease of the air-to-fuel ratio. Optical gasification conditions of wood and agricultural residues give rise to comparable gas-heating values, comprised in the range 5--5.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3} with 28--30% CO, 5--7% CO{sub 2}, 6--8% H{sub 2}, 1--2% CH{sub 4}, and small amounts of C{sub 2}- hydrocarbons (apart from nitrogen). However, gasification of agricultural residues is more difficult because of bed transport, partial ash sintering, nonuniform flow distribution, and the presence of a muddy phase in the effluents, so that proper pretreatments are needed for largescale applications.

  9. Thermodynamics analysis of refinery sludge gasification in adiabatic updraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9-55.5%, 43.7-72.4%, and 42.5-50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values.

  10. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  11. Investigating the Integration of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and a Gas Turbine System with Coal Gasification Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    conceptually integrate the hybrid power system with existing and imminent coal gasification technologies. The gasification technologies include the Kellogg...Brown Root (KBR) Transport Reactor and entrained coal gasification . Parametric studies will be performed wherein pertinent fuel cell stack process...dependent variables of interest. Coal gasification data and a proven SOFC model will be used to test the theoretical integration. Feasibility and

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  13. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    PubMed

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw.

  14. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  15. Steam Gasification Rates of Three Bituminous Coal Chars in an Entrained-Flow Reactor at Pressurized Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Aaron D.; Holland, Troy M.; Marchant, Nathaniel R.; Fletcher, Emmett G.; Henley, Daniel J.; Fuller, Eric G.; Fletcher, Thomas H.

    2015-02-26

    Three bituminous coal chars (Illinois #6, Utah Skyline, and Pittsburgh #8) were gasified separately at total pressures of 10 and 15 atm in an entrained-flow reactor using gas temperatures up to 1830 K and particle residence times <240 ms. The experiments were performed at conditions where the majority of particle mass release was due to H2O gasification, although select experiments were performed at conditions where significant mass release was due to gasification by both H2O and CO2. The measured coal data we recorded were fit to three char gasification models including a simple first-order global model, as well as the CCKNand CCK models that stem from the CBK model. The optimal kinetic parameters for each of the three models are reported, and the steam reactivity of the coal chars at the studied conditions is as follows: Pittsburgh #8 > Utah Skyline > Illinois #6.

  16. Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  17. A summary report on combustion and gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

  18. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  19. Granular bed filtration of high temperature biomass gasification gas.

    PubMed

    Stanghelle, Daniel; Slungaard, Torbjørn; Sønju, Otto K

    2007-06-18

    High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550 degrees C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification producer gas. The relatively low pressure drop over the filter during filtration is comparable to those of bag filters. The granular filter can operate with high filtration velocities compared to bag filters and maintain high efficiency and a low residual pressure. This work is a part of the BioSOFC-up project that has a goal of utilizing the producer gas from the gasification plant in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The BioSOFC-up project will continue to the end of 2007.

  20. Gasification Reaction Characteristics of Ferro-Coke at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jian-liang; Gao, Bing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of temperature and atmosphere on the gasification reaction of ferro-coke were investigated in consideration of the actual blast furnace conditions. Besides, the microstructure of the cokes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that the weight loss of ferro-coke during the gasification reaction is significantly enhanced in the case of increasing either the reaction temperature or the CO2 concentration. Furthermore, compared with the normal type of metallurgical coke, ferro-coke exhibits a higher weight loss when they are gasified at the same temperature or under the same atmosphere. As to the microstructure, inside the reacted ferro-coke are a large amount of pores. Contrary to the normal coke, the proportions of the large-size pores and the through holes are greatly increased after gasification, giving rise to thinner pore walls and hence a degradation in coke strength after reaction (CSR).

  1. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  2. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  3. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

  4. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  5. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Coal Properties in Terms of Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak-Kowalska, Jolanta; Niedoba, Tomasz; Surowiak, Agnieszka; Tumidajski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of two types of coal taken from the ZG Janina and ZG Wieczorek coalmines. The aim of this study has been to analyze the suitability of the coal in the context of the gasification process. The types of coal vary considerably in terms of their characteristics. Each of them was subjected to treatment in a ten-ringed annular jig. A particle size of 0-18 mm constituted the feed. The separated coal was divided into five layers, each of them containing material from two additional annular jigs. Analysis of their characteristics was carried out for each of the five layers and for both types of coal obtained, taking into account both their physicochemical properties as well as chemical ones. Each of these characteristics was then presented in three-dimensional surface diagrams, where the ordinate (or Y-axis) and abscissa (X-axis) was the particle size and height in which the material ended up in the jig (expressed as a percentage of the total height of the device). On the basis of observations, it was found that the types of coal have different potential for gasification, although both types are within the limits specified on the basis of previous studies. A correlation analysis between particle size and remaining characteristics of coal was carried out for each of the layers, allowing to determine which of the studied characteristics induced changes significant from the point of view of the coal gasification process. The entire research and observation was supported by conclusions and findings, which shall form the basis for further, in-depth analysis of coal.

  6. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  7. Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  8. The thermochemical analysis of the effectiveness of various gasification technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. P.; Kovbasyuk, V. I.; Medvedev, Yu. V.

    2013-05-01

    The authors studied the process of gasification of solid fuels and wastes by means of modified model accounting the absence of equilibrium in the Boudouard reaction. A comparison was made between auto- and allothermal gasification, and it was demonstrated that the former method is more advantageous with respect to (as an indicator) thermochemical efficiency. The feasibility of producing highly calorific synthesis gas using an oxygen blast is discussed. A thermodynamic model of the facility for producing such synthesis gas has been developed that involves the gas turbine used for driving an oxygen plant of the adsorption type.

  9. Flow Simulation and Optimization of Plasma Reactors for Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chunjun; Zhang, Yingzi; Ma, Tengcai

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports a 3-d numerical simulation system to analyze the complicated flow in plasma reactors for coal gasification, which involve complex chemical reaction, two-phase flow and plasma effect. On the basis of analytic results, the distribution of the density, temperature and components' concentration are obtained and a different plasma reactor configuration is proposed to optimize the flow parameters. The numerical simulation results show an improved conversion ratio of the coal gasification. Different kinds of chemical reaction models are used to simulate the complex flow inside the reactor. It can be concluded that the numerical simulation system can be very useful for the design and optimization of the plasma reactor.

  10. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 17. Gasification and liquids recovery of four US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-12-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the seventeenth in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This report describes the gasification and pyrolysis liquids recovery test for four different coals: Illinois No. 6, SUFCO, Indianhead lignite, and Hiawatha. This test series spanned from July 15, 1985, through July 28, 1985. 4 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 16. Gasification of 2-inch Minnesota peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-10-01

    A single, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scubber used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the sixteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific test report describes the gasification of two-inch Minnesota peat sods, which began on June 24, 1985 and was completed on June 27, 1985. 4 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 12. Gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial particpants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the twelfth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. this specific reports describes the gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal. This volume covers the test period June 18, 1984 to June 30, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, Mild gasification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  14. Gasification of bio-oil: Effects of equivalence ratio and gasifying agents on product distribution and gasification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-07-01

    Bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of rice husk was gasified for producing gas. The effectiveness of equivalence ratio and gasifying agents on the gas composition, ratio of H2/CO, tar amount, low heating value, degree of oxidation and cold gas efficiency of the gas were comprehensively investigated. Under different equivalence ratios and gasifying agents, the gases can be used as synthesis gas for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, fuel gas for gas turbines in a power plant and reducing gas for ore reduction, respectively. The H2 concentration, CO level and cold gas efficiency of the resulted gas derived from gasification of bio-oil were significantly higher, while tar content was remarkably lower than those derived from gasification of solid biomass using the same equivalent ratio value and gasifying agent. In short, bio-oil gasification is economically feasible for large scale production of fuels and chemicals.

  15. Changes in water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes with the addition of biochar to soils: lessons learned from laboratory and greenhouse experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T.; Gallagher, M. E.; Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The addition of biochar to agricultural soils has the potential to provide a number of ecosystem services, ranging from carbon (C) sequestration to increased soil fertility and crop production. It is estimated that 0.5 to 0.9 Pg of C yr-1 can be sequestered through the addition of biochar to soils, significantly increasing the charcoal flux to the biosphere over natural inputs from fire (0.05 to 0.20 Pg C yr-1). There remain large uncertainties about biochar mobility within the environment, making it a challenge to assess the ecosystem residence time of biochar. We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to understand how soil amendment with laboratory-produced biochar changes water, C, and nitrogen (N) fluxes from soils. We used column experiments to assess how biochar amendment to three types of soils (sand, organic, clay-rich) affected hydraulic conductivity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes. Results varied with soil type; biochar significantly decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and organic soils by a factor of 10.6 and 2.7, respectively. While not statistically significant, biochar addition increased the hydraulic conductivity of the clay-rich soil by 50% on average. The addition of biochar significantly increased the DOC fluxes from the C-poor sand and clay soils while it significantly decreased the DOC flux from the organic-rich soil. In contrast, TDN fluxes decreased with biochar additions from all soil types, though the results were not statistically significant from the clay-rich soil. These laboratory experiments suggest that changes in the hydraulic conductivity of soil due to biochar amendments could play a significant role in understanding how biochar additions to agricultural fields will change watershed C and N dynamics. We additionally conducted a 28-day greenhouse experiment with sorghum plants using a three-way factorial treatment (water availability x biochar x mycorrhizae) to

  16. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah.

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  17. Kinetics of the addition of olefins to Si-centered radicals: the critical role of dispersion interactions revealed by theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erin R; Clarkin, Owen J; Dale, Stephen G; DiLabio, Gino A

    2015-06-04

    Solution-phase rate constants for the addition of selected olefins to the triethylsilyl and tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl radicals are measured using laser-flash photolysis and competition kinetics. The results are compared with predictions from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, both with and without dispersion corrections obtained from the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) model. Without a dispersion correction, the rate constants are consistently underestimated; the errors increase with system size, up to 10(6) s(-1) for the largest system considered. Dispersion interactions preferentially stabilize the transition states relative to the separated reactants and bring the DFT-calculated rate constants into excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, dispersion interactions are found to play a key role in determining the kinetics for addition reactions, particularly those involving sterically bulky functional groups.

  18. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years. PMID:27573360

  19. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition – a five-year experiment in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejian; Qi, Yu; Huang, Yongmei; Chen, Huiying; Sheng, Zhilu; Xu, Xia; Duan, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the response of the plant community to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is helpful for improving pasture management in semi-arid areas. We implemented a 5-year N addition experiment in a Stipa krylovii steppe of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were measured annually. Along with the N addition levels, the species richness declined significantly, and the species composition changed noticeably. However, the total AGB did not exhibit a noticeable increase. We found that compensatory effects of the AGB occurred not only between the grasses and the forbs but also among Gramineae species. The plant responses to N addition, from the community to species level, lessened in dry years compared to wet or normal years. The N addition intensified the reduction of community productivity in dry years. Our study indicated that the compensatory effects of the AGB among the species sustained the stability of grassland productivity. However, biodiversity loss resulting from increasing N deposition might lead the semi-arid grassland ecosystem to be unsustainable, especially in dry years.

  20. Occurrence and destruction of PAHs, PCBs, CIPhs, CIBzs, and PCDD/Fs in ash from gasification of straw.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, Arja H; Kuusisto, Mikko P; Hiltunen, Matti A; Ruuskanent, Juhani

    2002-05-15

    Two experiments were performed with an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier (ACFBG), the first with pelletized straw and the second with loose straw, to investigate the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorophenols (CIPhs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated benzenes (ClBzs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the bottom ash and fly ash formed during gasification. Only PAHs were present in large amounts, and only in the fly ash, ranging from 300 to 555 mg/kg ash in the tests with pelletized straw and from 73 to 118 mg/kg ash in those with loose straw. These amounts are so high that environmentally safe disposal or reuse of the ash would be difficult, so the development of a technique to handle the problem was included in the project. The method investigated was to burn the fly ash in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler in order to destroy the PAHs. This worked surprisingly well, eliminating 99% of the PAHs, without any further formation of the other harmful organic compounds analyzed. Thus, this method could actually be useful in practice. Especially the fact that the formation of PCDD/Fs was minimal during gasification and further treatment of the ash in the CFB boiler makes the gasification technique highly competitive relative to conventional combustion methods.

  1. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  2. Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vidt, E.J.; Jablonski, G.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1981-12-01

    This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The configurations studied include entrained, fluidized-bed, gravitating-bed, and molten salt gasifiers, both air and oxygen blown. Desulfurization systems utilizing wet scrubbing processes, such as Selexol and Rectisol II, and dry sorbents, such as iron oxide and dolomite, were chosen for evaluation. Cleanup systems not chosen by DOE's MCFC contractors, General Electric and United Technologies, Inc., for their MCFC power plant work by virtue of the resource requirements of those systems for commercial development were chosen for detailed study in Tasks C and D of this contract. Such systems include Westinghouse fluidized-bed gasification, air and oxygen blown, Rockwell molten carbonate air-blown gasification, METC iron oxide desulfurization, and dolomitic desulfurization. In addition, for comparison, gasification systems such as the Texaco entrained and the British Gas/Lurgi slagging units, along with wet scrubbing by Rectisol II, have also been chosen for detailed study.

  3. Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

  4. Coal-gasification-process concepts. [Dependence on gasifier pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Tarman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    First Generation coal gasification continues to grow with the expansion of Lurgi process to make gasoline in South Africa and SNG in the United States. This moving-bed gasifier is no doubt the leading commercial application of coal gasification. This can probably be attributed to its operation at the elevated pressure that simultaneously increases coal throughput and broadens the utility of the raw Syngas product by lowering its coal. Other Second Generation processes also strive to achieve high pressure operation: Ruhrgas 100 to improve moving-bed gasification at 100 bars; Texaco, Shell, Koppers, and Saarberg-Otto to improve entrained-bed gasification at 20 to 40 bars; and U-GAS and Westinghouse and the pressurized Winkler to improve fluidized-bed operation at 10 to 40 bars. Operation at 20 to 40 bars greatly improves gasifier productivity and significantly broadens the use of the raw Syngas produced by all types of gasifiers. Future commercial trends will include the entrained- and fluidized-bed concepts at 20 to 40 bars while even higher operating pressures will be used for the Lurgi moving-bed concept.

  5. Assessment of plasma gasification of high caloric waste streams.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Bert; Elslander, Helmut; Vanderreydt, Ive; Peys, Kurt; Diels, Ludo; Oosterlinck, Michel; Joos, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Plasma gasification is an innovative technology for transforming high calorific waste streams into a valuable synthesis gas and a vitrified slag by means of a thermal plasma. A test program has been set up to evaluate the feasibility of plasma gasification and the impact of this process on the environment. RDF (refuse derived fuel) from carpet and textile waste was selected as feed material for semi-pilot gasification tests. The aim of the tests was: (1) to evaluate the technical feasibility of making a stable synthesis gas; (2) to characterize the composition of this synthesis gas; (3) to define a suitable after-treatment configuration for purification of the syngas and (4) to characterize the stability of the slag, i.e., its resistance to leaching for use as a secondary building material. The tests illustrate that plasma gasification can result in a suitable syngas quality and a slag, characterized by an acceptable leachability. Based on the test results, a further scale-up of this technology will be prepared and validation tests run.

  6. Optimization Review, Fairfield Coal Gasification Plant Superfund Site, Fairfield, Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fairfield Coal Gasification Plant (FCGP) also known as the Fairfield Former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) is located in the southwest 1/4 of the southeast 1/4, Section 26, Township 72 North, Range 10 West of Jefferson County, Iowa.

  7. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC16

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-08-24

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report discusses Test Campaign TC16 of the PSDF gasification process. TC16 began on July 14, 2004, lasting until August 24, 2004, for a total of 835 hours of gasification operation. The test campaign consisted of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and high sodium lignite from the North Dakota Freedom mine. The highest gasifier operating temperature mostly varied from 1,760 to 1,850 F with PRB and 1,500 to 1,600 F with lignite. Typically, during PRB operations, the gasifier exit pressure was maintained between 215 and 225 psig using air as the gasification oxidant and between 145 and 190 psig while using oxygen as the oxidant. With lignite, the gasifier operated only in air-blown mode, and the gasifier outlet pressure ranged from 150 to 160 psig.

  8. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  9. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  10. Experimental study on cyclone air gasification of wood powder.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaozeng; Zhao, Yijun; Tian, Hongming; Ling, Feng; Su, Fengming

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, effects of the equivalence ratio (ER) and the secondary air on the gasification system were studied. The results indicate that as the ER varies in the range of 0.20-0.26, the low heating value (LHV) of the producer gas is in the range of 3.64-5.76 MJ/Nm(3), the carbon conversion is 55%-67% and the cold gas efficiency of the gasification system is 33%-47%. In contrast to the gasification without the secondary air, air staged process is a gasification method capable of increasing the LHV of the producer gas from 4.63 to 5.67 MJ/Nm(3), the carbon conversion from 65.5% to 81.2%, and the cold gas efficiency of the gasifier from 42.5% to 56.87%, while the tar content of the producer gas decreases from 13.96 to 5.6g/Nm(3). There exists an optimum ratio of the secondary air.

  11. TECHNOECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED-CYCLE POWER GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a technoeconomic appraisal of the integrated (coal) gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system. lthough not yet a proven commercial technology, IGCC is a future competitive technology to current pulverized-coal boilers equipped with SO2 and NOx controls, because of i...

  12. Ultra high temperature gasification of municipal wastewater primary biosolids in a rotary kiln reactor for the production of synthesis gas.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Petros

    2016-03-03

    Primary Fine-Sieved Solids (PFSS) are produced from wastewater by the use of micro-sieves, in place of primary clarification. Biosolids is considered as a nuisance product, however, it contains significant amounts of energy, which can be utilized by biological (anaerobic digestion) or thermal (combustion or gasification) processes. In the present study, an semi-industrial scale UHT rotary kiln gasifier, operating with electric energy, was employed for the gasification of PFSS (at 17% moisture content), collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Two gasification temperatures (950 and 1050 °C) had been tested, with minimal differences, with respect to syngas yield. The system appears to reach steady state after about 30-40 min from start up. The composition of the syngas at near steady state was measured approximately as 62.4% H2, 30.0% CO, 2.4% CH4 and 3.4% CO2, plus 1.8% unidentified gases. The potential for electric energy production from the syngas produced is theoretically greater than the electric energy required for gasification. Theoretically, approximately 3.8 MJ/kg PFSS of net electric energy may be produced. However, based on the measured electric energy consumption, and assuming that all the syngas produced is used for electric energy production, addition of excess electric energy (about 0.43 MJ/kg PFSS) is required to break even. The latter is probably due to heat losses to the environment, during the heating process. With the improvement of energy efficiency, the process can be self sustained, form the energy point of view.

  13. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  14. Gasification characteristics of organic waste by molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Minami, Keishi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Morimitsu, Shinsuke; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Recently, along with the growth in economic development, there has been a dramatic accompanying increase in the amount of sludge and organic waste. The disposal of such is a significant problem. Moreover, there is also an increased in the consumption of electricity along with economic growth. Although new energy development, such as fuel cells, has been promoted to solve the problem of power consumption, there has been little corresponding promotion relating to the disposal of sludge and organic waste. Generally, methane fermentation comprises the primary organic waste fuel used in gasification systems. However, the methane fermentation method takes a long time to obtain the fuel gas, and the quality of the obtained gas is unstable. On the other hand, gasification by molten salt is undesirable because the molten salt in the gasification gas corrodes the piping and turbine blades. Therefore, a gasification system is proposed by which the sludge and organic waste are gasified by molten salt. Moreover, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are needed to refill the MCFC electrolyte volatilized in the operation. Since the gasification gas is used as an MCFC fuel, MCFC electrolyte can be provided with the fuel gas. This paper elucidates the fundamental characteristics of sludge and organic waste gasification. A crucible filled with the molten salt comprising 62 Li 2CO 3/38 K 2CO 3, is installed in the reaction vessel, and can be set to an arbitrary temperature in a gas atmosphere. In this instance, the gasifying agent gas is CO 2. Sludge or the rice is supplied as organic waste into the molten salt, and is gasified. The chemical composition of the gasification gas is analyzed by a CO/CO 2 meter, a HC meter, and a SO x meter gas chromatography. As a result, although sludge can generate CO and H 2 near the chemical equilibrium value, all of the sulfur in the sludge is not fixed in the molten salt, because the sludge floats on the surface of the carbonate by the specific

  15. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  16. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  17. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Sharp, L.L.; Shockey, R.E.

    1992-07-01

    The char produced in the 100-lb/hr process development unit has been magnetically cleaned by AMAX and returned to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The final calcining step of the process is currently being performed in the 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). The liquid products generated by the PDU have been collected and split into usable fractions and fractions to be discarded. Samples of the coal-derived liquids have been sent to Merichem Corporation of Houston and Koppers Industries of Pittsburgh for determination of their usefulness as chemical feedstock for the production of cresylic acids and anode-grade-binder pitch. The technical and economic assessment performed by Xbi and J.E Sinor Consultants has been completed. The briquette testing being conducted at the EERC has produced high quality briquettes using a number of binder agents. The next step in the test matrix will include the use of coal-derived liquids from the PDU as the binder. An additional coal has been added to the mild gasification test matrix. AMAX recently acquired two eastern low-sulfur bituminous coals and suggested that a limited test schedule be conducted to determine the suitability of these coals for the mild gasification process. The sulfur levels in the raw coals are below the target levels suggested by the steel industry for metallurgical coke use. To date, it has not been possible to reach these goals using the high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals tested.

  18. Speciation of Sulfur in Biochar Produced from Pyrolysis and Gasification of Oak and Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The effects of feedstock type and biomass conversion conditions on the speciation of sulfur in biochars are not well-known. In this study, the sulfur content and speciation in biochars generated from pyrolysis and gasification of oak and corn stover were determined. We found the primary determinant of the total sulfur content of biomass to be the feedstock from which the biochar is generated, with oak and corn stover biochars containing 160 and 600–800 ppm sulfur, respectively. In contrast, for sulfur speciation, we found the primary determinant to be the temperature combined with the thermochemical conversion method. The speciation of sulfur in biochars was determined using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), ASTM method D2492, and scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). Biochars produced under pyrolysis conditions at 500–600 °C contain sulfate, organosulfur, and sulfide. In some cases, the sulfate contents are up to 77–100%. Biochars produced in gasification conditions at 850 °C contain 73–100% organosulfur. The increase of the organosulfur content as the temperature of biochar production increases suggests a similar sulfur transformation mechanism as that in coal, where inorganic sulfur reacts with hydrocarbon and/or H2 to form organosulfur when the coal is heated. EDS mapping of a biochar produced from corn stover pyrolysis shows individual sulfur-containing mineral particles in addition to the sulfur that is distributed throughout the organic matrix. PMID:25003702

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  20. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  1. Treatability testing of KILnGAS and Texaco coal gasification wastewaters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J.; Zeien, C.T.; Moe, T.A.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.; Stephan, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the results of treatability testing of wastewater from two coal gasification plants: the 600-tpd KILnGAS rotary-kiln gasifier in East Alton, Illinois, and the 1000-tyd Texaco entrained-flow gasifier at the Cool Water facility in Daggett, California. The wastewater was collected during steady-state operation of the gasifiers and shipped in barrels to the testing laboratory for characterization and treatment. Solvent extraction, steam stripping, biological treatment, granular activated carbon adsorption, ozonation, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, cooling tower evaporation, and wet air oxidation were evaluated in terms of their ability to meet the project's effluent quality targets. Preliminary process design criteria were also developed. Two sets of effluent discharge targets as well as a zero effluent discharge condition were established as goals for the testing. All of the effluent targets were met by the combination of processes used in the treatability testing program, with the exception of cyanide and COD for the KILnGAS wastewater and cyanide under one of the discharge conditions for the Texaco wastewater. These targets could likely be met by additional process steps or by further treatment with the processes tested. This test program confirmed that the principal containmants in these coal gasification wastewaters can be reduced to low concentrations by use of commercially proven treatment processes. 15 refs., 50 figs., 93 tabs.

  2. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J.; Steinfeld, G.

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  3. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Novel concept development of an internal recirculation catalyst for mild gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Babu, S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an overall evaluation of a novel process concept for mild gasification by completing work in three major tasks: (1) Laboratory-Scale Experiments, (2) Bench-Scale Tests, and (3) Proof-of-Concept Tests and Evaluation (optional). During this quarter, experimental work involving zinc chloride as a potential recirculating catalyst for coal, initiated in the previous quarter, was continued. The design of an all-quartz laboratory-scale isothermal free-fall reactor was completed, and construction was begun. One free-fall experiment was performed in an existing stainless-steel free-fall reactor with methanol-treated Illinois No. 6 high-volatile bituminous coal. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David A.

    2013-08-15

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst-capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst-capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO2 and H2S capture, and (3) the steam-coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO-CaCO3 chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO3 was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO-CaCO3 cycles. The increased steam-coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2-4% per CaO-CaCO3 cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier-calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO4 and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  6. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at

  7. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology

  8. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  9. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majdański, Mariusz; Białas, Sebastian; Gaczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  10. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil.

  11. Soil microbial biomass and community structure affected by repeated additions of sewage sludge in four Swedish long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, G.; Kätterer, T.; Kirchmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter is a key attribute of soil fertility. The pool of soil organic C can be increased, either by mineral fertilisers or by adding organic amendments such as sewage sludge. Sewage sludge has positive effects on agricultural soils through the supply of organic matter and essential plant nutrients, but sludge may also contain unwanted heavy metals, xenobiotic substances and pathogens. One obvious effect of long-term sewage sludge addition is a decrease in soil pH, caused by N mineralisation followed by nitrification, sulphate formation and presence of organic acids with the organic matter added. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sewage sludge on the microbial biomass and community structure. Materials and methods We analysed soil samples from four sites where sewage sludge has been repeatedly applied in long-term field experiments situated in different parts of Sweden; Ultuna (59°49'N, 17°39'E, started 1956), Lanna (58°21'N, 13°06'E, started 1997-98), Petersborg (55°32'N, 13°00'E, started 1981) and Igelösa (55°45'N, 13°18'E, started 1981). In these four experiments, at least one sewage sludge treatment is included in the experimental design. In the Ultuna experiment, all organic fertilisers, including sewage sludge, are applied every second year, corresponding to 4 ton C ha-1. The Lanna experiment has a similar design, with 8 ton dry matter ha-1 applied every second year. Lanna also has an additional treatment in which metal salts (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) are added together with sewage sludge. At Petersborg and Igelösa, two levels of sewage sludge (4 or 12 ton dry matter ha-1 every 4th year) are compared with three levels of NPK fertiliser (0 N, ½ normal N and normal N). Topsoil samples (0-20 cm depth) from the four sites were analysed for total C, total N, pH and PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). In addition, crop yields were recorded. Results At all four sites, sewage sludge has had a positive effect on crop yields

  12. Feasibility Study of Coal Gasification/Fuel Cell/Cogeneration Economic and Financing Assessment,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    I p "" r FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COAL GASIFICATION FUEL CELL COGENERATION ECONOMIC AND FINANCING ASSESSMENT Lfl Lfl ’-..,.a REPORT CLIN 0004-0005...GASIFICATION FUEL CELL COGENERATION ECONOMIC AND FINANCING ASSESSMENT REPORT CLIN 0004-0005 PREPARED FOR :...: DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AND GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COAL GASIFICATION! Economic/Financing FUEL CELL/COGENERATION, ECONOMIC AND Analysis

  13. Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-04-01

    This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

  14. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant

  15. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the

  16. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  17. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct

  18. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  19. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  20. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such

  1. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  2. Alkaline subcritical water gasification of dairy industry waste (Whey).

    PubMed

    Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2011-05-01

    The near-critical water gasification of dairy industry waste in the form of Whey, a product composed of mixtures of carbohydrates (mainly lactose) and amino acids such as glycine and glutamic acid, has been studied. The gasification process involved partial oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of NaOH. The reactions were studied over the temperature range from 300°C to 390°C, corresponding pressures of 9.5-24.5 MPa and reaction times from 0 min to 120 min. Hydrogen production was affected by the presence of NaOH, the concentration of H(2)O(2), temperature, reaction time and feed concentration. Up to 40% of the theoretical hydrogen gas production was achieved at 390°C. Over 80% of the Whey nitrogen content was found as ammonia, mainly in the liquid effluent.

  3. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC14

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-02-28

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details test campaign TC14 of the PSDF gasification process. TC14 began on February 16, 2004, and lasted until February 28, 2004, accumulating 214 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. The gasifier operating temperatures varied from 1760 to 1810 F at pressures from 188 to 212 psig during steady air blown operations and approximately 160 psig during oxygen blown operations.

  4. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  5. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  6. The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sieta T.; de Vries, Folgerdiena M.; Dekker, Thijs; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether patients’ willingness to add a blood pressure-lowering drug and the importance they attach to specific treatment characteristics differ among age groups in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients being prescribed at least an oral glucose-lowering and a blood pressure-lowering drug completed a questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment. This experiment contained choice sets with hypothetical blood pressure-lowering drugs and a no additional drug alternative, which differed in their characteristics (i.e. effects and intake moments). Differences in willingness to add a drug were compared between patients <75 years (non-aged) and ≥75 years (aged) using Pearson χ2-tests. Multinomial logit models were used to assess and compare the importance attached to the characteristics. Results Of the 161 patients who completed the questionnaire, 151 (72%) could be included in the analyses (mean age 68 years; 42% female). Aged patients were less willing to add a drug than non-aged patients (67% versus 84% respectively; P = 0.017). In both age groups, the effect on blood pressure was most important for choosing a drug, followed by the risk of adverse drug events and the risk of death. The effect on limitations due to stroke was only significant in the non-aged group. The effect on blood pressure was slightly more important in the non-aged than the aged group (P = 0.043). Conclusions Aged patients appear less willing to add a preventive drug than non-aged patients. The importance attached to various treatment characteristics does not seem to differ much among age groups. PMID:26445349

  7. Chronic studies in rats exposed to liquid effluent from coal gasification process.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Blanusa, M; Rabar, I; Maljković, T; Kello, D; Landeka, M; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1981-02-01

    The health effects of the E-effluent (water for quenching ash) from a coal gasification plant were assayed in a chronic experiment (16 month exposure) and a three generation reproduction study. Animals exposed to 100% E-effluent had an increased daily intake of various inorganic elements (Fe, Cu, K, I, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, As, F and Cr). In spite of that, the exposed and control animals had the same mortality rate, haematological findings, urinary protein excretion, trace element concentrations in kidneys, liver and femur, bone composition and morphometry, and histological findings. The pre- and post-natal development and growth was unchanged during three generations. It is concluded that the higher intake of various inorganics caused no change in the parameters measured.

  8. Removal of phenols, thiocyanate and ammonium from coal gasification wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-qiang; Han, Hong-jun; Du, Mao-an; Wang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    A laboratory-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with a volume of 4 L was used to study the biodegradation of coal gasification wastewater. Maximum removal efficiencies of 81%, 89%, 94% and 93% were obtained for COD, phenols, SCN(-) and NH(4)(+)-N, respectively. NO(2)(-)-N accumulation induced increase of effluent COD concentration when the hydraulic residence time (HRT) decreased. Phenols removal was not affected when the HRT decreased from 48 to 32 h. Effluent SCN(-) and NH(4)(+)-N concentration increased with the decrease of the HRT, and decreased gradually when the HRT returned to 48 h. Batch experiments were carried out to study performance of the suspended and attached growth biomass in the MBBR.

  9. Numerical simulation of the pyrolysis zone in a downdraft gasification process.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, K; Kumar, S

    2009-12-01

    Models of the gasification process are mostly based on lumped analysis with distinct zones of the process treated as one entity. The study presented here was conducted to develop a more useful model specifically for the pyrolysis zone of the reactor of a downdraft gasifier based on finite computation method. Applying principles of energy and mass conservation, governing equations formed were solved by implicit finite difference method on the node of 100 throughout the length of the considered pyrolysis range (20 cm). Heat transfer considered convection, conduction, and the influence of solid radiation components. Chemical kinetics concept was also adopted to simultaneously solve the temperature profile and feedstock consumption rate on the pyrolysis zone. The convergence criteria were set at 10(-6) and simulation used Fortran Power Station 4.0. Validation experiments were also conducted resulting in maximum deviation of 24 degrees C and 0.37 kg/h for temperature and feedstock feed rate, respectively.

  10. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.

    PubMed

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate.

  11. Gasification of biomass/high density polyethylene mixtures in a downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    García-Bacaicoa, P; Mastral, J F; Ceamanos, J; Berrueco, C; Serrano, S

    2008-09-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of wood particles and high density polyethylene in different atmospheres has been carried out in a downdraft gasifier with a nominal processing capacity of 50 kg/h. The main objective was to study the feasibility of the operation of the gasification plant using mixtures and to investigate the characteristics of the gas obtained. In order to do so, experiments with biomass only and with mixtures with up to 15% HDPE have been carried out. The main components of the gas generated are N(2) (50%), H(2) (14%), CO (9-22%) and CO(2) (7-17%) and its relatively high calorific value was adequate for using it in an internal combustion engine generator consisting of a modified diesel engine coupled with a 25 kV A alternator.

  12. Photoassisted electrolysis applied to coal gasification. Quarterly report, 1 July 1982-30 September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The literature search was continued on the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of coal. Humic acids are generated upon oxidation of coal in alkali media. Similar results were reported for the oxidation of coal. The reduction coal in nonaqueous solutions gave reduced coal of various degrees of hydrogenation depending on experimental conditions. These earlier results suggest that a proper combination of electrochemical oxidation and reduction of coal may lead to various classes of derivatized coal including liquid coals. Both CdS and CdSe thin film electrodes were tested for photoassisted coal gasification. Although high photocurrents were observed the electrodes were not stable. To stabilize the electrodes the electrode surface was modified by coating with a conductive organic polymer, which behaves as an electron transfer mediator. Various experiments in this effort are described.

  13. Low/medium Btu coal gasification assessment of central plant for the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    From the 15 sites considered, the Philadelphia Gas Works and Riverside sites were considered excellent candidates. Early in the study it was decided that the level of risk associated with the gasification process should be minimal. It was therefore determined that the process should be selected from those commercially proven. The following processes were considered: Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Wellman-Galusha. From past experience and knowledge of the characteristics of each gasifier, a list of advantages and disadvantages of each process was formulated. The Galusha process offered the least capital and operating costs for low Btu gas (approximately 150 Btu per cu ft), and the KT and Lurgi emerged as the better processes for medium Btu gas (approximately 300 Btu per cu ft). A study was carried out to assess the impact on users having to switch from oil or natural gas to low or medium Btu gas. Medium Btu gas was selected in order to service many users with gas having generally useful combustion characteristics. For the production of 20 billion Btu per day two gasifiers are required, each gasifying about 500 tons of coal per day. Between the Lurgi and KT processes (which are competitive in terms of capital costs), the KT process shows a lower operating cost and is more flexible in terms of coal feed selection. In addition, the Lurgi (and the Galusha) gasifiers produce tars, phenols, and ammonia. Effective removal of these by-products adds to the complexity and operating inconvenience of the overall process. Therefore, the KT process (which is unique in its ability to gasify many coals) was selected. It is probable that most users would perfer to install dual fuel burners and retain some fuel oil storage capability.

  14. Development of biomass gasification to produce substitute fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.J.; Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.

    1988-03-01

    The development of an efficient pressurized, medium-Btu steam-oxygen-blown fluidized-bed biomass gasification process was conducted. The overall program included initial stages of design-support research before the 12-ton-per-day (TPD) process research unit (PRU) was built. These stages involved the characterization of test-specific biomass species and the characteristics and limits of fluidization control. Also obtained for the design of the adiabatic PRU was information from studies with bench-scale equipment on the rapid rates of biomass devolatilization and on kinetics of the rate-controlling step of biomass char and steam gasification. The development program culminated with the sucessful operation of the PRU through 19 parametric-variation tests and extended steady-state process-proving tests. the program investigated the effect of gasifier temperature, pressure, biomass throughput rate, steam-to-biomass ratio, type of feedstock, feedstock moisture, and fludized-bed height on gasification performance. A long-duration gasification test of 3 days steady-state operation was conducted with the whole tree chips to indentify long-term effects of fluidized process conditions; to establish gasifier material and energy balances; to determine the possible breakthrough of low concentration organic species; and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the system components. Results indicate that the pressurized fludizied-bed process, can achieve carbon conversions of about 95% with cold gas thermal efficiences about 75% and with low and tar production. New information was collected on the oil and tar fraction, which relate to the process operating conditions and feedstock type. The different feedstocks studied were very similar in elemental compositions, and produced similar product gas compositions, but each has a different distribution and character of the oil and tar fractions. 11 refs., 45 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  16. Refractory Degradation by Slag Attack in Coal Gasification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    chemicals and electric power. Feedstock materials such as coal , petroleum coke (petcoke), natural gas, or biomass contain numerous minerals and a...reacted with distinct microstructures are presented in Figure 5 and Figure 6. Coal slag on a grain agglomerate of both refractories remained on a...REFRACTORY DEGRADATION BY SLAG ATTACK IN COAL GASIFICATION Jinichiro Nakano 1,2 , Sridhar Seetharaman 1,2 , James Bennett 3 , Kyei-Sing

  17. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Javad Abbasian

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and evaluate novel sorbents for the Siemens Westinghouse Power Company's (SWPC's) ''Ultra-Clean Gas Cleaning Process'' for reducing to near-zero levels the sulfur- and chlorine-containing gas emissions and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) caused by fuel bound constituents found in carbonaceous materials, which are processed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technologies.

  18. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Schenone, C.E.; Rosinski, J.

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system, an ash removal system is disclosed to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  19. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  20. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.