Science.gov

Sample records for additional generating capacity

  1. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of the...

  6. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  7. Capacity additions ease tight methanol supply

    SciTech Connect

    Greek, B.F. )

    1988-10-03

    Two menthanol plants now in operation - one in the U.S., the other in Chile - will boost global supplies of methanol more than 375 million gal annually. This large capacity addition and smaller expansions in other parts of the world will exceed demand growth during 1988 and 1989, easing the squeeze on supplies. As the result of increased supplies, methanol prices could slip slightly in the fourth quarter. They are more likely to decline next year, however. The two plants, which started up in August, are owned and operated by Tenneco Oil Co. Processing and Marketing and by Cape Horn Methanol (CHM). The Tenneco plant, located in Pasadena, Tex., was restarted after a shutdown in 1982 when prices for methanol were low. It now is running at full capacity of 125 million gal per year. The plant uses the low-pressure process technology of Lurgi, reportedly requiring for feedstock and energy between 100,000 and 125,000 cu ft of methane per gallon. Global trade in methanol smooths out the supply and demand inconsistencies. Surging methanol demand in the U.S. and in Western Europe has been met by imports from areas where methanol production is most economical - that is, where natural gas is readily available and has no other application as high in value. Canada, Chile, and Trinidad are examples of those areas.

  8. A California generation capacity market

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, R.L.

    1998-10-01

    California, overconfident with its new Power Exchange spot market, seems unaware that it could be afflicted by the same turmoil that bludgeoned the Midwest in June. An electricity capacity market should be put in place before crisis strikes. This article outlines a framework for adding an electricity capacity market in California. The new market would not create a new bureaucracy but would function within the state`s now operational PX and independent system operator (ISO) mechanisms. It would be an open market, in which capacity would be traded transparently, with freedom of entree for all willing sellers and all willing buyers.

  9. Additive Classical Capacity of Quantum Channels Assisted by Noisy Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhu, Elton Yechao; Shor, Peter W.

    2017-05-01

    We give a capacity formula for the classical information transmission over a noisy quantum channel, with separable encoding by the sender and limited resources provided by the receiver's preshared ancilla. Instead of a pure state, we consider the signal-ancilla pair in a mixed state, purified by a "witness." Thus, the signal-witness correlation limits the resource available from the signal-ancilla correlation. Our formula characterizes the utility of different forms of resources, including noisy or limited entanglement assistance, for classical communication. With separable encoding, the sender's signals across multiple channel uses are still allowed to be entangled, yet our capacity formula is additive. In particular, for generalized covariant channels, our capacity formula has a simple closed form. Moreover, our additive capacity formula upper bounds the general coherent attack's information gain in various two-way quantum key distribution protocols. For Gaussian protocols, the additivity of the formula indicates that the collective Gaussian attack is the most powerful.

  10. Electrical Generating Capacities of Geothermal Slim Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented to estimate the electrical generating capacity of the hot fluids discharged from individual geothermal wells using small wellhead generating equipment over a wide range of reservoir and operating conditions. The purpose is to appraise the possibility of employing slim holes (instead of conventional production-size wells) to power such generators for remote off-grid applications such as rural electrification in developing countries. Frequently, the generating capacity desired is less than one megawatt, and can be as low as 100 kilowatts; if slim holes can be usefully employed, overall project costs will be significantly reduced. This report presents the final results of the study. Both self-discharging wells and wells equipped with downhole pumps (either of the ''lineshaft'' or the ''submersible'' type) are examined. Several power plant designs are considered, including conventional single-flash backpressure and condensing steam turbines, binary plants, double-flash steam plants, and steam turbine/binary hybrid designs. Well inside diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm are considered; well depths vary from 300 to 1200 meters. Reservoir temperatures from 100 C to 240 C are examined, as are a variety of reservoir pressures and CO2 contents and well productivity index values.

  11. Bulk power system performance issues affecting utility peaking capacity additions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of transmission system constraints and problems that affect the siting and rating of peaking capacity additions. Techniques for addressing and modifying these concerns are presented. Particular attention is paid to techniques that have been successfully used by utilities to improve power transfer and system loadability, while avoiding the construction of additional transmission lines. Proven techniques for dealing with thermal, short-circuit level and stability issues are presented.

  12. A new approach to evaluate generation capacity bids

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, D.; Ramanathan, R.

    1998-11-01

    Decision making on capacity addition has become highly complex as the power industry worldwide is undergoing regulatory changes. This paper argues the use of mathematical models to aid the decision makers to select generation capacity bids. A three-stage optimization scheme is developed to accurately estimate the benefits from a specific project. Multiobjective framework to capture both quantitative as well as qualitative information (through expert judgment) has been employed. The model can be used to estimate the marginal benefit from a project and calculate a composite index to rank them in order of their desirability. A case study for modified IEEE 30-bus test system illustrates the methodological issues.

  13. Additive Capacity of [6]-Shogaol and Epicatechin To Trap Methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiju; Wang, Pei; Zhu, Yingdong; Lv, Lishuang; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-09-27

    Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl species, is thought to contribute to the development of long-term pathological diabetes as a direct toxin or as an active precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Trapping MGO by dietary phenols to inhibit the MGO induced AGE formation is an approach for alleviating diabetic complications. The present study investigated whether dietary compounds with different structures and active sites have the additive capacity to trap MGO. Ginger phenolic constituent [6]-shogaol and tea flavonoid (-)-epicatechin were selected and tested under simulated physiological conditions, showing that they additively trapped about 41% MGO at a concentration of 10 μM within 24 h. Furthermore, whether [6]-shogaol and epicatechin can retain their MGO trapping efficacy in vivo or a biotransformation limits their MGO trapping capacity remain virtually unknown. An acute mouse study was carried out by giving a single dose of [6]-shogaol, epicatechin, and the combination of both ([6]-shogaol + epicatechin) through oral gavage. A mono-MGO adduct of [6]-shogaol was identified from [6]-shogaol and [6]-shogaol + epicatechin treated mice, and mono- and di-MGO adducts of epicatechin and its metabolite, 3'-O-methyl epicatichin, were detected in urine samples collected from epicatechin and [6]-shogaol + epicatechin treated mice. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the additive MGO trapping efficacy of [6]-shogaol and epicatechin and that [6]-shogaol and epicatechin retained their MGO trapping capacity in mice.

  14. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  15. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Additive Random Number Generators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    linear congruential generators yn*\\* ayn+bmo,iPa- The simplest example of a sequence satisfying (1.1) with *> I is the Fibonacci sequence with p - 2...However, the Fibonacci sequence is not a suitable random number generator because successive triples are very poorly distributed in three...number generator should have small discrepancy. Definition 2.1 can be extended naturally to define discrepancy for sequences of points yn lying in

  17. Decreasing the initial irreversible capacity loss by addition of cyclic sulfate as electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Atsushi; Maruyama, Satoshi

    Initial irreversible capacity loss in graphite electrodes was suppressed by 1,3,2-dioxathiolane-2,2-dioxide and its derivatives (cyclic sulfates) in propylene carbonate (PC) containing electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that cyclic sulfates were decomposed at higher potentials than that for electrolyte solvents. In galvanostatic charge and discharge measurement, first cycle efficiency was increased from 58.2% to 90.5% by the addition of 1,3,2-dioxathiolane-2,2-dioxide. Passivation films formed by cyclic sulfates were observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), FT-IR, and pyrolysis/GC/MS (pyro/GC/MS). These results indicate that the surface was covered by a PEO like polymer with the inner layer comprised of Li 2S like compounds.

  18. Moving Toward Consensus on a Photovoltaic Generation Capacity Valuation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Perez; Mike Taylor; Tom Hoff; JP Ross

    2011-06-22

    Maintaining adequate generating capacity to meet electricity demand at all times is a fundamental principle for the electric utility industry. This is accomplished through a variety of means including providing/purchasing sufficient generation capacity as well as acquiring the associated ancillary services for the electricity grid. The generation capacity of dispatchable resources is assessed based on technology design parameters. While dispatchable resources have some uncertainty in their output due to unforeseen equipment failures, their dispatch is managed around the demand for electricity and their marginal operating costs. Photovoltaic resources are non-dispatchable because their electrical output is based on both technology design parameters (technology selection, installation characteristics, and site conditions) and a solar resource that varies over a range of time periods (seasonal, daily, hourly, second to second). These solar resource variations, however, are not random and there is an intuitively positive relationship between PV system output and summer peak electricity demand for many locations throughout the U.S. This is because system demand peaks for most utilities are driven by heat-wave cooling demand, and because heat waves are indirectly fed by solar gain, i.e., by the fuel for PV generation. Despite this relationship, there is no consensus across the utility or solar industries on a method for calculating PV capacity or its practical use in electricity markets and utility planning. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar America Initiative has provided funding to evaluate the variety of photovoltaic capacity valuation methods and to bring the solar industry, electric utility, and research communities together with the goal of moving toward consensus on what is the most appropriate PV generation capacity valuation methodology using a consensus-oriented process. Developing a framework for accurately and appropriately calculating photovoltaic

  19. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  20. The Krafla Geothermal Field, Iceland: 3. The Generating Capacity of the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, G. S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Eliasson, E. T.

    1984-11-01

    This paper presents analytical and numerical studies of the generating capacity of the Krafla field. A general lumped parameter model is developed which can be used to obtain rough estimates of the generating capacity of a geothermal field based on the size of the wellfield, the average formation porosity, and the amount of recharge to the system. The model is applied to the old wellfield at Krafla. More sophisticated calculations of the generating capacity of the Krafla field are also performed using distributed-parameter models. Two-dimensional areal models of the various reservoir regions at Krafla are developed and their generating capacities (MWe) evaluated. The results obtained indicate that the old wellfield can sustain steam production of 30 MWe for 30 years. The estimated power potential of the new wellfield is 20 MWe for 30 years. To obtain the required steam production several additional wells may be drilled in the old and new wellfields.

  1. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

  2. Origin of additional capacities in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-Yan; Liu, Zigeng; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Cheng, Jun; Hua, Xiao; Dunstan, Matthew T; Yu, Xiqian; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Du, Lin-Shu; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Grey, Clare P

    2013-12-01

    Metal fluorides/oxides (MF(x)/M(x)O(y)) are promising electrodes for lithium-ion batteries that operate through conversion reactions. These reactions are associated with much higher energy densities than intercalation reactions. The fluorides/oxides also exhibit additional reversible capacity beyond their theoretical capacity through mechanisms that are still poorly understood, in part owing to the difficulty in characterizing structure at the nanoscale, particularly at buried interfaces. This study employs high-resolution multinuclear/multidimensional solid-state NMR techniques, with in situ synchrotron-based techniques, to study the prototype conversion material RuO2. The experiments, together with theoretical calculations, show that a major contribution to the extra capacity in this system is due to the generation of LiOH and its subsequent reversible reaction with Li to form Li2O and LiH. The research demonstrates a protocol for studying the structure and spatial proximities of nanostructures formed in this system, including the amorphous solid electrolyte interphase that grows on battery electrodes.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Addition of Hardware - Computer Generated Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This computer generated scene of the International Space Station (ISS) represents the first addition of hardware following the completion of Phase II. The 8-A Phase shows the addition of the S-9 truss.

  4. Strong Generative Capacity and the Empirical Base of Linguistic Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This Perspective traces the evolution of certain central notions in the theory of Generative Grammar (GG). The founding documents of the field suggested a relation between the grammar, construed as recursively enumerating an infinite set of sentences, and the idealized native speaker that was essentially equivalent to the relation between a formal language (a set of well-formed formulas) and an automaton that recognizes strings as belonging to the language or not. But this early view was later abandoned, when the focus of the field shifted to the grammar's strong generative capacity as recursive generation of hierarchically structured objects as opposed to strings. The grammar is now no longer seen as specifying a set of well-formed expressions and in fact necessarily constructs expressions of any degree of intuitive “acceptability.” The field of GG, however, has not sufficiently acknowledged the significance of this shift in perspective, as evidenced by the fact that (informal and experimentally-controlled) observations about string acceptability continue to be treated as bona fide data and generalizations for the theory of GG. The focus on strong generative capacity, it is argued, requires a new discussion of what constitutes valid empirical evidence for GG beyond observations pertaining to weak generation. PMID:28983268

  5. Multi-Agent simulation of generation capacity expansion decisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Mahalik, M.; Conzelmann, G.; Silva, R.; Vilela, S.; Pereira, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use a multi-agent simulation model, EMCAS, to analyze generation expansion in the Iberian electricity market. The expansion model simulates generation investment decisions of decentralized generating companies (GenCos) interacting in a complex, multidimensional environment. A probabilistic dispatch algorithm calculates prices and profits for new candidate units in different future states of the system. Uncertainties in future load, hydropower conditions, and competitorspsila actions are represented in a scenario tree, and decision analysis is used to identify the optimal expansion decision for each individual GenCo. We run the model using detailed data for the Iberian market. In a scenario analysis, we look at the impact of market design variables, such as the energy price cap and carbon emission prices. We also analyze how market concentration and GenCospsila risk preferences influence the timing and choice of new generating capacity.

  6. Rising world demand for new generating capacity seen

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Electric power producers throughout the world are placing orders for new generating capacity at an increasing rate. Orders for fossil-fueled power plants averaged 53 GW per year during the past five years and are expected to rise to 64 GW a year in the period 1995-1999. A leap in the order rate to 75 GW a year is predicted for 2000-2004. Growth is driven by rising world population and rapidly growing economies in developing nations. Regulated or state-owned electric utilities in the developing and newly industrialized countries are expected to account for 35% of the new capacity orders. Recently privatized or commercialized utilities will account for 23%, private non-utility developers of independent power producers will place 32% of the new orders, and conventional utilities in the industrialized countries will account for the balance, 10%. While conventional coal-fired, steam-turbine type capacity will continue to play a strong role, especially in Asia, the combined-cycle will account for a rising share of the new capacity. It`s expected to climb from 12% at present to 37% in the future.

  7. Long-term need for new generating capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1987-03-01

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity by the year 2000. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will not be acceptable to society without solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Technology improvements and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety impacts from electricity generation. 26 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties.

  9. Computational power and generative capacity of genetic systems.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Shklovskiy-Kordi, Nikita E

    2016-01-01

    Semiotic characteristics of genetic sequences are based on the general principles of linguistics formulated by Ferdinand de Saussure, such as the arbitrariness of sign and the linear nature of the signifier. Besides these semiotic features that are attributable to the basic structure of the genetic code, the principle of generativity of genetic language is important for understanding biological transformations. The problem of generativity in genetic systems arises to a possibility of different interpretations of genetic texts, and corresponds to what Alexander von Humboldt called "the infinite use of finite means". These interpretations appear in the individual development as the spatiotemporal sequences of realizations of different textual meanings, as well as the emergence of hyper-textual statements about the text itself, which underlies the process of biological evolution. These interpretations are accomplished at the level of the readout of genetic texts by the structures defined by Efim Liberman as "the molecular computer of cell", which includes DNA, RNA and the corresponding enzymes operating with molecular addresses. The molecular computer performs physically manifested mathematical operations and possesses both reading and writing capacities. Generativity paradoxically resides in the biological computational system as a possibility to incorporate meta-statements about the system, and thus establishes the internal capacity for its evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  11. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  12. Vital capacity and inspiratory capacity as additional parameters to evaluate bronchodilator response in asthmatic patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bronchodilator response in patients with asthma is evaluated based on post-bronchodilator increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). However, the need for additional parameters, mainly among patients with severe asthma, has already been demonstrated. Methods The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of vital capacity (VC) and inspiratory capacity (IC) to evaluate bronchodilator response in asthma patients with persistent airflow obstruction. The 43 asthma patients enrolled in the study were stratified into moderate or severe airflow obstruction groups based on baseline FEV1. All patients performed a 6-minute walk test before and after the bronchodilator (BD). A bipolar visual analogue scale post-BD was performed to assess clinical effect. The correlation between VC and IC and clinical response, determined by visual analogue scale (VAS) and 6-minute walk test (6MWT), was investigated. Results Patients in the severe group presented: 1) greater bronchodilator response in VC (48% vs 15%, p = 0.02), 2) a significant correlation between VC variation and the reduction in air trapping (Rs = 0.70; p < 0.01), 3) a significant agreement between VC and VAS score (kappa = 0.57; p < 0.01). There was no correlation between IC and the reduction in air trapping or clinical data. Conclusions VC may be a useful additional parameter to evaluate bronchodilator response in asthma patients with severe airflow obstruction. PMID:22950529

  13. Model for Assembly Line Re-Balancing Considering Additional Capacity and Outsourcing to Face Demand Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin

    2016-02-01

    The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..

  14. Synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects of food mixtures on total antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunan; Meckling, Kelly A; Marcone, Massimo F; Kakuda, Yukio; Tsao, Rong

    2011-02-09

    Different foods possess different bioactive compounds with varied antioxidant capacities. When foods are consumed together, the total antioxidant capacity of food mixtures may be modified via synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions among these components, which may in turn alter their physiological impacts. The main objective of this study was to investigate these interactions and identify any synergistic combinations. Eleven foods from three categories, including fruits (raspberry, blackberry, and apple), vegetables (broccoli, tomato, mushroom, and purple cauliflower), and legumes (soybean, adzuki bean, red kidney bean, and black bean) were combined in pairs. Four assays (total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging capacity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of individual foods and their combinations. The results indicated that within the same food category, 13, 68, and 21% of the combinations produced synergistic, additive, and antagonistic interactions, respectively, while the combinations produced 21, 54, and 25% synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects, respectively, across food categories. Combining specific foods across categories (e.g., fruit and legume) was more likely to result in synergistic antioxidant capacity than combinations within a food group. Combining raspberry and adzuki bean extracts demonstrated synergistic interactions in all four chemical-based assays. Compositional changes did not seem to have occurred in the mixture. Results in this study suggest the importance of strategically selecting foods or diets to maximum synergisms as well as to minimum antagonisms in antioxidant activity.

  15. Generating capacity of the Heber geothermal field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1983-12-01

    Using numerical simulation techniques and the radial model developed for the study of the natural state of the Heber field (Lippmann and Bodvarsson, 1983b), the response of this geothermal system to exploitation is analyzed. In this study the generation rate in the field is allowed to build up over a period of 10 years; after that, 30 years of constant power production is assumed. Full (100%) injection of the spent brines is considered, the fluids being injected 2250 m (near injection) or 4250 m (far injection) from the center of the system. The study shows that a maximum of 6000 kg/s (equivalent to approximately 300 MW/sub e/) of fluids may be produced for the near injection case, but only 3000 kg/s (equivalent to approximately 150 MW/sub e/) for the far injection case. The results indicate that the possible extraction rates (generating capacity) generally are limited by the pressure drop in the reservoir. The average temperature of the produced fluids will decline 10 to 18/sup 0/C over the 40-year period.

  16. Neurons Generated in Senescence Maintain Capacity for Functional Integration

    PubMed Central

    Marrone, Diano F.; Ramirez-Amaya, Victor; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) can survive for long periods, are capable of integrating into neuronal networks, and are important for hippocampus-dependent learning. Neurogenesis is dramatically reduced during senescence, and it remains unknown whether those few neurons that are produced remain capable of network integration. The expression of Arc, a protein coupled to neuronal activity, was used to measure activity among granule cells that were labeled with BrdU four months earlier in young (9 months) and aged (25 months) Fischer344 rats. The results indicate that while fewer cells are generated in the senescent DG, those that survive are (a) more likely to respond to spatial processing by expressing Arc relative to the remainder of the granule cell population, and (b) equally responsive to spatial exploration as granule cells of the same age from young animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that newborn granule cells in the aged DG retain the capacity for participation in functional hippocampal networks. PMID:21695743

  17. Thrombin Generating Capacity and Phenotypic Association in ABO Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Romy M W; Mohamed, Abdulrahman B O; Pelkmans, Leonie; Hindawi, Salwa; Hemker, H Coenraad; de Laat, H Bas; Huskens, Dana; Al Dieri, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. This could be explained by the lower levels of FVIII and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels in O individuals. We investigated the relationship between blood groups, thrombin generation (TG), prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. Plasma levels of VWF, FVIII, antithrombin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and α2Macroglobulin (α2M) levels were determined. TG was measured in platelet rich (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) of 217 healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. VWF and FVIII levels were lower (75% and 78%) and α2M levels were higher (125%) in the O group. TG is 10% lower in the O group in PPP and PRP. Less prothrombin was converted in the O group (86%) and the thrombin decay capacity was lower as well. In the O group, α2M plays a significantly larger role in the inhibition of thrombin (126%). In conclusion, TG is lower in the O group due to lower prothrombin conversion, and a larger contribution of α2M to thrombin inactivation. The former is unrelated to platelet function because it is similar in PRP and PPP, but can be explained by the lower levels of FVIII.

  18. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  19. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  20. Influences of biochar addition on vegetable soil nitrogen balance and pH buffering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Odindo, AO; Xue, L.; Yang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Leaching is a major path for chemical nitrogen fertilizer loss from in vegetable soil, which would destroy soil pH buffering capacity soil and result in acidification. It has been a common phenomenon in Tai Lake Region, China. However, few study focused on the change soil pH buffering capacity, especially the effect of soil amendment on pH buffering capacity. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to research the effects of biochar addition to a vegetable soil on nitrogen leaching and pH buffering capacity with pakchoi (B.chinensis L.) growth as the experimental crop. The results showed that biochar could significantly increase the pakchoi nitrogen utilization efficiency, decrease 48%-65% nitrogen loss from leaching under the urea continuous applied condition. Biochar also could effectively maintain the content of soil organic matter and base cations. Therefore, it rose up soil pH buffering capacity by 9.4%-36.8% and significantly slowed down acidification rate. It was suggested that 1%-2% addition ratio was recommended from this study when used as similar soil condition.

  1. Force-generating capacities and fatigability of the quadriceps femoris in relation to different exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we examined whether different exercise modes provoke functional differences in maximal and explosive force-generating capacities and fatigability of the quadriceps femoris (QF). Additionally, the interaction of different functional capacities was studied in competitive athletes. Ten competitive tennis players and 10 endurance athletes participated in the study. Pre-exercise force-generating capacities were determined during maximal voluntary isometric knee extensions (MVC). Fatigability of the QF was studied using sustained isometric contractions with target loads of 20% and 40% of pre-exercise MVC. Postexercise MVCs were conducted 20 seconds, 1 minute, and 3 minutes post task failure. Muscle activation of the QF during the fatiguing exercises and postexercise MVCs was estimated using surface electromyography. Higher explosive force-generating capacities, but no differences in absolute moments, were detected in tennis players compared with endurance athletes. Fatigability of the QF during both fatiguing tasks was approximately the same in both athletic populations. This was indicated by minor group differences in endurance time, postexercise MVC production, and electromyography (EMG)-estimated muscle activation during fatigue. Variability in endurance time was not significantly associated with pre-exercise force-generating capacities in these competitive athletes. In both athletic populations, recovery of MVC was significantly slower after the fatiguing contraction with 20% of MVC compared with that with 40% of MVC. These results may enhance understanding of plasticity of the neuromuscular system and yield interesting information for the optimization of athletic training programs. Explosive strength training might enhance endurance athletes' explosiveness without decreasing muscle fatigue resistance. The exercise profile of competitive tennis is suggested to act as a sufficient trigger to reach high neuromuscular fatigue resistance but may be

  2. Gaussian capacity of the quantum bosonic memory channel with additive correlated Gaussian noise

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2011-09-15

    We present an algorithm for calculation of the Gaussian classical capacity of a quantum bosonic memory channel with additive Gaussian noise. The algorithm, restricted to Gaussian input states, is applicable to all channels with noise correlations obeying certain conditions and works in the full input energy domain, beyond previous treatments of this problem. As an illustration, we study the optimal input states and capacity of a quantum memory channel with Gauss-Markov noise [J. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 062313 (2009)]. We evaluate the enhancement of the transmission rate when using these optimal entangled input states by comparison with a product coherent-state encoding and find out that such a simple coherent-state encoding achieves not less than 90% of the capacity.

  3. Concentrated solar power generation: Firm and dispatchable capacity for Brazil's solar future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Jan; Haasz, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    The Brazilian electricity mix is currently dominated by renewable energy forms, foremost hydropower. Large additional capacity demands are expected in the mid-term future but additional potential for hydro power is limited. In addition it is planned to construct more than 17 GW of wind power and additional capacity of photovoltaics (PV). Due to the fluctuating nature of such renewables, however, wind and PV are hardly able to provide firm capacity. Concentrated solar power (CSP) might be a feasible option to provide firm and dispatchable capacity at low carbon emissions. This study analyses the opportunities for integrating CSP into the Brazilian energy system. Making use of the TiPS-B model, a novel application of the optimization model generator TIMES, we compare different climate protection strategies with a reference scenario and analyze the contribution of CSP to the electricity mix. The analysis covers various types of CSP power plants with molten salt energy storage where we look at possible dispatch strategies considering the fluctuations in electricity supply and use. The consideration of solar water heaters (SWH) is the first step to transfer the power system model to an energy system model that is capable of showing the benefits of energy saving measures on the demand side. It can be demonstrated that the Brazilian power system is likely to change significantly in future. This development would go hand in hand with a strong increase in carbon emissions if no mitigation actions are taken and fossil fueled power plants are used to fill the gap in capacity. CSP power plants are found as a feasible alternative for covering the demand while taking carbon mitigation actions. In a scenario, aiming at 4 and 2 degrees global warming, CSP provides for 7.6 GW and 14.6 GW capacity in 2050, respectively. Different storage configurations are used to provide energy in the evening hours to cover the demand peak providing a strong benefit over photovoltaic electricity

  4. Increasing thermomagnetic stability of composite superconductors with additives of extremely-large-heat-capacity substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lupanov, D. É.; Shcherbakov, V. I.

    2008-05-01

    We have studied the thermomagnetic stability (with respect to magnetic flux disturbances) of composite superconductors screened by additives of rare earth compounds possessing extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures. Three tubular composite structures have been manufactured and studied with respect to screening of the central region from variations of an external magnetic field. The effect of large-heat-capacity substances (LHCSs) was evaluated by measuring a jump in the magnetic flux in response to the rate of variation (ramp) of the external magnetic field. It is established that the adiabatic criterion of stability (magnetic-flux jump field) in the sample structures containing LHCSs significantly increases—by 20% for HoCu2 intermetallic compound and 31% for Gd2O2S ceramics—as compared to the control structure free of such additives.

  5. High Capacity Cathode Materials for Next Generation Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papandrea, Benjamin John

    Energy storage devices are of increasing importance for applications in mobile electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, and can also play a critical role in renewable energy harvesting, conversion and storage. Since its commercial inception in the 1990's, the lithium-ion battery represents the dominant energy storage technology for mobile power supply today. However, the total capacity of lithium-ion batteries is largely limited by the theoretical capacities of the cathode materials such as LiCoO2 (272 mAh g-1), and LiFePO4 (170 mAh g-1), and cannot satisfy the increasing consumer demand, thus new cathode materials with higher capacities must be explored. Two of the most promising cathode materials with significantly larger theoretical capacities are sulfur (1675 mAh g-1) and air, specifically the oxygen (3840 mAh g-1). However, the usage of either of these cathodic materials is plagued with numerous issues that must be overcome before their commercialization. In the first part of my dissertation, we investigated the usage of a three-dimensional graphene membrane for a high energy density lithium-air (Li-Air) battery in ambient condition. One of the issues with Li-Air batteries is the many side reaction that can occur during discharge in ambient condition, especially with water vapor. Using a hydrophobic tortuous three-dimensional graphene membrane we are able to inhibit the diffusion of water vapor and create a lithium-air battery that cycles over 2000 times with a capacity limited at 140 mAh g-1, over 100 cycles with a capacity limited at 1425 mAh g-1, and over 20 cycles at the high capacity of 5700 mAh g-1. In the second part of my dissertation, we investigate the usage of a three-dimensional graphene aerogel to maximize the loading of sulfur to create a freestanding electrode with high capacity for a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. We demonstrated that our three-dimensional graphene aerogel could sustain a loading of 95% by weight, and we achieved a capacity of

  6. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  7. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  8. Better adsorption capacity of SnO2 nanoparticles with different graphene addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramarta, V.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption capacity of SnO2 nanoparticle has been studied by graphene and nanographene platelets (NGP) additions using co-precipitation method. The crystalline phase, composition, and morphology of the samples are analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Tetragonal structure of SnO2 is shown for the nanoparticle and its composites. The presence of graphene and NGP is also confirmed. The adsorption capacity of the nanoparticle and its composites are analyzed by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB) as the organic dye model using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The result shows that SnO2 composite with graphene achieves higher adsorption capacity of about 20% than the composite with NGP. The fitting of equilibrium adsorption capacity result indicates that the adsorption mechanism of SnO2 composite with graphene tends to follow the Langmuir adsorption-isotherm model.

  9. A model for integrated analysis of generation capacity expansion and financial planning

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Chattopadhyay, D.

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses the need for an integrated analysis of investment and financing decisions in the context of electricity generation capacity addition planning. The traditional mathematical programming model for investment planning and its potential enhancement to encompass financing decisions in a unified framework have been discussed. The integrated investment-finance model for power system is formulated. The model is implemented for a well-known investment planning case study and the various investment-financing interactions have been discussed. The results indicate that the interaction of financing and investment decisions could be very significant and needs to be accounted for capacity planning optimization exercises. This is particularly relevant for utilities in a competitive environment.

  10. Channel capacity of next generation large scale MIMO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshammari, A.; Albdran, S.; Matin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Information rate that can be transferred over a given bandwidth is limited by the information theory. Capacity depends on many factors such as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), channel state information (CSI) and the spatial correlation in the propagation environment. It is very important to increase spectral efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for wireless services. Thus, Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology has been developed and applied in most of the wireless standards and it has been very successful in increasing capacity and reliability. As the demand is still increasing, attention now is shifting towards large scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO) which has a potential of bringing orders of magnitude of improvement in spectral and energy efficiency. It has been shown that users channels decorrelate after increasing the number of antennas. As a result, inter-user interference can be avoided since energy can be focused on precise directions. This paper investigates the limits of channel capacity for large scale MIMO. We study the relation between spectral efficiency and the number of antenna N. We use time division duplex (TDD) system in order to obtain CSI using training sequence in the uplink. The same CSI is used for the downlink because the channel is reciprocal. Spectral efficiency is measured for channel model that account for small scale fading while ignoring the effect of large scale fading. It is shown the spectral efficiency can be improved significantly when compared to single antenna systems in ideal circumstances.

  11. Graphene with outstanding anti-irradiation capacity as multialkylated cyclopentanes additive toward space application

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Multialkylated cyclopentanes (MACs), a class of synthetic hydrocarbon fluid have attracted intensive interest as possible space lubricants due to a series of unique physical and chemical properties. Here, we used graphene with high mechanical strength and chemical inertness as lubricant additive to explore its potential for space application. The effects of space irradiation on graphene and the tribological properties of graphene as lubricant additive were firstly investigated in detail under simulated space environment composed of high vacuum, high/low temperature and irradiation. Results demonstrate that graphene not only possesses outstanding anti–irradiation capacity but also significantly improves the space performance and tribological properties of MACs, which depends on the excellent physicochemical properties and high load-carrying ability of graphene as well as more effective separation of the sliding surfaces. PMID:26224254

  12. Interaction effect of response medium and working memory capacity on creative idea generation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ning; Yuan, Huan; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Qing; Runco, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the interaction effect of response medium (i.e., write down ideas and orally report ideas) and working memory capacity (WMC) on creative idea generation. Participants (N = 90) with higher or lower WMC were asked to solve Alternative Uses Task (AUT) problems in the condition of writing down or speaking out ideas. The results showed that fluency of AUT performance was higher in the writing than in the speaking condition. Additionally, participants with higher WMC performed better on AUT fluency than those with lower WMC in the writing condition, while they showed no difference in the speaking condition. Moreover, level of cognitive demand fully mediated the effect of response medium on AUT fluency. Theoretically, these findings indicated the importance of WMC in creative idea generation, which supported the controlled-attention theory of creativity. Practical implications and future directions were discussed. PMID:26528227

  13. Effect of Ca addition on the damping capacity of Mg-Al-Zn casting alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Joong-Hwan; Moon, Jung-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The influences of Ca addition on the microstructures and damping capacities of AZ91-(0˜2)%Ca casting alloys were investigated, on the basis of the results of X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibration tests in a single cantilever mode. The amount of intermetallic compounds decreased with increasing Ca content up to 0.5%, above which it increased; the average cell size showed the opposite tendency. All alloys exhibited similar damping levels in the strain-amplitude independent region. Considering the very low solubility of Ca in the matrix, and that most of the Ca elements are consumed by the formation of the Al2Ca phase and incorporation into the Mg17Al12 phase, this would be ascribed to the almost identical concentrations of Ca solutes distributed in the matrix. In the strain-amplitude dependent region, however, the AZ91-0.5%Ca alloy possessed the maximum damping capacity. From the viewpoint of microstructural evolution with Ca addition, the number density of compound particles is considered to be the principal factor affecting the damping behavior in the strain-amplitude dependent region.

  14. Doubling Geothermal Generation Capacity by 2020. A Strategic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Anna; Young, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This report identifies the potential of U.S. geothermal resource and the current market to add an additional 3 GW of geothermal by 2020, in order to meet the goal set forth in the Climate Action Plan.

  15. Evaluation of on-line chelant addition to PWR steam generators. Steam generator cleaning project

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, T.J.; Wallace, S.L.; Griffin, F. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The investigation of chelating agents for continuous water treatment of secondary loops of PWR steam generators were conducted in two general areas: the study of the chemistry of chelating agents and the study of materials compatability with chelating agents. The thermostability of both EDTA and HEDTA metal chelates in All Volatile Treatment (AVT) water chemistry were shown to be greater than or equal to the thermostability of EDTA metal chelates in phosphate-sulfite water chemistry. HEDTA metal chelates were shown to have a much greater stability than EDTA metal chelates. Using samples taken from the EDTA metal chelate thermostability study and from the Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) model steam generators (MSG), EDTA decomposition products were determined. Active metal surfaces were shown to become passivated when exposed to EDTA and HEDTA concentrations as high as 0.1% w/w in AVT. Trace amounts of iron in the water were found to increase the rate of passivation. Material balance and visual inspection data from CRC model steam generators showed that metal was transported through and cleaned from the MSG's. The Inconel 600 tubes of the salt water fouled model steam generators experienced pitting corrosion. Results of this study demonstrates the feasibility of EDTA as an on-line water treatment additive to maintain nuclear steam generators in a clean condition.

  16. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jill L; Smith, Rose; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim R; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash

    2011-10-01

    Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We measured photosynthesis, foliar chemistry and leaf morphology in three ericaceous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtilloides, Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada, with a background deposition of 0.8 g N m(-2) a(-1). While biomass and chlorophyll concentrations increased in the highest nutrient treatment for C. calyculata, we found no change in the rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), carboxylation (V(cmax)), or SLA with nutrient (N with and without PK) addition, with the exception of a weak positive correlation between foliar N and A(max) for C. calyculata, and higher V(cmax) in L. groenlandicum with low nutrient addition. We found negative correlations between photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and foliar N, accompanied by a species-specific increase in one or more amino acids, which may be a sign of excess N availability and/or a mechanism to reduce ammonium (NH(4)) toxicity. We also observed a decrease in foliar soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, essential minerals for plant growth, but no change in polyamines, indicators of physiological stress under conditions of high N accumulation. These results suggest that plants adapted to low-nutrient environments do not shift their resource allocation to photosynthetic processes, even after reaching N sufficiency, but instead store the excess N in organic compounds for future use. In the long term, bog species may not be able to take advantage of elevated nutrients, resulting in them being replaced by species that are better adapted to a higher nutrient environment.

  17. Effects of Differences in Working Memory Capacity on Patterns of Word Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamura, Mimpei; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Morioka, Shu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has been reported that WM (working memory) is concerned with word generation, but many points regarding the relationship between the individual differences of WM capacity and the patterns of word generation remain unclear. This study is to investigate these unclear points by using three types of word fluency task with different…

  18. Building research capacity in family medicine: evaluation of the Grant Generating Project.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James D; Longo, Daniel R

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the Grant Generating Project (GGP), a program designed to train and assist family medicine researchers to secure funding as part of an overall strategy to increase research capacity in family medicine. Cross-sectional mail survey. First- through fourth-year participants in the GGP program starting from 1995. Participants were faculty members of American and Canadian family medicine departments. We measured cardinal features of primary care quality including first-contact care (accessibility and utilization), longitudinality (strength of affiliation and interpersonal relationship), comprehensiveness (services offered and received), and coordination of care. Most (18 of 23) GGP participants completed the survey. A total of 58 grants/contracts were submitted by respondents, representing approximately US$19.3 million. Currently, 17 (29%) are pending, representing $10.8 million (including training grants). Given the current track record, $4.8 million additional grants funds could be generated. GGP strengths cited by respondents included an effort to enhance family medicine research; personal attention, guidance, motivation, and feedback from GGP faculty and mentors; development of grant-writing skills; encouragement to attend family medicine meetings; ability to meet and learn from peers; mock study section experience; and the ability to teach, mentor, and encourage others as the GGP experience did for them. Major challenges cited were a variable degree of commitment from mentors, lack of a long-term commitment to participants, and difficulty accommodating the research focus and skill level of participants. In general, most respondents regarded the GGP program as well worth the time and effort invested. One to 2 years after participating in the program, participants achieved a remarkable track record of grant submissions. Moreover, the GGP program has had a substantial impact on participants; many are now teaching and mentoring others in their department. If

  19. Generation of a human airway epithelium derived basal cell line with multipotent differentiation capacity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As the multipotent progenitor population of the airway epithelium, human airway basal cells (BC) replenish the specialized differentiated cell populations of the mucociliated airway epithelium during physiological turnover and repair. Cultured primary BC divide a limited number of times before entering a state of replicative senescence, preventing the establishment of long-term replicating cultures of airway BC that maintain their original phenotype. Methods To generate an immortalized human airway BC cell line, primary human airway BC obtained by brushing the airway epithelium of healthy nonsmokers were infected with a retrovirus expressing human telomerase (hTERT). The resulting immortalized cell line was then characterized under non-differentiating and differentiating air-liquid interface (ALI) culture conditions using ELISA, TaqMan quantitative PCR, Western analysis, and immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining analysis for cell type specific markers. In addition, the ability of the cell line to respond to environmental stimuli under differentiating ALI culture was assessed. Results We successfully generated an immortalized human airway BC cell line termed BCi-NS1 via expression of hTERT. A single cell derived clone from the parental BCi-NS1 cells, BCi-NS1.1, retains characteristics of the original primary cells for over 40 passages and demonstrates a multipotent differentiation capacity into secretory (MUC5AC, MUC5B), goblet (TFF3), Clara (CC10) and ciliated (DNAI1, FOXJ1) cells on ALI culture. The cells can respond to external stimuli such as IL-13, resulting in alteration of the normal differentiation process. Conclusion Development of immortalized human airway BC that retain multipotent differentiation capacity over long-term culture should be useful in understanding the biology of BC, the response of BC to environmental stress, and as a target for assessment of pharmacologic agents. PMID:24298994

  20. Modeling the Impact of School-Based Universal Depression Screening on Additional Service Capacity Needs: A System Dynamics Approach.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R; Maras, Melissa A; Pate, Christina M; Igusa, Takeru; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Although it is widely known that the occurrence of depression increases over the course of adolescence, symptoms of mood disorders frequently go undetected. While schools are viable settings for conducting universal screening to systematically identify students in need of services for common health conditions, particularly those that adversely affect school performance, few school districts routinely screen their students for depression. Among the most commonly referenced barriers are concerns that the number of students identified may exceed schools' service delivery capacities, but few studies have evaluated this concern systematically. System dynamics (SD) modeling may prove a useful approach for answering questions of this sort. The goal of the current paper is therefore to demonstrate how SD modeling can be applied to inform implementation decisions in communities. In our demonstration, we used SD modeling to estimate the additional service demand generated by universal depression screening in a typical high school. We then simulated the effects of implementing "compensatory approaches" designed to address anticipated increases in service need through (1) the allocation of additional staff time and (2) improvements in the effectiveness of mental health interventions. Results support the ability of screening to facilitate more rapid entry into services and suggest that improving the effectiveness of mental health services for students with depression via the implementation of an evidence-based treatment protocol may have a limited impact on overall recovery rates and service availability. In our example, the SD approach proved useful in informing systems' decision-making about the adoption of a new school mental health service.

  1. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  2. Effects of hip center location on the moment-generating capacity of the muscles.

    PubMed

    Delp, S L; Maloney, W

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional biomechanical model of the human lower extremity to study how the location of the hip center affects the moment-generating capacity of four muscle groups: the hip abductors, adductors, flexors, and extensors. The model computes the maximum isometric force and the resulting joint moments that each of 25 muscle-tendon complexes develops at any body position. Abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension moments calculated with the model correspond closely with isometric joint moments measured during maximum voluntary contractions. We used the model to determine (1) the hip center locations that maximize and minimize the moment-generating capacity of each muscle group and (2) the effects of superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral displacement of the hip center on the moment arms, maximum isometric muscle forces, and maximum isometric moments generated by each muscle group. We found that superior-inferior displacement of the hip center has the greatest effect on the force- and moment-generating capacity of the muscles. A 2 cm superior displacement decreases abduction force (44%), moment arm (12%), and moment (49%), while a 2 cm inferior displacement increases abduction force (20%), moment arm (7%) and moment (26%). Similarly, a 2 cm superior displacement decreases flexion force (27%), moment arm (6%), and moment (22%), while inferior displacement increases all three variables. Anterior-posterior displacement alters the moment-generating capacity of the flexors and extensors considerably, primarily due to moment arm changes. Medial-lateral displacement has a large effect on the moment-generating capacity of the adductors only. A 2 cm medial displacement decreases adduction moment arm (20%), force (26%) and moment (40%). These results demonstrate that the force- and moment-generating capacities of the muscles are sensitive to the location of the hip center.

  3. Force-generating capacity of human myosin isoforms extracted from single muscle fibre segments.

    PubMed

    Li, Meishan; Larsson, Lars

    2010-12-15

    Muscle, motor unit and muscle fibre type-specific differences in force-generating capacity have been investigated for many years, but there is still no consensus regarding specific differences between slow- and fast-twitch muscles, motor units or muscle fibres. This is probably related to a number of different confounding factors disguising the function of the molecular motor protein myosin. We have therefore studied the force-generating capacity of specific myosin isoforms or combination of isoforms extracted from short single human muscle fibre segments in a modified single fibre myosin in vitro motility assay, in which an internal load (actin-binding protein) was added in different concentrations to evaluate the force-generating capacity. The force indices were the x-axis intercept and the slope of the relationship between the fraction of moving filaments and the α-actinin concentration. The force-generating capacity of the β/slow myosin isoform (type I) was weaker (P < 0.05) than the fast myosin isoform (type II), but the force-generating capacity of the different human fast myosin isoforms types IIa and IIx or a combination of both (IIax) were indistinguishable. A single fibre in vitro motility assay for both speed and force of specific myosin isoforms is described and used to measure the difference in force-generating capacity between fast and slow human myosin isoforms. The assay is proposed as a useful tool for clinical studies on the effects on muscle function of specific mutations or post-translational modifications of myosin.

  4. Preliminary estimates of electrical generating capacity of slim holes--a theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, John W.

    1995-01-26

    The feasibility of using small geothermal generators (< 1 MWe) for off-grid electrical power in remote areas or for rural electrification in developing nations would be enhanced if drilling costs could be reduced. This paper examines the electrical generating capacity of fluids which can be produced from typical slim holes (six-inch diameter or less), both by binary techniques (with downhole pumps) and, for hotter reservoir fluids, by conventional spontaneous-discharge flash-steam methods. Depending mainly on reservoir temperature, electrical capacities from a few hundred kilowatts to over one megawatt per slim hole appear to be possible.

  5. Evaluating the Capacity to Generate and Preserve Nitric Oxide Bioactivity in Highly Purified Earthworm Erythrocruorin

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Camille J.; Talwar, Abhinav; Palmer, Andre F.; Cabrales, Pedro; Gerfen, Gary; Friedman, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    The giant extracellular hemoglobin (erythrocruorin) from the earth worm (Lumbricus terrestris) has shown promise as a potential hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) in in vivo animal studies. An important beneficial characteristic of this hemoglobin (LtHb) is the large number of heme-based oxygen transport sites that helps overcome issues of osmotic stress when attempting to provide enough material for efficient oxygen delivery. A potentially important additional property is the capacity of the HBOC either to generate nitric oxide (NO) or to preserve NO bioactivity to compensate for decreased levels of NO in the circulation. The present study compares the NO-generating and NO bioactivity-preserving capability of LtHb with that of human adult hemoglobin (HbA) through several reactions including the nitrite reductase, reductive nitrosylation, and still controversial nitrite anhydrase reactions. An assignment of a heme-bound dinitrogen trioxide as the stable intermediate associated with the nitrite anhydrase reaction in both LtHb and HbA is supported based on functional and EPR spectroscopic studies. The role of the redox potential as a factor contributing to the NO-generating activity of these two proteins is evaluated. The results show that LtHb undergoes the same reactions as HbA and that the reduced efficacy for these reactions for LtHb relative to HbA is consistent with the much higher redox potential of LtHb. Evidence of functional heterogeneity in LtHb is explained in terms of the large difference in the redox potential of the isolated subunits. PMID:25371199

  6. Teachers' Capacities to Meet Students' Additional Support Needs in Mainstream Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, M.; Goei, S. L.; Koot, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream primary school teachers generally acknowledge the need to implement adaptive teaching; however, meeting a variety of students' needs is a challenge. Studies have addressed the conditions under which teachers attribute their (in)capacities, but these have mainly involved vignettes. Therefore, it remains unknown whether teachers are…

  7. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs

    Treesearch

    Jill L. Bubier; Rose Smith; Sari Juutinen; Tim R. Moore; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Subash. Minocha

    2011-01-01

    Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We...

  8. Teachers' Capacities to Meet Students' Additional Support Needs in Mainstream Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, M.; Goei, S. L.; Koot, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream primary school teachers generally acknowledge the need to implement adaptive teaching; however, meeting a variety of students' needs is a challenge. Studies have addressed the conditions under which teachers attribute their (in)capacities, but these have mainly involved vignettes. Therefore, it remains unknown whether teachers are…

  9. Integrated capacity planning for electricity generation: A fuzzy environmental policy analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, F.; Huang, G.

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes an integrated model for capacity planning in electricity generation. It utilizes a multiple-criteria linear programming to incorporate cost and environmental objectives into the planning. To treat the uncertainties embedded in definition of model parameters, the concept of decision-maker degree of optimism will be used. Optimization of the model provides different planning scenarios. To determine the best compromise plan, a post-optimization assessment based on fuzzy set theory concepts is developed. The proposed methodology is employed for a medium-term capacity planning in Canada's electricity generation sector. The results approve a major capacity growth for natural gas facilities accompanied by retirement of most coal-burning facilities.

  10. Probing the Additional Capacity and Reaction Mechanism of the RuO2 Anode in Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunok; Muhammad, Shoaib; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Hansu; Kim, Ji Man; Yoon, Won-Sub

    2015-07-20

    The structural changes and electrochemical behavior of RuO2 are investigated by using in situ XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism of this metal oxide anode material. Intermediate phase-assisted transformation of RuO2 to LiRuO2 takes place at the start of discharge. Upon further lithiation, LiRuO2 formed by intercalation decomposes to nanosized Ru metal and Li2 O by a conversion reaction. A reversible capacity in addition to its theoretical capacity is observed on discharging below 0.5 V during which no redox activity involving Ru is observed. TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique are used to probe this additional capacity. The results show that the additional capacity is a result of Li storage in the grain boundary between nanosized Ru metal and Li2 O. Findings of this study provide a better understanding of the quantitative share of capacity by a unique combination of intercalation, conversion, and interfacial Li storage in a RuO2 anode. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Enhancing soil sorption capacity of an agricultural soil by addition of three different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Raquel; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of three unmodified organic residues (composted sewage sludge, RO1; chicken manure, RO2; and a residue from olive oil production called 'orujillo', RO3) and a soil to sorb six pesticides (atrazine, lindane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos and endosulfan sulfate) and thereby explored the potential environmental value of these organic residues for mitigating pesticide pollution in agricultural production and removing contaminants from wastewater. Pesticide determination was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption approaches. Experimental results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the adsorption process and that Kf values increased with an increase in organic matter (OM) content of the amended soil. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: chlorpyrifos≥endosulfan sulfate>chlorfenvinphos≥lindane>alachlor≥atrazine. The sorption was greater for the most hydrophobic compounds and lower for the most polar ones, as corroborated by a negative correlation between Kf values and solubility. Sorption increased with an increase in organic matter. Sorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic carbon (OC) content. The organic amendment showing the maximum sorption capacity was RO3 in all cases, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2. The order of adsorption capacity of the amendments depended on the pesticide and the organic dosage. In the case of the 10% amendment the order was RO3>RO2>RO1>soil, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2>RO3>RO1>soil, and atrazine, where RO2 and RO3 amendments had the same effect on the soil sorption capacity (RO2≥RO3>RO1>soil).

  12. Modeling the Impact of School-based Universal Depression Screening on Additional Service Capacity Needs: A System Dynamics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Maras, Melissa A.; Pate, Christina M.; Igusa, Takeru; Stoep, Ann Vander

    2016-01-01

    Although it is widely known that the occurrence of depression increases over the course of adolescence, symptoms of mood disorders frequently go undetected. While schools are viable settings for conducting universal screening to systematically identify students in need of services for common health conditions, particularly those that adversely affect school performance, few school districts routinely screen their students for depression. Among the most commonly referenced barriers are concerns that the number of students identified may exceed schools’ service delivery capacities, but few studies have evaluated this concern systematically. System dynamics (SD) modeling may prove a useful approach for answering questions of this sort. The goal of the current paper is therefore to demonstrate how SD modeling can be applied to inform implementation decisions in communities. In our demonstration, we used SD modeling to estimate the additional service demand generated by universal depression screening in a typical high school. We then simulated the effects of implementing “compensatory approaches” designed to address anticipated increases in service need through (1) the allocation of additional staff time and (2) improvements in the effectiveness of mental health interventions. Results support the ability of screening to facilitate more rapid entry into services and suggest that improving the effectiveness of mental health services for students with depression via the implementation of an evidence-based treatment protocol may have a limited impact on overall recovery rates and service availability. In our example, the SD approach proved useful in informing systems’ decision-making about the adoption of a new school mental health service. PMID:25601192

  13. Assessing the Capacity of the US Health Care System to Use Additional Mechanical Ventilators During a Large-Scale Public Health Emergency.

    PubMed

    Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Koonin, Lisa M; Patel, Anita; Howell, David R; Baccam, Prasith; Lant, Tim; Malatino, Eileen; Chamberlin, Margaret; Meltzer, Martin I

    2015-12-01

    A large-scale public health emergency, such as a severe influenza pandemic, can generate large numbers of critically ill patients in a short time. We modeled the number of mechanical ventilators that could be used in addition to the number of hospital-based ventilators currently in use. We identified key components of the health care system needed to deliver ventilation therapy, quantified the maximum number of additional ventilators that each key component could support at various capacity levels (ie, conventional, contingency, and crisis), and determined the constraining key component at each capacity level. Our study results showed that US hospitals could absorb between 26,200 and 56,300 additional ventilators at the peak of a national influenza pandemic outbreak with robust pre-pandemic planning. The current US health care system may have limited capacity to use additional mechanical ventilators during a large-scale public health emergency. Emergency planners need to understand their health care systems' capability to absorb additional resources and expand care. This methodology could be adapted by emergency planners to determine stockpiling goals for critical resources or to identify alternatives to manage overwhelming critical care need.

  14. Developing additional capacity for wilderness management: An international exchange program between South Africa and United States wilderness rangers

    Treesearch

    Pierre van den Berg; Ralph Swain

    2007-01-01

    Wilderness managers have limited time to initiate international exchanges. Additionally, the benefits to developing capacity for wilderness management around the globe are not significant enough to make the effort cost-effective. International assistance, including wilderness management exchange programs, is critical to protecting wild areas around the globe. Former...

  15. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  16. Blade Pitch Angle Control and its Capacity Reduction Effect on Battery for Load Frequency Control in Power System with a Large Capacity of Wind Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizaki, Yasushi; Irie, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    Considering interconnection of a large-capacity of wind power generation to the utility grid, it is of great concern that its output power fluctuation has adverse influences, e.g. frequency fluctuation. There have so far been some research works on installation of battery energy storage systems (BESS), as a solution of these problems. However, owing to very high cost of the BESS, its capacity should be as small as possible. In this paper, not only the installation of the BESS as one of measures of suppressing the frequency fluctuation caused by wind power generation, but also blade pitch angle control for blunting the output power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) is also considered. This paper proposes a coordinated control method of the BESS and the blade pitch angle, and evaluates reduction of the capacity of the BESS and the power generation loss caused by blunting the output power which should be originally generated by WTGs.

  17. The effect of genetic drift on the variance/covariance components generated by multilocus additive x additive epistatic systems.

    PubMed

    López-Fanjul, Carlos; Fernández, Almudena; Toro, Miguel A

    2006-03-21

    The effect of population bottlenecks on the components of the genetic variance/covariance generated by n neutral independent additive x additive loci has been studied theoretically. In its simplest version, this situation can be modelled by specifying the allele frequencies and homozygous effects at each locus, and an additional factor measuring the strength of the n-th order epistatic interaction. The variance/covariance components in an infinitely large panmictic population (ancestral components) were compared with their expected values at equilibrium over replicates randomly derived from the base population, after t bottlenecks of size N (derived components). Formulae were obtained giving the derived components (and the between-line variance) as functions of the ancestral ones (alternatively, in terms of allele frequencies and effects) and the corresponding inbreeding coefficient F(t). The n-th order derived component of the genetic variance/covariance is continuously eroded by inbreeding, but the remaining components may increase initially until a critical F(t) value is attained, which is inversely related to the order of the pertinent component, and subsequently decline to zero. These changes can be assigned to the between-line variances/covariances of gene substitution and epistatic effects induced by drift. Numerical examples indicate that: (1) the derived additive variance/covariance component will generally exceed its ancestral value unless epistasis is weak; (2) the derived epistatic variance/covariance components will generally exceed their ancestral values unless allele frequencies are extreme; (3) for systems showing equal ancestral additive and total non-additive variance/covariance components, those including a smaller number of epistatic loci may generate a larger excess in additive variance/covariance after bottlenecks than others involving a larger number of loci, provided that F(t) is low. Our results indicate that it is unlikely that the rate of

  18. A study of electrical generating capacities of self-discharged slim holes

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to estimate the electrical generating capacities of small-diameter geothermal wells for off-grid rural electrification using wellhead generators. In these applications, generating capacities of interest are typically in the range 100-1000 Me. The approach amounted to (1) calculating the {open_quotes}wellhead discharge characteristics{close_quotes} (water/steam discharge rates as functions of wellhead pressure) for a variety of hypothetical well and reservoir descriptions, (2) employing a mathematical representation for the net generating capacity of a wellhead powerplant as a function of its operating inlet pressure and steam inlet rate, and (3) varying the wellhead (= turbine inlet) pressure to identify the {open_quotes}optimum{close_quotes} pressure value at which the net electrical power is maximized. Calculations were carried out for well diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm, for well depths from 300 to 1200 meters, for reservoir temperatures from 100{degrees}C to 240{degrees}C, for piezometric surface depths (related to shut-in reservoir pressure) from zero to 250 meters, and for downhole productivity indices from 2 kg/s/bar to infinity. A few cases were also included in which the CO{sub 2} content of the reservoir fluid was non-zero (up to 1% by mass in the brine). Both backpressure and condensing single-flash steam turbine powerplants were considered. The study was restricted to vertical wells of uniform inside diameter and to all-liquid in-situ reservoir fluids. Over fifteen thousand combinations of the above parameters were examined. The results indicate that slim holes as small as 100 mm inside diameter penetrating reservoirs with temperatures as low as 150{degrees}C can produce useful amounts of electrical power using condensing wellhead turbines (> 100 Me). For higher reservoir temperatures, the electrical capacity of such a well can exceed one megawatt.

  19. A study of electrical generating capacities of self-discharging slim holes

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1996-01-24

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to estimate the electrical generating capacities of small-diameter geothermal wells for off-grid rural electrification using wellhead generators. In these applications, generating capacities of interest are typically in the range 100-1000 kWe. The approach amounted to (1) calculating the “wellhead discharge characteristics” (water/steam discharge rates as functions of wellhead pressure) for a variety of hypothetical well and reservoir descriptions, (2) employing a mathematical representation for the net generating capacity of a wellhead powerplant as a function of its operating inlet pressure and steam inlet rate, and (3) varying the wellhead (= turbine inlet) pressure to identify the “optimum” pressure value at which the net electrical power is maximized. Calculations were carried out for well diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm, for well depths from 300 to 1200 meters, for reservoir temperatures from 100°C to 240°C, for piezometric surface depths (related to shut-in reservoir pressure) from zero to 250 meters, and for downhole productivity indices from 2 kg/s/bar to infinity. A few cases were also included in which the CO2 content of the reservoir fluid was non-zero (up to 1% by mass in the brine). Both backpressure and condensing single-flash steam turbine powerplants were considered. The study was restricted to vertical wells of uniform inside diameter and to all-liquid in-situ reservoir fluids. Over fifteen thousand combinations of the above parameters were examined. The results indicate that slim holes as small as 100 mm inside diameter penetrating reservoirs with temperatures as low as 150°C can produce useful amounts of electrical power using condensing wellhead turbines (> 100 kWe). For higher reservoir temperatures, the electrical capacity of such a well can exceed one megawatt.

  20. Rock Island Arsenal Power Dam: Numerical Hydraulic Model Investigation of Channel Capacity for Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    To search for other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL TR...head for power generation at all Mississippi River discharges. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising ...cfs downstream to the RIA Power Dam. 3.3 Channel dredging for increased flow The existing capacity of the Rock Island Arsenal power plant head race

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  3. Marginal capacity costs of electricity distribution and demand for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Chi-Keung, Lloyd-Zanetti, D.; Orans, R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal costs of electricity vary by time and location. Past researchers attributed these variations to factors related to electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Past authors, however, did not fully analyze the large variations in marginal distribution capacity costs (MDCC) by area and time. Thus, the objectives of this paper are as follows: (1) to show that large MDCC variations exist within a utility`s service territory; (2) to demonstrate inter-utility variations in MDCC; and (3) to demonstrate the usefulness of these costs in determining demand for distributed generation (DG). 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  5. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    PubMed

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed.

  6. Investigating the effect of increased wind generation capacity on investment in transmission infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, Michael G.

    The transmission network that connects electricity generators with consumers is a critical yet often-overlooked component of the nation's electrical power infrastructure. However, the transmission grid has suffered from chronic underinvestment in recent decades due to various economic and regulatory factors that impede timely and efficient investments in transmission. One factor that might help offset these obstacles to transmission is the growth in wind power generation. The assumption among many in the electrical power industry is that wind power investments necessarily require greater investment in transmission due to the fact that wind power is a geographically-restricted resource and cannot always be situated close to areas of high electricity demand. However, to date there have been few, if any, empirical studies to verify this connection. This paper discusses a state-by-state empirical study exploring the relationship between increased wind generation capacity and the level of investment in transmission infrastructure. This study begins with the hypothesis that increases in installed wind generation capacity, in combination with other policies that promote wind energy more generally, should result in higher levels of transmission investment. Using data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), this paper develops regression models suggesting that wind investment has a small but distinct positive impact on transmission investment. This paper then explores the effects of other state renewable energy promotion policies, and discusses the policy implications of these findings.

  7. Photovoltaic Capacity Additions: The optimal rate of deployment with sensitivity to time-based GHG emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triplican Ravikumar, Dwarakanath

    Current policies subsidizing or accelerating deployment of photovoltaics (PV) are typically motivated by claims of environmental benefit, such as the reduction of CO2 emissions generated by the fossil-fuel fired power plants that PV is intended to displace. Existing practice is to assess these environmental benefits on a net life-cycle basis, where CO2 benefits occurring during use of the PV panels is found to exceed emissions generated during the PV manufacturing phase including materials extraction and manufacture of the PV panels prior to installation. However, this approach neglects to recognize that the environmental costs of CO2 release during manufacture are incurred early, while environmental benefits accrue later. Thus, where specific policy targets suggest meeting CO2 reduction targets established by a certain date, rapid PV deployment may have counter-intuitive, albeit temporary, undesired consequences. Thus, on a cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) basis, the environmental improvements attributable to PV might be realized much later than is currently understood. This phenomenon is particularly acute when PV manufacture occurs in areas using CO2 intensive energy sources (e.g., coal), but deployment occurs in areas with less CO 2 intensive electricity sources (e.g., hydro). This thesis builds a dynamic Cumulative Radiative Forcing (CRF) model to examine the inter-temporal warming impacts of PV deployments in three locations: California, Wyoming and Arizona. The model includes the following factors that impact CRF: PV deployment rate, choice of PV technology, pace of PV technology improvements, and CO2 intensity in the electricity mix at manufacturing and deployment locations. Wyoming and California show the highest and lowest CRF benefits as they have the most and least CO2 intensive grids, respectively. CRF payback times are longer than CO2 payback times in all cases. Thin film, CdTe PV technologies have the lowest manufacturing CO2 emissions and

  8. Nitrogen balancing and xylose addition enhances growth capacity and protein content in Chlorella minutissima cultures.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B C B; Esquível, M G; Matos, R G; Arraiano, C M; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the metabolic changes in Chlorella minutissima cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions and with the addition of xylose. The cell density, maximum photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll and lipid levels were measured. The expression of two photosynthetic proteins, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and the beta subunit (AtpB) of adenosine triphosphate synthase, were measured. Comparison of cells grown in medium with a 50% reduction in the nitrogen concentration versus the traditional medium solution revealed that the cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions exhibited an increased growth rate, higher maximum cell density (12.7×10(6)cellsmL(-1)), optimal PSII efficiency (0.69) and decreased lipid level (25.08%). This study has taken the first steps toward protein detection in Chlorella minutissima, and the results can be used to optimize the culturing of other microalgae.

  9. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abu El Hammed, Waleed; Soufy, Hamdy; El-Shemy, Ahmed; Nasr, Soad M; Dessouky, Mohamed I

    2016-04-12

    The present study assessed the efficacy of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) toxoid and/or allicin - as feed additive - in rabbits for preventing or minimizing the severity of infection with locally isolated strain of C. perfringens type A. Serum biochemical, immunological and pathological investigations were also done. One hundred rabbits of 6 weeks of age were divided into five equal groups (G1-G5). G1 were kept as normal control. G2 was allocated for C. perfringens type A infection. G3 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at zero time and then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experimental period. G4 was treated with allicin 20% added to the ration (200mg/kg ration) all over the experimental period. G5 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at the zero time then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experiment period, and treated with allicin 20% from the zero time till the end of the experiment. At the 4th week, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were challenged orally (5 ml) and subcutaneously (2 ml) with 24h cooked meat broth containing 1 × 10(7) colony-forming units/ml of C. perfringens type A strain. Blood and tissue samples were collected from all groups po st-vaccination then post-challenge for biochemical analysis, serum neutralization test and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that rabbits treated with both allicin and toxoid vaccine demonstrated high level of antitoxin titre post-challenge, improved liver and kidney functions, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates and the severity of histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with C. perfringens type A strain. In conclusion, vaccination of rabbits with C. perfringens toxoid combined with allicin 20% gave better protection, enhanced immune response and had no adverse effects on the general health conditions against C. perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only.

  10. Analysis of Thermal Power Generation Capacity for a Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Functional Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yajing; Chen, Gang; Bai, Guanghui; Yang, Xuqiu; Li, Peng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2017-05-01

    Due to military or other requirements for hypersonic aircraft, the energy supply devices with the advantages of small size and light weight are urgently needed. Compared with the traditional energy supply method, the skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) functional structure is expected to generate electrical energy with a smaller structural space in the hypersonic aircraft. This paper mainly focuses on the responded thermal and electrical characteristics of the skutterudite-based TE functional structure (TEFS) under strong heat flux loads. We conduct TE simulations on the transient model of the TEFS with consideration of the heat flux loads and thermal radiation in the hot end and the cooling effect of the phase change material (PCM) in the cold end. We investigate several influential factors on the power generation capacity, such as the phase transition temperature of the PCM, the heat flux loads, the thickness of the TE materials and the thermal conductivity of the frame materials. The results show that better power generation capacity can be achieved with thicker TE materials, lower phase transition temperature and suitable thermal conductivity of the frame materials.

  11. Analysis of Thermal Power Generation Capacity for a Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Functional Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yajing; Chen, Gang; Bai, Guanghui; Yang, Xuqiu; Li, Peng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Due to military or other requirements for hypersonic aircraft, the energy supply devices with the advantages of small size and light weight are urgently needed. Compared with the traditional energy supply method, the skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) functional structure is expected to generate electrical energy with a smaller structural space in the hypersonic aircraft. This paper mainly focuses on the responded thermal and electrical characteristics of the skutterudite-based TE functional structure (TEFS) under strong heat flux loads. We conduct TE simulations on the transient model of the TEFS with consideration of the heat flux loads and thermal radiation in the hot end and the cooling effect of the phase change material (PCM) in the cold end. We investigate several influential factors on the power generation capacity, such as the phase transition temperature of the PCM, the heat flux loads, the thickness of the TE materials and the thermal conductivity of the frame materials. The results show that better power generation capacity can be achieved with thicker TE materials, lower phase transition temperature and suitable thermal conductivity of the frame materials.

  12. Improving Performance of Power Systems with Large-scale Variable Generation Additions

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Lu, Ning; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Du, Pengwei; Kannberg, Landis D.

    2012-07-22

    A power system with large-scale renewable resources, like wind and solar generation, creates significant challenges to system control performance and reliability characteristics because of intermittency and uncertainties associated with variable generation. It is important to quantify these uncertainties, and then incorporate this information into decision-making processes and power system operations. This paper presents three approaches to evaluate the flexibility needed from conventional generators and other resources in the presence of variable generation as well as provide this flexibility from a non-traditional resource – wide area energy storage system. These approaches provide operators with much-needed information on the likelihood and magnitude of ramping and capacity problems, and the ability to dispatch available resources in response to such problems.

  13. CARBON MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR U.S. ELECTRICITY GENERATION CAPACITY: A VINTAGE-BASED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines the stock of fossil-fired power generation capacity in the United States within the context of climate change. At present, there are over 1,337 fossil-fired power generating units of at least 100 MW in capacity, that began operating between the early 1940s and today. Together these units provide some 453 GW of electric power. Launching a national program to accelerate the early retirement of this stock or tearing them down and undertaking near-term brownfield redevelopment with advanced power cycle technologies as a means of addressing their greenhouse gas emissions will not be a sensible option for all of these units. Considering a conservative 40-year operating life, there are over 667 existing fossil-fired power plants, representing a capacity of over 291 GW, that have at least a decades worth of productive life remaining. This paper draws upon specialized tools developed by Battelle to analyze the characteristics of this subset of U.S. power generation assets and explore the relationships between plant type, location, emissions, and vintage. It examines the use of retrofit carbon capture technologies, considering criteria such as the proximity of these power plants to geologic reservoirs, to assess the potential that geologic sequestration of CO2 offers these plants for managing their emissions. The average costs for retrofitting these plants and sequestering their CO2 into nearby geologic reservoirs are presented. A discussion of a set of planned U.S. fossil-fired power projects within this context is also included.

  14. Enhanced energy capacity of lithium-oxygen batteries with ionic liquid electrolytes by addition of ammonium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Shoichi; Uosaki, Kohei; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries with ionic liquid-based electrolytes have attracted much attention because of their superior battery performance and high safety. However, the practical energy capacities achieved to date are markedly lower than those of Li-ion batteries. A dominant factor that limits the energy capacities of Li-O2 batteries is the insulating characteristics and insolubility of lithium peroxide (Li2O2), which gradually accumulates on the positive electrode as a discharge product. Herein, we report that ammonium ions function as a promoter for the solution-route formation of Li2O2, which results in a significant improvement of the energy capacity of Li-O2 cells. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that the structure of Li2O2 changed from spherical particles to toroidal particles with an increase in the ammonium ions concentration. Ionic additives that have been reported to function as promoters the solution-route formation of Li2O2 in ether-based electrolyte systems do not exhibit a promoting effect in ionic liquid-based electrolytes.

  15. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet Wang, Wei Zhou, Changqing Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-05-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature.

  16. Generation of a Complete Set of Additive Shape-Invariant Potentials from an Euler Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ({h_bar}/2{pi}) can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ({h_bar}/2{pi}) explicitly.

  17. Generation of a complete set of additive shape-invariant potentials from an Euler equation.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Jonathan; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Mallow, Jeffry V

    2010-11-19

    In supersymmetric quantum mechanics, shape invariance is a sufficient condition for solvability. We show that all conventional additive shape-invariant superpotentials that are independent of ℏ can be generated from two partial differential equations. One of these is equivalent to the one-dimensional Euler equation expressing momentum conservation for inviscid fluid flow, and it is closed by the other. We solve these equations, generate the set of all conventional shape-invariant superpotentials, and show that there are no others in this category. We then develop an algorithm for generating all additive shape-invariant superpotentials including those that depend on ℏ explicitly.

  18. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  19. Group additive values for the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2013-11-25

    A complete and consistent set of 60 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for oxygenate molecules and 97 GAVs for oxygenate radicals is provided, which allow to describe their standard enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities. Approximately half of the GAVs for oxygenate molecules and the majority of the GAVs for oxygenate radicals have not been reported before. The values are derived from an extensive and accurate database of thermochemical data obtained by ab initio calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory for 202 molecules and 248 radicals. These compounds include saturated and unsaturated, α- and β-branched, mono- and bifunctional oxygenates. Internal rotations were accounted for by using one-dimensional hindered rotor corrections. The accuracy of the database was further improved by adding bond additive corrections to the CBS-QB3 standard enthalpies of formation. Furthermore, 14 corrections for non-nearest-neighbor interactions (NNI) were introduced for molecules and 12 for radicals. The validity of the constructed group additive model was established by comparing the predicted values with both ab initio calculated values and experimental data for oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. The group additive method predicts standard enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities with chemical accuracy, respectively, within 4 kJ mol(-1) and 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) for both ab initio calculated and experimental values. As an alternative, the hydrogen bond increment (HBI) method developed by Lay et al. (T. H. Lay, J. W. Bozzelli, A. M. Dean, E. R. Ritter, J. Phys. Chem.- 1995, 99, 14514) was used to introduce 77 new HBI structures and to calculate their thermodynamic parameters (Δ(f)H°, S°, C(p)°). The GAVs reported in this work can be reliably used for the prediction of thermochemical data for large oxygenate compounds, combining rapid prediction with wide-ranging application.

  20. Electron transfer capacity dependence of quinone-mediated Fe(III) reduction and current generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae L17.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Liang; Liu, Tongxu; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fangbai; Zhou, Shungui; Li, Yongtao

    2013-06-01

    Quinone groups in exogenous electron shuttles can accelerate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from bacteria to insoluble terminal electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) oxides and electrodes, which are important in biogeochemical redox processes and microbial electricity generation. However, the relationship between quinone-mediated EET performance and electron-shuttling properties of the quinones remains incompletely characterized. This study investigates the effects of a series of synthetic quinones (SQs) on goethite reduction and current generation by a fermenting bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae L17. In addition, the voltammetric behavior and electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of SQ, including electron accepting (EAC) and donating (EDC) capacities, is also examined using electrochemical methods. The results showed that SQ can significantly increase both the Fe(III) reduction rates and current outputs of L17. Each tested SQ reversibly accepted and donated electrons as indicated by the cyclic voltammograms. The EAC and EDC results showed that Carmine and Alizarin had low relative capacities of electron transfer, whereas 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-HNQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (5-HNQ) showed stronger relative ETC, and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQC) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) had high relative ETC. Enhancement of microbial goethite reduction kinetics and current outputs by SQ had a good linear relationship with their ETC, indicating that the effectiveness of quinone-mediated EET may be strongly dependent on the ETC of the quinones. Therefore, the presence of quinone compounds and fermenting microorganisms may increase the diversity of microbial populations that contribute to element transformation in natural environments. Moreover, ETC determination of different SQ would help to evaluate their performance for microbial EET under anoxic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  1. Acute effect of androgens on maximal force-generating capacity and electrically evoked calcium transient in mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Fraysse, Bodvael; Vignaud, Alban; Fane, Bourama; Schuh, Mélanie; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Metzger, Daniel; Ferry, Arnaud

    2014-09-01

    As androgens might have rapid androgen-receptor (AR) independent action on muscle cells, we analysed the in vivo acute effect of androgens on maximal force generation capacity and electrically evoked calcium transient responsible for the excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle from wild-type male mice and muscle fibre androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR(skm-/y)) male mice. We tested the hypothesis that acute in vivo androgen treatment improves contractility and modifies calcium transient in mouse hindlimb muscles. In addition, we determined whether the reduced maximal force generation capacity of AR(skm-/y) mice is caused by an alteration in calcium transient. We found that acute dehydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone treatment of mice does not change in situ maximal force, power or fatigue resistance of tibialis anterior muscles. In agreement with this observation, maximal force and twitch kinetics also remained unchanged when both whole extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle or fibre bundles were incubated in vitro with DHT. Electrically evoked calcium transient, i.e. calcium amplitude, time to peak and decay, was also not modified by DHT treatment of EDL muscle fibre bundles. Finally, we found no difference in calcium transient between AR(skm-/y) and wild-type mice despite the reduced maximal force in EDL fibre bundles of AR(skm-/y) mice. In conclusion, acute androgen treatment has no ergogenic effect on muscle contractility and does not affect calcium transient in response to stimulation. In addition, the reduced maximal force of AR(skm-/y) mice is not related to calcium transient dysfunction.

  2. Competitive negotiation: the Virginia SCC's model for procurement of generating capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The Virginia SCC, in approving competitive alternatives to avoided costs under PURPA, rejected competitive bidding in favor of competitive negotiation for power sales contracts. The difference is important, and points in the direction of increased discretion for utilities seeking new generating capacity from independents. The distinction between competitive bidding, and competitive negotiation, in a nutshell, is that in a bid, the low price bidder wins. In a negotiation, the offeror of the most-meritorious proposals are ranked, and an attempt to reach agreement on price is made with the high-ranked offeror. Only if there is no agreement on price will the most-meritorious bid be rejected, and negotiations with the offeror of the next best proposal begun. The Virginia Public Procurement Act, Sec. II-37, Definitions, Parts 1, 2, and 3.a. is included.

  3. Generation of reactive oxygen species by interaction between antioxidants used as food additive and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Oda, Momoko; Tsukuda, Yuri; Nagamori, Yuki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Food additives, such as preservatives, sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavoring agents, are widely used in food manufacturing. However, their combined effects on the human body are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine whether combinations of antioxidants and metal ions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vitro conditions using electron spin resonance (ESR). Among the metal ions examined, only iron and copper generated ROS in the presence of antioxidants. Moreover, certain phenolic antioxidants having pro-oxidant activity induced DNA oxidation and degradation via the generation of high levels of ROS in the presence of copper ion, resulting in complete degradation of DNA in vitro.

  4. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  5. Force- and moment-generating capacities of muscles in the distal forelimb of the horse.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas A T; Pandy, Marcus G; Kawcak, Christopher E; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2003-07-01

    A detailed musculoskeletal model of the distal equine forelimb was developed to study the influence of musculoskeletal geometry (i.e. muscle paths) and muscle physiology (i.e. force-length properties) on the force- and moment-generating capacities of muscles crossing the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints. The distal forelimb skeleton was represented as a five degree-of-freedom kinematic linkage comprised of eight bones (humerus, radius and ulna combined, proximal carpus, distal carpus, metacarpus, proximal phalanx, intermediate phalanx and distal phalanx) and seven joints (elbow, radiocarpal, intercarpal, carpometacarpal, metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (pastern) and distal interphalangeal (coffin)). Bone surfaces were reconstructed from computed tomography scans obtained from the left forelimb of a Thoroughbred horse. The model was actuated by nine muscle-tendon units. Each unit was represented as a three-element Hill-type muscle in series with an elastic tendon. Architectural parameters specifying the force-producing properties of each muscle-tendon unit were found by dissecting seven forelimbs from five Thoroughbred horses. Maximum isometric moments were calculated for a wide range of joint angles by fully activating the extensor and flexor muscles crossing the carpus and MCP joint. Peak isometric moments generated by the flexor muscles were an order of magnitude greater than those generated by the extensor muscles at both the carpus and the MCP joint. For each flexor muscle in the model, the shape of the maximum isometric joint moment-angle curve was dominated by the variation in muscle force. By contrast, the moment-angle curves for the muscles that extend the MCP joint were determined mainly by the variation in muscle moment arms. The suspensory and check ligaments contributed more than half of the total support moment developed about the MCP joint in the model. When combined with appropriate in vivo measurements of joint kinematics

  6. Building the Capacity for Climate Services: Thoughts on Training Next Generation Climate Science Integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, G. M.; Brugger, J.; Gordon, E. S.; Barsugli, J. J.; Rangwala, I.; Travis, W.

    2015-12-01

    For more than a decade, stakeholder needs assessments and reports, including the recent National Climate Assessment, have pointed out the need for climate "science translators" or "science integrators" who can help bridge the gap between the cultures and contexts of researchers and decision-makers. Integration is important for exchanging and enhancing knowledge, building capacity to use climate information in decision making, and fostering more robust planning for decision-making in the context of climate change. This talk will report on the characteristics of successful climate science integrators, and a variety of models for training the upcoming generation of climate science integrators. Science integration characteristics identified by an experienced vanguard in the U.S. include maintaining credibility in both the scientific and stakeholder communities, a basic respect for stakeholders demonstrated through active listening, and a deep understanding of the decision-making context. Drawing upon the lessons of training programs for Cooperative Extension, public health professionals, and natural resource managers, we offer ideas about training next generation climate science integrators. Our model combines training and development of skills in interpersonal relations, communication of science, project implementation, education techniques and practices - integrated with a strong foundation in disciplinary knowledge.

  7. Optimally Coherent Kerr Combs Generated with Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Ultrahigh Capacity Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifle, Joerg; Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Saleh, Khaldoun; Schindler, Philipp; Weimann, Claudius; Freude, Wolfgang; Balakireva, Irina V.; Larger, Laurent; Koos, Christian; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2015-03-01

    Optical Kerr frequency combs are known to be effective coherent multiwavelength sources for ultrahigh capacity fiber communications. These combs are the frequency-domain counterparts of a wide variety of spatiotemporal dissipative structures, such as cavity solitons, chaos, or Turing patterns (rolls). In this Letter, we demonstrate that Turing patterns, which correspond to the so-called primary combs in the spectral domain, are optimally coherent in the sense that for the same pump power they provide the most robust carriers for coherent data transmission in fiber communications using advanced modulation formats. Our model is based on a stochastic Lugiato-Lefever equation which accounts for laser pump frequency jitter and amplified spontaneous emission noise induced by the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Using crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonators with quality factor Q ˜109 for the comb generation, we show that when the noise is accounted for, the coherence of a primary comb is significantly higher than the coherence of their solitonic or chaotic counterparts for the same pump power. In order to confirm this theoretical finding, we perform an optical fiber transmission experiment using advanced modulation formats, and we show that the coherence of the primary comb is high enough to enable data transmission of up to 144 Gbit /s per comb line, the highest value achieved with a Kerr comb so far. This performance evidences that compact crystalline photonic systems have the potential to play a key role in a new generation of coherent fiber communication networks, alongside fully integrated systems.

  8. Stimulation of methane generation from nonproductive coal by addition of nutrients or a microbial consortium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Voytek, Mary A.; Corum, Margo D.; Orem, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships.

  9. Stimulation of methane generation from nonproductive coal by addition of nutrients or a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth J P; Voytek, Mary A; Corum, Margo D; Orem, William H

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships.

  10. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  11. Empirical analysis of physical excess generating capacity in the US investor-owned electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study addresses three fundamental questions. (1) Do regulators impose penalties upon utilities with excess capacity (2) Is excess capacity persistent in nature (3) What factors are important determinants of excess capacity The ordinary least-squares results indicate that there is an inverse relationship between excess capacity and profits. Regulators, in an attempt to minimize the escalating costs of producing electricity, impose penalties upon utilities with excess capacity. Spearman rank correlation coefficients are used to test for the persistence of excess capacity over the period 1979 to 1986. Results indicate that for most electric utilities excess capacity is not a persistent problem. Regulatory and/or market forces insure that high levels of excess capacity are a short-term, not a long-term phenomenon. Use of a uniform rule of thumb, to measure excess capacity, is often faulted because such thresholds fail to consider technical differences that exist between utilities. Uniform reserve-margin thresholds can be used to measure excess capacity. However, results indicate that customer preferences for an increased or decreased level of reliability are significant determinants of excess capacity.

  12. Optimally coherent Kerr combs generated with crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators for ultrahigh capacity fiber communications.

    PubMed

    Pfeifle, Joerg; Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Saleh, Khaldoun; Schindler, Philipp; Weimann, Claudius; Freude, Wolfgang; Balakireva, Irina V; Larger, Laurent; Koos, Christian; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-03-06

    Optical Kerr frequency combs are known to be effective coherent multiwavelength sources for ultrahigh capacity fiber communications. These combs are the frequency-domain counterparts of a wide variety of spatiotemporal dissipative structures, such as cavity solitons, chaos, or Turing patterns (rolls). In this Letter, we demonstrate that Turing patterns, which correspond to the so-called primary combs in the spectral domain, are optimally coherent in the sense that for the same pump power they provide the most robust carriers for coherent data transmission in fiber communications using advanced modulation formats. Our model is based on a stochastic Lugiato-Lefever equation which accounts for laser pump frequency jitter and amplified spontaneous emission noise induced by the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Using crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonators with quality factor Q∼10^{9} for the comb generation, we show that when the noise is accounted for, the coherence of a primary comb is significantly higher than the coherence of their solitonic or chaotic counterparts for the same pump power. In order to confirm this theoretical finding, we perform an optical fiber transmission experiment using advanced modulation formats, and we show that the coherence of the primary comb is high enough to enable data transmission of up to 144  Gbit/s per comb line, the highest value achieved with a Kerr comb so far. This performance evidences that compact crystalline photonic systems have the potential to play a key role in a new generation of coherent fiber communication networks, alongside fully integrated systems.

  13. A high capacity mobile communications satellite system for the first generation MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedeman, R. A.

    A low-cost high-capacity dual-band mobile communications satellite system using existing equipment is proposed for the first generation MSS. Cost effectiveness and the requirements of beam optimization and passive intermodulation avoidance dictated the choice of two single band satellites for separate UHF and L-band coverage of North America. Similar designs for the two satellites, based on the Intelsat V and Insat/Arabsat configurations, will achieve over 6000 5-kHz SCPC, communications channels for the system. The 12 beam UHF and 17 beam L-band satellites achieve up to a three-fold frequency reuse of the FCC allocated MSS frequency spectrum. Spacecraft design features include separate 9.1 m antennas for sending and receiving, SAW filters for channel noise attenuation, an integrated bipropellant propulsion system, and a 3.8 kW 10-year electrical power subsystem with a solar array. The satellites are compatible with the STS, Ariane, and other expendable boosters.

  14. SmaggIce 2.0: Additional Capabilities for Interactive Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Vickerman, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Modeling and Grid Generation for Iced Airfoils (SmaggIce) software toolkit has been extended to allow interactive grid generation for multi-element iced airfoils. The essential phases of an icing effects study include geometry preparation, block creation and grid generation. SmaggIce Version 2.0 now includes these main capabilities for both single and multi-element airfoils, plus an improved flow solver interface and a variety of additional tools to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of icing effects studies. An overview of these features is given, especially the new multi-element blocking strategy using the multiple wakes method. Examples are given which illustrate the capabilities of SmaggIce for conducting an icing effects study for both single and multi-element airfoils.

  15. Stimulation of Methane Generation from Nonproductive Coal by Addition of Nutrients or a Microbial Consortium▿

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Elizabeth J. P.; Voytek, Mary A.; Corum, Margo D.; Orem, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships. PMID:20817801

  16. [Electricity generation of surplus sludge microbial fuel cells enhanced by additional enzyme].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Fang, Li; Huang, Hua-Jun; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the feasibility of enhanced electricity generation of microbial fuel cell fed surplus sludge by additional enzymes (neutral protease and alpha-amylase) was discussed. The effect of dosage of additional enzyme on characteristics of electricity generation of the surplus sludge microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) and the reduction of surplus sludge were investigated. The results indicated that the maximum output power destiny of the group of experiment was higher than that of control under the same condition. Moreover, the maximum output power density, coulomb efficiency, efficiency of reducing TCOD, efficiency of reducing TSS and efficiency of reducing VSS reached up to 507 W x m(-2) (700 mW x m(-2)), 3.98% (5.11%), 88.31% (94.09%), 83.18% (98.02%) and 89.03% (98.80%) respectively for protease (alpha-amylase) at the dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). This study demonstrated that additional enzyme greatly enhanced the electricity generation of MFC with simultaneous accomplishments of sludge treatment, providing a novel approach for the practical application of microbial fuel cell.

  17. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  18. Synergistic and additive effects of enriched environment and lithium on the generation of new cells in adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; Cerulli, Fabiana G; Souza, Hélio O X; Catanozi, Sergio; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2014-07-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is reported in several neuropathological disorders. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a brain region where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. There are some reports suggesting the ability of endogenous neurogenesis to initiate neuronal repair in the hippocampus in response to neuropathological conditions, but its capacity to compensate for neuronal loss is limited. Among strategies to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis are enriched environment and lithium. This study aimed to assess whether both strategies could interact to potentiate the generation of new cells in the adult DG. Healthy adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four treatment groups for 28 days: control, lithium, enriched environment, enriched environment plus lithium. The animals were injected with BrdU (cell proliferation marker) shortly before the start of the treatments and killed 28 days later for analysis of newly generated cells. Two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed a significant synergistic interaction between enriched environment and lithium in the total number of BrdU(+) cells in the entire DG (p = 0.019), a trend towards significant synergistic interaction in the dorsal DG (p = 0.075), and a significant additive effect in the ventral DG (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the combination of enriched environment and lithium has both synergistic and additive effects on the generation of new cells in the healthy adult DG (these effects being possibly segregated along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus), and suggest that it might be worth investigating whether this combination would have a similar effect in neuropathological conditions.

  19. ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of metals in roadway particulate matter deposited in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Shafer, Martin M; Heo, Jongbae; Pardo, Michal; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Assaf; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the possible causal role for soluble metal species extracted from roadway traffic emissions in promoting particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activation. To this end, these responses have been evaluated in alveolar macrophage and epithelial lung cells that have been exposed to 'Unfiltered', 'Filtered' and 'Filtered+Chelexed' water extracts of PM samples collected from the roadway urban environments of Thessaloniki, Milan and London. Except for Thessaloniki, our results demonstrate that filtration resulted in a minor decrease in ROS activity of the fine PM fraction, suggesting that ROS activity is attributed mainly to water-soluble PM species. In contrast to ROS, ARE activity was mediated predominantly by the water-soluble component of PM present in both the fine and coarse extracts. Further removal of metals by Chelex treatment from filtered water extracts showed that soluble metal species are the major factors mediating ROS and ARE activities of the soluble fraction, especially in the London PM extracts. Finally, utilizing step-wise multiple-regression analysis, we show that 87% and 78% of the total variance observed in ROS and ARE assays, respectively, is accounted for by changes in soluble metal concentration. Using a statistical analysis we find that As, Zn and Fe best predict the ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of the near roadway particulate matter in the pulmonary cells studied. Collectively, our findings imply that soluble metals present in roadside PM are potential drivers of both pro- and anti-oxidative effects of PM in respiratory tract.

  20. The capacity to generate alternative ideas is more important than inhibition for logical reasoning in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    de Chantal, Pier-Luc; Markovits, Henry

    2017-02-01

    There is little consensus about the nature of logical reasoning and, equally important, about how it develops. To address this, we looked at the early origins of deductive reasoning in preschool children. We examined the contribution of two factors to the reasoning ability of very young children: inhibitory capacity and the capacity to generate alternative ideas. In a first study, a total of 32 preschool children were all given generation, inhibition, and logical reasoning measures. Logical reasoning was measured using knowledge-based premises such as "All dogs have legs," and two different inferences: modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent. Results revealed that correctly reasoning with both inferences is not related to the measure of inhibition, but is rather related to the capacity to generate alternative ideas. In a second study, 32 preschool children were given either the generation or the inhibition task before the logical reasoning measure. Results showed that receiving the generation task beforehand significantly improved logical reasoning compared to the inhibition task given beforehand. Overall, these results provide evidence for the greater importance of idea generation in the early development of logical reasoning.

  1. Autologous temporomandibular joint reconstruction independent of exogenous additives: a proof-of-concept study for guided self-generation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiao; Herrler, Tanja; Han, Dong; Liu, Kai; Huang, Rulin; Guba, Markus; Dai, Chuanchang; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-11-28

    Joint defects are complex and difficult to reconstruct. By exploiting the body's own regenerative capacity, we aimed to individually generate anatomically precise neo-tissue constructs for autologous joint reconstruction without using any exogenous additives. In a goat model, CT scans of the mandibular condyle including articular surface and a large portion of the ascending ramus were processed using computer-aided design and manufacturing. A corresponding hydroxylapatite negative mold was printed in 3D and temporarily embedded into the transition zone of costal periosteum and perichondrium. A demineralized bone matrix scaffold implanted on the contralateral side served as control. Neo-tissue constructs obtained by guided self-generation exhibited accurate configuration, robust vascularization, biomechanical stability, and function. After autologous replacement surgery, the constructs showed stable results with similar anatomical, histological, and functional findings compared to native controls. Further studies are required to assess long-term outcome and possible extensions to other further applications. The absence of exogenous cells, growth factors, and scaffolds may facilitate clinical translation of this approach.

  2. Autologous temporomandibular joint reconstruction independent of exogenous additives: a proof-of-concept study for guided self-generation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiao; Herrler, Tanja; Han, Dong; Liu, Kai; Huang, Rulin; Guba, Markus; Dai, Chuanchang; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Joint defects are complex and difficult to reconstruct. By exploiting the body’s own regenerative capacity, we aimed to individually generate anatomically precise neo-tissue constructs for autologous joint reconstruction without using any exogenous additives. In a goat model, CT scans of the mandibular condyle including articular surface and a large portion of the ascending ramus were processed using computer-aided design and manufacturing. A corresponding hydroxylapatite negative mold was printed in 3D and temporarily embedded into the transition zone of costal periosteum and perichondrium. A demineralized bone matrix scaffold implanted on the contralateral side served as control. Neo-tissue constructs obtained by guided self-generation exhibited accurate configuration, robust vascularization, biomechanical stability, and function. After autologous replacement surgery, the constructs showed stable results with similar anatomical, histological, and functional findings compared to native controls. Further studies are required to assess long-term outcome and possible extensions to other further applications. The absence of exogenous cells, growth factors, and scaffolds may facilitate clinical translation of this approach. PMID:27892493

  3. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  4. Sufficient conditions for the additivity of stall forces generated by multiple filaments or motors.

    PubMed

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dipjyoti; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Inamdar, Mandar M

    2017-02-01

    Molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments work collectively most of the time under opposing forces. This opposing force may be due to cargo carried by motors or resistance coming from the cell membrane pressing against the cytoskeletal filaments. Some recent studies have shown that the collective maximum force (stall force) generated by multiple cytoskeletal filaments or molecular motors may not always be just a simple sum of the stall forces of the individual filaments or motors. To understand this excess or deficit in the collective force, we study a broad class of models of both cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. We argue that the stall force generated by a group of filaments or motors is additive, that is, the stall force of N number of filaments (motors) is N times the stall force of one filament (motor), when the system is reversible at stall. Conversely, we show that this additive property typically does not hold true when the system is irreversible at stall. We thus present a novel and unified understanding of the existing models exhibiting such non-addivity, and generalise our arguments by developing new models that demonstrate this phenomena. We also propose a quantity similar to thermodynamic efficiency to easily predict this deviation from stall-force additivity for filament and motor collectives.

  5. Sufficient conditions for the additivity of stall forces generated by multiple filaments or motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dipjyoti; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Inamdar, Mandar M.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments work collectively most of the time under opposing forces. This opposing force may be due to cargo carried by motors or resistance coming from the cell membrane pressing against the cytoskeletal filaments. Some recent studies have shown that the collective maximum force (stall force) generated by multiple cytoskeletal filaments or molecular motors may not always be just a simple sum of the stall forces of the individual filaments or motors. To understand this excess or deficit in the collective force, we study a broad class of models of both cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. We argue that the stall force generated by a group of filaments or motors is additive, that is, the stall force of N number of filaments (motors) is N times the stall force of one filament (motor), when the system is reversible at stall. Conversely, we show that this additive property typically does not hold true when the system is irreversible at stall. We thus present a novel and unified understanding of the existing models exhibiting such non-addivity, and generalise our arguments by developing new models that demonstrate this phenomena. We also propose a quantity similar to thermodynamic efficiency to easily predict this deviation from stall-force additivity for filament and motor collectives.

  6. Correlation of Arrhenius behaviors in power and capacity fades with cell impedance and heat generation in cylindrical lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Roth, E. Peter; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Case, Herbert L.; Doughty, Daniel H.

    A series of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion cells with an MAG-10|1.2 M LiPF 6 ethylene carbonate (EC):ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (w:w=3:7)|Li xNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 configuration were made and tested for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications under various aging conditions of temperature and state-of-charge (SOC). The cells were intermittently characterized for changes in power capability, rate capacity, and impedance as aging progressed. The changes of these properties with temperature, as depicted by Arrhenius equations, were analyzed. We found that the degradation in power and capacity fade seems to relate to the impedance increase in the cell. The degradation follows a multi-stage process. The initial stage of degradation has an activation energy of the order of 50-55 kJ/mol, as derived from power fade and C1 capacity fade measured at C/1 rate. In addition, microcalorimetry was performed on two separate unaged cells at 80% SOC at various temperatures to measure static heat generation in the cells. We found that the static heat generation has an activation energy of the order of 48-55 kJ/mol, similar to those derived from power and C1 capacity fade. The correspondence in the magnitude of the activation energy suggests that the power and C1 capacity fades were related to the changes of the impedance in the cells, most likely via the same fading mechanism. The fading mechanism seemed to be related to the static heat generation of the cell.

  7. Investigation the foam dynamics capacity of SDS in foam generator by affecting the presence of organic and inorganic contaminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryanto, Bode; Siswarni, M. Z.; Sianipar, Yosef C. H.; Sinaga, Tongam M. A.; Bestari, Imam

    2017-05-01

    The effect of negative charge SDS monomer on its foam capacity with the presence of contaminants was investigated in foam generator. Generally, surfactant with higher concentration has higher foam capacity. The higher concentration will increase the number of monomer then increase the micelles in liquid phase. Increasing the number of monomer with the negative charge is a potential to increase interaction with metal ion with positive charge in solution. The presence of inorganic compound as metal ion with positive charge and organic compound (colloid) as particle of coffee impacting to generate the foam lamella with monomer is evaluated. Foam dynamic capacity of only SDS with variation of CMC, 1 x; 2 x; 3 x have the height 7.5, 8.0 and 8.3 cm respectively with the different range time were investigated. The Height of foam dynamic capacity with the presence of 20 ppm Cd2+ ion contaminant was 8.0, 8.3 and 8.4 cm at the same CMC variation of SDS. The presence of metal ion contaminant within the foam was confirmed by AAS. The black coffee particles and oil as contaminant decreased the foam capacity significantly in comparing to metal ions.

  8. Cancellation of scheduled procedures as a mechanism to generate hospital bed surge capacity-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soremekun, Olan A; Zane, Richard D; Walls, Andrew; Allen, Matthew B; Seefeld, Kimberly J; Pallin, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    The ability to generate hospital beds in response to a mass-casualty incident is an essential component of public health preparedness. Although many acute care hospitals' emergency response plans include some provision for delaying or cancelling elective procedures in the event of an inpatient surge, no standardized method for implementing and quantifying the impact of this strategy exists in the literature. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to prospectively emergency plan for implementing a strategy of delaying procedures and quantifying the potential impact of this strategy on creating hospital bed capacity. This is a pilot study. A categorization methodology was devised and applied retrospectively to all scheduled procedures during four one-week periods chosen by convenience. The categorization scheme grouped procedures into four categories: (A) procedures with no impact on inpatient capacity; (B) procedures that could be delayed indefinitely; (C) procedures that could be delayed by one week; and (D) procedures that could not be delayed. The categorization scheme was applied by two research assistants and an emergency medicine resident. All three raters categorized the first 100 cases to allow for calculation of inter-rater reliability. Maximal hospital bed capacity was defined as the 95th percentile weekday occupancy, as this is more representative of functional bed capacity than is the number of licensed beds. The main outcome was the number of hospital beds that could be created by postponing procedures in categories B and C. Maximal hospital bed capacity was 816 beds. Mean occupancy during weekdays was 759 versus 694 on weekends. By postponing Group B and C procedures, a mean of 60 beds (51 general medical/surgical and nine intensive care unit (ICU)) could be created on weekdays, and four beds (three general medical/surgical and one ICU) on weekends. This represents 7.3% and 0.49% of maximal hospital bed capacity and ICU capacity

  9. Development of large-capacity main steam isolation valves and safety relief valves for next-generation BWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Shin-ichi Furukawa; Gen Itoh; Kikuo Takeshima

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of high capacity main steam isolation valves (MSIV) and safety relief valves (SRV) for the main steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The next-generation BWR plants, which are planned to have higher thermal power, have raised concerns relating to the main steam line of an increase in maintenance work to SRVs and erosion of the MSIV valve seat due to the increased main steam flow velocity. In this research project, the capacity of the MSIV and SRV was increased and the valve configuration was changed in an attempt to solve these problems. (authors)

  10. Computational comparison of mediated current generation capacity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in photosynthetic and respiratory growth modes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Longfei; Verwoerd, Wynand S

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses many potential advantages to be exploited as a biocatalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity generation. In the present study, we performed computational studies based on flux balance analysis (FBA) to probe the maximum potential of C. reinhardtii for current output and identify the metabolic mechanisms supporting a high current generation in three different cultivation conditions, i.e., heterotrophic, photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth. The results showed that flux balance limitations allow the highest current output for C. reinhardtii in the mixotrophic growth mode (2.368 A/gDW), followed by heterotrophic growth (1.141 A/gDW) and photoautotrophic growth the lowest (0.7035 A/gDW). The significantly higher mediated electron transfer (MET) rate in the mixotrophic mode is in complete contrast to previous findings for a photosynthetic cyanobacterium, and was attributed to the fact that for C. reinhardtii the photophosphorylation improved the efficiency of converting the acetate into biomass and NADH production. Overall, the cytosolic NADH-dependent current production was mainly associated with five reactions in both mixotrophic and photoautotrophic nutritional modes, whereas four reactions participated in the heterotrophic mode. The mixotrophic and photoautotrophic metabolisms were alike and shared the same set of reactions for maximizing current production, whereas in the heterotrophic mode, the current production was additionally contributed by the metabolic activities in the two organelles: glyoxysome and chloroplast. In conclusion, C. reinhardtii has a potential to be exploited in MFCs of MET mode to produce a high current output. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO{sub 4}) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO{sub 4} the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO{sub 4} increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO{sub 4}. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO{sub 4} concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO{sub 4} promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO{sub 4} adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  12. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO4) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO4 the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO4 increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO4. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO4 concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO4 adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  13. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; ...

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermalmore » instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.« less

  14. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  15. Catalytic Enantioselective Michael Addition Reactions of Tertiary Enolates Generated by Detrifluoroacetylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhong; Mei, Haibo; Han, Jianlin; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Pan, Yi

    2017-08-22

    This work describes, for the first time, Michael addition reactions of tertiary fluoro-enolates in situ generated by detrifluoroacetylation with 1-(1-(phenylsulfonyl) vinylsulfonyl)benzene. Excellent enantioselectivity and chemical yields were achieved with application of catalysts (10 mol %) derived from Cu(OTf)2 and (1S,2S)-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine. These reactions show a considerable degree of structural generality and allow the preparation of new types of biologically relevant molecules that contain quaternary C-F stereogenic carbon atoms and feature five-, six-, or seven-membered rings as well as heterocyclic 3-fluoro-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one moieties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tattoo inks contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Regensburger, Johannes; Lehner, Karin; Maisch, Tim; Vasold, Rudolf; Santarelli, Francesco; Engel, Eva; Gollmer, Anita; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    In the past years, tattoos have become very popular worldwide, and millions of people have tattoos with mainly black colours. Black tattoo inks are usually based on soot, are not regulated and may contain hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Part of PAHs possibly stay lifelong in skin, absorb UV radiation and generate singlet oxygen, which may affect skin integrity. Therefore, we analysed 19 commercially available tattoo inks using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of PAHs in the different inks ranged from 0.14 to 201 microg/g tattoo ink. Benz(a)pyrene was found in four ink samples at a mean concentration of 0.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g. We also found high concentrations of phenol ranging from 0.2 to 385 microg/g tattoo ink. PAHs partly show high quantum yields of singlet oxygen (Phi(Delta)) in the range from 0.18 to 0.85. We incubated keratinocytes with extracts of different inks. Subsequent UVA irradiation decreased the mitochondrial activity of cells when the extracts contained PAHs, which sufficiently absorb UVA and show simultaneously high Phi(Delta) value. Tattooing with black inks entails an injection of substantial amounts of phenol and PAHs into skin. Most of these PAHs are carcinogenic and may additionally generate deleterious singlet oxygen inside the dermis when skin is exposed to UVA (e.g. solar radiation).

  17. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues.

    PubMed

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng, Huan; Yu, Danlin

    2010-11-01

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  18. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-11-15

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  19. Word-Decoding Skill Interacts with Working Memory Capacity to Influence Inference Generation during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen; Freed, Erin; Long, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine predictions derived from a proposal about the relation between word-decoding skill and working memory capacity, called verbal efficiency theory. The theory states that poor word representations and slow decoding processes consume resources in working memory that would otherwise be used to execute high-level…

  20. Word-Decoding Skill Interacts with Working Memory Capacity to Influence Inference Generation during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen; Freed, Erin; Long, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine predictions derived from a proposal about the relation between word-decoding skill and working memory capacity, called verbal efficiency theory. The theory states that poor word representations and slow decoding processes consume resources in working memory that would otherwise be used to execute high-level…

  1. Resource Generation, Reallocation, or Depletion: An Analysis of the Impact of Reconstitution on School Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King; Croninger, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    School reconstitution, the process of restaffing schools as a mechanism for school improvement, has become an increasingly popular component of education accountability systems across the country. This paper provides an analysis of the impact of one district-sponsored school reconstitution reform on the capacity of schools for improvement. We…

  2. Thermoelectric Power Generation from Lanthanum Strontium Titanium Oxide at Room Temperature through the Addition of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Norman, Colin; Srivastava, Deepanshu; Azough, Feridoon; Wang, Li; Robbins, Mark; Simpson, Kevin; Freer, Robert; Kinloch, Ian A

    2015-07-29

    The applications of strontium titanium oxide based thermoelectric materials are currently limited by their high operating temperatures of >700 °C. Herein, we show that the thermal operating window of lanthanum strontium titanium oxide (LSTO) can be reduced to room temperature by the addition of a small amount of graphene. This increase in operating performance will enable future applications such as generators in vehicles and other sectors. The LSTO composites incorporated one percent or less of graphene and were sintered under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The resultant materials were reduced and possessed a multiphase structure with nanosized grains. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites decreased upon the addition of graphene, whereas the electrical conductivity and power factor both increased significantly. These factors, together with a moderate Seebeck coefficient, meant that a high power factor of ∼2500 μWm(-1)K(-2) was reached at room temperature at a loading of 0.6 wt % graphene. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) was achieved when 0.6 wt % graphene was added (ZT = 0.42 at room temperature and 0.36 at 750 °C), with >280% enhancement compared to that of pure LSTO. A preliminary 7-couple device was produced using bismuth strontium cobalt oxide/graphene-LSTO pucks. This device had a Seebeck coefficient of ∼1500 μV/K and an open voltage of 600 mV at a mean temperature of 219 °C.

  3. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  5. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1466 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and importers of renewable fuels for which RINs have been generated by...

  7. Generation of the additional fluorescence radiation in the elastomeric shields used in computer tomography (CT).

    PubMed

    Szajerski, P; Zaborski, M; Bem, H; Baryn, W; Kusiak, E

    Two commercially available (EP, Z) and eight new elastomeric composites (M1-M4, G1-G4, of thickness ≈1 mm) containing mixtures of differing proportions of heavy metal additives (Bi, W, Gd and Sb) have been synthesised and examined as protective shields. The intensity of the X-ray fluorescence radiation generated in the typical elastomeric shields for CT, containing Bi and other heavy metal additives influence on the practical shielding properties. A method for assessing the radiation shielding properties of elastomeric composites used in CT examination procedures via X-ray spectrometry has been proposed. To measure the radiation reduction ability of the protective shields, the dose reduction factor (DRF) has been determined. The lead equivalents for the examined composites were within the ranges of 0.046-0.128 and 0.048-0.130 mm for 122.1 and 136.5 keV photons, respectively. The proposed method, unlike to the common approach, includes a dose contribution from the induced X-ray fluorescence radiation of the heavy metal elements in the protective shields. The results clearly indicate that among the examined compositions, the highest values DRF have been achieved with preparations containing Bi+W, Bi+W+Gd and Bi+W+Sb mixtures with gradually decreasing content of heavy metal additives in the following order: Bi, W, Gd and Sb. The respective values of DRF obtained for the investigated composites were 21, 28 and 27 % dose reduction for a 1 mm thick shield and 39 and ~50 % for a 2 mm thick layer (M1-M4).

  8. Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, J. H.; Viscuso, L.; Hellwig, U.; McIntyre, P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

  9. Precise algorithm to generate random sequential addition of hard hyperspheres at saturation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Torquato, S

    2013-11-01

    The study of the packing of hard hyperspheres in d-dimensional Euclidean space R^{d} has been a topic of great interest in statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory. While the densest known packings are ordered in sufficiently low dimensions, it has been suggested that in sufficiently large dimensions, the densest packings might be disordered. The random sequential addition (RSA) time-dependent packing process, in which congruent hard hyperspheres are randomly and sequentially placed into a system without interparticle overlap, is a useful packing model to study disorder in high dimensions. Of particular interest is the infinite-time saturation limit in which the available space for another sphere tends to zero. However, the associated saturation density has been determined in all previous investigations by extrapolating the density results for nearly saturated configurations to the saturation limit, which necessarily introduces numerical uncertainties. We have refined an algorithm devised by us [S. Torquato, O. U. Uche, and F. H. Stillinger, Phys. Rev. E 74, 061308 (2006)] to generate RSA packings of identical hyperspheres. The improved algorithm produce such packings that are guaranteed to contain no available space in a large simulation box using finite computational time with heretofore unattained precision and across the widest range of dimensions (2≤d≤8). We have also calculated the packing and covering densities, pair correlation function g(2)(r), and structure factor S(k) of the saturated RSA configurations. As the space dimension increases, we find that pair correlations markedly diminish, consistent with a recently proposed "decorrelation" principle, and the degree of "hyperuniformity" (suppression of infinite-wavelength density fluctuations) increases. We have also calculated the void exclusion probability in order to compute the so-called quantizer error of the RSA packings, which is related to the second moment of inertia of the average

  10. Non-Additive Increases in Sediment Stability Are Generated by Macroinvertebrate Species Interactions in Laboratory Streams

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in

  11. Non-additive increases in sediment stability are generated by macroinvertebrate species interactions in laboratory streams.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Lindsey K; Cardinale, Bradley J; Sklar, Leonard S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological structures such as plant roots can have large impacts on landscape morphodynamics, and that physical models that do not incorporate biology can generate qualitatively incorrect predictions of sediment transport. However, work to date has focused almost entirely on the impacts of single, usually dominant, species. Here we ask whether multiple, coexisting species of hydropsychid caddisfly larvae have different impacts on sediment mobility compared to single-species systems due to competitive interactions and niche differences. We manipulated the presence of two common species of net-spinning caddisfly (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in laboratory mesocosms and measured how their silk filtration nets influence the critical shear stress required to initiate sediment grain motion when they were in monoculture versus polyculture. We found that critical shear stress increases non-additively in polycultures where species were allowed to interact. Critical shear stress was 26% higher in multi-species assemblages compared to the average single-species monoculture, and 21% greater than levels of stability achieved by the species having the largest impact on sediment motion in monoculture. Supplementary behavioral experiments suggest the non-additive increase in critical shear stress may have occurred as competition among species led to shifts in the spatial distribution of the two populations and complementary habitat use. To explore the implications of these results for field conditions, we used results from the laboratory study to parameterize a common model of sediment transport. We then used this model to estimate potential bed movement in a natural stream for which we had measurements of channel geometry, grain size, and daily discharge. Although this extrapolation is speculative, it illustrates that multi-species impacts could be sufficiently large to reduce bedload sediment flux over annual time scales in

  12. Fast acoustic streaming in standing waves: generation of an additional outer streaming cell.

    PubMed

    Reyt, Ida; Daru, Virginie; Bailliet, Hélène; Moreau, Solène; Valière, Jean-Christophe; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Weisman, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Rayleigh streaming in a cylindrical acoustic standing waveguide is studied both experimentally and numerically for nonlinear Reynolds numbers from 1 to 30 [Re(NL)=(U0/c0)(2)(R/δν)(2), with U0 the acoustic velocity amplitude at the velocity antinode, c0 the speed of sound, R the tube radius, and δν the acoustic boundary layer thickness]. Streaming velocity is measured by means of laser Doppler velocimetry in a cylindrical resonator filled with air at atmospheric pressure at high intensity sound levels. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically with high resolution finite difference schemes. The resonator is excited by shaking it along the axis at imposed frequency. Results of measurements and of numerical calculation are compared with results given in the literature and with each other. As expected, the axial streaming velocity measured and calculated agrees reasonably well with the slow streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for fast streaming (ReNL>1). Both experimental and numerical results show that when ReNL is increased, the center of the outer streaming cells are pushed toward the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes.

  13. Sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test does not increase the muscle force generation capacity.

    PubMed

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2011-06-01

    A positive inotropic action by the sympathetic nervous system on skeletal muscles has been observed and investigated in animal and in vitro studies. This action provided a theoretical basis for the putative ergogenic action of catecholamines and adrenergic agonists, although there is no clear evidence of this effect in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of inotropic effects associated to physiological sympathetic activation in healthy subjects. The muscle force capacity was investigated in the tibialis anterior (n = 9 subjects) and in the soleus (n = 9) muscles electrically stimulated with single pulses and double pulses with variable interspike interval (4-1,000 ms) and short pulse trains (frequency: 5-14 Hz) before, during, and after sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test (CPT). CPT significantly decreased by 10.4 ± 7.2 and 10.6 ± 4.4% the force produced by single and double pulse stimulation, respectively, and produced smaller decreases in the force obtained by train stimulation in the tibialis anterior, while no significant changes were observed in either type of contraction in the soleus muscle. CPT failed to induce any increase in the force capacity of the investigated muscles. The prevalent decrease in force evidenced in this study supports the concept that the weakening sympathetic action on type I fiber, already shown to occur in humans, prevails over the putative potentiating action.

  14. Water-soluble noncovalently engineered graphene-neutral red nanocomposite with photocurrent generating capacity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Li, Zhi; Ge, Xueping; Yang, Cunzhong; Fang, Bin; Wei, Jianjun; Xie, Haifen; Zhang, Kunlong; An, Xingcai; Qin, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    We report a graphene-based nanocomposite prepared by noncovalently engineering reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with neutral red (NR). The water-soluble reduced graphene nanocomposite (rGO-NR) was well characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and 1HNMR spectroscopy; the results suggest a strong pi-pi interaction between the rGO and NR molecules. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electrochemistry studies indicate a direct electron transfer interaction among the graphene-NR hybrid, in which NR is electron donor and graphene is electron acceptor. The photocurrent generating property of this nanocomposite was confirmed from the photoelectrochemical measurements. The graphene-NR coated electrodes are capable of generating photocurrent under visible excitation. Such photocurrent generating nanocomposite provides potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  15. Understanding the Generative Capacity of Analogies as a Tool for Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Examines analogical reasoning in contexts where understanding is generated from loosely organized, incomplete prior knowledge rather than transferred from a well-structured domain of understanding. Participants, consisting of 11 secondary school science teacher candidates, were presented with a piston/cylinder device and asked to explain the…

  16. Thrombin Generation Capacity of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate in an In Vitro Dilutional Model

    PubMed Central

    Grottke, Oliver; Rossaint, Rolf; Henskens, Yvonne; van Oerle, Rene; ten Cate, Hugo; Spronk, Henri M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of PCC for the treatment of trauma-induced coagulopathy potentially increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which is addressed to an imbalance of both pro- and anticoagulants. As PCCs differ in composition, we used an in vitro dilutional approach to assess the overall thrombin generation of five different PCCs through various laboratory assays. Methods The vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, heparin, and antithrombin were assessed in five commercially available PCCs. The procoagulant potential of the PCCs was assessed in plasma and whole blood from 4 healthy donors by means of classical coagulation assays, thrombin generation assay and thromboelastometry. In order to reflect coagulopathy, whole blood was diluted to 80, 60, 40, and 20% with Ringer’s lactate solution. Results The five different PCCs were characterised by comparable levels of factors II, VII, IX and X (all around 20–30 IU/mL), whereas the heparin (0 to 17.6 IU/mL) and antithrombin (0.06 to 1.29 IU/mL) levels were remarkably different between manufactures. In vitro dilution of blood induced a prolongation of the PT and aPTT, and attenuation of thrombin generation and ExTem induced thromboelastometry. Overall, non- or low-heparin containing PCCs restored the in vitro dilutional coagulopathy, whereas PCCs containing heparin have an anticoagulant effect. The thrombin generation assay showed to be the most sensitive method for assessment of PCC effects. Conclusions This study shows that most available PCCs are not balanced regarding their pro- and anticoagulants. The effect of measured differences in thrombin generation among different PCCs requires further investigations to elaborate the clinical meaning of this finding in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy. PMID:23696866

  17. Next generation capacity building for the GEOSS community - an European approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and futher develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the new integrated approach to capacity building engaging the various actors involved in the entire value-chain from data providers to decision-makers. A presentation of the general approach together with concrete pilot cases will be included.In this work it will be shown how we integrate new technological development and societial change enabling GEO and GEOSS to adapt to the current environment. The result is important for better decision-making and better use of our limited resources to manage our planet.

  18. Electrochemically Smart Bimetallic Materials Featuring Group 11 Metals: In-situ Conductive Network Generation and Its Impact on Cell Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Esther

    2016-11-30

    Our results for this program “Electrochemically smart bimetallic materials featuring Group 11 metals: in-situ conductive matrix generation and its impact on battery capacity, power and reversibility” have been highly successful: 1) we demonstrated material structures which generated in-situ conductive networks through electrochemical activation with increases in conductivity up to 10,000 fold, 2) we pioneered in situ analytical methodology to map the cathodes at several stages of discharge through the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to elucidate the kinetic dependence of the conductive network formation, and 3) we successfully designed synthetic methodology for direct control of material properties including crystallite size and surface area which showed significant impact on electrochemical behavior.

  19. Hydroxyapatite additive influenced the bioactivity of bioactive nano-titania ceramics and new bone-forming capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhensheng; Yang, Xiaozhan; Guo, Hongfeng; Yang, Xiaochao; Sun, Lili; Dong, Shiwu

    2012-09-01

    Bioceramics plays an important role in bone-substitutes. In this study, titania porous ceramics with excellent bioactivity were prepared using hydroxyapatite (HA, 10 vol.% contents) as a grain growth inhibitor. The pure TiO2 porous ceramics were also prepared as a control. After sintered at 1,000 °C with a pressureless sintering method, the particle size of the pure TiO2 and TiO2/HA (10 vol.%) porous ceramics were 450 and 310 nm, respectively. Each of the porous ceramics presented numerous pores, which were cross-connected. The size of the pores ranged from 100 to 300 μm. There were also profuse micropores inside the pore wall and between the particles. A SBF soaking experiment demonstrated that the HA additive played an important role in promoting apatite formation. The cell proliferation demonstrated that osteoblasts on the TiO2/HA (10 vol.%) porous ceramics proliferated faster than that on the pure TiO2 ceramics. The histological sections and EDX assay results of the two porous ceramics also illustrated that TiO2/HA (10 vol.%) composite ceramics combined with Ca and P elements induced much better apatite formation than that of the pure TiO2 ceramics. These results indicated that titania ceramics combined with HA holds great promise for bone-substitutes.

  20. Development of Flexible, Free-Standing, Thin Films for Additive Manufacturing and Localized Energy Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-10

    calculate combustion properties. Additional experiments were performed to char- acterize the reaction kinetics using differential scanning calorimetry ...stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and...plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning

  1. Large submarine landslides in the Japan Trench: A new scenario for additional tsunami generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Sakaguchi, Arito; Ogawa, Yujiro

    2012-03-01

    We describe in detail possible large submarine landslides, several tens of kilometers in length and width, on the trench landward slope of the Japan Trench on the basis of high-resolution topographic surveys and detailed seafloor observations. These slides stopped at the toe of the trench slope. After initial movement of the toe along a basal decollement or thrust of the trench landward slope wedge during an earthquake, the basal frictional condition(s) might change drastically from static to dynamic, thus reducing the frictional strength. As a result, rapid submarine landsliding push downward on the toe, generating large horizontal displacements for tsunamis. This hypothesis should explain suitably the relation between large displacement of the thrust fault and tsunami generation by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as well as tsunami generation by the 1896 Tohoku earthquake.

  2. Model-driven elucidation of the inherent capacity of Geobacter sulfurreducens for electricity generation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background G. sulfurreducens is one of the commonest microbes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for organic-to-electricity biotransformation. In MFCs based on this microorganism, electrons can be conveyed to the anode via three ways: 1) direct electron transfer (DET) mode, in which electrons of reduced c-type cytochromes in the microbial outer membrane are directly oxidized by the anode; 2) mediated electron transfer (MET) mode, in which the reducing potential available from cell metabolism in the form of NADH is targeted as an electron source for electricity generation with the aid of exogenous mediators; and 3) a putative mixed operation mode involving both electron transfer mechanisms described above (DET and MET). However, the potential of G. sulfurreducens for current output in these three operation modes and the metabolic mechanisms underlying the extraction of the reducing equivalents are still unknown. Results In this study, we performed flux balance analysis (FBA) of the genome-scale metabolic network to compute the fundamental metabolic potential of G. sulfurreducens for current output that is compatible with reaction stoichiometry, given a realistic nutrient uptake rate. We also developed a method, flux variability analysis with target flux minimization (FATMIN) to eliminate futile NADH cycles. Our study elucidates the possible metabolic strategies to sustain the NADH for current production under the MET and Mixed modes. The results showed that G. sulfurreducens had a potential to output current at up to 3.710 A/gDW for DET mode, 2.711 A/gDW for MET mode and 3.272 A/gDW for a putative mixed MET and DET mode. Compared with DET, which relies on only one contributing reaction, MET and Mixed mode were more resilient with ten and four reactions respectively for high current production. Conclusions The DET mode can achieve a higher maximum limit of the current output than the MET mode, but the MET has an advantage of higher power output and more flexible

  3. Generating Additional Revenue Streams in UK Universities: An Analysis of Variation between Disciplines and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilbeam, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Governments now expect universities to behave entrepreneurially generating revenues from the commercial exploitation of their intellectual assets ("third stream" income). This study questions whether this is possible for all universities in the UK and for all disciplines, or whether there are differences between institutions, between…

  4. Generating Additional Revenue Streams in UK Universities: An Analysis of Variation between Disciplines and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilbeam, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Governments now expect universities to behave entrepreneurially generating revenues from the commercial exploitation of their intellectual assets ("third stream" income). This study questions whether this is possible for all universities in the UK and for all disciplines, or whether there are differences between institutions, between…

  5. Influence of various levels of flaxseed gum addition on the water-holding capacities of heat-induced porcine myofibrillar protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Li, Xue; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2011-04-01

    As a food hydrocolloid, flaxseed gum (FG) can significantly increase the water-holding capacity (WHC) of food, which is important to both yield and texture of related products. The main purpose of this study is to examine the WHC increase by FG in a meat product and the mechanism of the interactions between proteins and polysaccharides when FG is added into porcine myofibrillar protein (PMP). Increasing the FG concentration caused a significant increase in WHC (P<0.001). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed that WHC in the protein gel network was related to gel microstructure. Distributed analysis of the T2 relaxation revealed that addition of FG significantly decreased water mobility of porcine myofibrillar protein (PMP) (P<0.05). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis suggested that the FG adding strengthened electrostatic attraction of PMP system. Improvement of WHC in heat-induced PMP by FG is concentration dependent and achieved by a finer gel network, lower relaxation time, and stronger electrostatic attraction.   Flaxseed gum (FG) addition significantly increased water holding capacity (WHC) of porcine myofibrillar protein (PMP). In addition, the improvement of WHC in heat-induced PMP by FG was concentration dependent and achieved by a finer gel network, lower relaxation time, and stronger electrostatic attraction. Thus, FG has potential for use in meat products.

  6. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Josh R; Piazza, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 < R(2) < 0.322) and with muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 < R(2) < 0.494). While muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size.

  7. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  8. Upregulation of MHC class I in transgenic mice results in reduced force-generating capacity in slow-twitch muscle.

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Stina; Grundtman, Cecilia; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Lanner, Johanna T; Li, Charles; Katz, Abram; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Westerblad, Håkan

    2009-05-01

    Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in skeletal muscle fibers is an early and consistent finding in inflammatory myopathies. To test if MHC class I has a primary role in muscle impairment, we used transgenic mice with inducible overexpression of MHC class I in their skeletal muscle cells. Contractile function was studied in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles. We found that EDL was smaller, whereas soleus muscle was slightly larger. Both muscles generated less absolute force in myopathic compared with control mice; however, when force was expressed per cross-sectional area, only soleus muscle generated less force. Inflammation was markedly increased, but no changes were found in the activities of key mitochondrial and glycogenolytic enzymes in myopathic mice. The induction of MHC class I results in muscle atrophy and an intrinsic decrease in force-generation capacity. These observations may have important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiological processes of muscle weakness seen in inflammatory myopathies. Muscle Nerve, 2008.

  9. Investigation of on-line chelant addition to PWR steam generators. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, T.J.; Wallace, S.L.; Griffin, F. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    The thermostability of both ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hydroxyethylethylenediamininetriacetic acid (HEDTA) metal chelates in all volatile treatment water chemistry (AVT) was shown to be greater than or equal to thermostability of EDTA metal chelates in phosphate-sulfite water chemistry. HEDTA metal chelates were shown to have a much greater stability than EDTA metal chelates. Using samples taken from the EDTA metal chelate thermostability studies and samples from Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) model steam generators (MSG), EDTA decomposition products were determined. Active metal surfaces were shown to become passivated when exposed to EDTA and HEDTA concentrations as high as 0.1% w/w in AVT. Trace amounts of iron in the water were found to increase the rate of passivation. Material balance and visual inspection data from CRC model steam generators showed that metal is being transported through and cleaning from the MSG's. EDTA metal chelates were removed from chelate solutions by passing the solutions over strong anion exchange resins.

  10. Preliminary Studies of the Reservoir Capacity and the Generating Potential of the Baca Geothermal Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, G. S.; Haar, S. Vonder; Wilt, M.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-12-01

    A 50-MWe geothermal power plant is being considered for the Baca site in the Valleys Caldera, New Mexico, as a joint venture of the Department of Energy (DOE) and Union Oil Company of California. To date, over 20 wells have been drilled on the prospect, and the data from these wells indicate the presence of a high-temperature, liquid-dominated reservoir. In this paper, data from the open literature on the physical characteristics of the field are used to estimate the amount of hot water in place (reservoir capacity) and the length of time the reservoir can supply steam for a 50-MWe power plant (reservoir longevity). The reservoir capacity is estimated to be 1012 kg of hot fluid by volumetric calculations using existing geological, geophysical, and well data. The criteria used are described and the sensitivity of the results discussed. The longevity of the field is studied using a two-phase numerical simulator (SHAFT79). A number of cases are simulated based upon different boundary conditions and upon injection and production criteria. The results obtained from the simulation studies indicate that it is questionable that the Baca field can supply enough steam for a 50-MWe power plant for 30 years. Although the estimated reservoir reserves greatly exceed those needed for a 50-MWe power plant, the low transmissivity of the reservoir would cause localized boiling and rapid pressure decline during exploitation. It is therefore apparent that the conventional zero-dimensional (lumped parameter models) cannot be used to evaluate the generating capacities of low-permeability fields such as the Baca field.

  11. C-Dot Generated Bioactive Organosilica Nanospheres in Theranostics: Multicolor Luminescent and Photothermal Properties Combined with Drug Delivery Capacity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra K; Patel, Kapil D; Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Kang, Min Sil; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-09-21

    Biocompatible nanomaterials that allow for labeling cells and tissues with the capacity to load and deliver drug molecules hold great promise for the therapeutic-diagnostic purposes in tissue repair and disease cure. Here a novel nanoplatform, called C-dot bioactive organosilica nanosphere (C-BON), is introduced to have excellent theranostic potential, such as controlled drug delivery, visible-light imaging, and NIR photothermal activity. C-dots with a few nanometers were in situ generated in the Ca-containing organosilica mesoporous nanospheres through the sol-gel and thermal-treatment processes. The C-BON exhibited multicolor luminescence over a wide visible-light range with strong emissions and high photostability over time and against acidity and the possible in vivo optical imaging capacity when injected in rat subcutaneous tissues. Moreover, the C-BON showed a photothermal heating effect upon the irradiation of near-infrared. The C-BON, thanks to the high mesoporosity and existence of Ca(2+) ions, demonstrated excellent loading capacity of anticancer drug doxorubicin (as high as 90% of carrier weight) and long-term (over a couple of weeks) and pH/NIR-dependent release ability. The C-BON preserved the compositional merit of Ca-Si glass, having excellent bioactivity and cell compatibility in vitro. Taken all, the multifunctional properties of C-BON-multicolor luminescence, photothermal activity, and high drug loading and controlled release-together with its excellent bioactivity and cell compatibility potentiate the future applications in theranostics (chemotherapy and photothermal therapy with optical imaging).

  12. Laser-based Generation of Conductive Circuits on Additive Manufactured Thermoplastic Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niese, Bernd; Amend, Philipp; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    Shorter production cycles and development times for molded interconnect devices (MID) result in increasing production of cost intensive injection molding tools. Thus, a manufacturing technology for a fast and flexible production of complex prototypes and small series without the use of additional tools is needed. A possible solution is the layerwise manufacturing of mechatronic components by fused deposition modeling (FDM). By additionally embedding electronical components during the additive manufacturing process, electronic functions can also be integrated. In this paper, an experimental investigation for printing of conductive circuits on FDM components by dispensing silver ink and subsequently sintering by laser irradiation is determined. To prevent infiltration of silver ink into the matrix material after application, important process parameters will be optimized getting a media-tight surface.

  13. A short protocol using dexamethasone and monophosphoryl lipid A generates tolerogenic dendritic cells that display a potent migratory capacity to lymphoid chemokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) for therapy is challenging due to its implications for the design of protocols suitable for clinical applications, which means not only using safe products, but also working at defining specific biomarkers for TolDCs identification, developing shorter DCs differentiation methods and obtaining TolDCs with a stable phenotype. We describe here, a short-term protocol for TolDCs generation, which are characterized in terms of phenotypic markers, cytokines secretion profile, CD4+ T cell-stimulatory ability and migratory capacity. Methods TolDCs from healthy donors were generated by modulation with dexamethasone plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA-tDCs). We performed an analysis of MPLA-tDCs in terms of yield, viability, morphology, phenotypic markers, cytokines secretion profile, stability, allogeneic and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell stimulatory ability and migration capacity. Results After a 5-day culture, MPLA-tDCs displayed reduced expression of costimulatory and maturation molecules together to an anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion profile, being able to maintain these tolerogenic features even after the engagement of CD40 by its cognate ligand. In addition, MPLA-tDCs exhibited reduced capabilities to stimulate allogeneic and antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation, and induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion pattern. Among potential tolerogenic markers studied, only TLR-2 was highly expressed in MPLA-tDCs when compared to mature and immature DCs. Remarkable, like mature DCs, MPLA-tDCs displayed a high CCR7 and CXCR4 expression, both chemokine receptors involved in migration to secondary lymphoid organs, and even more, in an in vitro assay they exhibited a high migration response towards CCL19 and CXCL12. Conclusion We describe a short-term protocol for TolDC generation, which confers them a stable phenotype and migratory capacity to lymphoid chemokines, essential features for TolDCs to be used

  14. Performance analysis of small capacity liquid nitrogen generator based on Joule-Thomson refrigerator coupled with air separation membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska-Hajnus, Agnieszka; Chorowski, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    Joule - Thomson small capacity refrigerators supplied with gas mixture are studied theoretically and experimentally for a variety of applications. They can be especially promising when coupled with membrane air separators. We present liquid nitrogen generation system based on Joule - Thomson cooler joined with air separation membrane. Hollow fiber membrane is used for nitrogen separation from compressed and purified atmospheric air. Joule-Thomson refrigerator operates with a dedicated nitrogen - hydrocarbons mixture and provides a cooling power used for the separated nitrogen liquefaction. Special attention has been paid to a heat exchanger coupling the Joule- Thomson refrigerator with the membrane air separator. This paper describes the system design, the procedure of its working parameters optimization and tests results.

  15. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-α olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  16. No Neuromuscular Side-Effects of Scopolamine in Sensorimotor Control and Force-Generating Capacity Among Parabolic Fliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Scopolamine is used to counteract motion sickness in parabolic flight (PF) experiments. Although the drug's anticholinergic properties effectively impede vomiting, recent studies document other sensory side-effects in the central nervous system that may considerably influence sensorimotor performance. This study aimed to quantify such effects in order to determine if they are of methodological and operational significance for sensorimotor control. Ten subjects of a PF campaign received a weight-sex-based dose of a subcutaneous scopolamine injection. Sensorimotor performance was recorded before medication, 20min, 2h and 4h after injection in four space-relevant paradigms: balance control in one-leg stance with eyes open (protocol 1) and closed as well as force-generating capacity in countermovement jumps and hops (protocol 2). Postural sway, forces and joint angles were recorded. Neuromuscular control was assessed by electromyography and peripheral nerve stimulation; H-reflexes and M-waves were used to monitor spinal excitability of the Ia afferent reflex circuitry and maximal motor output. (1) H-reflex amplitudes, latencies and functional reflexes remained unchanged after scopolamine injection. (2) M-waves, neuromuscular activation intensities and antagonistic muscle coordination did not change with scopolamine administration. (3) Balance performance and force-generating capacity were not impeded by scopolamine. We found no evidence for changes in sensorimotor control in response to scopolamine injection. Sensory processing of daily relevant reflexes, spinal excitability, maximal motor output and performance parameters were not sensitive to the medication. We conclude that scopolamine administration can be used to counteract motion sickness in PF without methodological and operational concerns or interference regarding sensorimotor skills associated with neuromuscular control.

  17. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  18. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  19. Next Generation Orthopaedic Implants by Additive Manufacturing Using Electron Beam Melting

    PubMed Central

    Murr, Lawrence E.; Gaytan, Sara M.; Martinez, Edwin; Medina, Frank; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some examples of knee and hip implant components containing porous structures and fabricated in monolithic forms utilizing electron beam melting (EBM). In addition, utilizing stiffness or relative stiffness versus relative density design plots for open-cellular structures (mesh and foam components) of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by EBM, it is demonstrated that stiffness-compatible implants can be fabricated for optimal stress shielding for bone regimes as well as bone cell ingrowth. Implications for the fabrication of patient-specific, monolithic, multifunctional orthopaedic implants using EBM are described along with microstructures and mechanical properties characteristic of both Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy prototypes, including both solid and open-cellular prototypes manufactured by additive manufacturing (AM) using EBM. PMID:22956957

  20. Next generation orthopaedic implants by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting.

    PubMed

    Murr, Lawrence E; Gaytan, Sara M; Martinez, Edwin; Medina, Frank; Wicker, Ryan B

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some examples of knee and hip implant components containing porous structures and fabricated in monolithic forms utilizing electron beam melting (EBM). In addition, utilizing stiffness or relative stiffness versus relative density design plots for open-cellular structures (mesh and foam components) of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by EBM, it is demonstrated that stiffness-compatible implants can be fabricated for optimal stress shielding for bone regimes as well as bone cell ingrowth. Implications for the fabrication of patient-specific, monolithic, multifunctional orthopaedic implants using EBM are described along with microstructures and mechanical properties characteristic of both Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy prototypes, including both solid and open-cellular prototypes manufactured by additive manufacturing (AM) using EBM.

  1. The Effect of Aviation Fuels Containing Low Amounts of Static Dissipater Additive on Electrostatic Charge Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    also agrees well -- I Consists of section of pleated paper from Fscct International CA-22 Filter Coalescer element 2Conmmts of section of thc first layer...were evaluated to obtain reference filter candidates. For filter coalescer elements , the element was cut open and the pleated filter paper was...Effects of Additive Adsorbed on Filter Element ............................ 22 1 4.4.4. M iscellaneous

  2. The Solid-State Heat-Capacity Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rotter, M D; Dane, C B; Gonzales, S A; Merrill, R D; Mitchell, S C; Parks, C W; Yamamoto, R M

    2003-12-08

    Heat-capacity operation of a laser is a novel method by which high average powers can be generated. In this paper, we present the principles behind heat-capacity operation, in addition to describing the results of recent experiments.

  3. Effect of nitrogen addition to ozone generation characteristics by diffuse and filamentary dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Naoki; Tsuji, Takafumi; Ogiso, Ryota; Yoshioka, Yoshio

    2017-05-01

    Ozone is widely used for gas treatment, advanced oxidation processes, microorganisms inactivation, etc. In this research, we investigated the effect of nitrogen addition to ozone generation characteristics by atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) type and filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) type ozone generators. The result showed that the ozone generated by the filamentary DBD increases rapidly with the increase of O2 content, and is higher than that by the APTD. On the other hand, it is interesting that the ozone generated by the APTD gradually decreases with the increase of O2 content. In order to clarify why the characteristics of ozone generation by the two kinds of discharge modes showed different dependency to the N2 content, we analyzed the exhaust gas composition using FTIR spectroscopy and calculated the rate coefficients using BOLSIG+ code. As a result, we found that although O2 content decreased with increasing N2 content, additional O atoms produced by excited N2 molecules contribute to ozone generation in case of APTD. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  4. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  5. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe.

  6. Additive-free hollow-structured Co3O4 nanoparticle Li-ion battery: the origins of irreversible capacity loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Cho, Sungeun; Kwon, Yongwoo; In, Insik; Lee, Jihoon; You, Nam-Ho; Reichmanis, Elsa; Ko, Hyungduk; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Kwon, Hyun-Keun; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Yang, Heesun; Park, Byoungnam

    2014-07-22

    Origins of the irreversible capacity loss were addressed through probing changes in the electronic and structural properties of hollow-structured Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) during lithiation and delithiation using electrochemical Co3O4 transistor devices that function as a Co3O4 Li-ion battery. Additive-free Co3O4 NPs were assembled into a Li-ion battery, allowing us to isolate and explore the effects of the Co and Li2O formation/decomposition conversion reactions on the electrical and structural degradation within Co3O4 NP films. NP films ranging between a single monolayer and multilayered film hundreds of nanometers thick prepared with blade-coating and electrophoretic deposition methods, respectively, were embedded in the transistor devices for in situ conduction measurements as a function of battery cycles. During battery operation, the electronic and structural properties of Co3O4 NP films in the bulk, Co3O4/electrolyte, and Co3O4/current collector interfaces were spatially mapped to address the origin of the initial irreversible capacity loss from the first lithiation process. Further, change in carrier injection/extraction between the current collector and the Co3O4 NPs was explored using a modified electrochemical transistor device with multiple voltage probes along the electrical channel.

  7. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from

  8. Ternary bulk heterojunction solar cells: addition of soluble NIR dyes for photocurrent generation beyond 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bogyu; Bloking, Jason T; Ponec, Andrew; McGehee, Michael D; Sellinger, Alan

    2014-05-14

    The incorporation of a tert-butyl-functionalized silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) dye molecule as a third component in a ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell containing P3HT (donor) and PC60BM (acceptor) results in increased NIR absorption. This absorption yields an increase of up to 40% in the short-circuit current and up to 19% in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in photovoltaic devices. Two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (2-D GIWAXS) experiments show that compared to the unfunctionalized dye the tert-butyl functionalization enables an increase in the volume fraction of the dye molecule that can be incorporated before the device performance decreases. Quantum efficiency and absorption spectra also indicate that, at dye concentrations above about 8 wt %, there is an approximately 30 nm red shift in the main silicon naphthalocyanine absorption peak, allowing further dye addition to contribute to added photocurrent. This peak shift is not observed in blends with unfunctionalized dye molecules, however. This simple approach of using ternary blends may be generally applicable for use in other unoptimized BHJ systems towards increasing PCEs beyond current levels. Furthermore, this may offer a new approach towards OPVs that absorb NIR photons without having to design, synthesize, and purify complicated donor-acceptor polymers.

  9. Next-generation biomedical implants using additive manufacturing of complex, cellular and functional mesh arrays.

    PubMed

    Murr, L E; Gaytan, S M; Medina, F; Lopez, H; Martinez, E; Machado, B I; Hernandez, D H; Martinez, L; Lopez, M I; Wicker, R B; Bracke, J

    2010-04-28

    In this paper, we examine prospects for the manufacture of patient-specific biomedical implants replacing hard tissues (bone), particularly knee and hip stems and large bone (femoral) intramedullary rods, using additive manufacturing (AM) by electron beam melting (EBM). Of particular interest is the fabrication of complex functional (biocompatible) mesh arrays. Mesh elements or unit cells can be divided into different regions in order to use different cell designs in different areas of the component to produce various or continually varying (functionally graded) mesh densities. Numerous design elements have been used to fabricate prototypes by AM using EBM of Ti-6Al-4V powders, where the densities have been compared with the elastic (Young) moduli determined by resonant frequency and damping analysis. Density optimization at the bone-implant interface can allow for bone ingrowth and cementless implant components. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of metal (aluminium alloy) foam have also allowed for the building of Ti-6Al-4V foams by embedding the digital-layered scans in computer-aided design or software models for EBM. Variations in mesh complexity and especially strut (or truss) dimensions alter the cooling and solidification rate, which alters the alpha-phase (hexagonal close-packed) microstructure by creating mixtures of alpha/alpha' (martensite) observed by optical and electron metallography. Microindentation hardness measurements are characteristic of these microstructures and microstructure mixtures (alpha/alpha') and sizes.

  10. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA® (341 mV) at 100 mA cm-2. The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm2), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration.

  11. Rapid reaction of superoxide with insulin-tyrosyl radicals to generate a hydroperoxide with subsequent glutathione addition.

    PubMed

    Das, Andrew B; Nauser, Thomas; Koppenol, Willem H; Kettle, Anthony J; Winterbourn, Christine C; Nagy, Péter

    2014-05-01

    Tyrosine (Tyr) residues are major sites of radical generation during protein oxidation. We used insulin as a model to study the kinetics, mechanisms, and products of the reactions of radiation-induced or enzyme-generated protein-tyrosyl radicals with superoxide to demonstrate the feasibility of these reactions under oxidative stress conditions. We found that insulin-tyrosyl radicals combined to form dimers, mostly via the tyrosine at position 14 on the α chain (Tyr14). However, in the presence of superoxide, dimerization was largely outcompeted by the reaction of superoxide with insulin-tyrosyl radicals. Using pulse radiolysis, we measured a second-order rate constant for the latter reaction of (6±1) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.3, representing the first measured rate constant for a protein-tyrosyl radical with superoxide. Mass-spectrometry-based product analyses revealed the addition of superoxide to the insulin-Tyr14 radical to form the hydroperoxide. Glutathione efficiently reduced the hydroperoxide to the corresponding monoxide and also subsequently underwent Michael addition to the monoxide to give a diglutathionylated protein adduct. Although much slower, conjugation of the backbone amide group can form a bicyclic Tyr-monoxide derivative, allowing the addition of only one glutathione molecule. These findings suggest that Tyr-hydroperoxides should readily form on proteins under oxidative stress conditions where protein radicals and superoxide are both generated and that these should form addition products with thiol compounds such as glutathione.

  12. Visible light photoredox catalysis: generation and addition of N-aryltetrahydroisoquinoline-derived α-amino radicals to Michael acceptors.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Paul; Jadhav, Deepak; Pandey, Ganesh; Reiser, Oliver

    2012-02-03

    The photoredox-catalyzed coupling of N-aryltetrahydroisoquinoline and Michael acceptors was achieved using Ru(bpy)(3)Cl(2) or [Ir(ppy)(2)(dtb-bpy)]PF(6) in combination with irradiation at 455 nm generated by a blue LED, demonstrating the trapping of visible light generated α-amino radicals. While intermolecular reactions lead to products formed by a conjugate addition, in intramolecular variants further dehydrogenation occurs, leading directly to 5,6-dihydroindolo[2,1-a]tetrahydroisoquinolines, which are relevant as potential immunosuppressive agents.

  13. The preparation of high-capacity boronate affinity adsorbents by surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for the enrichment of ribonucleosides in serum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaozhan; Xu, Huanhuan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-01-01

    Boronate affinity adsorption is uniquely selective for cis-diol-containing molecules. The preparation and application of boronate affinity materials has attracted much attention in recent years. In this work, a high-capacity boronate affinity adsorbent was prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (SI-RAFT). Commercial aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres were modified with the chain transfer agent (CTA) S-1-dodecyl-S-(α,α-dimethyl-α-acetic acid)trithiocarbonate (DDATC). Boronate-affinity adsorbents were then prepared via SI-RAFT polymerization employing 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) as the monomer. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurements have proven the successful grafting of AAPBA on PGMA microspheres surface. The boronate affinity adsorbents thus prepared possess much higher adsorption capacity (99.2 µmol/g of adenosine) and both faster adsorption and desorption speed towards ribonucleosides, the adsorption and desorption could be completed in 2 min. The high selectivity of the adsorbents to ribonucleosides was verified in the presence of a large excess of deoxynucleosides. The boronate affinity adsorbents were then employed for sample pretreatment before HPLC analysis of ribonucleosides in serum. The ribonucleosides were effectively enriched by boronate affinity dispersive solid-phase extraction (BA-DSPE), with high mass recoveries and good precision. The simultaneous determination of uridine and guanosine in calf serum was achieved by utilizing the standard addition method, their contents were determined to be 170 ± 11.6 ng/mL and 39.6 ± 4.4 ng/mL respectively. The results proved that the prepared boronate affinity materials could be applied for sample pretreatment of cis-diol containing molecules in biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  15. Eccentric Contraction-Induced Muscle Injury: Reproducible, Quantitative, Physiological Models to Impair Skeletal Muscle's Capacity to Generate Force.

    PubMed

    Call, Jarrod A; Lowe, Dawn A

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of muscle regeneration an experimental injury model is required. Advantages of eccentric contraction-induced injury are that it is a controllable, reproducible, and physiologically relevant model to cause muscle injury, with injury being defined as a loss of force generating capacity. While eccentric contractions can be incorporated into conscious animal study designs such as downhill treadmill running, electrophysiological approaches to elicit eccentric contractions and examine muscle contractility, for example before and after the injurious eccentric contractions, allows researchers to circumvent common issues in determining muscle function in a conscious animal (e.g., unwillingness to participate). Herein, we describe in vitro and in vivo methods that are reliable, repeatable, and truly maximal because the muscle contractions are evoked in a controlled, quantifiable manner independent of subject motivation. Both methods can be used to initiate eccentric contraction-induced injury and are suitable for monitoring functional muscle regeneration hours to days to weeks post-injury.

  16. Are what happens next exercises and self-generated commentaries useful additions to hazard perception training for novice drivers?

    PubMed

    Wetton, Mark A; Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    We investigated whether self-generated commentaries and what happens next exercises are useful additions to hazard perception training. Two hundred and thirty-three novice drivers experienced one of four different video-based training interventions derived from an existing hazard perception training package: (1) what happens next training; (2) expert commentary training; (3) hybrid commentary training (i.e., expert plus self-generated commentaries); or (4) the full training package (i.e., what happens next plus hybrid commentary training). There was also a placebo control condition. Drivers' hazard perception skill was measured using video-based tests featuring real driving footage at three times: immediately prior to the intervention; immediately post-intervention; and after a one-week delay. Compared to the placebo control, all training interventions significantly improved hazard perception response times immediately after the intervention. The full training resulted in the largest improvement, and the what happens next training the least. The addition of self-generated commentaries to the expert commentary training (hybrid commentary condition) did not significantly improve response times. The what happens next training was found to be significantly less effective than the expert commentary training condition both immediately after the intervention, and also after a one week delay. All training effects decayed significantly after the delay, but the effect of full training remained significant. Although no benefit was found in adding self-generated commentaries to expert commentaries, the possibility remains that the what happens next exercises may provide an additional benefit when combined with commentary training. The results provide further support for hazard perception training as an evidence-based alternative to traditional methods of improving novice driver safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the capacity to generate and preserve nitric oxide bioactivity in highly purified earthworm erythrocruorin: a giant polymeric hemoglobin with potential blood substitute properties.

    PubMed

    Roche, Camille J; Talwar, Abhinav; Palmer, Andre F; Cabrales, Pedro; Gerfen, Gary; Friedman, Joel M

    2015-01-02

    The giant extracellular hemoglobin (erythrocruorin) from the earth worm (Lumbricus terrestris) has shown promise as a potential hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) in in vivo animal studies. An important beneficial characteristic of this hemoglobin (LtHb) is the large number of heme-based oxygen transport sites that helps overcome issues of osmotic stress when attempting to provide enough material for efficient oxygen delivery. A potentially important additional property is the capacity of the HBOC either to generate nitric oxide (NO) or to preserve NO bioactivity to compensate for decreased levels of NO in the circulation. The present study compares the NO-generating and NO bioactivity-preserving capability of LtHb with that of human adult hemoglobin (HbA) through several reactions including the nitrite reductase, reductive nitrosylation, and still controversial nitrite anhydrase reactions. An assignment of a heme-bound dinitrogen trioxide as the stable intermediate associated with the nitrite anhydrase reaction in both LtHb and HbA is supported based on functional and EPR spectroscopic studies. The role of the redox potential as a factor contributing to the NO-generating activity of these two proteins is evaluated. The results show that LtHb undergoes the same reactions as HbA and that the reduced efficacy for these reactions for LtHb relative to HbA is consistent with the much higher redox potential of LtHb. Evidence of functional heterogeneity in LtHb is explained in terms of the large difference in the redox potential of the isolated subunits.

  18. Addition of in-vitro generated endothelial microparticles to von-Willebrand plasma improves primary and secondary hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Trummer, Arne; Werwitzke, Sonja; Wermes, Cornelia; Ganser, Arnold; Birschmann, Ingvild; Budde, Ulrich; Tiede, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Increased endothelial microparticles (EMP) as markers for endothelial activation have been associated with worse outcomes in clinical prothrombotic situations. The procoagulant properties of EMP can be attributed to the expression of phospholipids, tissue factor and von-Willebrand factor on their surface. We therefore investigated whether addition of in-vitro generated EMP modifies hemostasis in plasma from patients with severe von-Willebrand disease (VWD). A large EMP pool was obtained from stimulated endothelial cell lines and EMP concentration was quantified by flow cytometry. The influence of EMP on primary and secondary hemostasis in VWD plasma was assessed using ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) and thrombin generation in a calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), respectively. After addition of EMP, there was a significant increase in the maximal aggregation level in RIPA as well as a significant shortening of lag time and time-to-peak in CAT in comparison to control buffer. In summary, in vitro-generated EMP have the potential to improve hemostasis in severe VWD plasma and these results warrant further clinical reseach regarding their contribution to the clinical bleeding phenotype as well as their potential to improve replacement therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of high-capacity and first-generation adenoviral vector gene delivery to murine muscle in utero.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Wu, E; Zheng, H; Biermann, V; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2005-01-01

    In utero gene delivery could offer the advantage of treatment at an early stage for genetic disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in which the inevitable process of muscle degeneration is already initiated at birth. Furthermore, treatment of fetal muscle with adenoviral (Ad) vectors is attractive because of a high density of Ad receptors, easy vector accessibility due to immaturity of the basal lamina and the possibility of treating stem cells. Previously, we demonstrated the efficient transduction of fetal muscle by high-capacity Ad (HC-Ad) vectors. In this study, we compared HC-Ad and first-generation Ad (FG-Ad) vectors for longevity of lacZ transgene expression, toxicity and induction of immunity after direct vector-mediated in utero gene delivery to fetal C57BL/6 mice muscle 16 days after conception (E-16). The total amount of beta-galactosidase (betagal) expressed from the HC-Ad vector remained stable for the 5 months of the study, although the concentration of betagal decreased due to muscle growth. Higher survival rates that reflect lower levels of toxicity were observed in those mice transduced with an HC-Ad vector as compared to an FG-Ad vector. The toxicity induced by FG-Ad vector gene delivery was dependent on mouse strain and vector dose. Animals treated with either HC-Ad and FG-Ad vectors developed non-neutralizing antibodies against Ad capsid and antibodies against betagal, but these antibodies did not cause loss of vector genomes from transduced muscle. In a mouse model of DMD, dystrophin gene transfer to muscle in utero using an HC-Ad vector restored the dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that long-term transgene expression can be achieved by HC-Ad vector-mediated gene delivery to fetal muscle, although strategies of vector integration may need to be considered to accommodate muscle growth.

  20. Delays and cancellations of coal-fired generating capacity: review, data evaluation, and recommendations for improved forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report documents the extent of the electric utilities' difficulty in planning power generating units and proposes a technique for improving the predictions. Additional work is currently under way to test the methodology proposed here. The results of these efforts will be reported in a companion volume as soon as they are available. Chapter 1 examines delays and cancellations from a historical perspective. It evaluates the reasons for the difficulty and the potential impact on the electric utility industry and the electric power consumer. Chapter 2 examines the relationships between delays and cancellations, and identifies the data that could be used in an improved prediction method. Three methods are discussed, based on three types of data, and one system is recommended for implementation.

  1. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  2. Additive model for the second harmonic generation hyperpolarizability applied to a collagen-mimicking peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10.

    PubMed

    Loison, C; Simon, D

    2010-07-29

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) spectrometry has been recently applied to investigate the structure of proteins and sugars (collagen, myosin, starch, etc.). The interpretation of experimental data at the molecular length-scale remains often qualitative because of the difficulty to model the SHG signal of such large molecules. Simpson and co-workers proposed to estimate the hyperpolarizability of the peptide backbone as the sum of the individual hyperpolarizabilities of the peptide bonds. This article discusses the hyperpolarizabilities obtained using such an additive model for a peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) modeling collagen, for which experimental hyperpolarizabilities have been measured and modeled recently. To investigate possible parameters for the model, we performed time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of the hyperpolarizability of a few molecules containing one peptide bond. In a second step, the additive model is applied. The results produced using different input parameters are compared to each other and to experimental data. For the chosen peptide, the additive model using N-methylacetamide as a building block agrees qualitatively with hyper-Rayleigh scattering data. The results emphasize the need for more reference data to test the additivity hypothesis and the transferability of the parameters to other secondary structure of proteins.

  3. Recovery of community genomes to assess subsurface metabolic potential: exploiting the capacity of next generation sequencing-based metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thomas, B.; Miller, C. S.; Sharon, I.; Wilkins, M. J.; VerBerkmoes, N. C.; Handley, K. M.; Lipton, M. S.; Hettich, R. L.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    , the capacity to oxidize complex organic carbon, as well as lack of membrane bound electron transport chains and an incomplete citric acid cycle. We propose that these organisms grow cryptically on residual biomass from previous biostimulation experiments and thus demonstrate that resource utilization and turnover in the aquifer can be decoupled from existing acetate amendment and external terminal electron accepting processes. In addition to the first recovery of multiple genomes from these novel candidate divisions, our community genomic approach uncovered viral diversity not yet observed at the site, with the reconstruction of six phage genomes and the presence of CRISPR loci detected in bacterial genomes from diverse lineages. These findings have implications for predictive ecosystem modeling, highlighting the importance of integrating the response, adaptation, as well as biological and geochemical feedback mechanisms existing within complex subsurface communities to long term organic carbon amendment.

  4. Additively manufactured MEMS multiplexed coaxial electrospray sources for high-throughput, uniform generation of core-shell microparticles.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Trejo, D; Velásquez-García, L F

    2016-10-18

    This study reports the first MEMS multiplexed coaxial electrospray sources in the literature. Coaxial electrospraying is a microencapsulation technology based on electrohydrodynamic jetting of two immiscible liquids, which allows precise control with low size variation of the geometry of the core-shell particles it generates, which is of great importance in numerous biomedical and engineering applications, e.g., drug delivery and self-healing composites. By implementing monolithic planar arrays of miniaturized coaxial electrospray emitters that work uniformly in parallel, the throughput of the compound microdroplet source is greatly increased, making the microencapsulation technology compatible with low-cost commercial applications. Miniaturized core-shell particle generators with up to 25 coaxial electrospray emitters (25 emitters cm(-2)) were fabricated via stereolithography, which is an additive manufacturing process that can create complex microfluidic devices at a small fraction of the cost per device and fabrication time associated with silicon-based counterparts. The characterization of devices with the same emitter structure but different array sizes demonstrates uniform array operation. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the per-emitter current is approximately proportional to the square root of the flow rate of the driving liquid, and it is independent of the flow rate of the driven liquid, as predicted by the theory. The core/shell diameters and the size distribution of the generated compound microparticles can be modulated by controlling the flow rates fed to the emitters.

  5. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma—a numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Been Chang, Moo

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O2/Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O3 → e + O + O2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O2 + M → O3 + M and an increase in that of O3 + O → 2O2. The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  6. Residual volume/total lung capacity ratio confers limited additive significance to lung clearance index for assessment of adults with bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing-jing; Huang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2017-01-01

    Background Mosaicism and hyperinflation are common pathophysiologic features of bronchiectasis. The magnitude of ventilation heterogeneity might have been affected by the degree of hyperinflation. Some studies have evaluated the discriminative performance of lung clearance index (LCI) in bronchiectasis patients, but the additive diagnostic value of hyperinflation metrics to LCI is unknown. Objective To compare LCI and the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), along with the LCI normalized with RV/TLC, in terms of discriminative performance, correlation and concordance with clinical variables in adults with bronchiectasis. Methods Measurement items included chest high-resolution computed tomography, multiple-breath nitrogen washout test, spirometry, and sputum culture. We analyzed bronchodilator responses by stratifying LCI and RV/TLC according to their median levels (LCIHigh/RV/TLCHigh, LCILow/RV/TLCHigh, LCIHigh/RV/TLCLow, and LCILow/RV/TLCLow). Results Data from 127 adults with clinically stable bronchiectasis were analyzed. LCI had greater diagnostic value than RV/TLC in discriminating moderate-to-severe from mild bronchiectasis, had greater concordance in reflecting clinical characteristics (including the number of bronchiectatic lobes, radiological severity score, and the presence of cystic bronchiectasis). Normalization of LCI with RV/TLC did not contribute to greater discriminative performance or concordance with clinical variables. The LCI, before and after normalization with RV/TLC, correlated statistically with age, sex, HRCT score, Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, cystic bronchiectasis, and ventilation heterogeneity (all P<0.05). Different bronchodilator responses were not significant among the four subgroups of bronchiectasis patients, including those with discordant LCI and RV/TLC levels. Conclusion LCI is superior to RV/TLC for bronchiectasis assessment. Normalization with RV/TLC is not required. Stratification of LCI and RV

  7. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian entangled states generated via multiple-photon subtraction and addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Hou, Li-Li; Chen, Xian-Feng; Xu, Xue-Fen

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically analyze the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation, the quadrature squeezing, and the continuous-variable quantum teleportation when considering non-Gaussian entangled states generated by applying multiple-photon subtraction and multiple-photon addition to a two-mode squeezed vacuum state (TMSVs). Our results indicate that in the case of the multiple-photon-subtracted TMSVs with symmetric operations, the corresponding EPR correlation, the two-mode squeezing degree, the sum squeezing, and the fidelity of teleporting a coherent state or a squeezed vacuum state can be enhanced for any squeezing parameter r and these enhancements increase with the number of subtracted photons in the low-squeezing regime, while asymmetric multiple-photon subtractions will generally reduce these quantities. For the multiple-photon-added TMSVs, although it holds stronger entanglement, its EPR correlation, two-mode squeezing, sum squeezing, and the fidelity of a coherent state are always smaller than that of the TMSVs. Only when considering the case of teleporting a squeezed vacuum state does the symmetric photon addition make somewhat of an improvement in the fidelity for large-squeezing parameters. In addition, we analytically prove that a one-mode multiple-photon-subtracted TMSVs is equivalent to that of the one-mode multiple-photon-added one. And one-mode multiple-photon operations will diminish the above four quantities for any squeezing parameter r .

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of the Capacity of Battery and Photovoltaic Generation and Contracted Demand of Purchased Power in a Microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bando, Shigeru; Asano, Hiroshi; Tokumoto, Tsutomu; Tsukada, Tatsuya; Ogata, Takao

    The microgrid concept is being seriously considered as a solution to growing electricity demand. And to increase renewable energy near the demand side, a microgrid that utilizes controllable prime movers such as gas engines to compensate fluctuating demand and output of renewable energy is proposed here. We model the optimal operation planning of a microgrid system for the day ahead based on 30-minute demand data, and we conduct the sensitivity analysis of the battery capacity, contracted electric power demand from a utility grid, and PV capacity on costs. It is effective for annual cost reduction to make the contracted demand as small as possible. And the benefit of combination of PV and gas engine can be gained the most in the case that PV capacity is between 20% and 30% of the peak demand of the microgrid.

  9. Improving the analytical performance of hydride generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Combined effect of additives and optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia; Lampugnani, Leonardo; Zamboni, Roberto

    2001-10-01

    The effects of tetrahydroborate and acid concentration and the presence of L-cysteine and thiourea were investigated in the determination of As, Bi and Sn using continuous flow hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG AFS). The aim was to find conditions allowing the control of those effects exerting negative influence on the analytical performance of the HG AFS apparatus. The effects taken into account were: (i) the radiation scattering generated by carryover of solution from the gas-liquid separator to the atomizer; (ii) the introduction of molecular species generated by tetrahydroborate decomposition into the atomizer; and (iii) interference effects arising from other elements in the sample matrix and from different acids. The effects (i) and (ii) could be controlled using mild reaction conditions in the HG stage. The effect of HG conditions on carryover was studied by radiation scattering experiments without hydride atomization. Compromised HG conditions were found by studying the effects of tetrahydroborate (0.1-20 g l -1) and acid (0.01-7 mol l -1) concentration, and the addition of L-cysteine (10 g l -1) and thiourea (0.1 mol l -1) on the HG AFS signals. The effect of optical filters was investigated with the aim of improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Optical filters with peak wavelengths of 190 and 220 nm provided an improvement of detection limits by factors of approximately 4 and 2 for As and Te, respectively. Under optimized conditions the detection limits were 6, 5, 3, 2, 2 and 9 ng l -1 for As, Sb, Bi, Sn, Se and Te, respectively. Good tolerance to various acid compositions and sample matrices was obtained by using L-cysteine or thiourea as masking agents. Determination of arsenic in sediment and copper certified reference materials, and of bismuth in steel, sediment, soil and ore certified reference material is reported.

  10. Using the UAM-P model to specify the additional magnetic field generated by the system of the ionospheric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, Boris E.; Förster, Matthias; Lesur, Vincent; Namgaladze, Alexander A.; Holschneider, Matthias; Stolle, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The ionospheric currents are a part of the highly variable coupled Magnetosphere - Ionosphere - Thermosphere (MIT) system. These currents generate an additional portion to the main magnetic field. The ionospheric currents as well as its impact to the Earth's magnetic field depend on the solar wind, IMF, and geomagnetic conditions and have significant seasonal and UT variations. The first aim of this investigation is to obtain the global 3D system of the ionospheric currents. For this purposes, we use the Potsdam version of the Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM-P). This is a first-principle, time-dependent, and fully self-consistent numerical global model. It describes the thermosphere, ionosphere, plasmasphere and inner magnetosphere as well as the electrodynamics of the coupled MIT system for the altitudinal range from 80 (60) km up to the 15 Earth radii. The second aim is to calculate the contribution of the ionospheric current system calculated with the UAM-P model to the Earth's magnetic field. This contribution is calculated using the Biot-Savart law. The magnetic field generated by the system of the ionospheric currents is compared with measurements of the Earth's magnetic field variations.

  11. Impact of Increasing Capacity for Generating and Using Research on Maternal and Perinatal Health Practices in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID Project)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use. Methods Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful. Results We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often. Conclusion The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change. PMID:21915274

  12. Impact of increasing capacity for generating and using research on maternal and perinatal health practices in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID Project).

    PubMed

    Lumbiganon, P; McDonald, S J; Laopaiboon, M; Turner, T; Green, S; Crowther, C A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use. Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful. We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often. The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change.

  13. Automatable on-line generation of calibration curves and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-03-01

    Two methods are described that enable on-line generation of calibration standards and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample solution, and diluent to achieve a desired solution composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line solution mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in solution composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing solution streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.

  14. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  15. Jar-opening challenges. Part 2: estimating the force-generating capacity of thumb muscles in healthy young adults during jar-opening tasks.

    PubMed

    Kuo, L C; Chang, J H; Lin, C F; Hsu, H Y; Ho, K Y; Su, F C

    2009-07-01

    This study discusses the force-generating capacity of thumb muscles during jar-opening tasks using two grip patterns: the power grip and the precision grip. This study develops a three-dimensional biomechanical model of the thumb to predict muscle forces in jar-opening activities based on external forces measured by a custom-designed jar device. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. Each participant turned a jar lid of 66 mm diameter counterclockwise with maximal effort and preferred speed using both grip patterns. The average normal and tangential forces applied by the thumb to the jar lid show that the normal force is the primary contributive force for opening a jar. This normal force is approximately three times the tangential force. Muscular force-generating capacity measurements show that the major active muscles during a jar-opening activity for both grips include the flexor pollicis longus, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, and opponens pollicis. The total muscle force ratios for the precision grip and power grip with respect to externally applied forces are 5.6 and 4.7 respectively. These ratios indicate that the power grip pattern produces less muscle force per unit of external applied load. The technique proposed in this study provides a proper apparatus and model for measuring three-dimensional loads and estimating the force-generating capacity of each muscle and tendon of the thumb during jar-opening tasks.

  16. Nitric oxide generated by nitrate reductase increases nitrogen uptake capacity by inducing lateral root formation and inorganic nitrogen uptake under partial nitrate nutrition in rice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huwei; Li, Jiao; Song, Wenjing; Tao, Jinyuan; Huang, Shuangjie; Chen, Si; Hou, Mengmeng; Xu, Guohua; Zhang, Yali

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that partial nitrate nutrition (PNN) can be attributed to improved plant growth and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in rice. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signalling molecule involved in many physiological processes during plant development and nitrogen (N) assimilation. It remains unclear whether molecular NO improves NUE through PNN. Two rice cultivars (cvs Nanguang and Elio), with high and low NUE, respectively, were used in the analysis of NO production, nitrate reductase (NR) activity, lateral root (LR) density, and 15N uptake under PNN, with or without NO production donor and inhibitors. PNN increased NO accumulation in cv. Nanguang possibly through the NIA2-dependent NR pathway. PNN-mediated NO increases contributed to LR initiation, 15NH4 +/15NO3 – influx into the root, and levels of ammonium and nitrate transporters in cv. Nanguang but not cv. Elio. Further results revealed marked and specific induction of LR initiation and 15NH4 +/15NO3 – influx into the roots of plants supplied with NH4 ++sodium nitroprusside (SNP) relative to those supplied with NH4 + alone, and considerable inhibition upon the application of cPTIO or tungstate (NR inhibitor) in addition to PNN, which is in agreement with the change in NO fluorescence in the two rice cultivars. The findings suggest that NO generated by the NR pathway plays a pivotal role in improving the N acquisition capacity by increasing LR initiation and the inorganic N uptake rate, which may represent a strategy for rice plants to adapt to a fluctuating nitrate supply and increase NUE. PMID:25784715

  17. Nitric oxide generated by nitrate reductase increases nitrogen uptake capacity by inducing lateral root formation and inorganic nitrogen uptake under partial nitrate nutrition in rice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huwei; Li, Jiao; Song, Wenjing; Tao, Jinyuan; Huang, Shuangjie; Chen, Si; Hou, Mengmeng; Xu, Guohua; Zhang, Yali

    2015-05-01

    Increasing evidence shows that partial nitrate nutrition (PNN) can be attributed to improved plant growth and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in rice. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signalling molecule involved in many physiological processes during plant development and nitrogen (N) assimilation. It remains unclear whether molecular NO improves NUE through PNN. Two rice cultivars (cvs Nanguang and Elio), with high and low NUE, respectively, were used in the analysis of NO production, nitrate reductase (NR) activity, lateral root (LR) density, and (15)N uptake under PNN, with or without NO production donor and inhibitors. PNN increased NO accumulation in cv. Nanguang possibly through the NIA2-dependent NR pathway. PNN-mediated NO increases contributed to LR initiation, (15)NH₄(+)/(15)NO₃(-) influx into the root, and levels of ammonium and nitrate transporters in cv. Nanguang but not cv. Elio. Further results revealed marked and specific induction of LR initiation and (15)NH₄(+)/(15)NO₃(-) influx into the roots of plants supplied with NH₄(+)+sodium nitroprusside (SNP) relative to those supplied with NH₄(+) alone, and considerable inhibition upon the application of cPTIO or tungstate (NR inhibitor) in addition to PNN, which is in agreement with the change in NO fluorescence in the two rice cultivars. The findings suggest that NO generated by the NR pathway plays a pivotal role in improving the N acquisition capacity by increasing LR initiation and the inorganic N uptake rate, which may represent a strategy for rice plants to adapt to a fluctuating nitrate supply and increase NUE. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. New ways to analyze word generation performance in brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis of additional performance measures.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Kristina; Quinting, Jana Marie; Stenneken, Prisca

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of word generation performance is an accepted, widely used, and well-established method for examining cognitive, language, or communication impairment due to brain damage. The performance measure traditionally applied in the investigation of word generation is the number of correct responses. Previous studies, however, have suggested that this measure does not capture all potentially relevant aspects of word generation performance and hence its underlying processes, so that its analytical and explanatory power of word generation performance might be rather limited. Therefore, additional qualitative or quantitative performance measures have been introduced to gain information that goes beyond the deficit and allows for therapeutic implications. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of original research that focused on the application of additional measures of word generation performance in adult clinical populations with acquired brain injury. Word generation tasks are an integral part of many different tests, but only few use additional performance measures in addition to the number of correct responses in the analysis of word generation performance. Additional measures, which showed increased or similar diagnostic utility relative to the traditional performance measure, regarded clustering and switching, error types, and temporal characteristics. The potential of additional performance measures is not yet fully exhausted in patients with brain injury. The temporal measure of response latencies in particular is not adequately represented, though it may be a reliable measure especially for identifying subtle impairments. Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as of yet on which additional measures are best suited to characterizing word generation performance. Further research is needed to specify the additional parameters that are best qualified for identifying and characterizing impaired word generation performance.

  19. Thermochemistry and Kinetics for Designer Molecules Additives to Energetic Materials for Improved Performance: Thermal Generation of Hydrazine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-28

    Functional, Moller Plesset ab initio, and the CBS- QB3 (Complete Basis Set) computational chemistry methods. In each case the elimination of... QB3 calculation energies and by improving the the entropy S o (T) and heat capacity Cp(T) contributions from values further analysis of the internal

  20. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  1. Flt3 ligand-generated murine plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells differ in their capacity to prime naive CD8 T cells and to generate memory cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Georgi S; Tomkowiak, Martine; Marçais, Antoine; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2005-07-01

    Mature dendritic cells (DCs) have the capacity to induce efficient primary T cell response and effector cell differentiation. Thus, these cells are a major tool in the design of various immunotherapeutic protocols. We have tested the capacity of different subsets of matured DCs pulsed with a peptide to induce the differentiation of naive CD8 T cells into memory cells in vivo. Flt3 ligand (FL) induces the differentiation of conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) from murine bone marrow precursors in vitro. After maturation, both subsets become strong stimulators of Ag-specific T cell responses in vitro. However, the in vivo T cell stimulatory capacity of these DC subsets has not been studied in detail. In the present study, we demonstrate that mature FL-generated DCs induce efficient peptide-specific CD8 T cell response and memory cell differentiation in vivo. This is mainly due to the cDC subset because the PDC subset induced only a negligible primary CD8 response without detectable levels of memory CD8 T cell differentiation. Thus, in vitro FL-generated mature cDCs, but not PDCs, are potent stimulators of peptide-specific CD8 T cell responses and memory generation in vivo.

  2. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-04-15

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM{sub 01}. The existence of TM{sub 01} mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  3. Contemporaneous assessment of testamentary capacity.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Kenneth I; Peisah, Carmelle; Jacoby, Robin; Heinik, Jeremia; Finkel, Sanford

    2009-06-01

    Challenges to wills on the basis of lack of testamentary capacity and/or undue influence are likely to increase over the next generation. Since contemporaneous assessment of testamentary capacity can be a powerful influence on the outcome of such challenges, there will be an associated increase in requests for expert assessment of testamentary capacity. There is a need to provide such potential experts with the knowledge and guidelines necessary to conduct assessments that will be helpful to the judicial system. A subcommittee of the International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) task force on "Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence" was formed to establish guidelines for contemporaneous assessment of testamentary capacity. The task-specific criteria for testamentary capacity as outlined by Lord Chief Justice Cockburn in the well-known Banks v. Goodfellow case are described. Additional issues are identified for probing and documentation. This is designed to determine whether the testator can formulate a coherent, rational testamentary plan that connects his/her beliefs, values and relationships with the proposed disposition of assets. Rules of engagement by the expert assessor are defined as well as an approach to the clinical examination for testamentary capacity resulting in a clear and relevant report. Guidelines for experts who are asked to provide a contemporaneous opinion on testamentary capacity should help to inform disputes resulting from challenges to wills. A consistent clinical approach will help the courts to make their determinations.

  4. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  5. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  6. Towards comprehensive and transparent reporting: context-specific additions to the ICF taxonomy for medical evaluations of work capacity involving claimants with chronic widespread pain and low back pain.

    PubMed

    Schwegler, Urban; Anner, Jessica; Glässel, Andrea; Brach, Mirjam; De Boer, Wout; Cieza, Alarcos; Trezzini, Bruno

    2014-08-29

    Medical evaluations of work capacity provide key information for decisions on a claimant's eligibility for disability benefits. In recent years, the evaluations have been increasingly criticized for low transparency and poor standardization. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive spectrum of categories for reporting functioning and its determinants in terms of impairments and contextual factors and could facilitate transparent and standardized documentation of medical evaluations of work capacity. However, the comprehensiveness of the ICF taxonomy in this particular context has not been empirically examined. In this study, we wanted to identify potential context-specific additions to the ICF for its application in medical evaluations of work capacity involving chronic widespread pain (CWP) and low back pain (LBP). A retrospective content analysis of Swiss medical reports was conducted by using the ICF for data coding. Concepts not appropriately classifiable with ICF categories were labeled as specification categories (i.e. context-specific additions) and were assigned to predefined specification areas (i.e. precision, coverage, personal factors, and broad concepts). Relevant specification categories for medical evaluations of work capacity involving CWP and LBP were determined by calculating their relative frequency across reports and setting a relevance threshold. Forty-three specification categories for CWP and fifty-two for LBP reports passed the threshold. In both groups of reports, precision was the most frequent specification area, followed by personal factors. The ICF taxonomy represents a universally applicable standard for reporting health and functioning information. However, when applying the ICF for comprehensive and transparent reporting in medical evaluations of work capacity involving CWP and LBP context-specific additions are needed. This is particularly true for the documentation of

  7. A high-capacity LC/MS system for the bioanalysis of samples generated from plate-based metabolic screening.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, J S; Rogers, K J; Whalen, K M; Cole, M J; Liston, T E; Duchoslav, E; Fouda, H G

    2001-04-01

    HPLC/MS is a linear technique characterized by serial injection and analysis of individual samples. Parallel-format high-throughput screens for druglike properties present a significant analytical challenge. Analysis speed and system ruggedness are key requirements for bioanalysis of thousands of samples per day. The tasks involved in LC/MS analysis are readily divided into three areas, sample preparation/liquid handling, LC/MS method building/sample analysis, and data processing. Several automation and multitasking strategies were developed and implemented to minimize plating and liquid handling errors, reduce dead times within the analysis cycle, and allow for comprehensive review of data. Delivering multiple samples to multiple injectors allows the autosampler time to complete its wash cycles and aspirate the next set of samples while the previous set is being analyzed. A dual-column chromatography system provides column cycling and peak stacking and allows rapid throughput using conventional LC equipment. Collecting all data for a compound into a single file greatly reduces the number of data files collected, increases the speed of data collection, allows rugged and complete review of all data, and provides facile data management. The described systems have analyzed over 40 000 samples per month for two years and have the capacity for over 2000 samples per instrument per day.

  8. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  9. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving biomass resource recycling capacity of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater through regulating the generation and use of energy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pan; Wang, Yan-ling; Zhang, Guang-ming; Liu, Xian-shu; Du, Cong; Tong, Qing-yue; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated Mg2+ enhancement of biomass production through regulating the generation and use of energy in Rubrivivax gelatinosus wastewater treatment. Results showed that proper Mg2+ dosage range was 1.5-15 mg/L. With optimal Mg2+ dosage (10 mg/L), biomass production (5010 mg/L) was improved by 60%. Both protein and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals reached above 90%. Biomass yield improved by 38%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that as activator, Mg2+ promoted specifically isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities in energy metabolism, and then improved the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the use of ATP. This enhanced the secretion and activity of protease, protein and COD removals, and then led to more biomass production. With 10 mg/L Mg2+, IDH and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities, ATP production, protease activity were improved by 43.8%, 40.6%, 39.4% and 46.5%, respectively.

  11. Study of Randomness in AES Ciphertexts Produced by Randomly Generated S-Boxes and S-Boxes with Various Modulus and Additive Constant Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suman; Sadique Uz Zaman, J. K. M.; Ghosh, Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    In Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the standard S-Box is conventionally generated by using a particular irreducible polynomial {11B} in GF(28) as the modulus and a particular additive constant polynomial {63} in GF(2), though it can be generated by many other polynomials. In this paper, it has been shown that it is possible to generate secured AES S-Boxes by using some other selected modulus and additive polynomials and also can be generated randomly, using a PRNG like BBS. A comparative study has been made on the randomness of corresponding AES ciphertexts generated, using these S-Boxes, by the NIST Test Suite coded for this paper. It has been found that besides using the standard one, other moduli and additive constants are also able to generate equally or better random ciphertexts; the same is true for random S-Boxes also. As these new types of S-Boxes are user-defined, hence unknown, they are able to prevent linear and differential cryptanalysis. Moreover, they act as additional key-inputs to AES, thus increasing the key-space.

  12. Effects of chronic N additions on tissue chemistry, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon sequestration potential of a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) stand in the NE United States

    Treesearch

    G.A. Bauer; F.A. Bazzaz; R. Minocha; S. Long; A. Magill; J. Aber; G.M. Berntson

    2004-01-01

    Temperate forests are predicted to play a key role as important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide, which could be enhanced by nitrogen (N) deposition. However, experimental evidence suggests that the impact of N deposition on temperate forest productivity may not be as great as originally assumed. We investigated how chronic N addition affects needle morphology,...

  13. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher. Eagar

    2011-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1466 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for RIN- generating foreign producers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of renewable fuel is a person located outside the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the... referred to in this section as “the United States”) that has been approved by EPA to generate RINs for renewable fuel it produces for export to the United States, hereinafter referred to as a “foreign...

  15. Progress on Implementing Additional Physics Schemes into MPAS-A v5.1 for Next Generation Air Quality Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has a team of scientists developing a next generation air quality modeling system employing the Model for Prediction Across Scales – Atmosphere (MPAS-A) as its meteorological foundation. Several preferred physics schemes and ...

  16. Addition of ivabradine to β-blocker improves exercise capacity in systolic heart failure patients in a prospective, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Bagriy, A E; Schukina, E V; Samoilova, O V; Pricolota, O A; Malovichko, S I; Pricolota, A V; Bagriy, E A

    2015-02-01

    Difficulties initiating and uptitrating β-blockers due to tolerability can complicate management of heart failure. Among other actions, β-blockers reduce heart rate, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor in heart failure. A new therapeutic strategy is ivabradine, which reduces resting heart rate and is associated with improved outcomes. A 5-month, prospective, open-label, nonrandomized single-center study was performed in 69 patients. All patients had chronic heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in sinus rhythm, each were initiated on 3.125 mg twice daily (bid) carvedilol alone (n = 36) or 3.125 mg bid carvedilol/5 mg bid ivabradine (n = 33), on top of background therapy including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (88%), diuretics (86%), antiplatelet agents (91%), and statins (90%). Dosages were uptitrated every 2 weeks to 25 mg bid carvedilol in both groups and 7.5 mg bid ivabradine maximum in the carvedilol/ivabradine group. Uptitration of carvedilol lasted 1.9 ± 0.4 months with carvedilol/ivabradine and 2.8 ± 0.6 months with carvedilol alone (P < 0.05). The patients receiving ivabradine had lower resting heart rate at 5 months (61.6 ± 3.1 versus 70.2 ± 4.4 bpm, P < 0.05). Adding ivabradine to carvedilol in patients with heart failure was associated with increases in the 6-min walk test and ejection fraction (all P < 0.05). Treatment tolerability was satisfactory. Patients receiving ivabradine and carvedilol had lower heart rates and better exercise capacity than those on carvedilol alone. Adding ivabradine to carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure improves the uptitration of β-blocker. The results merit further verification in a prospective double-blind study.

  17. Human bone marrow as a source to generate CMV-specific CD4+ T cells with multifunctional capacity.

    PubMed

    Na, Il-Kang; Letsch, Anne; Guerreiro, Manuel; Bauer, Sandra; Noack, Ines; Geginat, Jens; Reinke, Petra; Loesch, Michael; Kienapfel, Heino; Thiel, Eckhard; Volk, Hans Dieter; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The bone marrow (BM) is an important compartment for T cell memory. In cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive individuals peripheral blood (PB) CMV-specific T cells constitute a large fraction of PB T cells but are mostly differentiated effector/effector memory T cells with limited survival and proliferative potential. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the CMV-specific T cell response in BM studying both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against overlapping peptide pools of the CMV proteins pp65 and immediate early protein-1. CMV-specific T cell responses were characterized ex vivo and after in vitro expansion of paired PB/BM samples by multiparameter flow cytometry determining surface phenotype, cytokine profile, and cytotoxic capability. Comparable frequencies of CMV-specific T cells were found in un-manipulated PB and BM. Both total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells could be more rapidly expanded from BM. Expanded BM T cells contained significantly higher frequencies of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells than PB. Furthermore, higher frequencies of specific CD4+ T cells from BM were multifunctional, characterized by simultaneous production of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-2. Use of BM may thus facilitate more rapid generation of adoptive T cells with enhanced functionality.

  18. Oxygen additive amount dependence of rate of photoresist removal by H radicals generated on a tungsten hot-wire catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Umemoto, Hironobu; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Shikama, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Takashi; Horibe, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    We examined an environmentally friendly photoresist removal method using radicals produced by decomposing mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen on a hot tungsten catalyst. The photoresist removal rate increased with the oxygen additive amount (the flow rate ratio of oxygen to hydrogen) up to an optimal amount and then decreased gradually. When the catalyst temperature was 1600 °C, the optimal oxygen additive amount was 1.0% and the removal rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the pure hydrogen system. At 2000 °C, the optimal amount increased to 2.5% but the increase ratio decreased by 1.3 times. At high catalyst temperatures, the absolute removal rate as well as the optimal oxygen additive amount is high, but the increase ratio is low. At the optimal oxygen additive amount, H, O, and OH radicals may exert their effects together to decompose photosensitive polymers.

  19. Improvement of methane generation capacity by aerobic pre-treatment of organic waste with a cellulolytic Trichoderma viride culture.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Schwarzenauer, Thomas; Illmer, Paul

    2013-11-15

    Trichoderma viride is known as a potent cellulose decomposer and was successfully used to improve and accelerate the decomposition process of aerobic composting. In contrast, the role of fungi as pre-treatment organisms for anaerobic digestion is not clear, since the fast aerobic decomposition is thought to be responsible for a rapid depletion of easily available nutrients, leading to a lack of these for the anaerobic community. In the present study carried out in lab-scale, the application of T. viride for the aerobic pre-incubation of organic matter derived from the inlet port of a 750,000 L anaerobic digester led to an increase in total gas and methane production in a subsequent anaerobic digestion step. A high cellulase activity caused by the addition of T. viride seemed to be responsible for a better nutrient availability for anaerobic microorganisms. Therefore, aerobic pre-incubation of organic residues with T. viride for subsequent anaerobic digestion is a promising approach in order to increase methane yields.

  20. Diastereoseletive Transannular Oxa-Conjugate Addition Generates the 2,6-cis-Disubstituted Tetrahydropyran of Neopeltolide.

    PubMed

    Hari, Taylor P A; Wilke, Burkardt I; Davey, James A; Boddy, Christopher N

    2016-01-15

    Transannular 2,6-disubstituted pyrans, like the one found in the cytotoxic marine natural product neopeltolide, are a key functional group in many polyketides. While oxa-conjugate additions have been shown to provide direct and rapid access to tetrahydropyrans in acyclic neopeltolide intermediates, a transannular strategy for construction of this ring system in a macrocyclic core has not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that a transannular oxa-conjugate addition strategy is a viable approach to the construction of the bicyclic core of neopeltolide. We show that transannular addition occurs readily with an α,β-unsaturated ketone as the Michael acceptor and does not occur when an α,β-unsaturated ester is the Michael acceptor. Our data indicates that oxa-conjugate addition is reversible and that the stereochemical outcome can be under thermodynamic control. Using computational chemistry, we show that the lowest energy diastereomer is the desired cis-pyran found in neopeltolide, and we experimentally demonstrate that the trans and cis diastereomers are interconvertible under reaction conditions with the cis-pyran product predominating. This oxa-conjugate addition strategy should provide a viable route to accessing the fully elaborated macrocyclic core of neopeltolide.

  1. The effect of fluoroethylene carbonate additive content on the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase and capacity fade of Li-ion full-cell employing nano Si-graphene composite anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordes, Arnaud; Eom, KwangSup; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2014-07-01

    When fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) is added to the ethylene carbonate (EC)-diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte, the capacity and cyclability of full-cells employing Si-graphene anode and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide cathode (NCA) cathode are improved due to formation of a thin (30-50 nm) SEI layer with low ionic resistance (∼2 ohm cm2) on the surface of Si-graphene anode. These properties are confirmed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and a cross-sectional image analysis using Focused Ion Beam (FIB)-SEM. Approximately 5 wt.% FEC in EC:DEC (1:1 wt.%) shows the highest capacity and most stability. This high capacity and low capacity fade is attributed to a more stable SEI layer containing less CH2OCO2Li, Li2CO3 and LiF compounds, which consume cyclable Li. Additionally, a greater amount of polycarbonate (PC), which is known to form a more robust passivation layer, thus reducing further reduction of electrolyte, is confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  2. Up-regulation of MHC class I in transgenic mice results in reduced force-generating capacity in slow-twitch muscle

    PubMed Central

    Salomonsson, Stina; Grundtman, Cecilia; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Lanner, Johanna T.; Li, Charles; Katz, Abram; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Westerblad, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in skeletal muscle fibers is an early and consistent finding in inflammatory myopathies. To test if MHC class I has a primary role in muscle impairment; we used transgenic mice with inducible over-expression of MHC class I in their skeletal muscle cells. Contractile function was studied in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles. We found that EDL was smaller, whereas soleus muscle was slightly larger. Both muscles generated less absolute force in myopathic compared to control mice, however when force was expressed per cross-sectional area, only soleus muscle generated less force. Inflammation was markedly increased, but no changes were found in the activities of key mitochondrial and glycogenolytic enzymes in myopathic mice. The induction of MHC class I results in muscle atrophy and an intrinsic decrease in force-generation capacity. These observations may have important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiological processes of muscle weakness seen in inflammatory myopathies. PMID:19229963

  3. The sequential addition and migration method to generate representative volume elements for the homogenization of short fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matti

    2017-02-01

    We present an algorithm for generating volume elements of short fiber reinforced plastic microstructures for prescribed fourth order fiber orientation tensor, fiber aspect ratio and solid volume fraction. The algorithm inserts fibers randomly into an existing microstructure, and removes the resulting overlap systematically based on a gradient descent method. In contrast to existing methods, large fiber aspect ratios (up to 150) and large volume fractions (60 vol% for isotropic orientation and aspect ratio of 33) can be reached. We study the effective linear elastic properties of the resulting microstructures, depending on fiber orientation, volume fraction as well as aspect ratio, and examine the size of a corresponding representative volume element.

  4. Comprehensive assessment of the effective scope of modernization of thermal power plants to substantiate the rational structure of the generating capacities for the future until 2035

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, F. V.; Erokhina, I. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Khorshev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The article deals with issues of technical and economic substantiation of priorities and scopes of modernizing the existing thermal power plants (TPPs) in Russia to work out long-term forecasts of the development of the industry. The current situation in the TPP modernization trends is analyzed. The updated initial figures of the capital and operation costs are presented and the obtained estimates of the comparative efficiency of various investment decisions on modernization and equipment replacement at gas-and-oil-burning and coal-fired TPPs with regard to the main zones of the national Unified Power System (UPS) of Russia are cited. The results of optimization of the generating capacity structure underlie a study of alternative TPP modernization strategies that differ in the scope of switching to new technologies, capital intensity, and energy efficiency (decrease in the average heat rate). To provide an integral economic assessment of the above strategies, the authors modified the traditional approach based on determination of the overall discounted costs of power supply (least-cost planning) supplemented with a comparison by the weighted average wholesale price of the electricity. A method for prediction of the wholesale price is proposed reasoning from the direct and dual solutions of the optimization problem. The method can be adapted to various combinations of the mechanisms of payment for the electricity and the capacity on the basis of marginal and average costs. Energy and economic analysis showed that the opposite effects of reduction in the capital investment and fuel saving change in a nonlinear way as the scope of the switch to more advanced power generation technologies at the TPPs increases. As a consequence, a strategy for modernization of the existing power plants rational with respect to total costs of the power supply and wholesale electricity prices has been formulated. The strategy combines decisions on upgrade and replacement of the equipment

  5. Biochemical Modulation by Carbon and Nitrogen Addition in Cultures of Dictyota menstrualis (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) to Generate Oil-based Bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline P; Yokoya, Nair S; Colepicolo, Pio

    2016-06-01

    Dictyota menstrualis (Hoyt) Schnetter, Hörning & Weber-Peukert (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) was studied for the production of oil-based bioproducts and co-products. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, under nitrogen (NO3 (-)) limiting and saturation conditions, on growth rate (GR), photosynthesis, as well as nitrate reductase (NR), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and Rubisco activities. In addition, the biochemical composition of D. menstrualis under these conditions was estimated. GR, protein content, and N content in D. menstrualis were higher in treatments containing NO3 (-), irrespective of CO2 addition. However, when CO2 was added to medium saturated with NO3 (-), values of maximum photosynthesis, Rubisco, and NR activity, as well as total soluble carbohydrates and lipids, were increased. CA activity did not vary under the different treatments. The fatty acid profile of D. menstrualis was characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the omega-3 fatty acids, making it a possible candidate for nutraceutical use. In addition, this species presented high GR, photosynthetic rate, and fatty acid content, highlighting its economic importance and the possibility of different biotechnological applications.

  6. Correlation of secondary-side IGA/SCC degradation of recirculating steam generator tubing with the on-line addition of boric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.J.; Zemitis, W.S.; Gorman, J.A. )

    1992-08-01

    A survey of field data indicates that the on-line addition of boric acid can reduce the rate of intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) within the hot leg tube support crevices for some PWR steam generators. However, the beneficial effect was not seen at all surveyed plants. 68 refs., 12 tabs., 12 refs.

  7. Implications of sludge liquor addition for wastewater-based open pond cultivation of microalgae for biofuel generation and pollutant remediation.

    PubMed

    Osundeko, Olumayowa; Pittman, Jon K

    2014-01-01

    The growth improvement of microalgal strains in municipal secondary-treated wastewater by addition of nutrient-rich activated sludge centrate liquor was examined. Two strains (Chlorella luteoviridis and Parachlorella hussii) were tolerant to liquor, with addition of 25% liquor providing the best growth, biomass productivity and nutrient removal values. The capability of C. luteoviridis and P. hussii for full seasonal cultivation in a 150 L open pond in a temperate climate was studied, using the optimised secondary wastewater +25% liquor medium. Each strain was capable of growth all year including in autumn and winter but with strongest growth, productivity and remediation characteristics in the summer and spring. Both strains could maintain monoculture growth with no significant contamination or culture crash, demonstrating the robustness of these strains for wastewater cultivation in a northern European climate. Each strain could also be efficiently cultivated in a semi-continuous system for steady production of biomass and nutrient removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Near-road modeling and measurement of cerium-containing particles generated by nanoparticle diesel fuel additive use.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Brett; Hoque, Shamia; Willis, Robert D; Fahey, Kathleen M; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Harrison, Roy M; Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Zhang, K Max; Kovalcik, Kasey; Pye, Havala O T

    2014-09-16

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCe) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the exhaust particles are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission measurements and ambient impacts, size-resolved measurements of particle composition and mass concentration have been performed in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, where buses have used an nCe additive since 2005. These observations show that the noncrustal cerium fraction thought to be associated with the use of nCe has a mass concentration ∼ 0.3 ng m(-3) with a size distribution peaking at 100-320 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Simulations with a near-roadway multicomponent sectional aerosol dynamic model predict that the use of nCe additives increases the number concentration of nuclei mode particles (<50 nm in diameter) while decreasing the total mass concentration. The near-road model predicts a downwind mass size distribution of cerium-containing particles peaking at 150 nm in aerodynamic diameter, a value similar to that measured for noncrustal cerium in Newcastle. This work shows that both the emission and atmospheric transformation of cerium-containing particles needs to be taken into account by regional modelers, exposure scientists, and policymakers when determining potential environmental and human health impacts.

  9. Proposed changes to generating capacity 1980-1989 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1980 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The changes in generating capacity projected for 1980 to 1989 are summarized. Tabulated data provide summaries to the information on projected generating unit construction, retirements, and changes, in several different categories and groupings. The new generating units to be completed by the end of 1989 total 699, representing 259,490 megawatts. This total includes 10 wind power and one fuel cell installations totaling 48.5 MW to be completed by the end of 1989. There are 321 units totaling 13,222 MW to be retired. There are capacity changes due to upratings and deratings. Summary data are presented for: total requirement for electric energy generation for 1985; hydroelectric energy production for 1985; nuclear energy production for 1985; geothermal and other energy production for 1985; approximate non-fossil generation for 1985; range of fossil energy requirements for 1985; actual fossil energy sources 1974 to 1979; estimated range of fossil fuel requirements for 1985; coal capacity available in 1985; and computation of fuel use in 1985. Power plant capacity factors are presented. Extensive data on proposed generating capacity changes by individual units in the 9 Regional Electric Reliability Councils are presented.

  10. Numerical study of a jet-in-hot-coflow burner with hydrogen-addition using the Flamelet Generated Manifolds technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtahizadeh, Seyed Ebrahim; van Oijen, Jeroen; de Goey, Philip

    2012-11-01

    Recently Mild combustion is subjected to intensive research because of its unique ability to provide high efficiency and low pollutant combustion simultaneously in industrial heating processes. In most practical Mild combustion applications, a fuel jet is ignited due to recirculation of hot burned gases. The impact of burned gases on autoignition and flame stabilization has been studied in a laboratory jet-in-hot-coflow (JHC) burner. Results of this study help us to understand recent experimental observations of the Delft group (DJHC burner) in which Dutch Natural Gas (DNG) is mixed with various amounts of H2. The main focus is on the modeling of autoignition in the DJHC burner by using the Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) technique. In this technique, kinetic information is tabulated with a few controlling variables which results in a significant decrease in simulation time. The FGM tabulation has been performed using igniting laminar counterflow diffusion flames. Since H2 is present in the fuel composition, it is essential to include preferential diffusion effects in the table due to the high diffusivity of H2. Based on results, the FGM table is capable to reproduce the autoignition of hydrogen containing fuel predicted by detailed chemistry in 1D counterflow flames. The Authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of the Dutch Technology Foundation STW.

  11. Gibbs energy additivity approaches to QSRR in generating gas chromatographic retention time for identification of fatty acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Pojjanapornpun, Siriluck; Aryusuk, Kornkanok; Lilitchan, Supathra; Krisnangkura, Kanit

    2017-02-06

    The Gibbs energy additivity method was used to correlate the retention time (t R) of common fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to their chemical structures. The t R of 20 standard FAMEs eluted from three capillary columns of different polarities (ZB-WAXplus, BPX70, and SLB-IL111) under both isothermal gas chromatography and temperature-programmed gas chromatography (TPGC) conditions were accurately predicted. Also, the predicted t R of FAMEs prepared from flowering pak choi seed oil obtained by multistep TPGC with the BPX70 column were within 1.0% of the experimental t R. The predicted t R or mathematical t R (t R(math)) values could possibly be used as references in identification of common FAMEs. Hence, FAMEs prepared from horse mussel and fish oil capsules were chromatographed on the BPX70 and ZB-WAXplus columns in single-step and multistep TPGC. Identification was done by comparison of t R with the t R of standard FAMEs and with t R(math). Both showed correct identifications. The proposed model has six numeric constants. Five of six could be directly transferred to other columns of the same stationary phase. The first numeric constant (a), which contained the column phase ratio, could also be transferred with the adjustment of the column phase ratio to the actual phase ratio of the transferred column. Additionally, the numeric constants could be transferred across laboratories, with similar correction of the first numeric constant. The TPGC t R predicted with the transferred column constants were in good agreement with the reported experimental t R of FAMEs. Moreover, hexane was used in place of the conventional t M marker in the calculation. Hence, the experimental methods were much simplified and practically feasible. The proposed method for using t R(math) as the references would provide an alternative to the uses of real FAMEs as the references. It is simple and rapid and with good accuracy compared with the use of experimental t R as references.

  12. The effects of the location of Au additives on combustion-generated SnO(2) nanopowders for CO gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Smitesh D; Wooldridge, Margaret S

    2010-01-01

    The current work presents the results of an experimental study of the effects of the location of gold additives on the performance of combustion-generated tin dioxide (SnO(2)) nanopowders in solid state gas sensors. The time response and sensor response to 500 ppm carbon monoxide is reported for a range of gold additive/SnO(2) film architectures including the use of colloidal, sputtered, and combustion-generated Au additives. The opportunities afforded by combustion synthesis to affect the SnO(2)/additive morphology are demonstrated. The best sensor performance in terms of sensor response (S) and time response (τ) was observed when the Au additives were restricted to the outermost layer of the gas-sensing film. Further improvement was observed in the sensor response and time response when the Au additives were dispersed throughout the outermost layer of the film, where S = 11.3 and τ = 51 s, as opposed to Au localized at the surface, where S = 6.1 and τ = 60 s.

  13. Acceleration of organic removal and electricity generation from dewatered oily sludge in a bioelectrochemical system by rhamnolipid addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunshu; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiang, Junqiu; Wang, Kun; Wei, Liangliang; Ding, Jing; Yu, Hang

    2017-07-08

    Conversion of biomass energy of dewatered oily sludge to electricity is the rate-limiting process in bioelectrochemical system (BES). In this study, 2mgg(-1) rhamnolipids were added to dewatered oily sludge, resulting in a significant enhancement in maximum power density from 3.84±0.37 to 8.63±0.81Wm(-3), together with an increase in total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal from 24.52±4.30 to 36.15±2.79mgg(-1) and 29.51±3.30 to 39.80±2.47mgg(-1), respectively. Rhamnolipids can also enhance the solubilization and promote the hydrolysis of dewatered oily sludge with increases in SOCD from 14.93±2.44 to 18.40±0.08mgg(-1) and VFAs from 1.02±0.07 to 1.39±0.12mgg(-1). Furthermore, bacteria related to substrate degradation were predominant in dewatered oily sludge, and bacteria related to the sulfate/sulfide cycle were significantly enriched by rhamnolipid addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sliding discharges in steam: effects of dielectric surface and hydrocarbon additives on hydrogen, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2013-04-01

    A sliding surface discharge was formed on a dielectric layer in steam at ˜100 °C and atmospheric pressure. The material properties and the thickness of the dielectric layer were found to strongly affect the energy deposition into the plasma. With a 0.32 cm thick dielectric the energy deposition was 1.4 times greater than with a 0.48 cm thick dielectric, and with window glass it was 1.3 times greater than with Macor of the same thickness. Product gases were H2 (73 ± 4%) and O2 (27 ± 1%), and H2O2 accumulated in the condensed water up to 0.4 g l-1. The energy yield for hydrogen was 1.2 ± 0.1 g H2 kWh-1 and independent of the input power and thickness or material of the dielectric. However, for hydrogen peroxide the energy yield, which varied between 0.61 and 3.2 g H2O2 kWh-1, was found to depend strongly on the thickness and material of the dielectric. The addition of benzene to the steam increased the energy efficiency of hydrogen to 2.3 g kWh-1, and decreased oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by about 3 and 6 times, respectively. It also caused the deposition of phenol and polymer-like layers on the dielectric. The results are explained on the basis of reactions of H and OH radicals adsorbed on the surface and/or in gas phase.

  15. Effects of water addition on OH radical generation and plasma properties in an atmospheric argon microwave plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Wang Chuji

    2011-09-01

    Water vapor was added to the feeding gas of a continuous atmospheric argon (Ar) microwave plasma jet to study its influence on plasma shape, plasma gas temperature, and OH radical concentrations. The plasma jet was created by a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source operating at constant power of 104 W with H{sub 2}O-Ar mixture flow rate of 1.7 standard liter per minute (slm). With an increase in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio from 0.0 to 1.9%, the plasma jet column length decreased from 11 mm to 4 mm, and the plasma jet became unstable when the ratio was higher than 1.9%; elevation of plasma gas temperature up to 330 K was observed in the plasma temperature range of 420-910 K. Optical emission spectroscopy showed that the dominant plasma emissions changed from N{sub 2} in the pure Ar plasma jet to OH with the addition of water vapor, and simulations of emission spectra suggested non-Boltzmann distribution of the rotational levels in the OH A-state (v'=0). Spatially resolved absolute OH number densities along the plasma jet axis were measured using UV cavity ringdown spectroscopy of the OH (A-X) (0-0) band in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio range of 0.0-1.9%. The highest OH number density is consistently located in the vicinity of the plasma jet tip, regardless of the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio. OH number density in the post-tip region follows approximately an exponential decay along the jet axis with the fastest decay constant of 3.0 mm in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio of 1.5%. Given the low gas temperature of 420-910 K and low electron temperature of 0.5-5 eV along the jet axis, formation of the OH radical is predominantly due to electron impact induced dissociation of H{sub 2}O and dissociative recombination of H{sub 2}O{sup +} resulting from the Penning ionization process.

  16. On the Field Dependence of Free Charge Carrier Generation and Recombination in Blends of PCPDTBT/PC70BM: Influence of Solvent Additives.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Steve; Schindler, Wolfram; Kurpiers, Jona; Kniepert, Juliane; Blakesley, James C; Dumsch, Ines; Allard, Sybille; Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos; Scherf, Ullrich; Neher, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    We have applied time-delayed collection field (TDCF) and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) to investigate the photogeneration, transport, and recombination of charge carriers in blends composed of PCPDTBT/PC70BM processed with and without the solvent additive diiodooctane. The results suggest that the solvent additive has severe impacts on the elementary processes involved in the photon to collected electron conversion in these blends. First, a pronounced field dependence of the free carrier generation is found for both blends, where the field dependence is stronger without the additive. Second, the fate of charge carriers in both blends can be described with a rather high bimolecular recombination coefficients, which increase with decreasing internal field. Third, the mobility is three to four times higher with the additive. Both blends show a negative field dependence of mobility, which we suggest to cause bias-dependent recombination coefficients.

  17. Addition of E138K to R263K in HIV integrase increases resistance to dolutegravir, but fails to restore activity of the HIV integrase enzyme and viral replication capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mesplède, Thibault; Osman, Nathan; Wares, Melissa; Quashie, Peter K.; Hassounah, Said; Anstett, Kaitlin; Han, Yingshan; Singhroy, Diane N.; Wainberg, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of several clinical trials suggest that the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir may be less prone than other drugs to the emergence of HIV drug resistance mutations in treatment-naive patients. We have shown that the R263K mutation commonly emerged during tissue culture selection studies with dolutegravir and conferred low levels of resistance to this drug while simultaneously diminishing both HIV replication capacity and integrase enzymatic activity. E138K has been identified as a secondary mutation for dolutegravir in selection studies and has also been observed as a secondary mutation in the clinic for the integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir. Methods We used biochemical cell-free strand-transfer assays and tissue culture assays to characterize the effects of the E138K/R263K combination of mutations on resistance to dolutegravir, integrase enzyme activity and HIV-1 replication capacity. Results We show here that the addition of the E138K substitution to R263K increased the resistance of HIV-1 to dolutegravir but failed to restore viral replication capacity, integrase strand-transfer activity and integration within cellular DNA. We also show that the addition of E138K to R263K did not increase the resistance to raltegravir or elvitegravir. The addition of the E138K substitution to R263K was also less detrimental to integrase strand-transfer activity and integration than a different secondary mutation at position H51Y that had also been selected in culture. Conclusions The E138K substitution failed to restore the defect in viral replication capacity that is associated with R263K, confirming previous selection studies that failed to identify compensatory mutation(s) for the latter primary mutation. This study suggests that the R263K resistance pathway may represent an evolutionary dead end for HIV in treatment-naive individuals who are treated with dolutegravir and will need to be confirmed by the long-term use of dolutegravir in

  18. Addition of E138K to R263K in HIV integrase increases resistance to dolutegravir, but fails to restore activity of the HIV integrase enzyme and viral replication capacity.

    PubMed

    Mesplède, Thibault; Osman, Nathan; Wares, Melissa; Quashie, Peter K; Hassounah, Said; Anstett, Kaitlin; Han, Yingshan; Singhroy, Diane N; Wainberg, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The results of several clinical trials suggest that the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir may be less prone than other drugs to the emergence of HIV drug resistance mutations in treatment-naive patients. We have shown that the R263K mutation commonly emerged during tissue culture selection studies with dolutegravir and conferred low levels of resistance to this drug while simultaneously diminishing both HIV replication capacity and integrase enzymatic activity. E138K has been identified as a secondary mutation for dolutegravir in selection studies and has also been observed as a secondary mutation in the clinic for the integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir. We used biochemical cell-free strand-transfer assays and tissue culture assays to characterize the effects of the E138K/R263K combination of mutations on resistance to dolutegravir, integrase enzyme activity and HIV-1 replication capacity. We show here that the addition of the E138K substitution to R263K increased the resistance of HIV-1 to dolutegravir but failed to restore viral replication capacity, integrase strand-transfer activity and integration within cellular DNA. We also show that the addition of E138K to R263K did not increase the resistance to raltegravir or elvitegravir. The addition of the E138K substitution to R263K was also less detrimental to integrase strand-transfer activity and integration than a different secondary mutation at position H51Y that had also been selected in culture. The E138K substitution failed to restore the defect in viral replication capacity that is associated with R263K, confirming previous selection studies that failed to identify compensatory mutation(s) for the latter primary mutation. This study suggests that the R263K resistance pathway may represent an evolutionary dead end for HIV in treatment-naive individuals who are treated with dolutegravir and will need to be confirmed by the long-term use of dolutegravir in the clinic. © The Author 2014. Published

  19. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  20. Simultaneous self-starting additive pulse mode-locking and second harmonic generation of an Nd:YAG laser using self-organised germanosilicate optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, J. P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    1991-08-01

    The simultaneous operation of self-starting additive pulse mode-locking and optical fiber second harmonic generation of an Nd:YAG laser resulting in picosecond radiation at 1.06 mm and 532 nm was demonstrated. The IR pulses were measured to be 5 ps in duration, and the green pulses are expected to be approximately 3.5 ps due to the nonlinear interaction. Effects of self-modulation and cross-phase modulation on the conversion efficiency are discussed.

  1. Study on effect of poly (ethylene oxide) addition and in-situ porosity generation on poly (vinylidene fluoride)-glass ceramic composite membranes for lithium polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubha, Nageswaran; Prasanth, Raghavan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2014-12-01

    The effect of blending polyethylene oxide with poly (vinylidene fluoride)-lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP) composite and in-situ porosity generation on the electrochemical performance of polymer electrolytes based on non-woven fibrous mats is studied. Electrospinning process parameters are controlled to get a fibrous membrane consisting of bead-free, multilayered, three dimensional network structure of ultrafine fibers. The electrospun membranes are subjected to a preferential polymer dissolution process to prepare a highly porous structure. The membranes show high surface roughness with uniformly sized and distributed pores on the fibers. The membranes with good mechanical strength, thermal stability and high porosity exhibit high swelling when activated with liquid electrolyte. The prepared composite polymer electrolytes show high ionic conductivity. The addition of the glass ceramic improves the mechanical and thermal stability, while blending and in-situ porosity generation improves the ionic conductivity, charge-discharge performance, cycling stability, interface properties and compatibility with lithium electrode.

  2. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

  3. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

  4. Effect of organic additives on the mitigation of volatility of 1-nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ): next generation powerful melt cast able high energy material.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Singh, Alok; Naik, N H; Polke, B G; Gore, G M; Asthana, S N; Gandhe, B R

    2006-06-30

    1-Nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was synthesized based on the lines of reported method. Thermolysis studies on synthesized and characterized TNAZ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hyphenated TG-FT-IR techniques were undertaken to generate data on decomposition pattern. FT-IR of decomposition products of TNAZ revealed the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and HCN containing species suggesting the cleavage of C/N-NO(2) bond accompanied with the collapse of ring structure. The effect of incorporation of 15% additives namely, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT), carbohydrazide (CHZ), 5,7-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF), bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) succinate (BNPS), triaminoguanidinium nitrate (TAGN), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) and nitroguanidine (NQ) on the volatility of TNAZ was investigated by undertaking thermogravimetric analysis. The TG pattern brings out the potential of BNPS and TAGN as additives to mitigate the volatility of TNAZ. The influence of additives on thermal decomposition of pattern of TNAZ was also investigated by DSC. The DSC results indicated that the additives did not have appreciable effect on the melting point of TNAZ. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were carried out to investigate the effect of additives on morphology of TNAZ. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism involved in between the TNAZ and TAGN and BNPS. It appears that the formation of charge transfer complex formation between the TNAZ and TAGN/BNPS. The effect of addition of high explosives such as CL-20, HMX and RDX on thermo-physical characteristics of TNAZ is also reported in this paper.

  5. Comparison of glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, ribose, and mannose as flavour precursors in pork; the effect of monosaccharide addition on flavour generation.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Lene; Schäfer, Annette; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Aaslyng, Margit D; Bredie, Wender L P

    2009-03-01

    The effect of glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, mannose and ribose on the generation of aroma volatiles in pork was investigated. The monosaccharides were added individually to minced pork prior to heat treatment (160°C for 10min) in the following concentrations: glucose (27.5μmol/g), ribose (1.2μmol/g), mannose (8.3μmol/g) and glucose 6-phosphate (0.5μmol/g). The natural concentrations of the monosaccharides in the pork used were found to be 4.0μmol/g for glucose, 0.1μmol/g for ribose, 0.3μmol/g for mannose and 2.6μmol/g for glucose 6-phosphate. The major aroma compounds identified in the headspace of the heated samples were pyrazines, aldehydes (Strecker and lipid-derived), ketones, and sulphides. Glucose generated the highest amounts of volatiles followed by glucose 6-phosphate. However, when related to the added concentration of glucose 6-phosphate, this phosphorylated monosaccharide showed the highest aroma generating potential. The addition of ribose did not increase the concentration of volatiles compared with pork without the added monosaccharide. The fates of ribose 5-phosphate and ribose in pork were studied over time. The concentrations of ribose and ribose 5-phosphate clearly decreased during 2h equilibration, which may be due to enzymatic activities. These precursors may, therefore, be less important pork flavour precursors than glucose and glucose 6-phosphate.

  6. Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on pH, water-holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Kim, Gap-Don; Kim, Geun-Bae; Jin, Sang Keun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-08-01

    Active packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. The aim of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging for beef. Beef loin samples were divided into three packaging groups (C, ziplock bag packaging; T1, vacuum packaging; T2, active packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in C and T2 than in T1 for up to 7 days of storage. The TBARS value was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage. The counts of some microorganism were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in T1 and T2 after 7 days of storage; the total bacterial count and Escherichia coli count were lowest in T2 at the end of storage. These results indicate that active packaging using self-CO2 -generation materials can extend the shelf life similarly to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Diagnostic throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace and optimal aircraft trajectory generation based on capacity prediction and controller workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sanghyun

    Today's National Airspace System (NAS) is approaching its limit to efficiently cope with the increasing air traffic demand. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) with its ambitious goals aims to make the air travel more predictable with fewer delays, less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air to improve the performance of the NAS. However, currently the performance of the NAS is mostly measured using delay-based metrics which do not capture a whole range of important factors that determine the quality and level of utilization of the NAS. The factors affecting the performance of the NAS are themselves not well defined to begin with. To address these issues, motivated by the use of throughput-based metrics in many areas such as ground transportation, wireless communication and manufacturing, this thesis identifies the different factors which majorly affect the performance of the NAS as demand (split into flight cancellation and flight rerouting), safe separation (split into conflict and metering) and weather (studied as convective weather) through careful comparison with other applications and performing empirical sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the effects of different factors on the NAS's performance are quantitatively studied using real traffic data with the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for various sectors and centers of the NAS on different days. In this thesis we propose a diagnostic tool which can analyze the factors that have greater responsibility for regions of poor and better performances of the NAS. Based on the throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace, it was found that weather and controller workload are the major factors that decrease the efficiency of the airspace. Also, since resources such as air traffic controllers, infrastructure and airspace are limited, it is becoming increasingly important to use the available resources efficiently. To alleviate the impact of the weather and controller

  8. BCVEGPY2.0: An upgraded version of the generator BCVEGPY with the addition of hadroproduction of the P-wave B states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2006-02-01

    physical problem: Hadronic production of B meson itself and its excited states. Method of solution: The code with option can generate weighted and unweighted events. For jet hadronization, an interface to PYTHIA is provided. Reason for the new version: There are two reasons. One is to provide additional codes for the hadronic production of P-wave excited B states: the four via color-singlet P-wave state directly and the two via color-octet S-wave state accordingly. The other one is to decompose the color-flow factor for the amplitude by an approximate way, that is adopted in PYTHIA. Summary of Revisions: (1) The integration efficiency over the momentum fractions of the initial partons x and x are improved; (2) The amplitudes for the hadronic production of the color-singlet components corresponding to the four P-wave states, BcJ,L=1∗ or P1 and P3 ( J=0,1,2), are included; (3) The amplitudes for P-wave production via the two color-octet components |((S1)g> and |((S3)g> are included; (4) For comparison, the S-wave ( S1 and S3) hadronic production via the light quark-antiquark annihilation mechanism is also included; (5) For convenience, 24 data files to record the information of the generated events in one run are added; (6) An additional file, parameter.for, is added to set the initial values of the parameters; (7) Two new parameters 'IMIX' (IMIX = 0 or 1) and 'IMIXTYPE' (IMIXTYPE = 1, = 2 or = 3) are added to meet the needs of generating the events for simulating 'mixing' or 'separate' event samples for various B and its excited states correctly; (8) One switch, 'IVEGGRADE', is added to determine whether to use the existed importance sampling function to generate a more precise importance sampling function or not; (9) Two parameters, 'IOUTPDF' and 'IPDFNUM', are added to determine which type of PDFs to use; (10) The color-flow decomposition for the amplitudes is rewritten by an approximate way, that is adopted in PYTHIA. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The

  9. Phosphorus derivatives as electrolyte additives for lithium-ion battery: The removal of O2 generated from lithium-rich layered oxide cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seoksoo; Yoon, Jaegu; Lee, Jeawoan; Choi, Wanuk; Jung, Insun; Lee, Seungyeon; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2013-12-01

    Direct internal pressure measurements of the cylindrical Li-ion cells with a mixture of LiCoO2 and Li1.167Ni0.233Co0.1Mn0.467Mo0.033O2 (a solid solution between 0.4 Li2Mn0.8Ni0.1Mo0.1O3 and 0.6 LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2) as cathode and graphite as anode have been performed during cell charging. Cell internal pressure at the end of charging is greatly reduced from 2.85 to 0.84-1.84 bar by adding a small amount of phosphorus derivatives such as triphenyl phosphine (TPP), ethyl diphenylphosphinite (EDP), and triethyl phosphite (TEP) into a carbonate-based electrolyte. The phosphorus derivatives are supposed to react with O2 generated from the decomposition of the Li2MnO3 component. The chemical states of additive molecules before and after the charging process have been characterized with a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It has also been shown that those additives improve the cycle life when applied in coin full cells.

  10. Electron beam-generated Ar/N{sub 2} plasmas: The effect of nitrogen addition on the brightest argon emission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, E. H. E-mail: scott.walton@nrl.navy.mil; Petrova, Tz. B.; Petrov, G. M.; Boris, D. R.; Walton, S. G. E-mail: scott.walton@nrl.navy.mil

    2016-04-15

    The effect of nitrogen addition on the emission intensities of the brightest argon lines produced in a low pressure argon/nitrogen electron beam-generated plasmas is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy. In particular, a decrease in the intensities of the 811.5 nm and 763.5 nm lines is observed, while the intensity of the 750.4 nm line remains unchanged as nitrogen is added. To explain this phenomenon, a non-equilibrium collisional-radiative model is developed and used to compute the population of argon excited states and line intensities as a function of gas composition. The results show that the addition of nitrogen to argon modifies the electron energy distribution function, reduces the electron temperature, and depopulates Ar metastables in exchange reactions with electrons and N{sub 2} molecules, all of which lead to changes in argon excited states population and thus the emission originating from the Ar 4p levels.

  11. Northern States Power Company (NSP) Black Dog generating plant - Unit 2 emission reduction, capacity increase and life extension through atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, B.L.; Rosendahl, S.M.; Gamble, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    The authors report on progress to date of the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boiler retrofit at the Black Dog Unit 2 plant of the Northern States Power Company. Construction began in September 1984 after the completion of technical and economic feasibility studies, and initial operation is scheduled for the second quarter of 1986. The project features the largest AFBC boiler to date, a 40 MW capacity regain/upgrade, and 25-year extension of unit life, low leakage regenerative air preheater design, electrostatic precipitator performance improvement, alternate fuel co-firing capacity, and reduced emission on a per MW basis. The authors describe the management and engineering developments associated with the project. 12 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  13. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  14. Stretching human mesenchymal stromal cells on stiffness-customized collagen type I generates a smooth muscle marker profile without growth factor addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothdiener, Miriam; Hegemann, Miriam; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Walters, Brandan; Papugy, Piruntha; Nguyen, Phong; Claus, Valentin; Seeger, Tanja; Stoeckle, Ulrich; Boehme, Karen A.; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Hart, Melanie L.; Kurz, Bodo; Klein, Gerd; Rolauffs, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Using matrix elasticity and cyclic stretch have been investigated for inducing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage but not in combination. We hypothesized that combining lineage-specific stiffness with cyclic stretch would result in a significantly increased expression of SMC markers, compared to non-stretched controls. First, we generated dense collagen type I sheets by mechanically compressing collagen hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoscale stiffness range known to support myogenic differentiation. Further characterization revealed viscoelasticity and stable biomechanical properties under cyclic stretch with >99% viable adherent human MSC. MSCs on collagen sheets demonstrated a significantly increased mRNA but not protein expression of SMC markers, compared to on culture flasks. However, cyclic stretch of MSCs on collagen sheets significantly increased both mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transgelin, and calponin versus plastic and non-stretched sheets. Thus, lineage-specific stiffness and cyclic stretch can be applied together for inducing MSC differentiation towards SMCs without the addition of recombinant growth factors or other soluble factors. This represents a novel stimulation method for modulating the phenotype of MSCs towards SMCs that could easily be incorporated into currently available methodologies to obtain a more targeted control of MSC phenotype.

  15. Stretching human mesenchymal stromal cells on stiffness-customized collagen type I generates a smooth muscle marker profile without growth factor addition

    PubMed Central

    Rothdiener, Miriam; Hegemann, Miriam; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Walters, Brandan; Papugy, Piruntha; Nguyen, Phong; Claus, Valentin; Seeger, Tanja; Stoeckle, Ulrich; Boehme, Karen A.; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Hart, Melanie L.; Kurz, Bodo; Klein, Gerd; Rolauffs, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Using matrix elasticity and cyclic stretch have been investigated for inducing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage but not in combination. We hypothesized that combining lineage-specific stiffness with cyclic stretch would result in a significantly increased expression of SMC markers, compared to non-stretched controls. First, we generated dense collagen type I sheets by mechanically compressing collagen hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoscale stiffness range known to support myogenic differentiation. Further characterization revealed viscoelasticity and stable biomechanical properties under cyclic stretch with >99% viable adherent human MSC. MSCs on collagen sheets demonstrated a significantly increased mRNA but not protein expression of SMC markers, compared to on culture flasks. However, cyclic stretch of MSCs on collagen sheets significantly increased both mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transgelin, and calponin versus plastic and non-stretched sheets. Thus, lineage-specific stiffness and cyclic stretch can be applied together for inducing MSC differentiation towards SMCs without the addition of recombinant growth factors or other soluble factors. This represents a novel stimulation method for modulating the phenotype of MSCs towards SMCs that could easily be incorporated into currently available methodologies to obtain a more targeted control of MSC phenotype. PMID:27775041

  16. Natural Hazard Mitigation thru Water Augmentation Strategies to Provide Additional Snow Pack for Water Supply and Hydropower Generation in Drought Stressed Alps/Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.

    2009-12-01

    .08 million acre feet (1.33 x 10**9 m3) of additional water could be captured by seeding efficiently and effectively in just 10 storms. Recent projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, NOAA, and the States of Wyoming, Utah and Nevada, and conducted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research will be discussed briefly. Examples of conditions in extreme droughts of the Western United States will be presented that show potential to mitigate droughts in these regions through cloud seeding. Implications for American and European hydropower generation and sustainable water supplies will be discussed.

  17. Policy Capacity in the Learning Healthcare System Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gardner, William

    2015-08-07

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems.

  18. How To Improve Capacity and Cycling Stability for Next Generation Li-O2 Batteries: Approach with a Solid Electrolyte and Elevated Redox Mediator Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Benjamin J; Busche, Martin R; Pinedo, Ricardo; Berkes, Balázs B; Schröder, Daniel; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Because of their exceptionally high specific energy, aprotic lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries are considered as potential future energy stores. Their practical application is, however, still hindered by the high charging overvoltages and detrimental side reactions. Recently, the use of redox mediators dissolved in the electrolyte emerged as a promising tool to enable charging at moderate voltages. The presented work advances this concept and distinctly improves capacity and cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries by combining high redox mediator concentrations with a solid electrolyte (SE). The use of high redox mediator concentrations significantly increases the discharge capacity by including the oxidation and reduction of the redox mediator into charge cycling. Highly efficient cycling is achieved by protecting the lithium anode with a solid electrolyte, which completely inhibits unfavored deactivation of oxidized species at the anode. Surprisingly, the SE also suppresses detrimental side reactions at the carbon electrode to a large extent and enables stable charging completely below 4.0 V over a prolonged period. It is demonstrated that anode and cathode communicate deleteriously via the liquid electrolyte, which induces degradation reactions at the carbon electrode. The separation of cathode and anode with a SE is therefore considered as a key step toward stable Li-O2 batteries, in conjunction with a concentrated redox mediator electrolyte.

  19. Determination of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, selenium, tellurium and tin by low pressure atomic absorption spectrometry with a quartz tube furnace atomizer and hydride generation with air addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Chen, X; Feng, J

    1995-08-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, selenium, tellurium and tin by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry in an electrically heated quartz tube furnace under sub-atmospheric pressure. The hydride generator, operating at a pressure lower than atmospheric, is used to generate and collect the hydrides of these elements. A certain volume (at atmospheric pressure) of air is then added to the generator after the formation of the volatile hydride. The gaseous mixture of the hydride and air is drawn into an evacuated, heated quartz tube by a vacuum pump. The proposed method gives improved sensitivities and detection limits.

  20. Changes in the superoxide anion generating capacity and respiratory burst enzymes of peripheral blood monocytes of monkeys during acute Plasmodium knowlesi infection.

    PubMed

    Jayshree, R S; Ganguly, N K; Sethi, A K; Mahajan, R C

    1989-09-01

    The superoxide anion generation profile of peripheral blood monocytes of rhesus monkeys was investigated during the different stages of an acute Plasmodium knowlesi infection. An initial increase in superoxide anion was followed by a significant decline (P less than 0.001), paralleled by a drop in NADPH oxidase activity; there was no alteration in the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt enzymes. This lowered activity of the NADPH oxidase, with the resulting decreased O2 generation, might be responsible for the failure of the animals to control the parasitaemia; as a result they succumbed to the infection.

  1. Comparative replication capacity of raltegravir-resistant strains and antiviral activity of the new-generation integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in human primary macrophages and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pollicita, Michela; Surdo, Matteo; Di Santo, Fabiola; Cortese, Maria Francesca; Fabeni, Lavinia; Fedele, Valentina; Malet, Isabelle; Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Calvez, Vincent; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo Federico; Svicher, Valentina

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the replication capacity and phenotypic susceptibility to dolutegravir and raltegravir of wild-type and raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 strains in several cellular systems. The antiviral activities of dolutegravir and raltegravir were evaluated in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and C8166 T lymphocytic cells. The following raltegravir resistance mutations were analysed: N155H, Y143C, N155H + Y143C and G140S+Q148H. In the absence of drug, the replication capacity of raltegravir-resistant viruses was strongly reduced compared with wild-type in all cellular models analysed. In MDMs and PBMCs, a dramatic decrease in viral replication was observed for the double mutants N155H + Y143C and G140S + Q148H (ranging from 0.1% to 2.5% compared with wild-type). In MDMs, dolutegravir exhibited high potency, with EC50 and EC90 values of 1.1 ± 0.9 and 5.5 ± 3.4 nM, respectively (comparable to raltegravir). These values (particularly for EC90) were significantly lower than those observed in PBMCs (EC50: 2.7 ± 1.5 nM; EC90: 14.8 ± 0.9 nM) and C8166 cells (EC50: 5.5 ± 0.8 nM; EC90: 64.8 ± 5.8 nM). In all cellular models analysed, dolutegravir showed full efficacy against N155H and Y143C mutants (dolutegravir fold-change resistance ranging from 0.1 to 1.4; raltegravir fold-change resistance ranging from 0.1 to 10.3). In C8166 (the only cell model in which replication capacity was sufficient to perform the test) dolutegravir showed full efficacy against mutations N155H + Y143C (dolutegravir fold-change resistance: 0.6) and a slightly lower activity against G140S+Q148H (dolutegravir fold-change resistance: 2.1). Dolutegravir is effective in different HIV cellular targets and against raltegravir-resistant mutants. The high efficacy of dolutegravir in MDMs (cells with limited metabolism) has relevant clinical implications in light of the role of MDMs in the transmission of HIV infection and

  2. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed.

  3. Mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-02-03

    Three short videos exploring some of the different principles in the Mental Capacity Act 2009 are available on Social Care TV, an online channel intended mainly for the social care sector, although the films are relevant to any professionals whose work is affected by the act. The dramas, which are set in a residential home, a person's own home and a residential school for young people with learning difficulties, concern thedecision-making process and can be viewed at www.scie.org.uk/socialcaretv/topic.asp?guid=377dbe1b-de0c-4d66-bb87-22a243542db2.

  4. Pulsed laser-based optical frequency comb generator for high capacity wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network supporting 1.2 Tbps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Rahat; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Saad Khan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ibrar; Ali, Amjad; Khan, Razaullah; Tian, Qinghua; Yan, Cheng; Xin, Xiangjun

    2016-09-01

    An architecture for flattened and broad spectrum multicarriers is presented by generating 60 comb lines from pulsed laser driven by user-defined bit stream in cascade with three modulators. The proposed scheme is a cost-effective architecture for optical line terminal (OLT) in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) system. The optical frequency comb generator consists of a pulsed laser in cascade with a phase modulator and two Mach-Zehnder modulators driven by an RF source incorporating no phase shifter, filter, or electrical amplifier. Optical frequency comb generation is deployed in the simulation environment at OLT in WDM-PON system supports 1.2-Tbps data rate. With 10-GHz frequency spacing, each frequency tone carries data signal of 20 Gbps-based differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) in downlink transmission. We adopt DQPSK-based modulation technique in the downlink transmission because it supports 2 bits per symbol, which increases the data rate in WDM-PON system. Furthermore, DQPSK format is tolerant to different types of dispersions and has a high spectral efficiency with less complex configurations. Part of the downlink power is utilized in the uplink transmission; the uplink transmission is based on intensity modulated on-off keying. Minimum power penalties have been observed with excellent eye diagrams and other transmission performances at specified bit error rates.

  5. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  6. Generative Inferences Based on Learned Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2017-01-01

    A key property of relational representations is their "generativity": From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from…

  7. Stuttering Interneurons Generate Fast and Robust Inhibition onto Projection Neurons with Low Capacity of Short Term Modulation in Mouse Lateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Xu, Xiao-Bin; He, Ye; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Li, Bao-Ming; Pan, Bing-Xing

    2013-01-01

    The stuttering interneurons (STi) represent one minor subset of interneuron population and exhibit characteristic stuttering firing upon depolarization current injection. While it has been long held that the GABAergic inhibitory transmission largely varies with the subtype identity of presynaptic interneurons, whether such a rule also applies to STi is largely unknown. Here, by paired recording of interneuron and their neighboring projection neuron in lateral amygdala, we found that relative to the fast spiking and late spiking interneurons, the STi-evoked unitary postsynaptic currents onto the projection neurons had markedly larger amplitude, shorter onset latency and faster rising and decay kinetics. The quantal content and the number of vesicles in the readily releasable pool were also larger in synapses made by STi versus other interneurons. Moreover, the short-term plasticity, as reflected by the paired pulse depression and depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, was the least prominent in the output synapses of STi. Thus, the fast and robust inhibition together with its low capacity of short term modulation may suggest an important role for STi in preventing the overexcitation of the projection neurons and thus gating the information traffic in amygdala. PMID:23527307

  8. Design of a method for generation of gas-phase hydroxyl radicals, and use of HPLC with fluorescence detection to assess the antioxidant capacity of natural essential oils.

    PubMed

    Pezo, D; Salafranca, J; Nerín, C

    2006-08-01

    The use of natural antioxidants is of increasing importance in the human diet, because they are recognised as compounds essential to health which minimize or delay the aging process. Despite apparent simplicity, however, it is very difficult to measure and quantify such properties, for which a robust analytical method is required. Because oxidation usually is caused by the presence of OH* radicals, a new method involving the in-situ, vapour-phase generation of these radicals and their quantification in the presence and absence of potential antioxidant extracts has been developed. The oxidant atmosphere generated from hydrogen peroxide is carried by an air stream through an empty quartz chamber in which UV radiation promotes the formation of radicals by a photochemical reaction. The products then pass through a cartridge containing the essential oil, finally bubbling into an impinger containing an aqueous solution of salicylic acid, at pH 4.5, which reacts with the OH* radicals forming 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. This solution is quantified by RP-HPLC using UV and fluorescence detectors connected in series. Detection and quantification limits for OH* radicals were approximately 0.01 pg g(-1) air. Description and optimization of the method are discussed, as also is the antioxidant performance of an extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.), which reduced the oxidation process by up to 92%.

  9. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-21

    numbers by base • FTRAP model is not versatile • Excel spreadsheets based on corporate knowledge • Requires flying training subject matter expert ( SME ... IFR & VFR operations • Capacity given in terms of runway operations per year • AETC Capacity Metrics - Graduates • Based on sortie generation • Consider...Pilots (IPs) from each course • Airspace capacities from base operations SMEs • Runway capacities • Military Operating Area capacities (including aux

  10. In Arabidopsis thaliana distinct alleles encoding mitochondrial RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 support the generation of additional 5' termini of ccmB transcripts.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Katrin; Jonietz, Christian; Schleicher, Sarah; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Small, Ian; Binder, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In plant mitochondria, the 5' ends of many transcripts are generated post-transcriptionally. We show that the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 (RPF4) supports the generation of extra 5' ends of ccmB transcripts in Landsberg erecta (Ler) and a number of other Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. RPF4 was identified in Ler applying a forward genetic approach supported by complementation studies of ecotype Columbia (Col), which generates the Ler-type extra ccmB 5' termini only after the introduction of the RPF4 allele from Ler. Studies with chimeric RPF4 proteins composed of various parts of the RPF4 proteins from Ler and Col identified differences in the N-terminal and central PPR motifs that explain ecotype-specific variations in ccmB processing. These results fit well with binding site predictions in ccmB transcripts based on the known determinants of nucleotide base recognition by PPR motifs.

  11. Effect of small proportion of butanol additive on the performance, emission, and combustion of Australian native first- and second-generation biodiesel in a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mofijur; Rasul, Mohammad Golam; Hassan, Nur Md Sayeed; Azad, Abul Kalam; Uddin, Md Nasir

    2017-08-12

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of the addition of 5% alcohol (butanol) with biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance, emissions, and combustion of a naturally aspirated four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds (1200 to 2400 rpm) under full load conditions. Three types of local Australian biodiesel, namely macadamia biodiesel (MB), rice bran biodiesel (RB), and waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCB), were used for this study, and the data was compared with results for conventional diesel fuel (B0). Performance results showed that the addition of butanol with diesel-biodiesel blends slightly lowers the engine efficiency. The emission study revealed that the addition of butanol additive with diesel-biodiesel blends lowers the exhaust gas temperature (EGT), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions whereas it increases hydrocarbon (HC) emissions compared to B0. The combustion results indicated that in-cylinder pressure (CP) for additive added fuel is higher (0.45-1.49%), while heat release rate (HRR) was lower (2.60-9.10%) than for B0. Also, additive added fuel lowers the ignition delay (ID) by 23-30% than for B0. Finally, it can be recommended that the addition of 5% butanol with Australian biodiesel-diesel blends can significantly lower the NOx and PM emissions.

  12. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  13. The heart of Ciona intestinalis: eicosanoid-generating capacity and the effects of precursor fatty acids and eicosanoids on heart rate.

    PubMed

    Pope, Edward C; Rowley, Andrew F

    2002-06-01

    Eicosanoids are a group of oxygenated fatty-acid derivatives formed from C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. In mammals, these compounds have been shown to be key molecules in several physiological processes including regulation of the vascular system. This study determined whether eicosanoids or their precursors are involved in the regulation of heart rate in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. Eicosanoid generation by both heart and blood cells was measured. The major lipoxygenase products formed were both derivatives of eicosapentaenoic acid, namely 8- and 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (8-HEPE and 12-HEPE). Smaller amounts of 8,15-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (8,15-diHEPE) were also formed. The cyclo-oxygenase product prostaglandin E was also found in small amounts in the heart. Isolated hearts were exposed either to these fatty acid precursors or to 8-HEPE, 12-HEPE or prostaglandin E3, and the effect on heart rate was recorded. Both eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids stimulated the heart rate at concentrations between 50 and 200 micromol l(-1). 12-HEPE (5 micromol l(-1)) and prostaglandin E3 (50 micromoll(-1)) caused a modest increase in heart rate, while 8-HEPE had no significant effects at any of the time periods studied (

  14. Enantioselective ProPhenol-Catalyzed Addition of 1,3-Diynes to Aldehydes to Generate Synthetically Versatile Building Blocks and Diyne Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Chan, Vincent S.; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    A highly enantioselective method for the catalytic addition of terminal 1,3-diynes to aldehydes was developed using our dinuclear zinc ProPhenol (1) system. Furthermore, triphenylphosphine oxide was found to interact synergistically with the catalyst to substantially enhance the chiral recognition. The generality of this catalytic transformation was demonstrated with aryl, α,β-unsaturated and saturated aldehydes, of which the latter were previously limited in alkynyl zinc additions. The chiral diynol products are also versatile building blocks that can be readily elaborated; this was illustrated through highly selective trans-hydrosilylations, which enabled the synthesis of a β-hydroxyketone and enyne. Additionally, the development of this method allowed for the rapid total syntheses of several biologically important diynol-containing natural products. PMID:20307084

  15. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  16. Acclimation to Chronic O3 in Field-grown Soybean is Characterized by Increased Levels of TCA Cycle Transcripts and ROS Scavenging Compounds in Addition to Decreased Photosynthetic Capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant that is generated by volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and sunlight. When plants take in O3 through stomata, harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced that induce the production of ROS scavenging antioxidants. Climate change predictions indic...

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. ToF-SIMS analysis of anti-fretting films generated on the surface of ball bearings containing dithiocarbamate and dithiophosphate grease additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, Ricardo G.; Wang, Zhiyu; Duell, Dave; Fowler, David E.

    2004-06-01

    During transport of hard drives from the factory to the end customer, vibrations can induce small repetitive displacements of the ball bearings giving rise to fretting corrosion at the metal surfaces. On the other hand, it has been found that some particular types of grease additives can form thin layers on steel surfaces and thus protect against fretting corrosion. ToF-SIMS has been used to study the chemical nature of layers formed on bearing surfaces containing greases with dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, and metal sulfonate additives. In cases where fretting was prevented, the presence of MoS 2-, FeS - and ion fragments containing Mo-Fe-S - were observed, whereas none of these ions were detected on the surfaces of fretted bearings. Finally, it is inferred that the action of metal sulfonates may have an antagonist effect on the anti-fretting activity of the dithiocarbamate and dithiophosphate compounds studied.

  19. Photovoltaic efficiency enhancement by the generation of an embedded silica-like passivation layer along the P3HT/PCBM interface using an asymmetric block-copolymer additive.

    PubMed

    Han, Mingu; Kim, Hyungsoo; Seo, Hyungtak; Ma, Biwu; Park, Ji-Woong

    2012-12-11

    A new approach to improve the power conversion efficiency of polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells is demonstrated by generating a silica-like passivation layer embedded along the three-dimensionally intertwined interfaces between the nanoscopic domains of P3HT and PCBM by addition of an aymmetric block copolymer containing a short organo-silica precursor.

  20. Multicomponent reactions of phosphines, enynedioates and benzylidene malononitriles generated highly substituted cyclopentenes through an unexpected phosphine α-addition-δ-evolvement of an anion pathway.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shih-Ching; Sung, Shih-Ping; Deng, Jie-Cheng; Chiou, Mong-Feng; Hsu, Day-Shin

    2016-02-21

    Multicomponent reactions of phosphines, enynedioates and benzylidene malononitriles provide highly substituted syn-selective cyclopentenes appending the phosphorus ylide moiety in good yield with a diastereoselectivity of up to 100% through resonance-derived 1,5-dipolar species as the key intermediates, via the nucleophilic α(δ')-attack of phosphines toward enynedioates followed by addition to benzylidene malononitriles and 5-exo-dig cyclization. Through computational analyses, the overall reactions for the formation of syn- and anti-diastereomers are both exothermic with 65.6 and 66.3 kcal mol(-1) at the B3LYP-D3/6-31G(d) level of theory and were found to be kinetically controlled, which favours the formation of syn-diastereomers.

  1. Variable capacity flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, M.

    1985-06-04

    A variable capacity flywheel comprises a main flywheel coupled with the rotating shaft of an engine and at least one rotatable auxiliary flywheel. Both are selectively engaged and disengaged with one another by means of an electromagnetic clutch. Both flywheels are engaged with one another by an energizing member in the low speed range of said engine. Both are disengaged from one another by means of excitation control of the electromagnetic clutch in the high speed range of the engine. A generator driven by the engine rotating shaft is connected in series with the electromagnetic clutch and a battery.

  2. External Sulfur Addition in the Generation of Sulfide-rich Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits: The Importance of Focused Magma Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfide-rich Ni-Cu-PGE orebodies hosted in mafic to ultramafic igneous rocks require focused magma flow and vigorous interaction with country rocks to liberate sulfide, as well as to produce traps for immiscible sulfide liquid. In the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), Ni-rich sulfide deposits occur in conduit systems. Variations in S and Os isotope ratios indicate that magmas which followed different crustal pathways were focused into a central conduit that supplied overlying flows and sills. The 1.3 Ga Voisey's Bay deposit in Labrador represents sulfide liquid collection in a conduit system which includes dike-like bodies and larger sub-horizontal chambers. Variable d34S values again strongly suggest that focused magma flow and turbulence in the conduit resulted in the input of magmatic pulses that had undergone S isotopic homogenization even though pelitic country rocks are characterized by a range in S isotope values from -17 to +18 ‰. A very similar physical setting characterizes the sulfide-bearing Duke Island Complex, a Cretaceous - aged Ural-Alaskan intrusion in an arc setting. Magma pulses of variable sulfur isotopic compositions were focused into a central chamber where sulfide-bearing magma spread laterally. Trapped silicate liquid was efficiently expelled, leaving sulfide-bearing ultramafic cumulates. A less turbulent environment is indicated for sheet-like intrusions that carry disseminated sulfide mineralization in the Duluth Complex within the MRS. However, the potential ore sequences were built from multiple pulses of magma of distinct S isotope values that had interacted with sulfidic country rocks characterized by different S isotope compositions. Hence, the focusing of magmas from different pathways has been essential for the generation of potential sulfide-rich ore bodies in the Duluth Complex as well.

  3. Blastoid mantle cell lymphoma: evidence for nonrandom cytogenetic abnormalities additional to t(11;14) and generation of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    M'kacher, R; Farace, F; Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Violot, D; Clausse, B; Dossou, J; Valent, A; Parmentier, C; Ribrag, V; Bosq, J; Carde, P; Turhan, A G; Bernheim, A

    2003-05-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32), which is associated with cyclin D1 hyperexpression and a poor prognosis. MCL cases have been shown to progress to a more aggressive disease but the molecular events responsible of this phenomenon have not been determined. We have established two cell lines from the pleural effusions of two patients with MCL that we have used for further cytogenetic characterization to better define the incidence and nature of secondary chromosome abnormalities using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, whole chromosome paint, and specific probes. Both cell lines grew independently without growth factors. Using CCND1/IGH-specific probes, patient UPN1 was found to have a masked t(11;14). Numerous and complex chromosomal abnormalities were found in both cell lines affecting chromosomes 2, 8, 13, 18, 22, X, and Y. These abnormalities included 8p losses, suggesting the presence of an anti-oncogene in this region, rearrangements of 8q24, MYC gene, and translocations involving 8, X, and Y chromosomes, which might be significant in the pathogenesis of MCL progression. The use of the cell lines (UPN1) allowed us to generate a mouse model of human MCL, mimicking a disseminated lymphoma and leading to the death of the animals in 4 weeks. This blastoid MCL model could be of major interest to determine molecular events involved in MCL progression, allowing isolation of involved genes and their functional characterization, and to study the effects of new chemotherapy regimens in mouse models.

  4. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M; Yeom, Min Sun; Eastman, Peter K; Lemkul, Justin A; Wei, Shuai; Buckner, Joshua; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Qi, Yifei; Jo, Sunhwan; Pande, Vijay S; Case, David A; Brooks, Charles L; MacKerell, Alexander D; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil

    2016-01-12

    Proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.

  5. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; ...

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find themore » optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.« less

  6. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; Yeom, Min Sun; Eastman, Peter K.; Lemkul, Justin A.; Wei, Shuai; Buckner, Joshua; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Qi, Yifei; Jo, Sunhwan; Pande, Vijay S.; Case, David A.; Brooks, Charles L.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Im, Wonpil

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.

  7. Superadditivity of classical capacity revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyavets, Oleg V.; Karpov, Evgueni A.; Schäfer, Joachim

    2014-12-04

    We introduce new type of superadditivity for classical capacity of quantum channels, which involves the properties of channels’ environment. By imposing different restrictions on the total energy contained in channels’ environment we can consider different types of superadditivity. Using lossy bosonic and additive noise quantum channels as examples, we demonstrate that their capacities can be either additive or superadditive depending on the values of channels parameters. The parameters corresponding to transition between the additive and superadditive cases are related with recently found critical and supercritical parameters for Gaussian channels.

  8. Dolutegravir-Selected HIV-1 Containing the N155H and R263K Resistance Substitutions Does Not Acquire Additional Compensatory Mutations under Drug Pressure That Lead to Higher-Level Resistance and Increased Replicative Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Anstett, Kaitlin; Fusco, Robert; Cutillas, Vincent; Mesplède, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously shown that the addition of the raltegravir/elvitegavir (RAL/EVG) primary resistance mutation N155H to the R263K dolutegravir (DTG) resistance mutation partially compensated for the fitness cost imposed by R263K while also slightly increasing DTG resistance in vitro (K. Anstett, T. Mesplede, M. Oliveira, V. Cutillas, and M. A. Wainberg, J Virol 89:4681–4684, 2015, doi:10.1128/JVI.03485-14). Since many patients failing RAL/EVG are given DTG as part of rescue therapy, and given that the N155H substitution often is found in combination with other compensatory resistance mutations in such individuals, we investigated the effects of multiple such substitutions within integrase (IN) on each of integrase function, HIV-1 infectivity, and levels of drug resistance. To this end, each of the L74M, E92Q, T97A, E157Q, and G163R substitutions were introduced into NL4.3 subtype B HIV-1 vectors harboring N155H and R263K in tandem [termed NL4.3IN(N155H/R263K)]. Relevant recombinant integrase enzymes also were expressed, and purified and biochemical assays of strand transfer efficiency as well as viral infectivity and drug resistance studies were performed. We found that the addition of T97A, E157Q, or G163R somewhat improved the affinity of INN155H/R263K for its target DNA substrate, while the presence of L74M or E92Q had a negative effect on this process. However, viral infectivity was significantly decreased from that of NL4.3IN(N155H/R263K) after the addition of each tertiary mutation, and no increases in levels of DTG resistance were observed. This work shows that the compensatory mutations that evolve after N155H under continued DTG or RAL/EVG pressure in patients are unable to improve either enzyme efficiency or viral infectivity in an N155H/R263K background. IMPORTANCE In contrast to other drugs, dolutegravir has not selected for resistance in HIV-positive individuals when used in first-line therapy. We had previously shown that HIV containing

  9. Dolutegravir-Selected HIV-1 Containing the N155H and R263K Resistance Substitutions Does Not Acquire Additional Compensatory Mutations under Drug Pressure That Lead to Higher-Level Resistance and Increased Replicative Capacity.

    PubMed

    Anstett, Kaitlin; Fusco, Robert; Cutillas, Vincent; Mesplède, Thibault; Wainberg, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown that the addition of the raltegravir/elvitegavir (RAL/EVG) primary resistance mutation N155H to the R263K dolutegravir (DTG) resistance mutation partially compensated for the fitness cost imposed by R263K while also slightly increasing DTG resistance in vitro (K. Anstett, T. Mesplede, M. Oliveira, V. Cutillas, and M. A. Wainberg, J Virol 89:4681-4684, 2015, doi:10.1128/JVI.03485-14). Since many patients failing RAL/EVG are given DTG as part of rescue therapy, and given that the N155H substitution often is found in combination with other compensatory resistance mutations in such individuals, we investigated the effects of multiple such substitutions within integrase (IN) on each of integrase function, HIV-1 infectivity, and levels of drug resistance. To this end, each of the L74M, E92Q, T97A, E157Q, and G163R substitutions were introduced into NL4.3 subtype B HIV-1 vectors harboring N155H and R263K in tandem [termed NL4.3IN(N155H/R263K)]. Relevant recombinant integrase enzymes also were expressed, and purified and biochemical assays of strand transfer efficiency as well as viral infectivity and drug resistance studies were performed. We found that the addition of T97A, E157Q, or G163R somewhat improved the affinity of INN155H/R263K for its target DNA substrate, while the presence of L74M or E92Q had a negative effect on this process. However, viral infectivity was significantly decreased from that of NL4.3IN(N155H/R263K) after the addition of each tertiary mutation, and no increases in levels of DTG resistance were observed. This work shows that the compensatory mutations that evolve after N155H under continued DTG or RAL/EVG pressure in patients are unable to improve either enzyme efficiency or viral infectivity in an N155H/R263K background. In contrast to other drugs, dolutegravir has not selected for resistance in HIV-positive individuals when used in first-line therapy. We had previously shown that HIV containing the primary raltegravir

  10. Pulp capacity in the United States, 2000.

    Treesearch

    Brett R. Smith; Robert W. Rice; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    Production capacities of all woodpulp mills in the United States are identified by location, ownership, and process type. For each mill, production capacity is reported for the year 2000 by process type; total mill capacities are also reported for 1961, 1965, 1979, 1974, and 1983. In addition, the report summarizes the recent history and current status of woodpulp...

  11. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes...

  12. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes...

  13. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes...

  14. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes...

  15. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes...

  16. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  17. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  18. Grape and grape seed extract capacities at protecting LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+, AAPH or SIN-1 and at decreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. A comparison to other extracts or compounds.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Manijeh; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Urban, Nelly; Descomps, Bernard; Leger, Claude L

    2003-05-01

    A large body of evidence supports the key role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity of natural polyphenols (PP) from Vitis vinifera and Olea europea at protecting LDL against oxidation brought about by Cu2+, oxygen-centered radical-generating AAPH, or peroxynitrite-generating SIN-1 in vitro systems, or at impairing superoxide production in promonocyte cells (THP-1) conveniently differentiated into adherent macrophages. PP were either from the whole grape (fraction A) containing mainly procyanidins, (epi)-catechin and anthocyanins, or from grape seed extracts (fractions B and C) consisting of tannins and procyanidin oligomers with a higher content in B than in C, or from a grape skin extract (fraction D) consisting mainly of anthocyanins, or from a hydrosoluble olive mill wastewater PP extract (fraction E) containing hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein. Chlorogenic acid (F) and catechin (G) were taken as archetypes of PP preventing oxidation partly as copper scavenger and as radical scavenger only, respectively. All grape fractions were efficient towards Cu2+ system (equally or more efficient than F), whereas they were rather poorly efficient towards AAPH and SIN-1 (less efficient than G but as efficient as F). Among the PP fractions, B was the most effective at protecting LDL in the SIN-1 system and at impairing THP-1 superoxide production. Taken together, these data suggest that the PP fraction from grape seed rich in procyanidins achieves the best compromise between the direct and indirect (i.e. cell-mediated) types of action in protecting LDL against oxidation, strengthening the need for improving the knowledge of its bioavailability in humans.

  19. Parallel inhibition of active force and relaxed fiber stiffness by caldesmon fragments at physiological ionic strength and temperature conditions: additional evidence that weak cross-bridge binding to actin is an essential intermediate for force generation.

    PubMed

    Kraft, T; Chalovich, J M; Yu, L C; Brenner, B

    1995-06-01

    Previously we showed that stiffness of relaxed fibers and active force generated in single skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle are inhibited in parallel by actin-binding fragments of caldesmon, an actin-associated protein of smooth muscle, under conditions in which a large fraction of cross-bridges is weakly attached to actin (ionic strength of 50 mM and temperature of 5 degrees C). These results suggested that weak cross-bridge attachment to actin is essential for force generation. The present study provides evidence that this is also true for physiological ionic strength (170 mM) at temperatures up to 30 degrees C, suggesting that weak cross-bridge binding to actin is generally required for force generation. In addition, we show that the inhibition of active force is not a result of changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics but apparently results from selective inhibition of weak cross-bridge binding to actin. Together with our previous biochemical, mechanical, and structural studies, these findings support the proposal that weak cross-bridge attachment to actin is an essential intermediate on the path to force generation and are consistent with the concept that isometric force mainly results from an increase in strain of the attached cross-bridge as a result of a structural change associated with the transition from a weakly bound to a strongly bound actomyosin complex. This mechanism is different from the processes responsible for quick tension recovery that were proposed by Huxley and Simmons (Proposed mechanism of force generation in striated muscle. Nature. 233:533-538.) to represent the elementary mechanism of force generation.

  20. Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, A. D.; Suibhne, N. Mac; Saad, D.; Payne, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    This issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Part A represents a summary of the recent discussion meeting ‘Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch’. The purpose of the meeting was to establish the nature of the capacity crunch, estimate the time scales associated with it and to begin to find solutions to enable continued growth in a post-crunch era. The meeting confirmed that, in addition to a capacity shortage within a single optical fibre, many other ‘crunches’ are foreseen in the field of communications, both societal and technical. Technical crunches identified included the nonlinear Shannon limit, wireless spectrum, distribution of 5G signals (front haul and back haul), while societal influences included net neutrality, creative content generation and distribution and latency, and finally energy and cost. The meeting concluded with the observation that these many crunches are genuine and may influence our future use of technology, but encouragingly noted that research and business practice are already moving to alleviate many of the negative consequences. PMID:26809575

  1. Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A D; Mac Suibhne, N; Saad, D; Payne, D N

    2016-03-06

    This issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Part A represents a summary of the recent discussion meeting 'Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch'. The purpose of the meeting was to establish the nature of the capacity crunch, estimate the time scales associated with it and to begin to find solutions to enable continued growth in a post-crunch era. The meeting confirmed that, in addition to a capacity shortage within a single optical fibre, many other 'crunches' are foreseen in the field of communications, both societal and technical. Technical crunches identified included the nonlinear Shannon limit, wireless spectrum, distribution of 5G signals (front haul and back haul), while societal influences included net neutrality, creative content generation and distribution and latency, and finally energy and cost. The meeting concluded with the observation that these many crunches are genuine and may influence our future use of technology, but encouragingly noted that research and business practice are already moving to alleviate many of the negative consequences. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  3. Rehabilitation medicine summit: building research capacity Executive Summary

    PubMed Central

    Frontera, Walter R; Fuhrer, Marcus J; Jette, Alan M; Chan, Leighton; Cooper, Rory A; Duncan, Pamela W; Kemp, John D; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Peckham, P Hunter; Roth, Elliot J; Tate, Denise G

    2006-01-01

    The general objective of the "Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity" was to advance and promote research in medical rehabilitation by making recommendations to expand research capacity. The five elements of research capacity that guided the discussions were: 1) researchers; 2) research culture, environment, and infrastructure; 3) funding; 4) partnerships; and 5) metrics. The 100 participants included representatives of professional organizations, consumer groups, academic departments, researchers, governmental funding agencies, and the private sector. The small group discussions and plenary sessions generated an array of problems, possible solutions, and recommended actions. A post-Summit, multi-organizational initiative is called to pursue the agendas outlined in this report (see Additional File 1). PMID:16390550

  4. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... adjusted for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  5. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  6. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  7. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... adjusted for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  8. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  9. Capacities of quantum amplifier channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.

  10. WASP and electricity capacity expansion planning for emerging countries

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J

    1980-11-01

    The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence the name WIEN. It is available without charge to member states. Assistance in its use is available from IAEA staff and in addition it is well documented. The user of WASP should be aware of its uses and limitations especially, though not exclusively, in its application to emerging countries. This paper presents an overview of capacity expansion planning and its place in the economic planning process with reference to the emerging countries; describes in a general way the use of WASP; cautions care in the interpretation of WASP results; and suggests the way in which WASP can be used to assess innovative electric generating technologies.

  11. Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) resistance and immune characteristics of pig lines generated by crossing an MPS pulmonary lesion selected Landrace line and a highly immune capacity selected Large White line.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Uchida, Takafumi; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the influence of crossbreeding on Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) resistance and immune characteristics, two crossbred lines were characterized. One crossbred line, LaWa, was generated by crossing the MPS pulmonary lesion selected Landrace line (La) and the highly immune-selected Large White line (Wa). The second crossbred line, LaWb, was generated by crossing the La line and the nonselected Large White line (Wb). The crossbred LbWb line (nonselected Landrace line × nonselected Large White line) and the La line were used as controls. The LaWa and LaWb lines had an intermediate level of MPS lung lesions between La and LbWb lines, although the difference was not statistically significant. After stimulation with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), the LaWb and LaWa lines showed immune characteristics similar to that of the La line; the number of monocytes in peripheral blood increased, while B cells, T cells, secretion of SRBC-specific immunoglobulin G, and interleukin (IL)-13 decreased. Additionally, the number of natural killer (NK) cells and the expression of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly higher in the LaWb and LaWa lines, respectively. These data suggested that crossbreeding of La and Wa lines resulted in the inheritance of some of the selected immune responses.

  12. Liberating Leadership Capacity: Pathways to Educational Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda; Zimmerman, Diane P.; Gardner, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    During the past quarter century, conceptions of leadership have evolved in concert with breakthrough discoveries in science and generative learning. "Liberating Leadership Capacity" captures these new ideas through the integration of the authors' earlier works in constructivist leadership and leadership capacity. What emerges is a…

  13. Liberating Leadership Capacity: Pathways to Educational Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda; Zimmerman, Diane P.; Gardner, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    During the past quarter century, conceptions of leadership have evolved in concert with breakthrough discoveries in science and generative learning. "Liberating Leadership Capacity" captures these new ideas through the integration of the authors' earlier works in constructivist leadership and leadership capacity. What emerges is a…

  14. Determination of HEat Capacity of Yucca Mountain Strtigraphic Layers

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hadgu; C. Lum; J.E. Bean

    2006-06-20

    The heat generated from the radioactive waste to be placed in the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will affect the thermal-hydrology of the Yucca Mountain stratigraphic layers. In order to assess the effect of the movement of repository heat into the fractured rocks accurate determination of thermodynamic and hydraulic properties is important. Heat capacity is one of the properties that are required to evaluate energy storage in the fractured rock. Rock-grain heat capacity, the subject of this study, is the heat capacity of the solid part of the rock. Yucca Mountain consists of alternating lithostratigraphic units of welded and non-welded ash-flow tuff, mainly rhyolitic in composition and displaying varying degrees of vitrification and alteration. A number of methods exist that can be used to evaluate heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers that consist of different compositions. In this study, the mineral summation method has been used to quantify the heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers based on Kopp's rule. The mineral summation method is an addition of the weighted heat capacity of each mineral found in a specific layer. For this study the weighting was done based on the mass percentage of each mineral in the layer. The method utilized a mineralogic map of the rocks at the Yucca Mountain repository site. The Calico Hills formation and adjacent bedded tuff layers display a bimodal mineral distribution of vitric and zeolitic zones with differing mineralogies. Based on this bimodal distribution in zeolite abundance, the boundary between the vitric and zeolitic zones was selected to be 15% zeolitic abundance. Thus, based on the zeolite abundance, subdivisions have been introduced to these layers into ''vitric'' and ''zeolitic'' zones. Heat capacity values have been calculated for these layers both as ''layer average'' and ''zone average''. The heat capacity determination method presented in this report did not account for spatial

  15. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  16. Assured load carrying capability and capacity credit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, H.

    1981-04-01

    The determination of assured load carrying capability and the capacity credit for use in planning windpowered electric generation facilities is considered. Calculation of the available capacity of thermal power plants is described and compared with calculation of available capacity for wind turbines, taking into account outages caused by the unavailability of the primary energy, wind. The assured load carrying capability of power plants is defined. An operational definition of the capacity credit of wind turbines as related to a fixed time t Epsilon T is presented and extended to the period T.

  17. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  18. Screening somatic cell nuclear transfer parameters for generation of transgenic cloned cattle with intragenomic integration of additional gene copies that encode bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Li, Hejuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xingrong; Sheng, Xihui; Chang, Di; Qi, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Ni, Hemin

    2017-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently used to produce transgenic cloned livestock, but it is still associated with low success rates. To our knowledge, we are the first to report successful production of transgenic cattle that overexpress bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABPs) with the aid of SCNT. Intragenomic integration of additional A-FABP gene copies has been found to be positively correlated with the intramuscular fat content in different farm livestock species. First, we optimized the cloning parameters to produce bovine embryos integrated with A-FABP by SCNT, such as applied voltage field strength and pulse duration for electrofusion, morphology and size of donor cells, and number of donor cells passages. Then, bovine fibroblast cells from Qinchuan cattle were transfected with A-FABP and used as donor cells for SCNT. Hybrids of Simmental and Luxi local cattle were selected as the recipient females for A-FABP transgenic SCNT-derived embryos. The results showed that a field strength of 2.5 kV/cm with two 10-μs duration electrical pulses was ideal for electrofusion, and 4-6th generation circular smooth type donor cells with diameters of 15-25 μm were optimal for producing transgenic bovine embryos by SCNT, and resulted in higher fusion (80%), cleavage (73%), and blastocyst (27%) rates. In addition, we obtained two transgenic cloned calves that expressed additional bovine A-FABP gene copies, as detected by PCR-amplified cDNA sequencing. We proposed a set of optimal protocols to produce transgenic SCNT-derived cattle with intragenomic integration of ectopic A-FABP-inherited exon sequences.

  19. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan; Collins, Michael; Hodges, Richard; Orr, Richard S.; Sands, O. Scott; Schuchman, Leonard; Vyas, Hemali

    2007-01-01

    High capacity communications from Martian distances, required for the envisioned human exploration and desirable for data-intensive science missions, is challenging. NASA s Deep Space Network currently requires large antennas to close RF telemetry links operating at kilobit-per-second data rates. To accommodate higher rate communications, NASA is considering means to achieve greater effective aperture at its ground stations. This report, focusing on the return link from Mars to Earth, demonstrates that without excessive research and development expenditure, operational Mars-to-Earth RF communications systems can achieve data rates up to 1 Gbps by 2020 using technology that today is at technology readiness level (TRL) 4-5. Advanced technology to achieve the needed increase in spacecraft power and transmit aperture is feasible at an only moderate increase in spacecraft mass and technology risk. In addition, both power-efficient, near-capacity coding and modulation and greater aperture from the DSN array will be required. In accord with these results and conclusions, investment in the following technologies is recommended:(1) lightweight (1 kg/sq m density) spacecraft antenna systems; (2) a Ka-band receive ground array consisting of relatively small (10-15 m) antennas; (3) coding and modulation technology that reduces spacecraft power by at least 3 dB; and (4) efficient generation of kilowatt-level spacecraft RF power.

  20. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  1. Psychiatric issues in retrospective challenges of testamentary capacity.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Kenneth I; Cohen, Carole A; Hull, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Challenges to Wills on the basis of lack of testamentary capacity are likely to increase due to a combination of economic factors, high prevalence of mental disorders in old age and the complexity of many modern families. Geriatric psychiatrists and other experts will be asked to provide expert assessment of the testamentary capacity of individuals whose Wills are being challenged retrospectively. The traditional criteria described in the Banks vs Goodfellow case have been held as the standard for testamentary capacity. However, these criteria may not be comprehensive enough for the coming generation of expert assessors. The literature and selected international case law relevant to testamentary capacity were reviewed. Particular focus is placed on the conceptual and empirical approaches to the assessment of complex capacities that may inform the development of specific legal standards. In addition, 25 consecutive medico-legal reports on retrospective testamentary capacity were analyzed according to co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders as well as psychosocial and behavioural variables. Illustrative case vignettes are included. The typical profile for retrospective challenges to testamentary capacity included a radical change from a previous Will (72%), where undue influence was alleged (56%), in a testator with no biological children (52%), who executed the Will less than a year prior to death (48%). Co-morbid conditions were dementia (40%), alcohol abuse (28%) and other neurological/psychiatric conditions (28%). While Banks vs Goodfellow continues to provide a sound basis for assessing testamentary (task-specific) capacity, the complexity and subtlety of the issues reflected in these cases highlight the need to go beyond the traditional criteria and assess situation-specific factors. Expert assessors need to determine whether the testator appreciated the consequences of executing or changing a Will, especially when there has been a radical change in the

  2. Appendix M: GPRA05 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into Green Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The model projects green power-capacity additions through both green power marketing programs in deregulated markets, and utility green pricing programs in regulated markets.

  3. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  4. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  5. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  6. Next Generation Internet Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, R.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation Internet are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Internet architecture; 2) NASA's advanced networking; 3) Internet capability, capacity and applications; and 4) Systems engineering.

  7. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  8. Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: building research capacity.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Walter R; Fuhrer, Marcus J; Jette, Alan M; Chan, Leighton; Cooper, Rory A; Duncan, Pamela W; Kemp, John D; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Peckham, P Hunter; Roth, Elliot J; Tate, Denise G

    2005-12-01

    The general objective of the "Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity" was to advance and promote research in medical rehabilitation by making recommendations to expand research capacity. The five elements of research capacity that guided the discussions were: 1) researchers; 2) research culture, environment, and infrastructure; 3) funding; 4) partnerships; and 5) metrics. The 100 participants included representatives of professional organizations, consumer groups, academic departments, researchers, governmental funding agencies, and the private sector. The small group discussions and plenary sessions generated an array of problems, possible solutions, and recommended actions. A post-Summit, multi-organizational initiative is called for to pursue the agendas outlined in this report.

  9. The integration of terrestrial and extraterrestrial solar generators into existing power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoy, B.; Beyer, U.

    The effectiveness of a decentralized terrestrial solar-power generation system and a solar-power-satellite/microwave-transmission generation system is analyzed comparatively for the case of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The models considered are a 5-GW-peak-capacity network comprising one million 50-sq-m roof arrays of Si solar cells and the 5-GW-capacity 52-sq-km-array 100-sq-km-receiver reference satellite system proposed by the DOE and NASA; both models are assumed to be integrated into the present FRG power network, and the load requirements and system outputs are compared in a series of graphs and diagrams. The terrestrial system is found to provide no savings in grid-capacity or plant-capacity requirements and minimal fuel savings (at least in the FRG climate) corresponding to at most 5 Pfennig/kWh. The satellite system, assuming that a European grid can provide an emergency reserve, offers substantial fuel and plant-capacity savings corresponding to about 8.75 Pfennig/kWh. It is pointed out that the overall economy of these systems depends on the investment costs of installing them (plus the investment cost of additional conventional plant capacity for the terrestrial model).

  10. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  11. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  12. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  13. Methodology and method and apparatus for signaling with capacity optimized constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged F. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Communication systems having transmitter, includes a coder configured to receive user bits and output encoded bits at an expanded output encoded bit rate, a mapper configured to map encoded bits to symbols in a symbol constellation, a modulator configured to generate a signal for transmission via the communication channel using symbols generated by the mapper. In addition, the receiver includes a demodulator configured to demodulate the received signal via the communication channel, a demapper configured to estimate likelihoods from the demodulated signal, a decoder that is configured to estimate decoded bits from the likelihoods generated by the demapper. Furthermore, the symbol constellation is a capacity optimized geometrically spaced symbol constellation that provides a given capacity at a reduced signal-to-noise ratio compared to a signal constellation that maximizes d.sub.min.

  14. Different capacity of in vitro generated myeloid dendritic cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers to respond to probiotic strain E. coli O83:K24:H31.

    PubMed

    Súkeníková, Lenka; Černý, Viktor; Novotná, Olga; Petrásková, Petra; Boráková, Kristýna; Kolářová, Libuše; Prokešová, Ludmila; Hrdý, Jiří

    2017-09-01

    Allergic diseases belong to one of the most common diseases with steadily increasing incidence even among young children. There is an urgent need to identify a prognostic marker pointing to increased risk of allergy development enabling early preventive measures introduction. It has been shown that administration of selected probiotic strains or mixtures could prevent allergy development. In our study, we have tested the capacity of probiotic strain Escherichia coli O83:K24:H31 (E. coli O83) to promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation and polarisation of immune responses. Increased presence of activation marker CD83 was observed on DC stimulated by E. coli O83 and DC of newborns of allergic mothers have significantly more increased cell surface presence of CD83 in comparison to children of healthy mothers. Increased gene expression and secretion of IL-10 was detected in DC stimulated with E. coli O83 being higher in DC of newborns of healthy mothers in comparison to allergic ones. Generally, increased presence of intracellular cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IFN-gamma, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-10) was detected in CD4+ T cells cocultured with DC of children of allergic mothers in comparison to healthy ones. E. coli O83 primed DC significantly increased IL-10 and IL-17A in CD4 T cells of newborns of healthy mothers in comparison to the levels detected in CD4 T cells cocultured with control non-stimulated DC. We can conclude E. coli O83 induces dendritic cell maturation and IL-10 production in DC. Newborns of allergic mothers have generally increased reactivity of both DC and CD4 T cells which together with decreased capacity of DC of newborns of allergic mothers to produce IL-10 could support inappropriate immune responses development after allergen encounter. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quasi-superactivation for the classical capacity of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2014-12-04

    The superactivation effect has its roots in the extreme violation of additivity of the channel capacity and enables to reliably transmit quantum information over zero-capacity quantum channels. In this work we demonstrate a similar effect for the classical capacity of a quantum channel which previously was thought to be impossible.

  16. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights, deinstitutionalization, and disability rights movements. Because of these forces, capacity issues now permeate the fabric of everyday life, whether in the form of guardianship petitions, questions of capacity to consent to treatment, the ability to make a new will, or participation in human research. In seeking to resolve these issues, families, clinicians, and legal professionals increasingly turn to psychologists to assess a capacity and to provide empirically supported judgments that properly balance autonomy and protection for the individual. Psychologists have taken a leading role in the development of functional assessment instruments that measure important aspects of the capacity construct. In addition, psychology has been a major contributor to the scientific study of capacity. In collaboration with colleagues from medicine and law, psychologists have articulated crucial theoretical frameworks that integrate legal, clinical, and ethical dimensions of the capacity problem. This article focuses on the evolution of theory, law, science, and practice in the evaluation of capacity in older adults and its recent culmination in a series of interdisciplinary handbooks sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the American Bar Association. PMID:23586491

  17. Assessment of capacity in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights, deinstitutionalization, and disability rights movements. Because of these forces, capacity issues now permeate the fabric of everyday life, whether in the form of guardianship petitions, questions of capacity to consent to treatment, the ability to make a new will, or participation in human research. In seeking to resolve these issues, families, clinicians, and legal professionals increasingly turn to psychologists to assess a capacity and to provide empirically supported judgments that properly balance autonomy and protection for the individual. Psychologists have taken a leading role in the development of functional assessment instruments that measure important aspects of the capacity construct. In addition, psychology has been a major contributor to the scientific study of capacity. In collaboration with colleagues from medicine and law, psychologists have articulated crucial theoretical frameworks that integrate legal, clinical, and ethical dimensions of the capacity problem. This article focuses on the evolution of theory, law, science, and practice in the evaluation of capacity in older adults and its recent culmination in a series of interdisciplinary handbooks sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the American Bar Association.

  18. Nutritional aspects of second generation soy foods.

    PubMed

    Alezandro, Marcela Roquim; Granato, Daniel; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés

    2011-05-25

    Samples of 15 second generation soy-based products (n = 3), commercially available, were analyzed for their protein and isoflavone contents and in vitro antioxidant activity, by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing ability, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Isoflavone identification and quantification were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Products containing soy and/or soy-based ingredients represent important sources of protein in addition to the low fat amounts. However, a large variation in isoflavone content and in vitro antioxidant capacity was observed. The isoflavone content varied from 2.4 to 18.1 mg/100 g (FW), and soy kibe and soy sausage presented the highest amounts. Chocolate had the highest antioxidant capacity, but this fact was probably associated with the addition of cocoa liquor, a well-known source of polyphenolics. This study showed that the soy-based foods do not present a significant content of isoflavones when compared with the grain, and their in vitro antioxidant capacity is not related with these compounds but rather to the presence of other phenolics and synthetic antioxidants, such as sodium erythorbate. However, they may represent alternative sources and provide soy protein, isoflavones, and vegetable fat for those who are not ready to eat traditional soy foods.

  19. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  20. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  1. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  2. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  3. Panel on Capacity Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhadani, D.

    The demonstration was made that space technologies are an important tool for developing countries. But the fundamental question is how those countries could integrate such technologies, in an effective an operational way, in the process of resources management and administration. Capacity building is a cornerstone in any strategy to set up a national programme or infrastructure for the use of space technologies. The proposed presentation attempts to bring the first elements on the actual uses of space technology in developing countries compared to their needs, the role of training activities and programs in the capacity building process as well as the role of international cooperation and what are the required conditions to ensure sustainability of the established capacities.

  4. Measurement of anaerobic work capacities in humans.

    PubMed

    Green, S

    1995-01-01

    The development of simple, noninvasive tests of work capacities, underpinned primarily by anaerobic metabolism, proliferated in the early 1970s. A 30-second maximal cycle test developed at the Wingate Institute initiated efforts to develop work tests of anaerobic capacities. Such tests can be developed using any ergometer which simulates competitive conditions and enables an accurate determination of mechanical work output. A 10-second all-out test is commonly used to measure maximal work output generated primarily via the hydrolysis of high-energy phosphagens (i.e. the alactic work capacity). In contrast, a variety of constant-load and all-out tests of anaerobic (alactic plus lactic) work capacity have been proposed. It has been suggested that all-out tests provide more information about physiological capabilities and are easier to apply than constant-load tests. The optimal duration for an all-out test of anaerobic work capacity is proposed at 30 seconds, a duration which may also provide the basis for the development of accurate field tests of anaerobic capacity. There is evidence that the y-intercept of the maximal work-derivation regression is a valid work estimate of anaerobic capacity in athletes, although its utility is undermined by the number of tests required for its derivation.

  5. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  6. Available water for hydropower generation in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    A study of available water for hydropower generation was carried out in Swaziland as part of the national water study commissioned by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The study was carried out in 2004/05 and it involved field assessment of major hydropower stations, hydrological assessment of the major water courses where hydropower generation plants are located, climatic changes over the last 10 years and an assessment of the demand for electricity in Swaziland. The study showed that more than 90% of the electricity which Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) provides to its customers is produced by hydropower while a small proportion is produced by diesel power. The study also showed that the capacity of SEB to generate hydropower is limited mainly by low water flows. It was found out that due to limited capacity to generate hydropower, SEB imports most of the electricity from ESKOM in South Africa and that in 2004 the imported power was more that 84% of the total electricity consumed in Swaziland. It was found out that the causes of low water flows were upstream abstractions and long-term drought conditions. This indicated that hydropower generation is now less favourable in Swaziland than it was in the 1970s, when the existing schemes were built or studied. The other cause for reduced availability of water for hydropower generation is deforestation and increasing land use pressure in the catchment leading to high sedimentation levels in reservoirs. It was concluded that, while the future of locally generated hydropower is limited by dwindling water flows, the capacity to generate more power can be increased by constructing additional dams. It was also recommended that deforestation and intensive cultivation of the catchment areas need to be controlled to reduce the sedimentation of hydropower reservoirs and that more dams should be constructed to counteract the effects of droughts on river flows.

  7. Antioxidant capacity of betacyanins as radical scavengers for peroxyl radical and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Taira, Junsei; Tsuchida, Eito; Katoh, Megumi C; Uehara, Masatsugu; Ogi, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the antioxidant capacity of betacyanins as indole derived plant pigments, such as betanin, phyllocactin and betanidin. The antioxidant capacity of the betacyanins was evaluated as an index of radical scavenging ability using the peroxyl radical generating system in the presence of AAPH and NO generating system using NOR3 as an NO donor. The peroxyl radical scavenging capacity was dose-dependent in the low concentration range (25-100 nM). The mol-Trolox equivalent activity/mol compound (mol-TEA/mol-compound) as an index of the antioxidant capacity indicated the following order at 10.70 ± 0.01, 3.31 ± 0.14 and 2.83 ± 0.01 mol-TEA/mol-compound for betanidin, betanin and phyllocactin, respectively. In addition, betacyanins reduced the nitrite-level in the low concentration range of 2.5-20 μM. The IC₅₀ values (μM) of nitrogen radical scavenging activity were 24.48, 17.51 and 6.81 for betanin, phyllocactin and betanidin. ESR studies provided evidence that the compounds directly scavenged NO. These results indicated that betacyanins have a strong antioxidant capacity, particularly betanidin with a catechol group had higher activity than those of the glycoside of betacyanins. This study demonstrated that the betacyanins will be useful as natural pigments to provide defence against oxidative stress.

  8. Testamentary capacity and delirium.

    PubMed

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford

    2010-09-01

    With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.

  9. The perceptual and phenomenal capacity of mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2017-05-01

    Despite the brain's immense processing power, it has finite resources. Where do these resource limits come from? Little research has examined possible low-level sensory contributions to these limitations. Mental imagery is a fundamental part of human cognition that bridges cognition with sensory representations. Hence, imagery serves as a good candidate sensory process for probing how low capacity limitations might extend down the processing hierarchy. Here we introduce a novel technique to measure the sensory capacity of mental imagery, while removing the need for memory and any direct subjective reports. Contrary to our dynamic phenomenological experience, we demonstrate that visual imagery is severely limited by the perceptual and phenomenal bottleneck of visual representation. These capacity limits appear to be independent of generation time, depend on visual feature heterogeneity, are attenuated by concurrent retinal stimulation and are endowed with good metacognition. Additionally, the precision of visual representation declines rapidly with the number of stimuli, which is governed by a simple power law. We anticipate that this assay will be important for mapping the limits of human information processing.

  10. Survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, non-0157 shiga toxin producing E.coli, and potential surrogate bacteria in crop soil as affected by the addition of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fast pyrolysis of switchgrass (and resultant biochar) can be used for bio-fuel production, soil amendments for fertilizing crops, binding heavy metals, and sequestering environmental biocarbon. To determine the influence of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar on survival of foodborne path...

  11. A New Cross-Link for an Old Cross-Linking Drug: The Nitrogen Mustard Anticancer Agent Mechlorethamine Generates Cross-Links Derived from Abasic Sites in Addition to the Expected Drug-Bridged Cross-Links.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Maryam Imani; Johnson, Kevin M; Price, Nathan E; Gates, Kent S

    2016-12-20

    Nitrogen mustard anticancer drugs generate highly reactive aziridinium ions that alkylate DNA. Monoadducts arising from reaction with position N7 of guanine residues are the major DNA adducts generated by these agents. Interstrand cross-links in which the drug bridges position N7 of two guanine residues are formed in low yields relative to those of the monoadducts but are generally thought to be central to medicinal activity. The N7-alkylguanine residues generated by nitrogen mustards are depurinated to yield abasic (Ap) sites in duplex DNA. Here, we show that Ap sites generated by the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine lead to interstrand cross-links of a type not previously associated with this drug. Gel electrophoretic data were consistent with early evolution of the expected drug-bridged cross-links, followed by the appearance of Ap-derived cross-links. The evidence is further consistent with a reaction pathway involving alkylation of a guanine residue in a 5'-GT sequence, followed by depurination to generate the Ap site, and cross-link formation via reaction of the Ap aldehyde residue with the opposing adenine residue at this site [Price, N. E., Johnson, K. M., Wang, J., Fekry, M. I., Wang, Y., and Gates, K. S. (2014) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 3483-3490]. The monofunctional DNA-alkylating agents 2-chloro-N,N-diethylethanamine 5, (2-chloroethyl)ethylsulfide 6, and natural product leinamycin similarly were found to induce the formation of Ap-derived cross-links in duplex DNA. This work provides the first characterization of Ap-derived cross-links at sequences in which a cytosine residue is located directly opposing the Ap site. Cross-linking processes of this type could be relevant in medicine and biology because Ap sites with directly opposing cytosine residues occur frequently in genomic DNA via spontaneous or enzymatic depurination of guanine and N7-alkylguanine residues.

  12. MoO(3-x) nanowire arrays as stable and high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Kim, Jeong H; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini U; Sunkara, Mahendra K

    2012-04-11

    In this study, vertical nanowire arrays of MoO(3-x) grown on metallic substrates with diameters of ~90 nm show high-capacity retention of ~630 mAhg(-1) for up to 20 cycles at 50 mAg(-1) current density. Particularly, they exhibit a capacity retention of ~500 mAhg(-1) in the voltage window of 0.7-0.1 V, much higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite. In addition, 10 nm Si-coated MoO(3-x) nanowire arrays have shown a capacity retention of ~780 mAhg(-1), indicating that hybrid materials are the next generation materials for lithium ion batteries. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  15. Enhancing capacity management.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Houlahan, Beth; Lavrenz, Dennise

    2014-03-01

    It is essential for organizations to be able to accept patients requiring care. Capacity planning and management are necessary to ensure an organization has an accepting physician/service, an available bed, and staff to care for the patient and family. This organization implemented strategies including communication plans, staffing guidelines, morning rounds, proactive planning, and an escalation process to reverse the trend of not being able to accept all patients.

  16. Community Capacity Building

    PubMed Central

    Goytia, Crispin N.; Todaro-Rivera, Lea; Brenner, Barbara; Shepard, Peggy; Piedras, Veronica; Horowitz, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background: Successful community–academic research partnerships require building the capacity of both community-based organizations (CBOs) and academics to conduct collaborative research of mutual interest and benefit. Yet, information about the needs and goals of research-interested CBOs is lacking. Our partnership aimed to conduct a community research needs assessment and to use results to develop future capacity-building programs for CBOs. Methods: Based on our review of the literature, informal interviews with research-interested CBOs and community-engaged research groups locally and nationally, we developed a needs assessment survey. Key domains of this survey included history and experience with research collaboration, interest in specific research topics, and preference for learning format and structure. We trained community health workers (CHWs) to recruit senior leaders from CBOs in New York City (NYC) and encourage them to complete an on-line survey. Results: Fully 54% (33/61) of CBOs completed the needs assessment. Most (69%) reported involvement with research or evaluation in the last 2 years and 33% had some funding for research. Although 75% had collaborated with academic institutions in the past, 58% did not rate this experience well. The four areas respondents prioritized for skills building were program evaluation, developing needs assessments, building surveys, and understanding statistical analyses. They were less interested in learning to build collaborations with academics. Conclusions: A formal needs assessment of research training and educational needs of CBOs revealed that most had experience, albeit negative, with academic collaborations. CBO leaders wanted to build skills to conduct and analyze assessments and program evaluations. Our community–academic partnership is using these findings to develop a research capacity-building course. Other partnerships should consider conducting such assessments to transform the capacity of CBOs to

  17. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  18. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  19. Augmentation of bacterial homeostasis by regulating in situ buffer capacity: Significance of total dissolved salts over acidogenic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Srikanth, S; Nikhil, G N

    2017-02-01

    During anaerobic fermentation, consequent accumulation of acidic fermented products leads to the failure of pH homeostasis. The present study aimed to comprehend the changes in buffering capacity with addition of sodium salts of hydroxide, bicarbonate and phosphate. The results showed notable augmentation in buffer capacity and cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) compared to control. The influential factor is the amount of undissociated volatile fatty acids released that affected the cell metabolism and consequently biohydrogen generation. It is inferred that among the tested salts, sodium bicarbonate has substantial buffering capacity (β, 0.035± mol) ensuing maximum CHP (468± mL). Besides, bioelectrochemical analysis revealed variations in redox currents that aligned with biohydrogen production. The study provides valuable information on the role of inorganic dissolved salts that would be required to regulate H2 generation and acidogenesis in the aspects of acid-gas phase system.

  20. Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Frontera, Walter R; Fuhrer, Marcus J; Jette, Alan M; Chan, Leighton; Cooper, Rory A; Duncan, Pamela W; Kemp, John D; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Peckham, P Hunter; Roth, Elliot J; Tate, Denise G

    2006-01-01

    Summary: The general objective of the “Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity” was to advance and promote research in medical rehabilitation by making recommendations to expand research capacity. The five elements of research capacity that guided the discussions were: 1) researchers; 2) research culture, environment, and infrastructure; 3) funding; 4) partnerships; and 5) metrics. The 100 participants included representatives of professional organizations, consumer groups, academic departments, researchers, governmental funding agencies, and the private sector. The small group discussions and plenary sessions generated an array of problems, possible solutions, and recommended actions. A post-Summit, multi-organizational initiative is called to pursue the agendas outlined in this report. PMID:16572568

  1. Multicomponent reactions of phosphines, diynedioates, and aryl aldehydes generated furans appending reactive phosphorus ylides through cumulated trienoates as key intermediates: a phosphine α-addition-δ-evolvement of an anion pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie-Cheng; Chuang, Shih-Ching

    2014-11-07

    Multicomponent reactions of phosphines, diynedioates, and aryl aldehydes have been demonstrated, providing trisubstituted furans appending reactive phosphorus ylides, through cumulated trienoates as key intermediates. The proposed trienoate intermediates, 1,5-dipolar species formed via nucleophilic α-attack of phosphines toward diynedioates (α-addition-δ-evolvement of an anion, abbreviated αAδE), undergo addition to aryl aldehydes followed by 5-endo-dig cyclization, proton transfer, and resonance to give trisubstituted furans. Furthermore, the phosphorus ylides are oxidized to α-keto ester furans and utilized as Wittig reagents.

  2. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  3. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  4. Quantum reading capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  5. Evolution of isoprene emission capacity in plants.

    PubMed

    Dani, K G Srikanta; Jamie, Ian M; Prentice, I Colin; Atwell, Brian J

    2014-07-01

    Light-dependent de novo volatile isoprene emission by terrestrial plants (approximately 2% of carbon fixed during photosynthesis) contributes as much as 0.5 PgC/year to the global carbon cycle. Although most plant taxa exhibit either constitutive or inducible monoterpene emissions, the evolution of isoprene emission capacity in multiple lineages has remained unexplained. Based on the predominant occurrence of isoprene emission capacity in long-lived, fast-growing woody plants; the relationship between 'metabolic scope' of tree genera and their species richness; and the proposed role of high growth rates and long generation times in accelerating molecular evolution, we hypothesise that long-lived plant genera with inherently high speciation rates have repeatedly acquired and lost the capacity to emit isoprene in their evolutionary history.

  6. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  7. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  8. Heat Capacity in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.

    2005-05-01

    Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.

  9. Adaptability of the oxidative capacity of motoneurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, G. R.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a chronic change in neuronal activation can produce a change in soma oxidative capacity, suggesting that: (i) these 2 variables are directly related in neurons and (ii) ion pumping is an important energy requiring activity of a neuron. Most of these studies, however, have focused on reduced activation levels of sensory systems. In the present study the effect of a chronic increase or decrease in motoneuronal activity on motoneuron oxidative capacity and soma size was studied. In addition, the effect of chronic axotomy was studied as an indicator of whether cytoplasmic volume may also be related to the oxidative capacity of motoneurons. A quantitative histochemical assay for succinate dehydrogenase activity was used as a measure of motoneuron oxidative capacity in experimental models in which chronic electromyography has been used to verify neuronal activity levels. Spinal transection reduced, and spinal isolation virtually eliminated lumbar motoneuron electrical activity. Functional overload of the plantaris by removal of its major synergists was used to chronically increase neural activity of the plantaris motor pool. No change in oxidative capacity or soma size resulted from either a chronic increase or decrease in neuronal activity level. These data indicate that the chronic modulation of ionic transport and neurotransmitter turnover associated with action potentials do not induce compensatory metabolic responses in the metabolic capacity of the soma of lumbar motoneurons. Soma oxidative capacity was reduced in the axotomized motoneurons, suggesting that a combination of axoplasmic transport, intracellular biosynthesis and perhaps neurotransmitter turnover represent the major energy demands on a motoneuron. While soma oxidative capacity may be closely related to neural activity in some neural systems, e.g. visual and auditory, lumbar motoneurons appear to be much less sensitive to modulations in chronic activity levels.

  10. Cyanovanadate(III) complexes as novel additives for efficient generation of volatile cadmium species in complex samples prior to determinations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Arslan, Zikri; Rose, LaKeysha; Little, Maria D

    2013-10-15

    A new method has been described for generation of volatile species of Cd using vanadium(III) cyanide complex. Aqueous solutions of 0.04 mol L(-1) vanadium chloride (VCl3) and 0.12 mol L(-1) potassium cyanide (KCN) were reacted on-line yielding a suspension of vanadium hydroxide, V(OH)3. This suspension was dissolved along the stream of sample solution in dilute HCl to form heptacyanovanadate(III) complex, [V(CN)7]4-. Volatile Cd species were generated by reacting the stream of sample solution and cyanovanadate(III) complex with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Feasibility of off-line and on-online approaches was investigated for quantitative determinations. Better precision and daily stability were achieved with on-line settings. Optimum signals were obtained from sample solutions within a range of 3 to 5% v/v HCl. A concentration of 2% m/v NaBH4 was adequate to achieve an enhancement of 20-fold in the presence of cyanovanadate(III) complex. The limits of detection were 5.0 and 4.5 ng L(-1) for 110Cd and 111Cd isotopes, respectively. Precision (%RSD) was better than 4.7% for six replicate measurements. The interferences of Cu(II) and Ni(II) were marginal (<10%) at 1.0 µg mL(-1). Depressive effects from Bi, Se and Sn were not significant below 0.1 µg mL(-1). The method was validated by determination of Cd using ICP-MS in certified reference materials of Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4) and Mussel tissue (SRM 2976).

  11. Phase separation in NiCrN coatings induced by N2 addition in the gas phase: A way to generate magnetic thin films by reactive sputtering of a non-magnetic NiCr target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciu, I.; Duday, D.; Choquet, P.; Perigo, E. A.; Michels, A.; Wirtz, T.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic coatings are used for a lot of applications from data storage in hard discs, spintronics and sensors. Meanwhile, magnetron sputtering is a process largely used in industry for the deposition of thin films. Unfortunately, deposition of magnetic coatings by magnetron sputtering is a difficult task due to the screening effect of the magnetic target lowering the magnetic field strength of the magnet positioned below the target, which is used to generate and trap ions in the vicinity of the target surface to be sputtered. In this work we present an efficient method to obtain soft magnetic thin films by reactive sputtering of a non-magnetic target. The aim is to recover the magnetic properties of Ni after dealloying of Ni and Cr due to the selective reactivity of Cr with the reactive nitrogen species generated during the deposition process. The effects of nitrogen content on the dealloying and DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS) deposition processes are studied here. The different chemical compositions, microstructures and magnetic properties of DCMS thin films obtained by sputtering in reactive gas mixtures with different ratios of Ar/N2 from a non-magnetic Ni-20Cr target have been determined. XPS data indicate that the increase of nitrogen content in the films has a strong influence on the NiCr phase decomposition into Ni and CrN, leading to ferromagnetic coatings due to the Ni phase. XRD results show that the obtained Ni-CrN films consist of a metallic fcc cubic Ni phase mixed with fcc cubic CrN. The lattice parameter decreases with the N2 content and reaches the theoretical value of the pure fcc-Ni, when Cr is mostly removed from the Ni-Cr phase. Dealloying of Cr from a Ni80-Cr20 solid solution is achieved in our experimental conditions and the deposition of Ni ferromagnetic coatings embedding CrN from a non-magnetic target is possible with reactive DC magnetron sputtering.

  12. Structural, optical and charge generation properties of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite copper antimony sulfide thin films prepared from metal xanthates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Chemical structures of the used metal xanthates, additional XRD, SEM-EDX and UV-vis data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta05777a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Andrew J.; Brown, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report on a solution based approach for the preparation of thin films of copper antimony sulfide, an emerging absorber material for third generation solar cells. In this work, copper and antimony xanthates are used as precursor materials for the formation of two different copper antimony sulfide phases: chalcostibite (CuSbS2) and tetrahedrite (Cu12Sb4S13). Both phases were thoroughly investigated regarding their structural and optical properties. Moreover, thin films of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite were prepared on mesoporous TiO2 layers and photoinduced charge transfer in these metal sulfide/TiO2 heterojunctions was studied via transient absorption spectroscopy. Photoinduced charge transfer was detected in both the chalcostibite as well as the tetrahedrite sample, which is an essential property in view of applying these materials as light-harvesting agents in semiconductor sensitized solar cells. PMID:27019713

  13. Advanced work capacity testing.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Károly J; Dános, László; Smudla, Szilvia; Pálosi, Adrienn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe an accurate work capacity testing which can be used in the industry, as well as in rehabilitation process. The first part of this paper is dealing with the NIOSH lifting equation, which is a tool used by occupational health and safety professionals. The second part of this paper summarizes the features and applications of the "ErgoScope" work simulator. Static and dynamic strength of upper and lower limbs, as well as whole body efforts can be measured. The equipment makes it possible to evaluate pushing, pulling, lifting and carrying activities comprising reaching, bending and stooping movements. In the third part of this paper we demonstrate handgrip force data recorded using the "ErgoScope" work simulator comparing with handgrip force data published in the literature. "ErgoScope" work simulator is capable to measure handgrip and pinch forces, suitable to evaluate fine motor skills, hand and finger dexterity, as well as reaction times.

  14. Crack-resistant polyimide coating for high-capacity battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingshun; Wang, Shuo; Lee, Pui-Kit; He, Jieqing; Yu, Denis Y. W.

    2017-10-01

    Electrode cracking is a serious problem that hinders the application of many next-generation high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Even though nano-sizing the material can reduce fracturing of individual particles, capacity fading is still observed due to large volume change and loss of contact in the electrode during lithium insertion and extraction. In this study, we design a crack-resistant high-modulus polyimide coating with high compressive strength which can hold multiple particles together during charge and discharge to maintain contact. The effectiveness of the coating is demonstrated on tin dioxide, a high-capacity large-volume-change material that undergoes both alloy and conversion reactions. The polyimide coating improves capacity retention of SnO2 from 80% to 100% after 80 cycles at 250 mA g-1. Stable capacity of 585 mAh g-1 can be obtained even at 500 mA g-1 after 300 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy and in-situ dilatometry confirm that electrode cracking is suppressed and thickness change is reduced with the coating. In addition, the chemically-stable polyimide film can separate the surface from direct contact with electrolyte, improving coulombic efficiency to ∼100%. We expect the novel strategy of suppressing electrode degradation with a crack-resistant coating can also be used for other alloy and conversion-based anodes.

  15. Production of high-capacity adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Kreppel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ad), also known as "helper-dependent" (HD-Ad), "gutless", "gutted", or "third-generation" Ad vectors, are devoid of all viral coding sequences and have shown promising potential for a wide variety of different applications-from classic gene therapy to genetic vaccination and tumor treatment. However, compared to first-generation adenoviral vectors their production is more complex and requires specific in-depth knowledge. This chapter delivers a detailed protocol for the successful production of HC-Ad vectors to high titers.

  16. The improvement of the analytical performance of direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in contact with the small-sized liquid cathode after the addition of non-ionic surfactants to electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Gręda, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Piotr; Pohl, Paweł

    2013-04-15

    A low power direct current atmospheric glow discharge sustained in the open to air atmosphere in contact with a small-sized flowing liquid cathode was used as an excitation source in optical emission spectrometry. The composition of electrolyte solutions served as the liquid cathode was modified by the addition of non-ionic surfactants, namely Triton x-45, Triton x-100, Triton x-405 and Triton x-705. The effect of the concentration of each surfactant was thoroughly studied on the emission characteristic of molecular bands identified in spectra, atomic emission lines of 16 metals studied and the background level. It was found that the presence of both heavy surfactants results in a significant increase in the net intensity of analytical lines of metals and a notable reduction of the intensity of bands of diatomic molecules and the background. In conditions considered to be a compromise for all metals, selected figures of merit for this excitation source combined with the optical emission spectrometry detection were determined. Limits of detection for all metals were within the range of 0.0003-0.05 mg L(-1), the precision was better than 6%, while calibration curves were linear over 2 orders of the magnitude of the concentration or more, e.g., for K, Li, Mg, Na and Rb. The discharge system with the liquid cathode modified by the addition of the surfactant found its application in the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn in selected environmental samples, i.e., waters, soils and spruce needles, with the quite good precision and the accuracy comparable to that for measurements with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Health systems' "surge capacity": state of the art and priorities for future research.

    PubMed

    Watson, Samantha K; Rudge, James W; Coker, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of high-impact natural hazard events, together with the increased recognition of pandemic risks, have intensified interest in health systems' ability to prepare for, and cope with, "surges" (sudden large-scale escalations) in treatment needs. In this article, we identify key concepts and components associated with this emerging research theme. We consider the requirements for a standardized conceptual framework for future research capable of informing policy to reduce the morbidity and mortality impacts of such incidents. Here our objective is to appraise the consistency and utility of existing conceptualizations of health systems' surge capacity and their components, with a view to standardizing concepts and measurements to enable future research to generate a cumulative knowledge base for policy and practice. A systematic review of the literature on concepts of health systems' surge capacity, with a narrative summary of key concepts relevant to public health. The academic literature on surge capacity demonstrates considerable variation in its conceptualization, terms, definitions, and applications. This, together with an absence of detailed and comparable data, has hampered efforts to develop standardized conceptual models, measurements, and metrics. Some degree of consensus is evident for the components of surge capacity, but more work is needed to integrate them. The overwhelming concentration in the United States complicates the generalizability of existing approaches and findings. The concept of surge capacity is a useful addition to the study of health systems' disaster and/or pandemic planning, mitigation, and response, and it has far-reaching policy implications. Even though research in this area has grown quickly, it has yet to fulfill its potential to generate knowledge to inform policy. Work is needed to generate robust conceptual and analytical frameworks, along with innovations in data collection and methodological

  18. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  19. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  20. Continuity of Quantum Channel Capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Debbie; Smith, Graeme

    2009-11-01

    We prove that a broad array of capacities of a quantum channel are continuous. That is, two channels that are close with respect to the diamond norm have correspondingly similar communication capabilities. We first show that the classical capacity, quantum capacity, and private classical capacity are continuous, with the variation on arguments {\\varepsilon} apart bounded by a simple function of {\\varepsilon} and the channel’s output dimension. Our main tool is an upper bound of the variation of output entropies of many copies of two nearby channels given the same initial state; the bound is linear in the number of copies. Our second proof is concerned with the quantum capacities in the presence of free backward or two-way public classical communication. These capacities are proved continuous on the interior of the set of non-zero capacity channels by considering mutual simulation between similar channels.

  1. Additive manufacturing of permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Johnson, F.; McCall, S. K.

    2016-10-28

    Here, permanent magnets enable energy conversion. Motors and generators are used to convert both electrical to mechanical energy and mechanical to electrical energy, respectively. They are precharged (magnetized) prior to being used in an application and must remain magnetized during operation. In addition, they should generate sufficient magnetic flux for a given application. Nevertheless permanent magnets can be demagnetized (discharged of their magnetization) by other magnetic materials in their service vicinity, temperature changes (thermal demagnetization), microstructural degradations and the magnet’s internal demagnetizing field. Therefore a permanent magnet can be qualified based on the properties that measure its ability to withstand demagnetization and to supply sufficient magnetic flux required for a given application. Some of those properties are further discussed below. Additive manufacturing followed by exchange spring magnets will be discussed afterwards.

  2. Additive manufacturing of permanent magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Johnson, F.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, permanent magnets enable energy conversion. Motors and generators are used to convert both electrical to mechanical energy and mechanical to electrical energy, respectively. They are precharged (magnetized) prior to being used in an application and must remain magnetized during operation. In addition, they should generate sufficient magnetic flux for a given application. Nevertheless permanent magnets can be demagnetized (discharged of their magnetization) by other magnetic materials in their service vicinity, temperature changes (thermal demagnetization), microstructural degradations and the magnet’s internal demagnetizing field. Therefore a permanent magnet can be qualified based on the properties that measure its ability to withstandmore » demagnetization and to supply sufficient magnetic flux required for a given application. Some of those properties are further discussed below. Additive manufacturing followed by exchange spring magnets will be discussed afterwards.« less

  3. Capacity value of energy storage considering control strategies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Nian; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In power systems, energy storage effectively improves the reliability of the system and smooths out the fluctuations of intermittent energy. However, the installed capacity value of energy storage cannot effectively measure the contribution of energy storage to the generator adequacy of power systems. To achieve a variety of purposes, several control strategies may be utilized in energy storage systems. The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different energy storage control strategies on the generation adequacy. This paper presents the capacity value of energy storage to quantitatively estimate the contribution of energy storage on the generation adequacy. Four different control strategies are considered in the experimental method to study the capacity value of energy storage. Finally, the analysis of the influence factors on the capacity value under different control strategies is given.

  4. Capacity value of energy storage considering control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In power systems, energy storage effectively improves the reliability of the system and smooths out the fluctuations of intermittent energy. However, the installed capacity value of energy storage cannot effectively measure the contribution of energy storage to the generator adequacy of power systems. To achieve a variety of purposes, several control strategies may be utilized in energy storage systems. The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different energy storage control strategies on the generation adequacy. This paper presents the capacity value of energy storage to quantitatively estimate the contribution of energy storage on the generation adequacy. Four different control strategies are considered in the experimental method to study the capacity value of energy storage. Finally, the analysis of the influence factors on the capacity value under different control strategies is given. PMID:28558027

  5. Self-sealing capacity of vial stoppers after multiple needle punctures.

    PubMed

    Ponto, James A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the self-sealing capacity of vial stoppers in two common radiopharmaceuticals after more than 10 needle punctures. Assessment of self-sealing capacity was performed according to the self-sealing capacity test described in United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) General Chapter <381>. Groups of 10 vials of technetium (Tc)-99m sulfur colloid and Tc-99m tetrofosmin were tested for maintenance of self-sealing capacity following 10 punctures with 22-, 20-, and 18-gauge needles. Each vial was sequentially retested after additional sets of 10 punctures until failure of self-sealing capacity or until a total of 100 punctures, whichever came first. The median number of needle punctures with maintenance of self-sealing ability before failure for 22-, 20-, and 18-gauge needles was >100 (range all >100), >100 (all >100), and 60 (30-90), respectively, for sulfur colloid and >100 (all >100), >100 (50 to >100), and 50 (20-70), respectively, for tetrofosmin. Incidentally, coring particles were observed frequently in vials after many punctures with 18-gauge needles, but infrequently with 20-gauge and rarely with 22-gauge needles. Vial stoppers in two radiopharmaceutical products demonstrated robust self-sealing capacity, substantially exceeding the USP standard of 10 punctures with a 21-gauge needle. Coring particles were frequently observed after many punctures when using larger-bore needles but rarely when using smaller-bore needles. Under conditions commonly used, failure of self-sealing capacity and generation of coring particles are not anticipated to be problems encountered when puncturing vial stoppers of these two products substantially more than 10 times.

  6. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  7. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  8. Novelties that change carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Douglas H

    2012-09-01

    Comparative developmental studies have revealed a rich array of details about the patterns and processes of morphological change in animals and increasingly in plants. But, applying these insights to the study of major episodes of evolutionary innovation requires understanding how these novel morphologies become established and sufficiently abundant (either as individuals within a species or as a clade of species) to be preserved in the fossil record, and, in many cases, to influence ecological processes. Evolutionary novelties may: (1) disappear without changing the species; (2) be associated with the generation (through selection or drift) of a new species; and if the latter (3) may or may not become ecologically significant. Only the latter are commonly preserved in the fossil record. These alternatives mirror the distinction among historians of technology between innovation and invention. Here, I argue that specific sorts of evolutionary inventions drive ecological transformation, essentially constructing an environment for themselves and ancillary organisms through ecological spillover effects, increasing the "carrying capacity" of an ecosystem.

  9. The effects of charge/discharge rate on capacity fade of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chelsea

    In this work, various techniques were used to evaluate the impact of c-rate on capacity fade of lithium ion batteries. The c-rate is the rate of charge or discharge which correlates with the rate of lithiation or delithiation of electrode material. Historically, a higher c-rate results in accelerated capacity fade due to mechanical-induced damage of active particles. However, there has been no comprehensive study showing direct evidence for this hypothesis. In this study, a variety of experiments were performed to generate a cohesive understanding of how c-rate affects capacity fade. Electrochemical techniques were used to evaluate capacity, resistance, and rate capability. Together, capacity and resistance measurements were used to segregate chemical-induced degradation (associated with resistance rise and capacity loss) from mechanical-induced degradation (primarily associated with capacity loss) for different c-rates throughout cycling. Rate capability measurements were used to show the impact of chemical degradation and physical damage on utilization of the electrodes at various c-rates. Raman spectroscopy was used to measure Li+ inventory losses caused by film growth on the anode surface and to evaluate how it contributes to the capacity loss that was measured electrochemically. Lastly, microscopy techniques were used to assess mechanical damage in the cathode material. The damage accumulates in the form of micro-cracks and dislocation defects which lower Li ion transport through Li ion trapping mechanisms in LiCoO2 particles. This was demonstrated through diffusivity measurements using galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques. These experiments show that chemical degradation accounts for the entirety of capacity loss at slow c-rates (C/10). At high c-rates, both chemical and mechanical degradation contribute to fade. Mechanical degradation plays an increasing role as c-rate is increased. Additionally, higher c-rates effectively increase the strain rate

  10. An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

    2004-06-01

    This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity

  11. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  12. Inattention and Impulsivity: Differential Impact on School Readiness Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Tyler; Bierman, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Despite the conceptual link between self-regulation skills and school readiness capacities, questions remain regarding how distinct but related facets of self-regulation (i.e., attention regulation, behavior regulation) differentially impact the development of school readiness capacities during early childhood. Additionally, little is known about…

  13. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be... the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief...

  14. The additional diagnostic value of contemporary evaluation of FDG PET/CT scan and contrast enhanced CT imaging both acquired by a last generation PET/CT system in oncologic patients.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Cristina; Zompatori, Maurizio; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montesi, Valeria; Mezzetti, Simona; Ferretti, Alice; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Rubello, Domenico; Fanti, Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Last generation PET tomographs are equipped with a state-of-the-art CT scanner. Normally, CT images are acquired with suboptimal parameters and without intravenous contrast media, being used for attenuation correction and localization only. For this reason, no CT report is usually provided. Most of the patients who are referred for an FDG PET/CT scan, however, present with a diagnostic CT indicating that a PET/CT is required to characterize otherwise equivocal findings and, in the end, undergo both the techniques to reach a final diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the contemporary execution of both the techniques employing a PET/CT scanner on the conclusiveness of the final report. Secondary aim was to verify the concordance of the two reports. Thirty-eight patients affected by hypermetabolic malignant diseases (15F-23M, mean age 58±17 years) were enrolled. Twenty-two were in staging, 16 in restaging. They underwent a standard FDG PET/CT scan immediately followed by a diagnostic contrast enhanced (ce)CT scan acquired on the same tomograph. The PET/CT scan was reported by a nuclear medicine physician while the ceCT by a radiologist, independently. Then, they wrote a conclusive paragraph formulated by consensus. The results were compared in terms of stage (FDG PET/CT vs. ceCT and vs. final stage by consensus) and positivity of T, N and M by the inter-rater agreement K. In all the patients, a final, conclusive and agreed stage was reached. There was a high concordance in terms of stage between FDG PET/CT and ceCT (K=0.874), ceCT and final stage (K=0.936), FDG PET/CT and final stage (K=0.938). In two cases, ceCT contributed significantly to the final stage, while PET/CT in four patients. More in details, for the detection of T, there was a complete concordance between PET/CT and ceCT, despite PET/CT wasn't able to provide an accurate evaluation of nearby structures infiltration. K was 0.785 for the assessing of N and 0.718 for M. In general

  15. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  16. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  18. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy`s activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration`s annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment.

  19. Bioethics for clinicians: 3. Capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Elliott, C; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of patient consent, "capacity" refers to the patient's ability to understand information relevant to a treatment decision and to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision. A person may be "capable" with respect to one decision but not with respect to another. Clinicians can usually identify patients who are clearly capable or incapable, but in some cases a clinical capacity assessment is required. Such assessment may consist of cognitive status testing, general impressions of capacity or specific capacity assessment. Specific capacity assessment, in which the clinician evaluates the patient's ability to understand pertinent information and appreciate its implications, is probably the optimal method. When conducting a specific capacity assessment, the clinician must ensure that the disclosure of information is effective and must evaluate the patient's reason for his or her decision. If the assessment suggests that the patient is incapable, further assessment is generally recommended. PMID:8823211

  20. Bolstering medical education to enhance critical care capacity in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Albert, Tyler J; Fassier, Thomas; Chhuoy, Meng; Bounchan, Youttiroung; Tan, Sokhak; Ku, No; Chhor, Nareth; LoGerfo, James P; West, T Eoin

    2015-04-01

    The capacity to care for the critically ill has long been viewed as a fundamental element of established and comprehensive health care systems. Extending this capacity to health care systems in low- and middle-income countries is important given the burden of disease in these regions and the significance of critical care in overall health system strengthening. However, many practicalities of improving access and delivery of critical care in resource-limited settings have yet to be elucidated. We have initiated a program to build capacity for the care of critically ill patients in one low-income Southeast Asian country, Cambodia. We are leveraging existing international academic partnerships to enhance postgraduate critical care education in Cambodia. After conducting a needs assessment and literature review, we developed a three-step initiative targeting training in mechanical ventilation. First, we assessed and revised the current resident curriculum pertaining to mechanical ventilation. We addressed gaps in training, incorporated specific goals and learning objectives, and decreased the hours of lectures in favor of additional bedside training. Second, we are incorporating e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment into the curriculum, with both live, interactive and independent, self-paced online instruction. Third, we are developing a train-the-trainer program defined by bidirectional international faculty exchanges to provide hands-on, case-based, and bedside training to achieve competency-based outcomes. In targeting specific educational needs and a key population-the next generation of Cambodian intensivists-this carefully designed approach should address some existing gaps in the health care system and hopefully yield a lasting impact.

  1. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  2. High-capacity mixed fiber-wireless backhaul networks using MMW radio-over-MCF and MIMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thu A.; Pham, Hien T. T.; Le, Hai-Chau; Dang, Ngoc T.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a high-capacity backhaul network, which is based on mixed fiber-wireless systems using millimeter-wave radio-over-multi-core fiber (MMW RoMCF) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission, for next generation mobile access networks. In addition, we also investigate the use of avalanche photodiode (APD) to improve capacity of the proposed backhaul downlink. We then theoretically analyze the system capacity comprehensively while considering various physical impairments including noise, MCF crosstalk, and fading modeled by Rician MIMO channel. The feasibility of the proposed backhaul architecture is verified via the numerical simulation experiments. The research results demonstrate that our developed backhaul solution can significantly enhance the backhaul capacity; the system capacity of 24 bps/Hz can be achieved with 20-km 8-core MCF and 8 × 8 MIMO transmitted over 100-m Rician fading link. It is also shown that the system performance, in term of channel capacity, strongly depend on the MCF inter-core crosstalk, which is governed by the mode coupling coefficient, the core pitch, and the bending radius.

  3. The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

  4. The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

  5. Optimization of Gear Ratio in the Tidal Current Generation System based on Generated Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Kazuhisa; Shiono, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuyuki

    It is possible to predict generating power of the tidal current generation, because of the tidal current's periodicity. Tidal current generation is more advantageous than other renewable energy sources, when the tidal current generation system is connected to the power system and operated. In this paper, we propose a method used to optimize the gear ratio and generator capacity, that is fundamental design items in the tidal current generation system which is composed of Darrieus type water turbine and squirrel-cage induction generator coupled with gear. The proposed method is applied to the tidal current generation system including the most large-sized turbine that we have developed and studied. This paper shows optimum gear ratio and generator capacity that make generated energy maximum, and verify effectiveness of the proposed method. The paper also proposes a method of selecting maximum generating current velocity in order to reduce the generator capacity, from the viewpoint of economics.

  6. Performance Comparison of Capacity Control Methods for Reciprocating Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Liu, G. B.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Li, L. L.

    2015-08-01

    Different capacity control methods are used for adjusting suction flow of reciprocating compressors to meet process need. Compared with recycle or bypass and suction throttling, three capacity control methods of speed control, clearance pockets and suction valve unloading are preferred due to their energy-saving at operating condition of partial load. The paper reviewed state of the art of the current capacity control technologies and their principles. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict thermodynamic and dynamic performance of reciprocating compressors equipped with the capacity control systems of four above-mentioned methods. Comparison of shaft work and mechanical efficiency were conducted for different capacity control methods at the same condition. In addition, their influence on p-v diagram and valve motion were also studied, which is important for reliability and life of the reciprocating compressors. These results were helpful for selection of the capacity control systems by end-users and optimum design by manufacturers.

  7. Financial capacity in older adults: a growing concern for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Paul A; Byrne, Gerard J; Mitchell, Leander K; Pachana, Nancy A

    2015-02-02

    Older people with cognitive impairment and/or dementia may be particularly vulnerable to diminished financial decision-making capacity. Financial capacity refers to the ability to satisfactorily manage one's financial affairs in a manner consistent with personal self-interest and values. Impairment of financial capacity makes the older individual vulnerable to financial exploitation, may negatively affect their family's financial situation and places strain on relationships within the family. Clinicians are often on the front line of responding to queries regarding decision-making capacity, and clinical evaluation options are often not well understood. Assessment of financial capacity should include formal objective assessment in addition to a clinical interview and gathering contextual data. Development of a flexible, empirically supported and clinically relevant assessment approach that spans all dimensions of financial capacity yet is simple enough to be used by non-specialist clinicians is needed.

  8. Building Capacity for Protected Area Management in Lao PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Johnson, Arlyne; Spence, Kelly; Sypasong, Ahnsany; Bynum, Nora; Sterling, Eleanor; Phimminith, Thavy; Praxaysombath, Bounthob

    2014-04-01

    Declining biodiversity in protected areas in Laos is attributed to unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. At a basic level, an important need is to develop capacity in academic and professional training institutions to provide relevant training to conservation professionals. The paper (a) describes the capacity building approach undertaken to achieve this goal, (b) evaluates the effectiveness of the approach in building capacity for implementing conservation and (c) reviews implementation outcomes. Strong linkages between organizations implementing field conservation, professional training institutions, and relevant Government agencies are central to enhancing effectiveness of capacity building initiatives aimed at improving the practice of conservation. Protected area management technical capacity needs will need to directly influence curriculum design to insure both relevance and effectiveness of training in improving protected area management. Sustainability of capacity building initiatives is largely dependent on the level of interest and commitment by host-country institutions within a supportive Government policy framework in addition to engagement of organizations implementing conservation.

  9. New generation of Fourier optics viewing angle measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Leroux, Vincent; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique

    2017-02-01

    We explain the technical bases of the Fourier Optics Technology (OFT) for viewing angle measurement of displays and the increasing capacities of the ELDIM systems over the years. A new generation of OFT systems devoted to quality control is introduced. In spite of a more compact size, the optic shows excellent performances in terms of angular aperture, angular resolution and collection efficiency. The detection is made with a new generation high resolution CMOS camera which allows very short measurement times. In addition, the probe can be used on a robotic arm to offer a cost effective solution for quality control of displays with any kind of size and shape.

  10. Analysis of the power capacity of overmoded slow wave structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing

    2013-07-15

    As the generated wavelength shortens, overmoded slow wave structures (SWSs) with large diameters are employed in O-type Cerenkov high power microwave (HPM) generators to achieve high power capacity. However, reported experimental results suggest that overmoded slow wave HPM generators working at millimeter wavelength output much lower power than those working at X-band do, despite the fact that the value of D/λ (here, D is the average diameter of SWSs and λ is the generated wavelength) of the former is much larger than that of the latter. In order to understand this, the characteristics of the power capacity of the TM{sub 0n} modes in overmoded SWSs are numerically investigated. Our analysis reveals the following facts. First, the power capacity of higher order TM{sub 0n} modes is apparently larger than that of TM{sub 01} mode. This is quite different from the conclusion got in the foregone report, in which the power capacity of overmoded SWSs is estimated by that of smooth cylindrical waveguides. Second, the rate at which the power capacity of TM{sub 01} mode in overmoded SWSs grows with diameter does not slow down as the TM{sub 01} field transforms from “volume wave” to “surface wave.” Third, once the diameter of overmoded SWSs and the beam voltage are fixed, the power capacity of TM{sub 01} wave drops as periodic length L shortens and the generated frequency rises, although the value of D/λ increases significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the capability of annular electron beam to interact efficiently with higher order TM{sub 0n} modes in overmoded SWSs if we want to improve the power capacity of overmoded O-type Cerenkov HPM generators working at high frequency.

  11. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  12. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  13. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  14. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  15. Laboratory analysis of phacoemulsifier compliance and capacity.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Mitra; Injev, Valentine P; Miller, Kevin M

    2012-11-01

    To compare the compliance and capacity of 7 fluidics modules used by 6 phacoemulsifiers from 3 manufacturers. Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA. Experimental study. Previous-model and current-model phacoemulsifiers from 3 manufacturers were subjected to laboratory analysis of compliance and capacity. Previous-generation models tested included the Legacy Advantec, Whitestar Sovereign Phacoemulsification System, and Millennium Microsurgical System. Current models tested were the Infiniti Vision System with standard and Intrepid cassettes, Whitestar Signature Phacoemulsification System, and Stellaris Vision Enhancement System. To measure compliance, the aspiration line was connected to an electronic pressure transducer and small volumes of fluid were injected or aspirated. To measure capacity, the space between the distal end of the aspiration line and the pump was filled with methylene blue-dyed fluid. The Legacy was the most compliant phacoemulsifier. The old and new Whitestar systems, Millennium system, and Stellaris system showed similar midrange compliances. The Infiniti Vision System with the Intrepid fluidic management system was the least compliant. The Infiniti cassettes had the greatest capacity, which is a detriment from a surge-control perspective, and Signature cassettes had the least capacity. The Infiniti Intrepid system had the lowest compliance of the 6 units tested, which is optimum from a surge-control perspective. All other things being equal, the Infiniti should have the safest occlusion-break surge response. Mr. Injev is an employee of Alcon Laboratories. Dr. Miller is a consultant to and investigator for Alcon Laboratories. Ms. Nejad has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

    2014-10-01

    The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

  17. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  18. Climate Extremes and Forest Carbon Sequestration Capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S.; Yi, C.; Hendrey, G. R.; Eaton, T. T.; Liu, H.; Rustic, G. T.; Krakauer, N.; Wang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the warming climate plays a vital role in driving certain types of extreme weather. How these extreme climates affect forest carbon sequestration capacity is unknown. This knowledge gap is critical in understanding positive feedbacks to global warming by changing the amount of carbon that forests can hold. Here, we used a perfect-deficit approach to identify forest canopy photosynthetic capacity (CPC) deficits and analyze how they correlate to climate extremes, based on data measured by the eddy covariance method at 26 forest sites with total of 146 site-years. We found that droughts severely alter the carbon sequestration capacities of evergreen broadleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. In addition, the carbon sequestration capacities of Mediterranean forests are mostly sensitive to climate extremes while that of forests under marine climate are insensitive to climate extremes. Acknowledgements This research was financially supported by PSC-CUNY Award (PSC-CUNY-ENHC-44-83) and National Science Foundation (NSF-DEB-0949637).

  19. The changing face of international power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, I.

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  2. Enhanced capacity and stability for the separation of cesium in electrically switched ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfic, A.F.; Dickson, S.E.; Kim, Y.; Mekky, W.

    2015-03-15

    Electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) can be used to separate ionic contaminants from industrial wastewater, including that generated by the nuclear industry. The ESIX method involves sequential application of reduction and oxidation potentials to an ion exchange film to induce the respective loading and unloading of cesium. This technology is superior to conventional methods (e.g electrodialysis reversal or reverse osmosis) as it requires very little energy for ionic separation. In previous studies, ESIX films have demonstrated relatively low ion exchange capacities and limited film stabilities over repeated potential applications. In this study, the methodology for the deposition of electro-active films (nickel hexacyanoferrate) on nickel electrodes was modified to improve the ion exchange capacity for cesium removal using ESIX. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the ion exchange capacity and stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the modified film surfaces. Additionally, the films were examined for the separation of cesium ions. This modified film preparation technique enhanced the ion exchange capacity and improves the film stability compared to previous methods for the deposition of ESIX films. (authors)

  3. Phytoremediation capacity of aquatic plants is associated with the degree of phytochelatin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Török, Anamaria; Gulyás, Zsolt; Szalai, Gabriella; Kocsy, Gábor; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-15

    Phytochelatins (PCs) play important role in phytoremediation as heavy metal binding peptides. In the present study, the association between heavy metal removal capacity and phytochelatin synthesis was compared through the examination of three aquatic plants: Elodea canadensis, Salvinia natans and Lemna minor. In case of a Cd treatment, or a Cd treatment combined with Cu and Zn, the highest removal capacity was observed in L. minor. At the same time, E. canadensis showed the lowest removal capacity except for Zn. The heavy metal-induced (Cu+Zn+Cd) oxidative stress generated the highest ascorbate level in L. minor. Cd in itself or combined with the other two metals induced a 10-15-fold increase in the amount of ɣ-glutamylcysteine in L. minor while no or smaller changes were observed in the other two species. Correspondingly, the total PC content was 6-8-fold greater in L. minor. In addition, PCs with higher degree of polymerization were only observed in L. minor (PC4, PC6 and PC7) while PC2 and PC3 occurred in E. canadensis and S. natans only. The correlation analysis indicated that the higher phytoremediation capacity of L. minor was associated with the synthesis of PCs and their higher degree of polymerization.

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. A risk management approach to nuclear waste inventory versus storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Awadalla, N.G.

    1996-10-02

    Nuclear waste is presently stored in 177 underground storage tanks at -the U. S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Washington State. The storage tanks are of two construction types, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs). No waste has been added to the SSTs since 1980. However, the DSTs are configured to receive additional waste from site waste generators. The overall waste inventory is time dependent and strongly influenced by present and future tank farm operations. These operations include waste evaporation, retrieval, pretreatment, and processing; waste generated from various site facilities; and SST waste inventory transferred to the DSTS. A risk-based simulation model was developed to replicate the waste inventory through the year 2015. The DST waste,,; were divided into three waste types (aging, complexed, @md non-complexed) that were simulated in the model. For each of the three waste types, statistical analyses were performed and the time-de,Pendent waste volumes at the ``mean`` and ``90% confidence level`` were compared with existing DST capacity. Several ``off-normal`` operation scenarios were also analyzed using the risk-based simulation model. Mitigating actions or fallback positions were modeled where off- normal scenarios indicated that capacity shortfalls could potentially occur. The results indicated that selected fallback positions were adequate to ensure that the storage capacity exceeded the waste invento0167ry during the affected time periods.

  8. Excess Capacity in China’s Power Systems: A Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Karl, Fredrich

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines China’s regional electricity grids using a reliability perspective, which is commonly measured in terms of a reserve margin. Our analysis shows that at the end of 2014, the average reserve margin for China as a whole was roughly 28%, almost twice as high as a typical planning reserve margin in the U.S. However, this national average masks huge variations in reserve margins across major regional power grid areas: the northeastern region has the highest reserve margin of over 60%, followed by the northwestern region at 49%, and the southern grid area at 35%. In this analysis, we also examined future reserve margins for regional electricity grids in China under two scenarios: 1) a low scenario of national annual electricity consumption growth rates of 1.5% between 2015 and 2020 and 1.0% between 2020 and 2025, and 2) a high scenario of annual average growth rates of 3.0% and 2.0%, respectively. Both scenarios suggest that the northeastern, northwestern, and southern regions have significant excess generation capacity, and that this excess capacity situation will continue over the next decade without regulatory intervention. The northern and central regions could have sufficient generation capacity to 2020, but may require additional resources in a higher growth scenario. The eastern region requires new resources by 2020 in both scenarios.

  9. Search for Capacity-Limited and Super-Capacity Search.

    PubMed

    Han, Suk Won

    2017-05-01

    The present study investigated capacity limitations of visual search. In a series of experiments, participants searched for a singleton target among homogenous distractors, a conjunction target defined by combination of two features, or a feature target among heterogeneous distractors. Using the simultaneous-sequential paradigm, I found that singleton search proceeded in a capacity-unlimited manner. By contrast, the performance of the conjunction search was found to depend on a capacity-limited process. For feature searches, the performance of searching for a specific color was not affected by how the stimuli were presented, while the orientation search performance was enhanced as the number of distractors simultaneously presented with the target increased. These results imply that distinct colors are individually coded, whereas multiple orientations are encoded as an ensemble in a structured way. Taken together, the present study clarifies which type of search process are capacity-limited and reveals how this limit can be overcome.

  10. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  12. Testamentary capacity and guardianship assessments.

    PubMed

    Roof, Jason G

    2012-12-01

    This article discusses the ever-increasing opportunity for forensic mental health evaluators to provide assistance to the legal system in the areas of testamentary capacity and guardianship assessments. These areas of evaluation are defined, and a discussion of preparation and execution of effective evaluations is provided. The legal concepts of undue influence and insane delusion are defined and applied to the evaluator's interview. Common cognitive concerns such as dementia and delirium may affect an evaluee's capacity, and their presence and effect on the evaluee are considered. Evaluators are encouraged to carefully consider specific capacities related to the relevant legal questions posed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  16. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.

    PubMed

    Konkel, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. This article reviews data and conclusions presented in "Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment" (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards--$202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding--along with numerous energy conservation programs--are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages, impacts associated with climate change on human health, progress in

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  19. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  20. Improved Global Capacity for Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Outin-Blenman, Sajata; Moen, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    During 2004–2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4–9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world. PMID:27192395

  1. Argentine plant increases capacity, improves NGL recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Fernandez, C.L.

    1997-10-06

    Total cryogenic processing capacity at Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A.`s (TGS) Cerri complex in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, is being increased from 22 MMcmd to 40 MMcmd (776 to 1,410 MMcfd) with a future ethane-recovery capacity of 1,900 metric tons/day (mtd; 33,600 b/d) using Ortloff technology. Very high propane recovery can be maintained as the ethane recovery is controlled over a range of 1,000--1,900 mtd as needed to meet local ethane demand. Total NGL recovery can be increased from 2,600 mtd to 4,500 mtd without additional compression. The paper describes current operations, inlet-residue compression, train retrofit, C{sub 3} recovery, C{sub 2} rejection, C{sub 2} recovery, and the final dual-mode design.

  2. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  3. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  4. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, S.M.

    2002-07-31

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, and suboptimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Prior to this study, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity had been made by type of capacity-reducing event. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. This study is an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events. The objective of this study was to develop and implement methods for producing national-level estimates of the loss of capacity on the nation's highway facilities due to temporary phenomena as well as estimates of the impacts of such losses. The estimates produced by this study roughly indicate the magnitude of problems that are likely be addressed by the Congress during the next re-authorization of the Surface Transportation Programs. The scope of the study includes all urban and rural freeways and principal arterials in the nation's highway system for 1999. Specifically, this study attempts to quantify the extent of temporary capacity losses due to crashes, breakdowns, work zones, weather, and sub-optimal signal timing. These events can cause impacts such as capacity reduction, delays, trip rescheduling, rerouting, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability. This study focuses on the reduction of capacity and resulting delays caused by the temporary events mentioned

  5. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  6. Savannah Capacity Building Pilot Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A series of meetings involving the Georgia Ports Authority and near-port community organizations were convened for a community capacity building pilot project. Technical assistance is being provided by EPA to support effective engagement.

  7. Cyclic Oxonitriles: Stereodivergent Grignard Addition-Alkylations

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Wei, Guoqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Steward, Omar W.

    2008-01-01

    Sequential carbonyl addition-conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic 5–7–membered oxoalkenenitriles efficiently generates cyclic magnesiated nitriles. Alkylations of these magnesiated nitriles exhibit diastereoselectivities that depend intimately on the size of the carbocyclic ring: 5-membered oxonitriles generate magnesiated nitriles whose alkylations are controlled by steric constraints whereas 6- and 7-membered oxonitriles generate internally coordinated, C-magnesiated nitriles whose alkylations are controlled by stereoelectronic effects. Reversing the alkylation selectivity of 6-membered C-magnesiated nitriles is achieved by conversion to an N-metalated nitrile in which steric, rather than electronic, effects direct the electrophile trajectory. Collectively, the conjugate addition-alkylation generates highly substituted, cyclic 5–7-membered nitriles containing three new stereocenters with selective access to diastereomers at the quaternary nitrile-bearing carbon. PMID:17567075

  8. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  9. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  10. Biobased lubricant additives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  11. Maximizing the optical network capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A.; Lavery, Domaniç; Killey, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  12. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  13. Generative Inferences Based on Learned Relations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-11-17

    A key property of relational representations is their generativity: From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from non-relational inputs. In the present paper, we show that a bottom-up model of relation learning, initially developed to discriminate between positive and negative examples of comparative relations (e.g., deciding whether a sheep is larger than a rabbit), can be extended to make generative inferences. The model is able to make quasi-deductive transitive inferences (e.g., "If A is larger than B and B is larger than C, then A is larger than C") and to qualitatively account for human responses to generative questions such as "What is an animal that is smaller than a dog?" These results provide evidence that relational models based on bottom-up learning mechanisms are capable of supporting generative inferences.

  14. Review Study on Runway Capacity Parameters and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrilah; Putra, J. C. P.

    2017-06-01

    The demand of air travel continues to increase over time, due to its short travel time, reliability and safety. Problems then arise when airport capacity, especially airside (mainly runway) capacity cannot cope with the demand. Some airports build the expensive additional infrastructure, while some others believe that manage on system is more efficient and effective. The study gathering information from various source about parameters related to runway capacity so that the improvement made in the future will solve right on target. To accommodate wide number of factors, the study classify the parameters into five categories in which operation/procedure related parameters play an important role (52%). To facilitate future research on runway capacity, the study also tabulates methods used by various scholars to improve runway capacity

  15. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  16. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. Additive manufactured serialization

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  19. Arsenic Metabolites and Methylation Capacity Among Individuals Living in a Rural Area with Endemic Arseniasis in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2016-04-01

    More than 0.3 million individuals are subject to chronic exposure to arsenic via their drinking water in Inner Mongolia, China. To determine arsenic methylation capacity profiles for such individuals, concentrations of urinary arsenic metabolites were measured for 548 subjects using high-performance liquid chromatography and a hydride generator combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mean urinary concentrations of dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), inorganic arsenic (iAs), and total arsenic (TAs) were 200.50, 46.71, 52.96, and 300.17 μg/L, respectively. The %iAs, %DMA, and %MMA were 15.98, 69.72, and 14.29%. Mean urinary %iAs and %MMA were higher in males, while urinary %DMA was higher in females. There was a strong positive correlation between %iAs and %MMA, with negative correlations between %iAs and %DMA, and %iAs and %MMA. In addition, %iAs and %MMA were positively associated with total arsenic in drinking water (WAs), while %DMA was negatively related with WAs. Regression analysis indicated that the primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) generally decreased with increasing WAs. Females had a higher arsenic methylation capacity compared to males. Younger subjects had lower primary arsenic methylation capacity. However, the secondary arsenic methylation capacity was hardly affected by age. Moreover, both primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacities were negatively related to WAs.

  20. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  1. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  2. Thermal analysis of large-capacity LiFePO4 power batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Li, Zhao; Li, Bin; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-10-01

    Excellent design of a thermal management system requires good understanding of the thermal behaviors of power batteries. In this study, the electrochemical and heat performances of a prismatic 40 Ah C/LiFePO4 battery are investigated with a focus on the influence of temperature on cell capacity in a mixed charge-discharge cycle. In addition, the heat generation and energy efficiency of a battery are determined during charge and discharge at different current rates. The experimental results indicate that in certain temperature ranges, both the charging and discharging capacities increase significantly as the temperature increases. In addition, the energy efficiency reaches more than 95% when the battery runs at a current rate of 0.33 C-2 C and temperature of 25-45 °C. A thermal mathematical model based on experimentally obtained internal resistances and entropy coefficients is developed. Using this model, the increase in the battery temperature is simulated based on specific heat values that are measured experimentally and calculated theoretically. The results from the simulation indicate that the temperature increase agrees well with the experimental values, the measured specific heat provides better results than the calculated specific heat and the heat generated decreases as the temperature increases.

  3. Transformational Capacity - Exploring a Places Ability to Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfeld, D.

    2016-12-01

    In the face of climate change, there is an emerging consensus that local transformations are necessary in order to avoid the most catastrophic of losses (Burch et al. 2014; Preston et al. 2013). Specifically, it is well known that rising sea levels will lead to increased flooding and habitat loss (McGranahan, et al., 2007). Solutions to sea level rise and its associated impacts will require the active participation of coastal communities who will continue to be relied upon for most of the critical land use and planning decisions (Hurlimann and March 2012). While local governments are needed, these changes are known to be extremely difficult and require a shift to a new development path. Additionally, municipalities need to be able to identify places that can be altered to prepare for sea level rise. Thus we need to enhancer our understanding of transformational capacity. The range of future sea level rise projections are well understood, what is not known is how people will react and change the coastal landscape to address these threats. Additionally, it is not well understood how these different shorezone strategies will in turn impact people. Building on other long-term historical models in coastal engineering, we have developed a framework to generate potential future shorezones in a complex estuarine environment. As shown in Figure 1, the framework includes three general components to determine potential future shorezones. Within each general part of the framework, there are a number of critical data sets used to support this part of the model. For example, the economic piece of the analysis includes, the costs of coastal protective infrastructure and the values of upland parcels. The future shorezones generated through this analysis will be used in sea level rise impacts assessments allowing for a richer conversation in the climate adaptation process. Ultimately, the goals of this presentation are to 1) introduce this specific framework designed to assess the

  4. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  5. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-11-14

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  6. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  7. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  8. Capacity of the Generalized Pulse-Position Modulation Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, J.; Klimesh, M.; McElience, R.; Moision, B.

    2005-01-01

    We show the capacity of a generalized pulse-position modulation (PPM) channel, where the input vectors may be any set that allows a transitive group of coordinate permutations, is achieved by a uniform input distribution. We derive a simple expression in terms of the Kullback Leibler distance for the binary case, and the asymptote in the PPM order. We prove a sub-additivity result for the PPM channel and use it to show PPM capacity is monotonic in the order.

  9. Coalitional capacities and environmental strategies to prevent underage drinking.

    PubMed

    Nargiso, Jessica E; Friend, Karen B; Egan, Crystelle; Florin, Paul; Stevenson, John; Amodei, Brenda; Barovier, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Coalitions are the most common platform for implementing community-level environmental strategies (ES), such as media, policy, or enforcement for substance use prevention. The current study examines the associations between two types of coalition capacity (general and innovation-specific) and ES implementation efforts and outputs within 14 intervention communities over a three-year period. Efforts refer to the amount of energy exerted to implement an ES while outputs refer to the materials produced through these efforts. Quantitative measures of capacity were provided by coalition key informants and expert-raters. Additionally, Training and Technical Assistance (TTA) provided proactively to improve the implementation of ES was also examined. Greater general capacity, as rated by a coalition informant, was associated with more ES policy effort. Both expert-rated general and innovation-specific capacity, however, were associated with greater ES outputs. Study results also found that community coalitions that endorsed weaker mobilization, structure and task leadership, (measures of general capacity), utilized more TTA compared to those who perceived their coalition as having greater capacity. Moreover, communities that utilized more TTA resources reported a greater number of successful policy changes. The study supports the need to consider both general and innovation-specific capacity for ES implementation and offers promising preliminary findings regarding the role of TTA for improving coalitions' capacity to facilitate policy change.

  10. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  11. Heat capacities of aluminum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne; Cao, Baopeng; Judd, Oscar; Jarrold, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Clusters of certain elements are known to undergo phase transitions from solid-like to liquid-like states. Aluminum clusters have emerged as a model system for metal cluster phase transitions [1]. We report here the measurement of heat capacities of cationic clusters containing 84 to 127 Al atoms using a multi-collision induced dissociation mass spectrometry method [2]. We find two major changes in the heat capacities with increasing cluster size: (1) the fluctuations in the temperature of the phase transition vary more smoothly and (2) the peaks in heat capacity become sharper. Furthermore, we have found a range of cluster sizes (115-117 atoms) that contain two distinct peaks, separated by baseline, in their heat capacities. The origin of the extra peaks in the heat capacity, which is suspected to be due either to a pre-melting transition or to a solid-to-solid transition prior to the melting transition, will be further investigated by means of annealing experiments. The current work extends prior work on singly charged Al cluster cations having 16-83 atoms [2, 3]. [1] Breaux, G. A.; Neal, C. M.; Cao, B.; Jarrold, M. F. Physical Review Letters 2005, 94. [2] Neal, C. M.; Starace, A. K.; Jarrold, M. F. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2007, 18, 74-81. [3] Neal, C. M.; Starace, A. K.; Jarrold, M. F. Physical Review B 2007, 76. [4] This work is supported by NSF.

  12. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  13. Wideband Speech Enhancement Addition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    RADC-4-114 WIM9AND SEHENHANCMN ADDITION Mws IL Woes DT-iC&C JUN 2 3 S81 A SROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENM2"a Air Force Sys~tems CoFW~mmand~ Griffiss Air ...1ii: ii i 4.1.1 INEL *9e******q***.*..**..... 41 4.1.2 DSS and IMP . • 43 4.2 Recommendations . 43 4.Z .1 Chant es Not Hequir :L -2 Re sear ch...developed over a number of years, primarily under the sp•naorship of the United States Air Force, Rome Air D~velopment Center (RADC). The device that is

  14. Appendix: Additional Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

  15. [Exercise capacity after heart valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, D; Niehues, R; Schulte, H D; Strauer, B E

    1994-01-01

    patients aged 45 to 55 years with prostheses implanted for aortic stenosis. The significant lower exercise capacity all patients with valve replacement for aortic regurgitation have experienced (0.4 w/kg BW) indicates that a substantial number of these patients has irreversible myocardial damage prior to surgery. The workload experienced by patients with mitral valve prostheses varies between 0.4 and 2.0 w/kg BW (mitral stenosis) and 0.3-2.3 w/kg BW (mitral regurgitation), respectively. To objectify the functional result of heart-valve replacement, hemodynamic-metabolic measurements of functional improvement, determination of left, eventually also of right-ventricular function by echocardiography and additional invasive measurements of the central hemodynamics and myocardial pump function parameters at rest and during exercise might be necessary.

  16. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-09

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

  17. Boomerang pillows and respiratory capacity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K L; Brittin, M; Cook, M A; deClifford, J

    1994-05-01

    An experimental study was done to determine whether subjects placed on boomerang pillows would have lower vital capacities than subjects placed on straight pillows after 30 minutes. A sample of 42 subjects took part in the study in a nursing laboratory. A crossover design was used in which subjects were measured in both conditions. The findings indicated that there was no significant difference in the vital capacities of subjects in the two conditions. An associated finding was that the vital capacities were significantly lower in a semi-Fowler's position than in a straight chair. It was concluded that boomerang pillows are safe to use for persons without respiratory problems. Further research is needed into the effect of boomerang pillows on persons with respiratory deficits.

  18. On risk and decisional capacity.

    PubMed

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched.

  19. Rural research capacity building program: capacity building outcomes.

    PubMed

    Webster, Emma; Thomas, Margaret; Ong, Narelle; Cutler, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Rural Research Capacity Building Program commenced in 2006 with the aim of developing research skills in rural health workers. The program was based on the capacity building principles of workforce development, organisational development, resource allocation, partnership and leadership. Qualitative methods were used to assess capacity building outcomes. A sample of candidates from the 2006 and 2007 cohorts were selected for interview using stratified random sampling and supplemental purposive sampling. Twenty-five individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with candidates, their managers and mentors. Interviews were thematically analysed. The program components of teaching, mentoring and networking led to the development of research skills in candidates undertaking the program. This workforce development resulted in workplace change, particularly where the candidate's project was 'close to practice' and they had management support. The leadership shown and partnerships developed by the program managers enhanced the workforce development and organisational change outcomes. Resources, such as backfill and incidentals, were useful for candidates, but practicalities, such as availability of replacement staff, limited effectiveness. This study showed the value of using a capacity building framework and demonstrated that undertaking research on a topic close to practice positioned candidates to drive change within their organisation.

  20. Significance of the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Kenji; Kuwano, Takashi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Tomohiko; Shiga, Yuhei; Suematsu, Yasunori; Miyase, Yuiko; Adachi, Sen; Nakamura, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that cholesterol efflux capacity is more useful than the lipid profile as a marker of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we investigated the associations between the presence and the severity of CAD and both the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity and the lipid profile including the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). The subjects consisted of 204 patients who were clinically suspected to have CAD and underwent CTA. We isolated HDL from plasma by ultracentrifugation and measured the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophage cells and calculated total cholesterol efflux capacity as follows: the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity/100× HDL-C levels. While the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity was not associated with the presence or the severity of CAD, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. In addition, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C, but not the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity, significantly decreased as the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis increased. Total cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity showed only weak association. In a logistic regression analysis, the presence of CAD was independently associated with total cholesterol efflux capacity, in addition to age and gender. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the areas under the curves for total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C were similar. In conclusion, the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using the fixed amount of isolated HDL was not associated with CAD. On the other hand, the calculated total