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Sample records for additional genetic markers

  1. Genetic Rearrangements of Six Wheat–Agropyron cristatum 6P Addition Lines Revealed by Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat–A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat–A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

  2. Genetic markers as instrumental variables

    PubMed Central

    von Hinke, Stephanie; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Propper, Carol; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The use of genetic markers as instrumental variables (IV) is receiving increasing attention from economists, statisticians, epidemiologists and social scientists. Although IV is commonly used in economics, the appropriate conditions for the use of genetic variants as instruments have not been well defined. The increasing availability of biomedical data, however, makes understanding of these conditions crucial to the successful use of genotypes as instruments. We combine the econometric IV literature with that from genetic epidemiology, and discuss the biological conditions and IV assumptions within the statistical potential outcomes framework. We review this in the context of two illustrative applications. PMID:26614692

  3. Additional first-trimester ultrasound markers.

    PubMed

    Sonek, J; Nicolaides, K

    2010-09-01

    The first trimester (11-13 +6 weeks) ultrasound examination is useful for several reasons: determination of an accurate date of confinement, diagnostic purposes, and screening for fetal defects. Nuchal translucency measurement combined with maternal serum markers (free b-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) is the mainstay of first-trimester screening for chromosomal defects. However, over the past decade additional ultrasound markers have been developed that improve the performance of this type of screening. The novel markers include evaluation of the nasal bone, fronto-maxillary angle measurement, and Doppler evaluations of the blood flow across the tricuspid valve and in the ductus venosus. PMID:20638573

  4. Update on genetic markers for pork quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the robustness of reported marker associations with pork quality traits, assay systems were developed for as many polymorphisms from the literature as possible. These assays were genotyped across pigs (n = 1,291) with pork quality data available from four populations. Genetic marker-phe...

  5. Beyond STRs: The Role of Diallelic Markers in Forensic Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms have been firmly established as standard DNA marker systems since more than 15 years both in forensic stain typing as well as in paternity and kinship testing. However, when analyzing genetic relationships in deficiency cases, STRs have a couple of disadvantages due to the sometimes poor biostatistical efficiency as well as the possibility to observe one or more genetic inconsistencies that could also be explained by mutational events. In such situations, additional robust markers with negligible mutations rates such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion markers (indels) can be used as adjuncts to provide decisive genetic information in favor for or against the assumed relationship. Both SNPs and indels can now be typed more easily using multiplexes of up to 50 loci based on fragment length analysis on instruments available in all routine forensic and paternity testing laboratories, thus making it possible to extend the range of markers beyond the currently used STRs. PMID:22851932

  6. Genetic markers on chromosome 7.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, L C

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome 7 is frequently associated with chromosome aberrations, rearrangements, and deletions. It also contains many important genes, gene families, and disease loci. This brief review attempts to summarise these and other interesting aspects of chromosome 7. With the rapid accumulation of cloned genes and polymorphic DNA fragments, this chromosome has become an excellent substrate for molecular genetic studies. PMID:3290488

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers for genetic mapping in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

    2001-04-16

    For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that have recently revolutionized human, mouse and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila using an STS-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that the genome. The majority of these markers are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sequences for these variants are provided in an accessible format. The average density of the new markers is 1 marker per 225 kb on the autosomes and 1 marker per 1 Mb on the X chromosome. We include in this survey a set of P-element strains that provide additional utility for high-resolution mapping. We demonstrate one application of the new markers in a simple set of crosses to map a mutation in the hedgehog gene to an interval of <1 Mb. This new map resource significantly increases the efficiency and resolution of recombination mapping and will be of immediate value to the Drosophila research community.

  8. DNA marker applications to molecular genetics and genomics in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Tomato is an important crop and regarded as an experimental model of the Solanaceae family and of fruiting plants in general. To enhance breeding efficiency and advance the field of genetics, tomato has been subjected to DNA marker studies as one of the earliest targets in plants. The developed DNA markers have been applied to the construction of genetic linkage maps and the resultant maps have contributed to quantitative trait locus (QTL) and gene mappings for agronomically important traits, as well as to comparative genomics of Solanaceae. The recently released whole genome sequences of tomato enable us to develop large numbers of DNA markers comparatively easily, and even promote new genotyping methods without DNA markers. In addition, databases for genomes, DNA markers, genetic linkage maps and other omics data, e.g., transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and phenome information, will provide useful information for molecular breeding in tomatoes. The use of DNA marker technologies in conjunction with new breeding techniques will promise to advance tomato breeding. PMID:23641178

  9. SSR LINKAGES TO EIGHT ADDITIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL MARKER TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 1000 morphological markers have been identified in barley. Less than half of these markers have been incorporated into the barley consensus linkage maps. We characterized and mapped eight additional morphological marker traits in this report including one eceriferum (cer-zt.389, three dens...

  10. Genetic markers: Potential candidates for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rather, Riyaz Ahmad; Dhawan, Veena

    2016-10-01

    The effective prevention of cardiovascular disease depends upon the ability to recognize the high-risk individuals at an early stage of the disease or long before the development of adverse events. Evolving technologies in the fields of proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics have played a significant role in the discovery of cardiovascular biomarkers, but so far these methods have achieved the modest success. Hence, there is a crucial need for more reliable, suitable, and lasting diagnostic and therapeutic markers to screen the disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Gene polymorphisms associated with the cardiovascular disease play a decisive role in the disease onset. Therefore, the genetic marker evaluation to classify high-risk patients from low-risk patients trends an effective approach to patient management and care. Currently, there are no genetic markers available for extensive adoption as risk factors for coronary vascular disease, yet, there are numerous promising, biologically acceptable candidates. Many of these gene biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play an essential role in the prediction of cardiovascular risk. The present review highlights some putative emerging genetic biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVD. This review also briefly describes few technological approaches employed in the biomarker search. PMID:27416153

  11. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  12. Genetic traceability of black pig meats using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Don; Song, Ki-Duk; Seo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Tae; Lee, Jae-Bong; Park, Hwa-Chun; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Kang, Min-Soo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Eui-Soo; Choe, Ho-Sung; Kong, Hong-Sik; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2014-07-01

    Pork from Jeju black pig (population J) and Berkshire (population B) has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS) markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The FIS values of population J and population B were 0.03 and -0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was 9.87×10(-14) in population J, 3.17×10(-9) in population B, and 1.03×10(-12) in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers. PMID:25050032

  13. Autism and genetics: Clinical approach and association study with two markers of HRAS gene

    SciTech Connect

    Herault, J.; Petit, E.; Cherpi, C.

    1995-08-14

    Twin studies and familial aggregation studies indicate that genetic factors could play a role in infantile autism. In an earlier study, we identified a possible positive association between autism and a c-Harvey-ras (HRAS) oncogene marker at the 3{prime} end of the coding region. In an attempt to confirm this finding, we studied a larger population, well-characterized clinically and genetically. We report a positive association between autism and two HRAS markers, the 3{prime} marker used in the initial study and an additional marker in exon 1. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project began in 2005 as a 3-year pilot study to identify inherited genetic susceptibility to prostate and breast cancer. CGEMS has developed into a successful research program of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variants that affect a person’s risk of developing cancer.

  15. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  16. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  17. Validation of genetic markers associated with chalkbrood resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood is one of the major fungal diseases of honey bee brood. Systemic mycoses caused by the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, may significantly reduce brood population, and consequently, colony strength and productivity. Developing genetic marker(s) associated with the enhanced brood survival will be ...

  18. Fingerprinting and Genetic Stability of Rubus Using Molecular Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers were used to identify raspberries and blackberries and to evaluate genetic stability of four cryopreserved Rubus accessions following 12 years of storage in liquid nitrogen. In the first study, 12 genomic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and one Expressed Sequence Tag- (EST)-SSR wer...

  19. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

  20. Toward Diagnostic and Phenotype Markers for Genetically Transmitted Speech Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeny, Jane L.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Scheer, Alison R.

    2005-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the most common subtype of childhood speech sound disorder (SSD) of currently unknown origin is genetically transmitted. We report the first findings toward a set of diagnostic markers to differentiate this proposed etiological subtype (provisionally termed "speech delay-genetic") from other…

  1. Analysis of Variance Components for Genetic Markers with Unphased Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    An ANOVA type general multi-allele (GMA) model was proposed in Wang (2014) on analysis of variance components for quantitative trait loci or genetic markers with phased or unphased genotypes. In this study, by applying the GMA model, we further examine estimation of the genetic variance components for genetic markers with unphased genotypes based on a random sample from a study population. In one locus and two loci cases, we first derive the least square estimates (LSE) of model parameters in fitting the GMA model. Then we construct estimators of the genetic variance components for one marker locus in a Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium population and two marker loci in an equilibrium population. Meanwhile, we explore the difference between the classical general linear model (GLM) and GMA based approaches in association analysis of genetic markers with quantitative traits. We show that the GMA model can retain the same partition on the genetic variance components as the traditional Fisher's ANOVA model, while the GLM cannot. We clarify that the standard F-statistics based on the partial reductions in sums of squares from GLM for testing the fixed allelic effects could be inadequate for testing the existence of the variance component when allelic interactions are present. We point out that the GMA model can reduce the confounding between the allelic effects and allelic interactions at least for independent alleles. As a result, the GMA model could be more beneficial than GLM for detecting allelic interactions. PMID:27468297

  2. [Study of genetic markers of duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Onosova, E A; Tsimmerman, I Ia

    1989-05-01

    The results of determination of various hereditary predisposition markers in peptic ulcer are given: in the population, in patients with duodenal ulcer and in their siblings (risk group). Of importance for revealing subjects with hereditary predisposition to duodenal ulcer are the clinico-genealogical analysis, determination of the blood group, especially in simultaneous determination of a "secretory status" ("status of non-secretion" of the ABH blood system agglutinogen in the saliva), increase in the mass of parietal cells and, to some extent, of the distinguishing features of dermatoglyphics (in combination with the above markers). Determination of taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide is non-informative. PMID:2770215

  3. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  4. Distribution of genetic marker concentrations for fecal indicator bacteria in sewage and animal feces.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Catherine A; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A; Shanks, Orin C

    2012-06-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log(10) copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  5. Application of marker selection to enhance estimation of genetic effects and gene interaction in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection on important genetic markers can improve estimates of additive and dominance association effects. A composite population of beef cattle was selected for intermediate frequencies of myostatin (GDF8) F94L and µ-calpain (CAPN1) polymorphisms. Important additive associations of the GDF8 locu...

  6. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) Molecular Genetic Markers.

    PubMed

    Toal, Ted W; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Howell, Tyson; Ron, Mily; Kuppu, Sundaram; Britt, Anne; Chetelat, Roger; Brady, Siobhan M

    2016-09-01

    Genetic markers are essential when developing or working with genetically variable populations. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) markers are primer pairs that amplify single-locus sequences that differ in size for two or more alleles. They are attractive for their ease of use for rapid genotyping and their codominant nature. Here, we describe a heuristic algorithm that uses a k-mer-based approach to search two or more genome sequences to locate polymorphic regions suitable for designing candidate IGG marker primers. As input to the IGG pipeline software, the user provides genome sequences and the desired amplicon sizes and size differences. Primer sequences flanking polymorphic insertions/deletions are produced as output. IGG marker files for three sets of genomes, Solanum lycopersicum/Solanum pennellii, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0/Landsberg erecta-0 accessions, and S. lycopersicum/S. pennellii/Solanum tuberosum (three-way polymorphic) are included. PMID:27436831

  7. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians.

    PubMed

    Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco Mauro

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively) and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data. PMID:22888284

  8. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco Mauro

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively) and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data. PMID:22888284

  9. Marker reconstitution mutagenesis: a simple and efficient reverse genetic approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xie; Huang, Junqi; Padmanabhan, Anup; Bakka, Kavya; Bao, Yun; Tan, Brenda Yuelin; Cande, W Zacheus; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2011-03-01

    A novel reverse genetic approach termed 'marker reconstitution mutagenesis' was designed to generate mutational allelic series in genes of interest. This approach consists of two simple steps which utilize two selective markers. First, using one selective marker, a partial fragment of another selective marker gene is inserted adjacently to a gene of interest by homologous recombination. Second, random mutations are introduced precisely into the gene of interest, together with the reconstitution of the latter selective marker by homologous recombination. This approach was successfully tested for several genes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. It circumvents the problems encountered with other methods and should be adaptable to any organism that incorporates exogenous DNA by homologous recombination. PMID:21360732

  10. Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Humans differentiate, classify, and discriminate: social interaction is a basic property of human Darwinian evolution. Presumably inherent differential physical as well as behavioral properties have always been criteria for identifying friend or foe. Yet, biological determinism is a relatively modern term, and scientific racism is, oddly enough, largely a consequence or a product of the Age of Enlightenment and the establishment of the notion of human equality. In recent decades ever-increasing efforts and ingenuity were invested in identifying Biblical Israelite genotypic common denominators by analysing an assortment of phenotypes, like facial patterns, blood types, diseases, DNA-sequences, and more. It becomes overwhelmingly clear that although Jews maintained detectable vertical genetic continuity along generations of socio-religious-cultural relationship, also intensive horizontal genetic relations were maintained both between Jewish communities and with the gentile surrounding. Thus, in spite of considerable consanguinity, there is no Jewish genotype to identify. PMID:25653666

  11. Identification of Novel Genetic Markers of Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Kraft, Peter; Canisius, Sander; Chen, Constance; Khan, Sofia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lush, Michael; Kar, Siddhartha; Beesley, Jonathan; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Lambrechts, Diether; Weltens, Caroline; Leunen, Karin; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Fagerholm, Rainer; Muranen, Taru A.; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Broeks, Annegien; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W. M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Marme, Federik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Yang, Rongxi; Burwinkel, Barbara; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Humphreys, Keith; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Mariani, Paolo; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Balleine, Rosemary; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hamann, Ute; Kabisch, Maria; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Rüdiger, Thomas; Margolin, Sara; Kristensen, Vessela; Nord, Silje; Evans, D. Gareth; Abraham, Jean E.; Earl, Helena M.; Hiller, Louise; Dunn, Janet A.; Bowden, Sarah; Berg, Christine; Campa, Daniele; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hüsing, Anika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Willett, Walter; Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Chin, Suet-Feung; Caldas, Carlos; Hunter, David J.; Lindstrom, Sara; García-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Rahman, Nazneen; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer–specific survival. Methods: We conducted a large meta-analysis of studies in populations of European ancestry, including 37954 patients with 2900 deaths from breast cancer. Each study had been genotyped for between 200000 and 900000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome; genotypes for nine million common variants were imputed using a common reference panel from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also carried out subtype-specific analyses based on 6881 estrogen receptor (ER)–negative patients (920 events) and 23059 ER-positive patients (1333 events). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified one new locus (rs2059614 at 11q24.2) associated with survival in ER-negative breast cancer cases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.47, P = 1.91 x 10–8). Genotyping a subset of 2113 case patients, of which 300 were ER negative, provided supporting evidence for the quality of the imputation. The association in this set of case patients was stronger for the observed genotypes than for the imputed genotypes. A second locus (rs148760487 at 2q24.2) was associated at genome-wide statistical significance in initial analyses; the association was similar in ER-positive and ER-negative case patients. Here the results of genotyping suggested that the finding was less robust. Conclusions: This is currently the largest study investigating genetic variation associated with breast cancer survival. Our results have potential clinical implications, as they confirm that germline genotype can provide prognostic information in addition to standard tumor prognostic factors. PMID:25890600

  12. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  13. Estimation of genetic diversity using SSR markers in sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower is a major oilseed crop in central Asia, but little is known of the molecular diversity among collections of sunflower from Pakistan region. This paper described inherent genetic relationships among sunflower collections using Simple Sequence Repeat molecular markers. Results should help...

  14. New high density genetic marker technology for use in breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in genetic marker technology have enhanced our ability to evaluate rice breeding materials more quickly and with greater coverage. In 2005, as a result of an international collaboration, the japonica rice variety, Nipponbare, was the first crop plant to be completely sequenced. Subse...

  15. Association of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential interaction of growth-promoting implants and genetic markers previously reported to be associated with growth, carcass traits, and tenderness was evaluated. Two implant protocols were applied to subsets of steers (n=383) and heifers (n=65) that were also genotyped for 47 SNP reported ...

  16. SSR Marker Analysis of Genetic Relationships within Hydrangea paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity studies using 26 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were conducted with 36 taxa of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. The SSR loci were highly variable among the taxa, producing a mean of 5.8 alleles per locus. Three cultivars (Boskoop, Compact Grandiflora and Webb) were either identic...

  17. SSR Marker Analysis of Genetic Relationships within Hydrangea Macrophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity studies using 39 SSR markers were carried out with 114 taxa of H. macrophylla. The SSR loci were highly variable among the taxa, producing a mean of 8.26 alleles per locus. Overall allelic richness was relatively high at 5.12 alleles per locus. Subspecies serrata contained nearly t...

  18. Analysis of genetic diversity in earthworms using DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Gupta, Navneet K; Singh, Nagendra K; Sharma, Tilak R

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are one of the most important and beneficial macrofauna, and are used extensively in organic farming. Earthworms mediate soil biological regulation systems, and produce biogenic structures. They help to maintain soil structure, water infiltration, and regulate the availability of nutrients assimilated by plants. The objectives of this study were to perform morphological and molecular characterizations of 24 earthworm individuals collected from geographically diverse locations to assess the level of genetic variation. For molecular analysis, the effectiveness of RAPD, ISSR, and Universal rice primers (URPs) markers was investigated to identify polymorphism among 24 isolates of earthworms. A total of 62 molecular markers were used for amplification of genomic DNA of earthworms. Of these, 10 RAPD, 10 ISSR, and 10 URPs markers were used for characterization, which showed 95.7%, 96.7% and 98.3% polymorphism, respectively. The dendrogram, generated from the DNA markers by the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages, grouped all the isolates into two main clusters. All Eisenia fetida isolates were clustered in group A, whereas group B included three isolates belonging to Eudrilus eugeniae. Molecular markers allowed a rapid assessment of genetic variation among these closely related isolates of earthworms. These results suggest that molecular markers are a good choice for diversity analysis of earthworm individuals. PMID:21186943

  19. Evaluation of algorithms used to order markers on genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Mollinari, M; Margarido, G R A; Vencovsky, R; Garcia, A A F

    2009-12-01

    When building genetic maps, it is necessary to choose from several marker ordering algorithms and criteria, and the choice is not always simple. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of algorithms try (TRY), seriation (SER), rapid chain delineation (RCD), recombination counting and ordering (RECORD) and unidirectional growth (UG), as well as the criteria PARF (product of adjacent recombination fractions), SARF (sum of adjacent recombination fractions), SALOD (sum of adjacent LOD scores) and LHMC (likelihood through hidden Markov chains), used with the RIPPLE algorithm for error verification, in the construction of genetic linkage maps. A linkage map of a hypothetical diploid and monoecious plant species was simulated containing one linkage group and 21 markers with fixed distance of 3 cM between them. In all, 700 F(2) populations were randomly simulated with 100 and 400 individuals with different combinations of dominant and co-dominant markers, as well as 10 and 20% of missing data. The simulations showed that, in the presence of co-dominant markers only, any combination of algorithm and criteria may be used, even for a reduced population size. In the case of a smaller proportion of dominant markers, any of the algorithms and criteria (except SALOD) investigated may be used. In the presence of high proportions of dominant markers and smaller samples (around 100), the probability of repulsion linkage increases between them and, in this case, use of the algorithms TRY and SER associated to RIPPLE with criterion LHMC would provide better results. PMID:19639011

  20. Dinucleotide repeat loci contribute highly informative genetic markers to the human chromosome 2 linkage map

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S. ); Sherman, S.L. ); Naylor, S.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Microsatellite repeat loci can provide informative markers for genetic linkage. Currently, the human chromosome 2 genetic linkage map has very few highly polymorphic markers. Being such a large chromosome, it will require a large number of informative markers for the dense coverage desired to allow disease genes to be mapped quickly and accurately. Dinucleotide repeat loci from two anonymous chromosome 2 genomic DNA clones were sequenced so that oligonucleotide primers could be designed for amplifying each locus using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Five sets of PCR primers were also generated from nucleotide sequences in the GenBank Database of chromosome 2 genes containing dinucleotide repeats. In addition, one PCR primer pair was made that amplifies a restriction fragment length polymorphism on the TNP1 gene. These markers were placed on the CEPH genetic linkage map by screening the CEPH reference DNA panel with each primer set, combining these data with those of other markers previously placed on the map, and analyzing the combined data set using CRI-MAP and LINKAGE. The microsatellite loci are highly informative markers and the TNP1 locus, as expected, is only moderately informative. A map was constructed with 38 ordered loci (odds [ge] 1000:1) spanning 296 cM (male) and 476 cM (female) of chromosome 2 compared with 306 cM (male) and 529 cM (female) for a previous map of 20 markers. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Genetic markers and the coregonid problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, W.; Todd, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    Coregonid fishes are the forage base in many ecosystems in the northern hemisphere and they have traditionally been part of commercial and native fisheries. Coregonids display extreme variability in morphology, life history, and behavior. Defining boundaries among coregonid taxa has been (and continues to be) the focus of many studies. Cytogenetic, biochemical, and molecular methods have been used to study the 'coregonid problem'. A survey of the literature reveals that questions of taxonomy, followed by phylogeography are most often studied. Sample collections have occurred throughout a representative portion of the coregonid range. The whitefish species Coregonus clupeaformis and C. lavaretus are most often studied. This was expected however because they are the most widely distributed, display the most variation, and are the most commercially important. However, species with restricted ranges such as the Irish pollan (C. pollan) or omul (C. migratorius) have also been studied intensively. Genetic methods have provided insights into several issues, including the placement of Stenodus and the status of C. clupeaformis and C. lavaretus. More recently, studies of sympatric forms over broad geographic scales shed light on processes involved in the evolution of the group and suggest different approaches for management and designation of taxa. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  2. Modeling of genetic gain for single traits from marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Sushan; Hardner, Craig; Carter, Patrick A; Evans, Kate; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations—known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies. Existing models based on additive effects considering seed-propagated crops are not directly relevant for seedling selection of clonally propagated crops, as clonal propagation captures all genetic effects, not just additive. This study modeled genetic gain from traditional and various marker-based seedling selection strategies on a single trait basis through analytical derivation and stochastic simulation, based on a generalized seedling selection scheme of clonally propagated crops. Various trait-test scenarios with a range of broad-sense heritability and proportion of genotypic variance explained by DNA markers were simulated for two populations with different segregation patterns. Both derived and simulated results indicated that marker-based strategies tended to achieve higher genetic gain than phenotypic seedling selection for a trait where the proportion of genotypic variance explained by marker information was greater than the broad-sense heritability. Results from this study provides guidance in optimizing genetic gain from seedling selection for single traits where DNA tests providing marker information are available. PMID:27148453

  3. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  4. Genetic diversity of Cosmos species revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, A; Piña-Escutia, J L; Vázquez-García, L M; Arzate-Fernández, A M

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cosmos is native of America and is constituted by 34 species; 28 of them are endemic of Mexico. The cosmos are used as a nematicide, antimalarial, and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among 7 cosmos species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequences repeats (ISSR) markers. With RAPD markers, the obtained polymorphism was 91.7 % and the genetic diversity was 0.33, whereas these values were 65.6%, and 0.22 from ISSR markers, respectively, indicating the presence of high genetic diversity among the Cosmos species that were analyzed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrograms that were obtained with both markers were notably similar, revealing 2 clusters and indicating a clear genetic differentiation among the Cosmos species that were assessed. The first cluster comprised the species Cosmos sulphureus, Cosmos pacificus, and Cosmos diversifolius, while the second cluster included the species Cosmos purpureus, Cosmos crithmifolius, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Cosmos parviflorus. Besides this, the Cosmos species were clustered according to their collection sites. The Mantel test corroborates the correlation between the genetic distance and the geographic altitude of each Cosmos species. The results suggest that it is necessary to preserve the Cosmos species in their natural habitat in addition to the germoplasm collection for ex situ conservation. PMID:24338421

  5. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  6. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  7. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  8. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  9. Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. PMID:22851931

  10. Genetic diversity in the germplasm of black pepper determined by EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wu, B D; Fan, R; Hu, L S; Wu, H S; Hao, C Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess genetic diversity in the germplasm of black pepper from around the world using SSR markers from EST. In total, 13 markers were selected and successfully amplified the target loci across the black pepper germplasm. All the EST-SSR markers showed high levels of polymorphisms with an average polymorphism information content of 0.93. The genetic similarity coefficients among all accessions ranged from 0.724 to 1.000, with an average of 0.867. These results indicated that black pepper germplasms possess a complex genetic background and high genetic diversity. Based on a cluster analysis, 148 black pepper germplasms were grouped in two major clades: the Neotropics and the Asian tropics. Peperomia pellucida was grouped separately and distantly from all other accessions. These results generally agreed with the genetic and geographic distances. However, the Asian tropics clade did not cluster according to their geographic origins. In addition, compared with the American accessions, the Asian wild accessions and cultivated accessions grouped together, indicating a close genetic relationship. This verified the origin of black pepper. The newly developed EST-SSRs are highly valuable resources for the conservation of black pepper germplasm diversity and for black pepper breeding. PMID:27050963

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  12. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    PubMed

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-03-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  13. Genetic Markers for Western Corn Rootworm Resistance to Bt Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Flagel, Lex E.; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L.; Michel, Andrew P.; Head, Graham P.; Goldman, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  14. Genetic diversity analysis of common beans based on molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Gill-Langarica, Homar R; Muruaga-Martínez, José S; Vargas-Vázquez, M L Patricia; Rosales-Serna, Rigoberto; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    2011-10-01

    A core collection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), representing genetic diversity in the entire Mexican holding, is kept at the INIFAP (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Mexico) Germplasm Bank. After evaluation, the genetic structure of this collection (200 accessions) was compared with that of landraces from the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracruz (10 genotypes from each), as well as a further 10 cultivars, by means of four amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) +3/+3 primer combinations and seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci, in order to define genetic diversity, variability and mutual relationships. Data underwent cluster (UPGMA) and molecular variance (AMOVA) analyses. AFLP analysis produced 530 bands (88.5% polymorphic) while SSR primers amplified 174 alleles, all polymorphic (8.2 alleles per locus). AFLP indicated that the highest genetic diversity was to be found in ten commercial-seed classes from two major groups of accessions from Central Mexico and Chiapas, which seems to be an important center of diversity in the south. A third group included genotypes from Nueva Granada, Mesoamerica, Jalisco and Durango races. Here, SSR analysis indicated a reduced number of shared haplotypes among accessions, whereas the highest genetic components of AMOVA variation were found within accessions. Genetic diversity observed in the common-bean core collection represents an important sample of the total Phaseolus genetic variability at the main Germplasm Bank of INIFAP. Molecular marker strategies could contribute to a better understanding of the genetic structure of the core collection as well as to its improvement and validation. PMID:22215964

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of common beans based on molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Gill-Langarica, Homar R.; Muruaga-Martínez, José S.; Vargas-Vázquez, M.L. Patricia; Rosales-Serna, Rigoberto; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    2011-01-01

    A core collection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), representing genetic diversity in the entire Mexican holding, is kept at the INIFAP (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Mexico) Germplasm Bank. After evaluation, the genetic structure of this collection (200 accessions) was compared with that of landraces from the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracruz (10 genotypes from each), as well as a further 10 cultivars, by means of four amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) +3/+3 primer combinations and seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci, in order to define genetic diversity, variability and mutual relationships. Data underwent cluster (UPGMA) and molecular variance (AMOVA) analyses. AFLP analysis produced 530 bands (88.5% polymorphic) while SSR primers amplified 174 alleles, all polymorphic (8.2 alleles per locus). AFLP indicated that the highest genetic diversity was to be found in ten commercial-seed classes from two major groups of accessions from Central Mexico and Chiapas, which seems to be an important center of diversity in the south. A third group included genotypes from Nueva Granada, Mesoamerica, Jalisco and Durango races. Here, SSR analysis indicated a reduced number of shared haplotypes among accessions, whereas the highest genetic components of AMOVA variation were found within accessions. Genetic diversity observed in the common-bean core collection represents an important sample of the total Phaseolus genetic variability at the main Germplasm Bank of INIFAP. Molecular marker strategies could contribute to a better understanding of the genetic structure of the core collection as well as to its improvement and validation. PMID:22215964

  16. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  17. Molecular identification and genetic variation of varieties of Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) using SRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Sun, R X; Zhang, C H; Zheng, Y Q; Zong, Y C; Yu, X D; Huang, P

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four Styphnolobium japonicum varieties were analyzed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers, to investigate genetic variation and test the effectiveness of SRAP markers in DNA fingerprint establishment. Twelve primer pairs were selected from 120 primer combinations for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. We found a total of 430 amplified fragments, of which 415 fragments were considered polymorphic with an average of 34.58 polymorphic fragments for each primer combination. The percentage of polymorphic fragments was 96.60%, and four primer pairs showed 100% polymorphism. Moreover, simple matched coefficients ranged between 0.68 and 0.89, with an average of 0.785, indicating that the genetic variation among varieties was relatively low. This could be because of the narrow genetic basis of the selected breeding material. Based on the similarity coefficient value of 0.76, the varieties were divided into four major groups. In addition, abundant and clear SRAP fingerprints were obtained and could be used to establish DNA fingerprints. In the DNA fingerprints, each variety had its unique pattern that could be easily distinguished from others. The results demonstrated that 34 varieties of S. japonicum had a relatively narrow genetic variation. Hence, a broadening of the genetic basis of breeding material is necessary. We conclude that establishment of DNA fingerprint is feasible by means of SRAP markers. PMID:27173318

  18. First haploid genetic map based on microsatellite markers in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858).

    PubMed

    Molina-Luzón, Ma Jesús; Hermida, Miguel; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Robles, Francisca; Navas, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Bouza, Carmen; Martínez, Paulino; de la Herrán, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) is a flatfish species of great value for aquaculture. In this study, we develop the first linkage map in this species based on microsatellite markers characterized from genomic DNA libraries and EST databases of Senegalese sole and from other flatfish species. Three reference gynogenetic families were obtained by chromosome-manipulation techniques: two haploid gynogenetics, used to assign and order microsatellites to linkage groups and another diploid gynogenetic family, used for estimating marker-centromere distances. The consensus map consists of 129 microsatellites distributed in 27 linkage groups (LG), with an average density of 4.7 markers per LG and comprising 1,004 centimorgans (cM). Additionally, 15 markers remained unlinked. Through half-tetrad analysis, we were able to estimate the centromere distance for 81 markers belonging to 24 LG, representing an average of 3 markers per LG. Comparative mapping was performed between flatfish species LG and model fish species chromosomes (stickleback, Tetraodon, medaka, fugu and zebrafish). The usefulness of microsatellite markers and the genetic map as tools for comparative mapping and evolution studies is discussed. PMID:25107689

  19. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-S1 with carcass and meat traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in mos...

  20. Genetic variability of watermelon accessions based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    de S Gama, R N C; Santos, C A F; de C S Dias, R

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic variability of 40 watermelon accessions collected from 8 regions of Northeastern Brazil using microsatellite markers, in order to suggest strategies of conservation and utilization of genetic variability in this species. These accessions are not commercial cultivars. They were sampled in areas of traditional farmers that usually keep their own seeds for future plantings year after year. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated from a distance matrix of the Jaccard coefficient, based on 41 alleles of 13 microsatellite loci. Analysis of molecular variance was made by partitioning between and within geographical regions. The similarity coefficient between accessions ranged from 37 to 96%; the dendrogram gave a co-phenetic value of 0.80. The among population genetic variability was high ( (^)ϕST = 0.319). Specific clusters of accessions sampled in 3 regions of Maranhão were observed while the other 5 regions did not presented specific clusters by regions. We conclude that watermelon genetic variability is not uniformly dispersed in the regions analyzed, indicating that geographical barriers or edaphoclimatic conditions have limited open mating. We suggest sampling a greater number of populations, so regional species diversity will be better represented and preserved in the germplasm bank. PMID:23546958

  1. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  2. Quantitative PCR for genetic markers of human fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2009-09-01

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacterial loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantification approach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for quantification of two recently described human-specific genetic markers targeting Bacteroidales-like cell surface-associated genes. Each assay exhibited a range of quantification from 10 to 1 x 10(6) copies of target DNA. For each assay, internal amplification controls were developed to detect the presence or absence of amplification inhibitors. The assays predominantly detected human fecal specimens and exhibited specificity levels greater than 97% when tested against 265 fecal DNA extracts from 22 different animal species. The abundance of each human-specific genetic marker in primary effluent wastewater samples collected from 20 geographically distinct locations was measured and compared to quantities estimated by real-time PCR assays specific for rRNA gene sequences from total Bacteroidales and enterococcal fecal microorganisms. Assay performances combined with the prevalence of DNA targets in sewage samples provide experimental evidence supporting the potential application of these quantitative methods for monitoring fecal pollution in ambient environmental waters. PMID:19592537

  3. Genetic markers, genotyping methods & next generation sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Srinidhi; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology (ME) is one of the main areas in tuberculosis research which is widely used to study the transmission epidemics and outbreaks of tubercle bacilli. It exploits the presence of various polymorphisms in the genome of the bacteria that can be widely used as genetic markers. Many DNA typing methods apply these genetic markers to differentiate various strains and to study the evolutionary relationships between them. The three widely used genotyping tools to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spacer oligotyping (Spoligotyping), and mycobacterial interspersed repeat units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). A new prospect towards ME was introduced with the development of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and the next generation sequencing (NGS) methods, where the entire genome is sequenced that not only helps in pointing out minute differences between the various sequences but also saves time and the cost. NGS is also found to be useful in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), comparative genomics and also various aspects about transmission dynamics. These techniques enable the identification of mycobacterial strains and also facilitate the study of their phylogenetic and evolutionary traits. PMID:26205019

  4. Physical mapping of genetic markers on the short arm of chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-12-01

    The deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 is associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. In addition, loss of this portion of a chromosome is a common cytogenetic marker in a number of malignancies. However, to date, no genes associated with these disorders have been identified. Physical maps are the first step in isolating causative genes, and genes involved in autosomal recessive disorders are now routinely mapped through the identification of linked markers. Extensive genetic maps based upon polymorphic short tandem repeats (STRs) have provided researchers with a large number of markers to which such disorders can be genetically mapped. However, the physical locations of many of these STRs have not been determined. Toward the goal of integrating the human genetic maps with the physical maps, a 5p somatic cell hybrid deletion mapping panel that was derived from patients with 5p deletions or translocations was used to physically map 47 STRs that have been used to construct genetic maps of 5p. These data will be useful in the localization of disease genes that map to 5p and may be involved in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Corylus mandshurica in China Using SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Tian-Tian; Ma, Qing-Hua; Liang, Li-Song; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Corylus mandshurica, also known as pilose hazelnut, is an economically and ecologically important species in China. In this study, ten polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were applied to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 348 C. mandshurica individuals among 12 populations in China. The SSR markers expressed a relatively high level of genetic diversity (Na = 15.3, Ne = 5.6604, I = 1.8853, Ho = 0.6668, and He = 0.7777). According to the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.1215), genetic variation within the populations (87.85%) were remarkably higher than among populations (12.15%). The average gene flow (Nm = 1.8080) significantly impacts the genetic structure of C. mandshurica populations. The relatively high gene flow (Nm = 1.8080) among wild C. mandshurica may be caused by wind-pollinated flowers, highly nutritious seeds and self-incompatible mating system. The UPGMA (unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages) dendrogram was divided into two main clusters. Moreover, the results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that C. mandshurica populations fell into two main clusters. Comparison of the UPGMA dendrogram and the Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed general agreement between the population subdivisions and the genetic relationships among populations of C. mandshurica. Group I accessions were located in Northeast China, while Group II accessions were in North China. It is worth noting that a number of genetically similar populations were located in the same geographic region. The results further showed that there was obvious genetic differentiation among populations from Northeast China to North China. Results from the Mantel test showed a weak but still significant positive correlation between Nei’s genetic distance and geographic distance (km) among populations (r = 0.419, P = 0.005), suggesting that genetic differentiation in the 12 C. mandshurica populations might be related to geographic distance

  6. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Corylus mandshurica in China Using SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Tian-Tian; Ma, Qing-Hua; Liang, Li-Song; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Corylus mandshurica, also known as pilose hazelnut, is an economically and ecologically important species in China. In this study, ten polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were applied to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 348 C. mandshurica individuals among 12 populations in China. The SSR markers expressed a relatively high level of genetic diversity (Na = 15.3, Ne = 5.6604, I = 1.8853, Ho = 0.6668, and He = 0.7777). According to the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.1215), genetic variation within the populations (87.85%) were remarkably higher than among populations (12.15%). The average gene flow (Nm = 1.8080) significantly impacts the genetic structure of C. mandshurica populations. The relatively high gene flow (Nm = 1.8080) among wild C. mandshurica may be caused by wind-pollinated flowers, highly nutritious seeds and self-incompatible mating system. The UPGMA (unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages) dendrogram was divided into two main clusters. Moreover, the results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that C. mandshurica populations fell into two main clusters. Comparison of the UPGMA dendrogram and the Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed general agreement between the population subdivisions and the genetic relationships among populations of C. mandshurica. Group I accessions were located in Northeast China, while Group II accessions were in North China. It is worth noting that a number of genetically similar populations were located in the same geographic region. The results further showed that there was obvious genetic differentiation among populations from Northeast China to North China. Results from the Mantel test showed a weak but still significant positive correlation between Nei's genetic distance and geographic distance (km) among populations (r = 0.419, P = 0.005), suggesting that genetic differentiation in the 12 C. mandshurica populations might be related to geographic distance. These

  7. Additive and non-additive genetic components of the jack male life history in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Forest, Adriana R; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Heath, Daniel D; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-08-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, exhibit alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males exist in two phenotypes: large "hooknose" males and smaller "jacks" that reach sexual maturity after only 1 year in seawater. The mechanisms that determine "jacking rate"-the rate at which males precociously sexually mature-are known to involve both genetics and differential growth rates, where individuals that become jacks exhibit higher growth earlier in life. The additive genetic components have been studied and it is known that jack sires produce significantly more jack offspring than hooknose sires, and vice versa. The current study was the first to investigate both additive and non-additive genetic components underlying jacking through the use of a full-factorial breeding design using all hooknose sires. The effect of dams and sires descendant from a marker-assisted broodstock program that identified "high performance" and "low performance" lines using growth- and survival-related gene markers was also studied. Finally, the relative growth of jack, hooknose, and female offspring was examined. No significant dam, sire, or interaction effects were observed in this study, and the maternal, additive, and non-additive components underlying jacking were small. Differences in jacking rates in this study were determined by dam performance line, where dams that originated from the low performance line produced significantly more jacks. Jack offspring in this study had a significantly larger body size than both hooknose males and females starting 1 year post-fertilization. This study provides novel information regarding the genetic architecture underlying ARTs in Chinook salmon that could have implications for the aquaculture industry, where jacks are not favoured due to their small body size and poor flesh quality. PMID:27450674

  8. Toward diagnostic and phenotype markers for genetically transmitted speech delay.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, Lawrence D; Lewis, Barbara A; Tomblin, J Bruce; McSweeny, Jane L; Karlsson, Heather B; Scheer, Alison R

    2005-08-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the most common subtype of childhood speech sound disorder (SSD) of currently unknown origin is genetically transmitted. We report the first findings toward a set of diagnostic markers to differentiate this proposed etiological subtype (provisionally termed speech delay-genetic) from other proposed subtypes of SSD of unknown origin. Conversational speech samples from 72 preschool children with speech delay of unknown origin from 3 research centers were selected from an audio archive. Participants differed on the number of biological, nuclear family members (0 or 2+) classified as positive for current and/or prior speech-language disorder. Although participants in the 2 groups were found to have similar speech competence, as indexed by their Percentage of Consonants Correct scores, their speech error patterns differed significantly in 3 ways. Compared with children who may have reduced genetic load for speech delay (no affected nuclear family members), children with possibly higher genetic load (2+ affected members) had (a) a significantly higher proportion of relative omission errors on the Late-8 consonants; (b) a significantly lower proportion of relative distortion errors on these consonants, particularly on the sibilant fricatives /s/, /z/, and //; and (c) a significantly lower proportion of backed /s/ distortions, as assessed by both perceptual and acoustic methods. Machine learning routines identified a 3-part classification rule that included differential weightings of these variables. The classification rule had diagnostic accuracy value of 0.83 (95% confidence limits = 0.74-0.92), with positive and negative likelihood ratios of 9.6 (95% confidence limits = 3.1-29.9) and 0.40 (95% confidence limits = 0.24-0.68), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy findings are viewed as promising. The error pattern for this proposed subtype of SSD is viewed as consistent with the cognitive-linguistic processing deficits

  9. Intelligent DNA-based molecular diagnostics using linked genetic markers

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, D.K.; Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a knowledge-based system for molecular diagnostics, and its application to fully automated diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders. Molecular diagnostic information is used in clinical practice for determining genetic risks, such as carrier determination and prenatal diagnosis. Initially, blood samples are obtained from related individuals, and PCR amplification is performed. Linkage-based molecular diagnosis then entails three data analysis steps. First, for every individual, the alleles (i.e., DNA composition) are determined at specified chromosomal locations. Second, the flow of genetic material among the individuals is established. Third, the probability that a given individual is either a carrier of the disease or affected by the disease is determined. The current practice is to perform each of these three steps manually, which is costly, time consuming, labor-intensive, and error-prone. As such, the knowledge-intensive data analysis and interpretation supersede the actual experimentation effort as the major bottleneck in molecular diagnostics. By examining the human problem solving for the task, we have designed and implemented a prototype knowledge-based system capable of fully automating linkage-based molecular diagnostics in X-linked genetic disorders, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Our system uses knowledge-based interpretation of gel electrophoresis images to determine individual DNA marker labels, a constraint satisfaction search for consistent genetic flow among individuals, and a blackboard-style problem solver for risk assessment. We describe the system`s successful diagnosis of DMD carrier and affected individuals from raw clinical data.

  10. The Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene is a cell autonomous genetic marker in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Nagaraja; O'Brochta, David A

    2005-07-01

    The cinnabar gene of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) encodes for kynurenine hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in ommochrome biosynthesis. This gene is commonly included as a visible genetic marker in gene vectors used to create transgenic Aedes aegypti (L.) that are homozygous for the khw allele, the mosquito homolog of cinnabar. Unexpectedly, the phenotype of cells expressing kynurenine hydroxylase in transgenic Ae. aegypti is cell autonomous as demonstrated by the recovery of insects heterozygous for the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene with mosaic eye color patterns. In addition, a transgenic gynandromorph was recovered in which one-half of the insect was expressing the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene, including one eye with red pigmentation, whereas the other half of the insect was homozygous khw and included a white eye. The cell autonomous behavior of cinnabar in transgenic Ae. aegypti is unexpected and increases the utility of this genetic marker. PMID:16119567

  11. Genetic linkage of mild pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.D.; Rasmussen, M.; Garber, P.; Rimoin, D.L.; Cohn, D.H. ); Weber, J.L. ); Yuen, J.; Reinker, K. )

    1993-12-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a dominantly inherited form of short-limb dwarfism characterized by dysplastic changes in the spine, epiphyses, and metaphyses and early onset osteoarthropathy. Chondrocytes from affected individuals accumulate an unusual appearing material in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which has led to the hypothesis that a structural abnormality in a cartilage-specific protein produces the phenotype. The authors recently identified a large family with a mild form of pseudoachondroplasia. By genetic linkage to a dinucleotide repeat polymorphic marker (D19S199), they have localized the disease gene to chromosome 19 (maximum lod score of 7.09 at a recombination fraction of 0.03). Analysis of additional markers and recombinations between the linked markers and the phenotype suggests that the disease gene resides within a 6.3-cM interval in the immediate pericentromeric region of the chromosome. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed. PMID:18092752

  13. Genetic divergence among sweet corn lines estimated by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A D; Scapim, C A; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 15 sugary-1 sweet corn lines by microsatellite markers. One hundred pairs of simple sequence repeat primers that were mapped for field corn were tested. Of these primers, 15% were polymorphic, and all were selected for the evaluation. These primers identified a total of 39 alleles among the 15 loci that were evaluated. The number of alleles per locus in the genotypes ranged from 2 to 4, with an average of 2.60 alleles per locus; the highest number of alleles was observed at the loci Bnlg1083, Umc1241, and Umc1590. The occurrence of null alleles at locus Umc1363 was evident only in line DN44. The proportion of polymorphic loci was the highest in lines DN17.1 and DN6 (73.33%), whereas lines DN47, DN23, and DN28 were more monomorphic than other lines. The loci Bnlg1083 and Umc1506 were polymorphic in 8 and 7 lines, respectively, indicating that these loci might be effective and promising for the identification of polymorphism in other sweet corn lines. The genetic diversity calculated by Rogers' genetic distances indicated the lowest genetic similarity between lines DN9 and DN28 (0.7603) and the highest similarity between lines DN19 and DN6 (0.3724). The dendrogram obtained by the unweighted pair-group method based on arithmetic averages indicated the formation of 4 major groups, showing the crossing of the genotypes DN19 and DN6 with DN8 as a possible alternative for the expression of heterozygosis. PMID:25511025

  14. Genetic diversity of bovine Neospora caninum determined by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Salehi, N; Gottstein, B; Haddadzadeh, H R

    2015-10-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most significant parasitic organisms causing bovine abortion worldwide. Despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. In this study, using Nc5 and ITS1 nested PCR, N. caninum has been detected in 12 brain samples of aborted fetuses from 298 seropositive dairy cattle collected from four different regions in Tehran, Iran. These specimen (Nc-Iran) were genotyped in multilocus using 9 different microsatellite markers previously described (MS4, MS5, MS6A, MS6B, MS7, MS8, MS10, MS12 and MS21). Microsatellite amplification was completely feasible in 2 samples, semi-completely in 8 samples, and failed in 2 samples. Within the two completely performed allelic profiles of Nc-Iran strains, unique multilocus profiles were obtained for both and novel allelic patterns were found in the MS8 and MS10 microsatellite markers. The Jaccard's similarity index showed significant difference between these two strains and from other standard isolates derived from GenBank such as Nc-Liv, Nc-SweB1, Nc-GER1, KBA1, and KBA2. All samples originating from the same area showed identical allelic numbers and a correlation between the number of repeats and geographic districts was observed. PMID:25988829

  15. Genetic relationships among Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) species based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Marouelli, L P; Inglis, P W; Ferreira, M A; Buso, G S C

    2010-01-01

    The family Heliconiaceae contains a single genus, Heliconia, with approximately 180 species of Neotropical origin. This genus was formerly allocated to the family Musaceae, but today forms its own family, in the order Zingiberales. The combination of inverted flowers, a single staminode and drupe fruits is an exclusive characteristic of Heliconia. Heliconias are cultivated as ornamental garden plants, and are of increasing importance as cut flowers. However, there are taxonomic confusions and uncertainties about the number of species and the relationships among them. Molecular studies are therefore necessary for better understanding of the species boundaries of these plants. We examined the genetic variability and the phylogenetic relationships of 124 accessions of the genus Heliconia based on RAPD markers. Phenetic and cladistic analyses, using 231 polymorphic RAPD markers, demonstrated that the genus Heliconia is monophyletic. Groupings corresponding to currently recognized species and some subgenera were found, and cultivars and hybrids were found to cluster with their parents. RAPD analysis generally agreed with morphological species classification, except for the position of the subgenus Stenochlamys, which was found to be polyphyletic. PMID:20645261

  16. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-01-01

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan. PMID:26634465

  17. Analysis of the genetic diversity of super sweet corn inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers.

    PubMed

    Ko, W R; Sa, K J; Roy, N S; Choi, H-J; Lee, J K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the efficiency of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP) markers for analyzing genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and population structure of 87 super sweet corn inbred lines from different origins. SSR markers showed higher average gene diversity and Shannon's information index than SSAP markers. To assess genetic relationships and characterize inbred lines using SSR and SSAP markers, genetic similarity (GS) matrices were constructed. The dendrogram using SSR marker data showed a complex pattern with nine clusters and a GS of 53.0%. For SSAP markers, three clusters were observed with a GS of 50.8%. Results of combined marker data showed six clusters with 53.5% GS. To analyze the genetic population structure of SSR and SSAP marker data, the 87 inbred lines were divided into groups I, II, and admixed based on the membership probability threshold of 0.8. Using combined marker data, the population structure was K = 3 and was divided into groups I, II, III, and admixed. This study represents a comparative analysis of SSR and SSAP marker data for the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships in super sweet corn inbred lines. Our results would be useful for maize-breeding programs in Korea. PMID:26909914

  18. Exogenous Visual Orienting Is Associated with Specific Neurotransmitter Genetic Markers: A Population-Based Genetic Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundwall, Rebecca A.; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Dannemiller, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a sense that the spatial orienting of attention is related to genotypic variations in cholinergic genes but not to variations in dopaminergic genes. However, reexamination of associations with both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes is warranted because previous studies used endogenous rather than exogenous cues and costs and benefits were not analyzed separately. Examining costs (increases in response time following an invalid pre-cue) and benefits (decreases in response time following a valid pre-cue) separately could be important if dopaminergic genes (implicated in disorders such as attention deficit disorder) independently influence the different processes of orienting (e.g., disengage, move, engage). Methodology/Principal Findings We tested normal subjects (N = 161) between 18 and 61 years. Participants completed a computer task in which pre-cues preceded the presence of a target. Subjects responded (with a key press) to the location of the target (right versus left of fixation). The cues could be valid (i.e., appear where the target would appear) or invalid (appear contralateral to where the target would appear). DNA sequencing assays were performed on buccal cells to genotype known genetic markers and these were examined for association with task scores. Here we show significant associations between visual orienting and genetic markers (on COMT, DAT1, and APOE; R2s from 4% to 9%). Conclusions/Significance One measure in particular – the response time cost of a single dim, invalid cue – was associated with dopaminergic markers on COMT and DAT1. Additionally, variations of APOE genotypes based on the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles were also associated with response time differences produced by simultaneous cues with unequal luminances. We conclude that individual differences in visual orienting are related to several dopaminergic markers as well as to a cholinergic marker. These results challenge the view that orienting is not

  19. Mining associations between genetic markers, phenotypes, and covariates.

    PubMed

    Sevon, P; Ollikainen, V; Onkamo, P; Toivonen, H T; Mannila, H; Kere, J

    2001-01-01

    We used Haplotype Pattern Mining, HPM [Toivonen et al., Am J Hum Genet 67:133-45, 2000], for gene localization in Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 isolate data. In HPM, association is analyzed by searching all trait-associated haplotype patterns. Data mining algorithms are utilized to make the search efficient. The strength of the haplotype-trait associations is measured by a linear model, into which a pre-seelected set of covariates is incorporated. Marker-wise patterns of association are used for predicting the disease gene location. Genome-wide scans of susceptibility genes for affection status as well as for the quantitative traits (Q1-Q5) were performed. First analyses were made with small sample sizes, 63-94 trios per trait, which is compared with a pilot study of a larger complex disease-mapping project. Subsequently, the analysis was repeated with approximately 600 cases and 600 controls per trait to give higher power to the analyses. With small sample sizes, only the susceptibility genes having the strongest effects on the traits could be localized. The larger sample size gave very good results: all susceptibility genes, except one, could be correctly localized. First experiments on candidate genes suggested that HPM is applicable even to fine mapping of mutations in DNA sequence. PMID:11793743

  20. Kernel-Based Aggregation of Marker-Level Genetic Association Tests Involving Copy-Number Variation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinglei; Breheny, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Genetic association tests involving copy-number variants (CNVs) are complicated by the fact that CNVs span multiple markers at which measurements are taken. The power of an association test at a single marker is typically low, and it is desirable to pool information across the markers spanned by the CNV. However, CNV boundaries are not known in advance, and the best way to proceed with this pooling is unclear. In this article, we propose a kernel-based method for aggregation of marker-level tests and explore several aspects of its implementation. In addition, we explore some of the theoretical aspects of marker-level test aggregation, proposing a permutation-based approach that preserves the family-wise error rate of the testing procedure, while demonstrating that several simpler alternatives fail to do so. The empirical power of the approach is studied in a number of simulations constructed from real data involving a pharmacogenomic study of gemcitabine and compares favorably with several competing approaches.

  1. Testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at biallelic genetic markers on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Graffelman, J; Weir, B S

    2016-06-01

    Testing genetic markers for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is an important tool for detecting genotyping errors in large-scale genotyping studies. For markers at the X chromosome, typically the χ(2) or exact test is applied to the females only, and the hemizygous males are considered to be uninformative. In this paper we show that the males are relevant, because a difference in allele frequency between males and females may indicate HWE not to hold. The testing of markers on the X chromosome has received little attention, and in this paper we lay down the foundation for testing biallelic X-chromosomal markers for HWE. We develop four frequentist statistical test procedures for X-linked markers that take both males and females into account: the χ(2) test, likelihood ratio test, exact test and permutation test. Exact tests that include males are shown to have a better Type I error rate. Empirical data from the GENEVA project on venous thromboembolism is used to illustrate the proposed tests. Results obtained with the new tests differ substantially from tests that are based on female genotype counts only. The new tests detect differences in allele frequencies and seem able to uncover additional genotyping error that would have gone unnoticed in HWE tests based on females only. PMID:27071844

  2. Testing for Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium at biallelic genetic markers on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Graffelman, J; Weir, B S

    2016-01-01

    Testing genetic markers for Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is an important tool for detecting genotyping errors in large-scale genotyping studies. For markers at the X chromosome, typically the χ2 or exact test is applied to the females only, and the hemizygous males are considered to be uninformative. In this paper we show that the males are relevant, because a difference in allele frequency between males and females may indicate HWE not to hold. The testing of markers on the X chromosome has received little attention, and in this paper we lay down the foundation for testing biallelic X-chromosomal markers for HWE. We develop four frequentist statistical test procedures for X-linked markers that take both males and females into account: the χ2 test, likelihood ratio test, exact test and permutation test. Exact tests that include males are shown to have a better Type I error rate. Empirical data from the GENEVA project on venous thromboembolism is used to illustrate the proposed tests. Results obtained with the new tests differ substantially from tests that are based on female genotype counts only. The new tests detect differences in allele frequencies and seem able to uncover additional genotyping error that would have gone unnoticed in HWE tests based on females only. PMID:27071844

  3. Impact of marker ascertainment bias on genomic selection accuracy and estimates of genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide molecular markers are readily being applied to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorp...

  4. Associations of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Shackelford, S D; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Kemp, C M; Smith, T P L; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2012-07-01

    The potential interaction of growth-promoting implants and genetic markers previously reported to be associated with growth, carcass traits, and tenderness was evaluated. Two implant protocols were applied to subsets of steers (n = 383) and heifers (n = 65) that were also genotyped for 47 SNP reported to be associated with variation in growth, fat thickness, LM area, marbling, or tenderness. The "mild" protocol consisted of a single terminal implant [16 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 80 mg trenbalone acetate (TBA) or 8 mg EB, 80 mg TBA given to steers and heifers, respectively]. The "aggressive" protocol consisted of both a growing implant (8 mg EB, 40 mg TBA) for the lightest half of the animals on the aggressive protocol and 2 successive implants (28 mg EB, 200 mg TBA) given to all animals assigned to the aggressive treatment. Implant protocol had measurable impact on BW and ADG (P < 0.05), with the aggressive protocol increasing these traits before the terminal implant (relative to the mild protocol), whereas the mild protocol increased ADG after the terminal implant so that the final BW and ADG over the experimental period were similar between protocols. Animals on the aggressive protocol had significantly increased (P < 0.05) LM area (1.9 cm(2)), slice shear force (1.4 kg), and intact desmin (0.05 units), but decreased (P < 0.05) marbling score (49 units) and adjusted fat thickness (0.1 cm), and yield grade (0.15 units). Among both treatments, 8 of 9 growth-related SNP were associated with BW or ADG, and 6 of 17 tenderness-related SNP were associated with slice shear force or intact desmin. Favorable growth alleles generally were associated with increased carcass yield traits but decreased tenderness. Similarly, favorable tenderness genotypes for some markers were associated with decreased BW and ADG. Some interactions of implant protocol and genotype were noted, with some growth SNP alleles increasing the effect of the aggressive protocol. In contrast, putative

  5. Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For

  6. Effect of diversity and missing data on genetic assignment with RAD-Seq markers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Balaji; Garg, Kritika M; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Reduced representation libraries are being used as a preferred source of markers to address population genetic questions. However, libraries of RAD-Seq variants often suffer from significant percentage of missing data. In addition, algorithms used to mine SNPs from the raw data may also underscore biological variation. We investigate the effect of biological diversity in mining SNPs from the program STACKS and the effect of missing data on individual assignment implemented in STRUCTURE. We observed that changing diversity parameters in STACKS significantly alters the number of SNPs discovered and allowing for higher percentage of missing data retrieves more loci and possibly more power for individual assignment. PMID:25424532

  7. High-density interspecific genetic maps of kiwifruit and the identification of sex-specific markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Yifei; VanBuren, Robert; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhong, Caihong; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-10-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon) is an important specialty fruit crop that suffers from narrow genetic diversity stemming from recent global commercialization and limited cultivar improvement. Here, we present high-density RAD-seq-based genetic maps using an interspecific F1 cross between Actinidia rufa 'MT570001' and A. chinensis 'Guihai No4'. The A. rufa (maternal) map consists of 2,426 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with a total length of 2,651 cM in 29 linkage groups (LGs) corresponding to the 29 chromosomes. The A. chinensis (paternal) map consists of 4,214 SNP markers over 3,142 cM in 29 LGs. Using these maps, we were able to anchor an additional 440 scaffolds from the kiwifruit draft genome assembly. Kiwifruit is functionally dioecious, which presents unique challenges for breeding and production. Three sex-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers can be used to accurately sex type male and female kiwifruit in breeding programmes. The sex-determination region (SDR) in kiwifruit was narrowed to a 1-Mb subtelomeric region on chromosome 25. Localizing the SDR will expedite the discovery of genes controlling carpel abortion in males and pollen sterility in females. PMID:26370666

  8. High-density interspecific genetic maps of kiwifruit and the identification of sex-specific markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Yifei; VanBuren, Robert; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhong, Caihong; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon) is an important specialty fruit crop that suffers from narrow genetic diversity stemming from recent global commercialization and limited cultivar improvement. Here, we present high-density RAD-seq-based genetic maps using an interspecific F1 cross between Actinidia rufa ‘MT570001’ and A. chinensis ‘Guihai No4’. The A. rufa (maternal) map consists of 2,426 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with a total length of 2,651 cM in 29 linkage groups (LGs) corresponding to the 29 chromosomes. The A. chinensis (paternal) map consists of 4,214 SNP markers over 3,142 cM in 29 LGs. Using these maps, we were able to anchor an additional 440 scaffolds from the kiwifruit draft genome assembly. Kiwifruit is functionally dioecious, which presents unique challenges for breeding and production. Three sex-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers can be used to accurately sex type male and female kiwifruit in breeding programmes. The sex-determination region (SDR) in kiwifruit was narrowed to a 1-Mb subtelomeric region on chromosome 25. Localizing the SDR will expedite the discovery of genes controlling carpel abortion in males and pollen sterility in females. PMID:26370666

  9. Development of genetic markers in Eucalyptus species by target enrichment and exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family- based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  10. Development of Genetic Markers in Eucalyptus Species by Target Enrichment and Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family– based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  11. [Progress in InDel as a new generation of genetic marker].

    PubMed

    Sun, Kuan; Zhang, Su-Hua; Zhu, Ru-Xin; Zhao, Shu-Min; Li, Cheng-Tao

    2013-04-01

    As forensic DNA typing experienced three generations of genetic marker researching stage, short tandem repeat (STR) has been widely used in forensic identification as a mature tool. Further exploration of the human genome led to the discovery of polymorphism markers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Insertion/Deletion (InDel). InDel, which combines the desirable characteristics of previous genetic markers as a new type of genetic marker, has got extensive concern in fields like medical molecular biology and forensic biology. This paper generally reviews the history of research and the corresponding results of InDel along the line of time axis as well as the different aims of these research focusing on the progress in the multiple amplification system with several InDel as the genetic marker (autosomal or X chromosome) in forensic biology and anthropology. Finally, the direction of research in this field and the problems to be solved have been put forward. PMID:23930511

  12. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti: Insights from Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tamar E.; Malloy, Halley; Existe, Alexandre; Memnon, Gladys; St. Victor, Yves; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Hispaniola, comprising Haiti and the Dominican Republic, has been identified as a candidate for malaria elimination. However, incomplete surveillance data in Haiti hamper efforts to assess the impact of ongoing malaria control interventions. Characteristics of the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations can be used to assess parasite transmission, which is information vital to evaluating malaria elimination efforts. Here we characterize the genetic diversity of P. falciparum samples collected from patients at seven sites in Haiti using 12 microsatellite markers previously employed in population genetic analyses of global P. falciparum populations. We measured multiplicity of infections, level of genetic diversity, degree of population geographic substructure, and linkage disequilibrium (defined as non-random association of alleles from different loci). For low transmission populations like Haiti, we expect to see few multiple infections, low levels of genetic diversity, high degree of population structure, and high linkage disequilibrium. In Haiti, we found low levels of multiple infections (12.9%), moderate to high levels of genetic diversity (mean number of alleles per locus = 4.9, heterozygosity = 0.61), low levels of population structure (highest pairwise Fst = 0.09 and no clustering in principal components analysis), and moderate linkage disequilibrium (ISA = 0.05, P<0.0001). In addition, population bottleneck analysis revealed no evidence for a reduction in the P. falciparum population size in Haiti. We conclude that the high level of genetic diversity and lack of evidence for a population bottleneck may suggest that Haiti’s P. falciparum population has been stable and discuss the implications of our results for understanding the impact of malaria control interventions. We also discuss the relevance of parasite population history and other host and vector factors when assessing transmission intensity from genetic diversity data. PMID:26462203

  13. Estimation of genetic marker effects for CAPN1, CAST, and GHR on carcass quality traits in Angus cattle selected to increase minor marker frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions cannot be accurately estimated when minor marker allele frequencies (MAF) are low. To increase the accuracy of estimation for three marker systems in commercial use, an Angus population at USMARC was subjected to marker assisted-selection for multiple years t...

  14. Genetic variability of ten Chinese indigenous goats using MHC-linked microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Ma, Yue-Hui; Na, Ri-Su; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Wu, Xin

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the genetic variability of Chinese indigenous goat breeds (Capra hircus) was analyzed using the MHC-associated microsatellite markers BF1, BM1818, BM1258, and DYMS1. To examine genetic variability, the levels of heterozigosity, degrees of inbreeding, and genetic differences among the breeds were analyzed. The mean number of alleles ranged from 5.50±3.70 in Enshi black goats (EB) to 11.50±3.70 in the Jianyang big ear (JE) breed. The mean observed heterozygosity and mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.25±0.04 in Jining Qing goats (JQ) to 0.54±0.05 in Chuannan black goats (CN) and from 0.49±0.18 in Hechuan white goats (HW) to 0.78±0.05 in JE, respectively. The mean FIS values ranged from 0.23 in HW to 0.51 in JQ. In addition, the genetic variation among populations and geographic location did indicate a correlation of genetic differences with geographic distance, which was revealed by the phylogenetic network. In conclusion, the high variability and population structure among Chinese native goats in the Major Histocompatibility Complex would be caused by co-evolution between MHC alleles and the epidemic history or pathogens in different agro-ecological zones. PMID:26257111

  15. Genetic diversity analysis in Tunisian perennial ryegrass germplasm as estimated by RAPD, ISSR, and morpho-agronomical markers.

    PubMed

    Ghariani, S; Elazreg, H; Chtourou-Ghorbel, N; Chakroun, M; Trifi-Farah, N

    2015-01-01

    Tunisia is rich in diverse forage and pasture species including perennial ryegrass. In order to enhance forage production and improve agronomic performance of this local germplasm, a molecular analysis was undertaken. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and morpho-agronomical traits markers were used for genetic diversity estimation of ryegrass germplasm after screening 20 spontaneous accessions, including a local and an introduced cultivars. Same mean polymorphism information content values were obtained (0.37) for RAPD and ISSR suggesting that both marker systems were equally effective in determining polymorphisms. The average pairwise genetic distance values were 0.57 (morpho-agronomical traits), 0.68 (RAPD), and 0.51 (ISSR) markers data sets. A higher Shannon diversity index was obtained with ISSR marker (0.57) than for RAPD (0.54) and morpho-agronomical traits (0.36). The Mantel test based on genetic distances of a combination of molecular markers and morpho-agronomical data exhibited a significant correlation between RAPD and ISSR data, suggesting that the use of a combination of molecular techniques was a highly efficient method of estimating genetic variability levels among Tunisian ryegrass germplasm. In summary, results showed that combining molecular and morpho-agronomical markers is an efficient way in assessing the genetic variability among Tunisian ryegrass genotypes. In addition, the combined analysis provided an exhaustive coverage for the analyzed diversity and helped us to identify suitable accessions showed by Beja and Jendouba localities, which present large similarities with cultivated forms and can be exploited for designing breeding programmes, conservation of germplasm and management of ryegrass genetic resources. PMID:26782500

  16. Dyslexia and language impairment associated genetic markers influence cortical thickness and white matter in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Eicher, John D; Montgomery, Angela M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Darst, Burcu F; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Frazier, Jean; Kaufmann, Walter E; Keating, Brian; Kenet, Tal; Kennedy, David; Mostofsky, Stewart; Murray, Sarah S; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Bartsch, Hauke; Kuperman, Joshua M; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-01

    Dyslexia and language impairment (LI) are complex traits with substantial genetic components. We recently completed an association scan of the DYX2 locus, where we observed associations of markers in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ACOT13, and FAM65B with reading-, language-, and IQ-related traits. Additionally, the effects of reading-associated DYX3 markers were recently characterized using structural neuroimaging techniques. Here, we assessed the neuroimaging implications of associated DYX2 and DYX3 markers, using cortical volume, cortical thickness, and fractional anisotropy. To accomplish this, we examined eight DYX2 and three DYX3 markers in 332 subjects in the Pediatrics Imaging Neurocognition Genetics study. Imaging-genetic associations were examined by multiple linear regression, testing for influence of genotype on neuroimaging. Markers in DYX2 genes KIAA0319 and FAM65B were associated with cortical thickness in the left orbitofrontal region and global fractional anisotropy, respectively. KIAA0319 and ACOT13 were suggestively associated with overall fractional anisotropy and left pars opercularis cortical thickness, respectively. DYX3 markers showed suggestive associations with cortical thickness and volume measures in temporal regions. Notably, we did not replicate association of DYX3 markers with hippocampal measures. In summary, we performed a neuroimaging follow-up of reading-, language-, and IQ-associated DYX2 and DYX3 markers. DYX2 associations with cortical thickness may reflect variations in their role in neuronal migration. Furthermore, our findings complement gene expression and imaging studies implicating DYX3 markers in temporal regions. These studies offer insight into where and how DYX2 and DYX3 risk variants may influence neuroimaging traits. Future studies should further connect the pathways to risk variants associated with neuroimaging/neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:25953057

  17. Comparative use of InDel and SSR markers in deciphering the interspecific structure of cultivated citrus genetic diversity: a perspective for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    García-Lor, Andrés; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Genetic stratification associated with domestication history is a key parameter for estimating the pertinence of genetic association study within a gene pool. Previous molecular and phenotypic studies have shown that most of the diversity of cultivated citrus results from recombination between three main species: C. medica (citron), C. reticulata (mandarin) and C. maxima (pummelo). However, the precise contribution of each of these basic species to the genomes of secondary cultivated species, such as C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (sour orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit) and recent hybrids is unknown. Our study focused on: (1) the development of insertion-deletion (InDel) markers and their comparison with SSR markers for use in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies; (2) the analysis of the contributions of basic taxa to the genomes of secondary species and modern cultivars and (3) the description of the organisation of the Citrus gene pool, to evaluate how genetic association studies should be done at the cultivated Citrus gene pool level. InDel markers appear to be better phylogenetic markers for tracing the contributions of the three ancestral species, whereas SSR markers are more useful for intraspecific diversity analysis. Most of the genetic organisation of the Citrus gene pool is related to the differentiation between C. reticulata, C. maxima and C. medica. High and generalised LD was observed, probably due to the initial differentiation between the basic species and a limited number of interspecific recombinations. This structure precludes association genetic studies at the genus level without developing additional recombinant populations from interspecific hybrids. Association genetic studies should also be affordable at intraspecific level in a less structured pool such as C. reticulata. PMID:22160318

  18. Construction of a genetic linkage map for cultivated peanut and development of QTLs/markers for marker-assisted breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid peanut recently. The marker density, however, is still very low especially in context of large genome size (2,800Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, improvement of...

  19. [Relationship of the course of nephrotuberculosis in patients to various combinations of genetic markers].

    PubMed

    Khakimov, M A; Ubaĭdullaev, A M; Kazakov, K S

    2007-01-01

    To examine the body's responsiveness in different forms of nepthrotuberculosis, 237 patients underwent comprehensive clinical laboratory studies. To reveal various combinations of genetic markers, the authors determine the phenotypes of haptoglobin, the activity of red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the type of inactivation of isonicotinic acid hydrazide. According to the combinations of a complex of these genetic markers, the authors identified 4 combinations: poor, good, relatively poor, and relatively good. The studies indicated the high incidence of common forms of nephrotuberculosis in subjects with poor and relatively poor combinations of genetic markers. The determination of various chronic renal failure-associated combinations of genetic markers may be used to identify risk groups for this disease. PMID:18080530

  20. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J.; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program. PMID:26697053

  1. Genetic diversity of mango cultivars estimated using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversity and genetic relationships among 23 mango germplasm accessions, collected from different locations in Guangxi province in China, were analyzed by using a novel and simple gene targeted DNA marker: Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. This technique uses a single, 18-mer primer PCR amplifica...

  2. Usefulness of WRKY gene-derived markers for assessing genetic diversity of Florida coconut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure within Florida coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm representing eight cultivars was previously described using 15 microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers. Here we report on the analysis of the same genotypes using 13 markers d...

  3. GENETIC LINKAGE MAP FOR WATERMELON: SEGREGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage map is being constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. About 51.0% and 31.8% of the markers in the testcross and F2 populations are skewed from the expected segregation ratios. AFLP markers appeared to be clustered on linkage regions, while IS...

  4. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers ...

  5. Genetic approaches for studying myiasis-causing flies: molecular markers and mitochondrial genomics.

    PubMed

    de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia

    2006-01-01

    "Myiasis-causing flies" is a generic term that includes species from numerous dipteran families, mainly Calliphoridae and Oestridae, of which blowflies, screwworm flies and botflies are among the most important. This group of flies is characterized by the ability of their larvae to develop in animal flesh. When the host is a live vertebrate, such parasitism by dipterous larvae is known as primary myiasis. Myiasis-causing flies can be classified as saprophagous (free-living species), facultative or obligate parasites. Many of these flies are of great medical and veterinary importance in Brazil because of their role as key livestock insect-pests and vectors of pathogens, in addition to being considered important legal evidence in forensic entomology. The characterization of myiasis-causing flies using molecular markers to study mtDNA (by RFLP) and nuclear DNA (by RAPD and microsatellite) has been used to identify the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for specific patterns of genetic variability. These approaches have been successfully used to analyze the population structures of the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax and the botfly Dermatobia hominis. In this review, various aspects of the organization, evolution and potential applications of the mitochondrial genome of myiasis-causing flies in Brazil, and the analysis of nuclear markers in genetic studies of populations, are discussed. PMID:16502089

  6. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of () and () genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Cushman, R A; McNeel, A K; Casas, E; Smith, T P L; Freetly, H C; Bennett, G L

    2016-03-01

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for 2 yr to equalize and genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epistatic and pleiotropic effects of these markers on BW, reproduction, and first calf performance traits in replacement beef females ( = 171) managed under 2 postweaning development protocols. Traits evaluated on the heifers were birth BW, weaning BW, 11-mo BW, 12-mo BW, 13-mo BW, first breeding season pregnancy evaluation BW, first calving season BW, 11-mo puberty, 12-mo puberty, 13-mo puberty, first breeding season pregnancy, and first calf weaning rate. Additionally, heifer's first calf performance traits of ordinal calving date, first calf birth BW, and first calf weaning BW (with and without age adjustment) were analyzed. Selection to increase minor allele frequencies and balanced sampling across genotype classes enhanced the ability to detect all genetic effects except dominance × dominance epistasis. The × genotype effect was significant ( < 0.05) for 11-mo BW and 12-mo BW and tended to be significant ( = 0.08) for 13-mo BW. Consistently, for all 3 traits, the most significant effect among epistatic × genotype effects was the additive effect, with the G allele decreasing BW. There were no associations between × genotype and fertility related traits ( ≥ 0.46) in this study. Additionally, there were no × genotype associations with first progeny performance traits ( ≥ 0.14). The large effect of the additive × additive interaction on first calf weaning BW was imprecisely estimated, which may warrant further investigation. PMID:27065254

  7. The Application and Performance of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Population Genetic Analyses of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Brad Steven; Bayles, Darrell O.; Wanner, Kevin W.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Sappington, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite markers are difficult to apply within lepidopteran studies due to the lack of locus-specific PCR amplification and the high proportion of “null” alleles, such that erroneous estimations of population genetic parameters often result. Herein single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are developed from Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using next generation expressed sequence tag (EST) data. A total of 2742 SNPs were predicted within a reference assembly of 7414 EST contigs, and a subset of 763 were incorporated into 24 multiplex PCR reactions. To validate this pipeline, 5 European and North American sample sites were genotyped at 178 SNP loci, which indicated 84 (47.2%) were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Locus-by-locus FST, analysis of molecular variance, and STRUCTURE analyses indicate significant genetic differentiation may exist between European and North American O. nubilalis. The observed genetic diversity was significantly lower among European sites, which may result from genetic drift, natural selection, a genetic bottleneck, or ascertainment bias due to North American origin of EST sequence data. SNPs are an abundant source of mutation data for molecular genetic marker development in non-model species, with shared ancestral SNPs showing application within closely related species. These markers offer advantages over microsatellite markers for genetic and genomic analyses of Lepidoptera, but the source of mutation data may affect the estimation of population parameters and likely need to be considered in the interpretation of empirical data. PMID:22303334

  8. Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    Homozygous; Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  9. Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  10. Efficient Improvement of Silage Additives by Using Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Zoe S.; Gilbert, Richard J.; Merry, Roger J.; Kell, Douglas B.; Theodorou, Michael K.; Griffith, Gareth W.

    2000-01-01

    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e., no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a “fitness” value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a “cost” element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage

  11. Marker-based estimation of genetic parameters in genomics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed model (LMM) analysis has been recently used extensively for estimating additive genetic variances and narrow-sense heritability in many genomic studies. While the LMM analysis is computationally less intensive than the Bayesian algorithms, it remains infeasible for large-scale genomic data sets. In this paper, we advocate the use of a statistical procedure known as symmetric differences squared (SDS) as it may serve as a viable alternative when the LMM methods have difficulty or fail to work with large datasets. The SDS procedure is a general and computationally simple method based only on the least squares regression analysis. We carry out computer simulations and empirical analyses to compare the SDS procedure with two commonly used LMM-based procedures. Our results show that the SDS method is not as good as the LMM methods for small data sets, but it becomes progressively better and can match well with the precision of estimation by the LMM methods for data sets with large sample sizes. Its major advantage is that with larger and larger samples, it continues to work with the increasing precision of estimation while the commonly used LMM methods are no longer able to work under our current typical computing capacity. Thus, these results suggest that the SDS method can serve as a viable alternative particularly when analyzing 'big' genomic data sets. PMID:25025305

  12. Marker-Based Estimation of Genetic Parameters in Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed model (LMM) analysis has been recently used extensively for estimating additive genetic variances and narrow-sense heritability in many genomic studies. While the LMM analysis is computationally less intensive than the Bayesian algorithms, it remains infeasible for large-scale genomic data sets. In this paper, we advocate the use of a statistical procedure known as symmetric differences squared (SDS) as it may serve as a viable alternative when the LMM methods have difficulty or fail to work with large datasets. The SDS procedure is a general and computationally simple method based only on the least squares regression analysis. We carry out computer simulations and empirical analyses to compare the SDS procedure with two commonly used LMM-based procedures. Our results show that the SDS method is not as good as the LMM methods for small data sets, but it becomes progressively better and can match well with the precision of estimation by the LMM methods for data sets with large sample sizes. Its major advantage is that with larger and larger samples, it continues to work with the increasing precision of estimation while the commonly used LMM methods are no longer able to work under our current typical computing capacity. Thus, these results suggest that the SDS method can serve as a viable alternative particularly when analyzing ‘big’ genomic data sets. PMID:25025305

  13. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3′ UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3′ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

  14. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety of sources and published cDNA markers into a composite P. taeda genetic map constructed from two reference mapping pedigrees. A dense genetic map that incorporates SSR loci will benefit complete pine genome sequencing, pine population genetics studies, and pine breeding programs. Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map. Results The updated P. taeda genetic map, with an estimated genome coverage of 1,515 cM(Kosambi) across 12 linkage groups, incorporated 170 new SSR markers and 290 previously reported SSR, RFLP, and ESTP markers. The average marker interval was 3.1 cM. Of 233 mapped SSR loci, 84 were from cDNA-derived sequences (EST-SSRs) and 149 were from non-transcribed genomic sequences (genomic-SSRs). Of all 311 mapped cDNA-derived markers, 77% were associated with NCBI Pta UniGene clusters, 67% with RefSeq proteins, and 62% with functional Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Duplicate (i.e., redundant accessory) and paralogous markers were tentatively identified by evaluating marker sequences by their UniGene cluster IDs, clone IDs, and relative map positions. The average gene diversity, He, among polymorphic SSR loci, including those that were not mapped, was 0.43 for 94 EST-SSRs and 0.72 for 83 genomic-SSRs. The genetic map can be viewed and queried at http://www.conifergdb.org/pinemap. Conclusions Many polymorphic and genetically mapped SSR markers are now available for use in P. taeda population genetics, studies of adaptive traits, and various germplasm management applications. Annotating mapped genes with Uni

  15. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling of whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genom...

  16. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanut cultivars and breeding lines revealed by highly informative SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts e...

  17. Advances in Research to Improve Selection for Beef Production and Quality Using Genetic Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker technology for selection of beef cattle has changed and continues to change. Some ideas about how this technology would be used and how much of the genetic differences could easily be identified have changed. New approaches based on what we have learned so far and on new genotyping ...

  18. Developing AFLP Markers to study genetic differentiation of the Cotton Fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic comparisons of fleahopper populations in cotton and weed hosts may be useful for identifying the weed sources contributing the majority of fleahoppers in cotton. Molecular markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) are useful to identify genetic similarities and differen...

  19. Influence of wastewater disinfection on densities of culturable fecal indicator bacteria and genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Chern, Eunice C; Brenner, Kristen; Wymer, Larry; Haugland, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a rapid alternative analytical method for monitoring recreational water quality at beaches. For qPCR to be considered for other Clean Water Act purposes, such as inclusion in discharge permits and use in Total Maximum Daily Load calculations, it is necessary to understand how qPCR detectable genetic markers are influenced by wastewater disinfection. This study investigated genetic markers for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium spp., Bacteroides, total Bacteroidales, as well as the human-associated Bacteroides markers, HF183 and HumM2, to determine which, if any, were influenced by disinfection (chlorination or ultraviolet light) of effluents from secondary wastewater treatment in different seasons. The effects of disinfection on culturable enterococci, E. coli, Bacteroides, and C. perfringens were also compared to their associated genetic markers. Disinfection of secondary treatment effluents significantly reduced culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) but not genetic marker densities. No significant differences were observed in the responses of FIB culture and genetic marker densities to type of disinfection (chlorination vs UV) or season. Results of this study provide evidence that qPCR may not be suitable for monitoring efficacy of wastewater disinfection on the inactivation of bacterial pathogens. PMID:25252344

  20. Development of 10 microsatellite markers from Pantala flavescens and their applicability in studying genetics diversity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lingzhen; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Kongming

    2015-08-01

    Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) is one of the most common species among migration dragonflies. It is often encountered in large swarms during migration or directed dispersal flights. For a better understanding of its gene flow, genetic structure and migration patterns throughout the world, 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated in this study. We respectively collected 32 P. flavescens from three places (Hunan, Liaoning and Heilongjiang) and 20 P. flavescens from Beijing. Partial genomic libraries containing microsatellite sequences were constructed with magnetic-bead enrichment method. By screening, sequence analysis, PCR amplification and so on, ten 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated. In order to assess their applicability, genetic diversity of these novel markers was tested in 96 individuals from three populations in China (Hunan, Liaoning and Heilongjiang). These markers were highly polymorphic, with 3-12 alleles per markers. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities ranged 0.321-0.667 and from 0.531 to 0.948 respectively. The genetic difference between Hunan and Liaoning is 0.429, while the genetic difference between Liaoning and Heilongjiang is 0.0508. These microsatellite markers for P. flavescens were developed for the first time, and will be a powerful tool for studying population genetic diversity and dispersal behavior of P. flavescens in China and worldwide. PMID:25788247

  1. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Development of SCAR Markers in a Mycogone perniciosa Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Xiao; Chen, Bingzhi; Wang, Shuang; Li, Chenghuan; Wen, Zhiqiang

    2016-07-01

    The fungus Mycogone perniciosa is a major pathogen of the common button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Analysis of genetic diversity in M. Perniciosa may assist in developing methods for prophylaxis and treatment of M. Perniciosa infections. For this, it is necessary to classify M. Perniciosa into relevant class groups quickly and efficiently. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to obtain genetic fingerprints and assess the genetic variation among 49 strains of M. perniciosa collected from different areas of Fujian Province in China. Analysis of DNA sequence polymorphism revealed two major distinct groups (Group I and Group II). Specific DNA fragments that were identified through RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP markers were sequenced and used for the designing of stable sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. The resulting SCAR markers were then validated against the classified groups of M. perniciosa. PMID:26960290

  2. Electrophysiological markers of genetic risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tye, Charlotte; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is an ideal neuroscientific approach, providing a direct measurement of neural activity that demonstrates reliability, developmental stability and high heritability. This systematic review of a subset of domains evaluates the utility of electrophysiological measures as potential intermediate phenotypes for ADHD in the domains of quantitative EEG indices of arousal and intra-individual variability, and functional investigations of inhibitory and error processing using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. Each domain demonstrates consistent and meaningful associations with ADHD, a degree of genetic overlap with ADHD and potential links to specific genetic variants. Investigations of the genetic and environmental contributions to EEG/ERP and shared genetic overlap with ADHD may enhance molecular genetic studies and provide novel insights into aetiology. Such research will aid in the precise characterisation of the clinical deficits seen in ADHD and guide the development of novel intervention and prevention strategies for those at risk. PMID:21426626

  3. Genetic linkage map of Chinese native variety faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker is a powerful tool for construction of genetic linkage map which can be applied for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, a genetic map of faba bean was constructed with SSR markers using a population of 129 F2 ...

  4. Additive genetic effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampus activity.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Karolina; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Persson, Jonas; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-04-01

    Human memory is a highly heritable polygenic trait with complex inheritance patterns. To study the genetics of memory and memory-related diseases, hippocampal functioning has served as an intermediate phenotype. The importance of investigating gene-gene effects on complex phenotypes has been emphasized, but most imaging studies still focus on single polymorphisms. APOE ε4 and BDNF Met, two of the most studied gene variants for variability in memory performance and neuropsychiatric disorders, have both separately been related to poorer episodic memory and altered hippocampal functioning. Here, we investigated the combined effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampal activation (N=151). No non-additive interaction effects were seen. Instead, the results revealed decreased activation in bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampus as a function of the number of APOE ε4 and BDNF Met alleles present (neither, one, or both). The combined effect was stronger than either of the individual effects, and both gene variables explained significant proportions of variance in BOLD signal change. Thus, there was an additive gene-gene effect of APOE and BDNF on medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation, showing that a larger proportion of variance in brain activation attributed to genetics can be explained by considering more than one gene variant. This effect might be relevant for the understanding of normal variability in memory function as well as memory-related disorders associated with APOE and BDNF. PMID:24321557

  5. Genetic diversity of Forest and Savannah chicken populations of Ghana as estimated by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Osei-Amponsah, Richard; Kayang, Boniface B; Naazie, Augustine; Osei, Yaa D; Youssao, Issaka A K; Yapi-Gnaore, Valentine C; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Rognon, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The characterization of indigenous animal genetic resources is a requisite step in providing needed information for the conservation of useful genotypes against future needs. Thus, in this study, 22 microsatellite markers were used to genotype 114 local chickens from the Forest (n = 59) and Savannah (n = 55) eco-zones of Ghana and the results compared to those of the ancestral red junglefowl (n = 15) and two European commercial chicken populations--a broiler (n = 25) and white leghorn (n = 25). A total of 171 alleles were observed, with an average of 7.8 alleles per locus. The local Ghanaian chickens showed higher diversity in terms of the observed number of alleles per locus (6.6) and observed heterozygosity (0.568) compared with the combined control populations (6.0 and 0.458, respectively). However, Wright's F-statistics revealed negligible genetic differentiation (F(ST)) in local Ghanaian chicken populations. In addition, 65% of the Savannah chickens were inferred to be more likely from the Forest, suggesting a south-north dispersal of chickens from their probable original location in the Forest zone to the Savannah areas. It is concluded that the Forest and Savannah chickens of Ghana are a single, randomly mating unselected population, characterized by high genetic diversity and constitute a valuable resource for conservation and improvement. PMID:20597885

  6. Age-related shifts in the density and distribution of genetic marker water quality indicators in cow and calf feces.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Peed, Lindsay; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Jenkins, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Calves make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens in their feces. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 9 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays, including CF128, CF193, CowM2, CowM3, GenBac3, Entero1, EC23S857, CampF2, and ttr-6, commonly used to help assess ambient surface water quality. Each assay was tested against a collection of 381 individual bovine fecal samples representing 31 mother and calf pairings collected over a 10-month time period from time of birth through weaning. Genetic markers reported to be associated with ruminant and/or bovine fecal pollution were virtually undetected in calves for up to 115 days from birth, suggesting that physiological changes in calf ruminant function impact host-associated genetic marker shedding. In addition, general fecal indicator markers for Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. exhibited three separate trends across time, indicating that these bacteria respond differently to age-related physiological and dietary changes during calf development. The results of this study suggest that currently available PCR-based water quality indicator technologies can under- or overestimate fecal pollution originating from calves and identify a need for novel calf-associated source identification methods. PMID:24362434

  7. Genetic diversity in cultivated carioca common beans based on molecular marker analysis

    PubMed Central

    Küpper Cardoso Perseguini, Juliana Morini; Chioratto, Alisson Fernando; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Moraes; Costa Mondego, Jorge Mauricio; Gazaffi, Rodrigo; Franco Garcia, Antonio Augusto; de Campos, Tatiana; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Rubiano, Luciana Benchimol

    2011-01-01

    A wide array of molecular markers has been used to investigate the genetic diversity among common bean species. However, the best combination of markers for studying such diversity among common bean cultivars has yet to be determined. Few reports have examined the genetic diversity of the carioca bean, commercially one of the most important common beans in Brazil. In this study, we examined the usefulness of two molecular marker systems (simple sequence repeats – SSRs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms – AFLPs) for assessing the genetic diversity of carioca beans. The amount of information provided by Roger’s modified genetic distance was used to analyze SSR data and Jaccards similarity coefficient was used for AFLP data. Seventy SSRs were polymorphic and 20 AFLP primer combinations produced 635 polymorphic bands. Molecular analysis showed that carioca genotypes were quite diverse. AFLPs revealed greater genetic differentiation and variation within the carioca genotypes (Gst = 98% and Fst = 0.83, respectively) than SSRs and provided better resolution for clustering the carioca genotypes. SSRs and AFLPs were both suitable for assessing the genetic diversity of Brazilian carioca genotypes since the number of markers used in each system provided a low coefficient of variation. However, fingerprint profiles were generated faster with AFLPs, making them a better choice for assessing genetic diversity in the carioca germplasm. PMID:21637550

  8. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  9. The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    This review addresses the distribution of genetic markers of immunoglobulin G (Gm) among 130 Mongoloid populations in the world. These markers allowed the populations to be clearly divided into 2 groups, the northern and southern groups. The northern group is characterized by high frequencies of 2 marker genes, ag and ab3st, and an extremely low frequency of the marker gene afb1b3; and the southern group, in contrast, is indicated by a remarkably high frequency of afb1b3 and low frequencies of ag and ab3st. Based on the geographical distribution of the markers and gene flow of Gm ag and ab3st (northern Mongoloid marker genes) from northeast Asia to the Japanese archipelago, the Japanese population belongs basically to the northern Mongoloid group and is thus suggested to have originated in northeast Asia, most likely in the Baikal area of Siberia. PMID:19212099

  10. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Daokun; Chen, Liang; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Peng, Yunliang; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity. PMID:23538839

  11. Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zaffar; Ali Khan, Asif; Qayyum, Abdul; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Noor, Etrat; Qadir Ahmad, Muhammad; Hasan Abbasi, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands. PMID:25401149

  12. Molecular markers and cotton genetic improvement: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Malik, Waqas; Ashraf, Javaria; Iqbal, Muhammad Zaffar; Khan, Asif Ali; Qayyum, Abdul; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Noor, Etrat; Ahmad, Muhammad Qadir; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands. PMID:25401149

  13. Integrating the markers Pan I and haemoglobin with the genetic linkage map of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haemoglobin (Hb) and pantophysin (Pan I) markers have been used intensively in population studies of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and in the analysis of traits such as temperature tolerance, growth characteristics and sexual maturation. We used an Illumina GoldenGate panel and the KASPar SNP genotyping system to analyse SNPs in three Atlantic cod families, one of which was polymorphic at the Hb β1 locus, and to generate a genetic linkage map integrating Pan I and multiple Hb loci. Findings Data generated allowed the mapping of nine Hb loci, the Pan I locus, and other 122 SNPs onto an existing linkage genetic map for Atlantic cod. Four Hb genes (i.e. α1, α4, β1 and β5) have been mapped on linkage group (LG) 2 while the other five (i.e. α2, α3, β2, β3 and β4) were placed on LG18. Pan I was mapped on LG 1 using a newly developed KASPar assay for a SNP variable only in Pan IA allelic variants. The new linkage genetic map presented here comprises 1046 SNPs distributed between 23 linkage groups, with a length of 1145.6 cM. A map produced by forcing additional loci, resulting in a reduced goodness-of-fit for mapped markers, allowed the mapping of a total of 1300 SNPs. Finally, we compared our genetic linkage map data with the genetic linkage map data produced by a different group and identified 29 shared SNPs distributed on 10 different linkage groups. Conclusions The genetic linkage map presented here incorporates the marker Pan I, together with multiple Hb loci, and integrates genetic linkage data produced by two different research groups. This represents a useful resource to further explore if Pan I and Hbs or other genes underlie quantitative trait loci (QTL) for temperature sensitivity/tolerance or other phenotypes. PMID:20946683

  14. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system. PMID:26214457

  15. Genetic diversity in three natural populations of Pitcairnia flammea (l.) John (Bromeliaceae) estimated by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Souza-Sobreira, F B; Souza, G B; Rosado, C C G; Miranda, F D; Soares, T C B; Gontijo, A B P L

    2015-01-01

    Bromeliads are greatly represented in the Atlantic Forest, although many species are threatened with extinction owing to habitat fragmentation and intense extraction for ornamental purposes. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct studies generating knowledge about genetic diversity and the distribution of this diversity among and within natural populations to establish conservation strategies. These studies can be performed with the use of molecular markers. Molecular markers are advantageous for studies of natural populations, for conservation programs, and to aid in properly classifying plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within natural populations of Pitcairnia flammea, occurring in three fragments of the Atlantic Forest in the southern State of Espírito Santo through the use of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. DNA samples from 55 individuals were amplified with 18 ISSR primers, generating 180 bands, 159 of which were polymorphic. The Shannon genetic diversity index ranged from 0.348 to 0.465, with an average of 0.412. The Bayesian approach for the molecular data indicated the existence of two genetic groups. Analysis of molecular variance indicated the existence of 90.3% diversity within the population and 9.74% among populations. The amount of genetic differentiation of populations was moderate (0.0974), indicating that gene flow rates may be enough to counteract the effects of genetic drift. Greater genetic variability found in population B indicates that this area is an important source of genetic variability. PMID:26634557

  16. Using genetic markers to orient the edges in quantitative trait networks: The NEO software

    PubMed Central

    Aten, Jason E; Fuller, Tova F; Lusis, Aldons J; Horvath, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Background Systems genetic studies have been used to identify genetic loci that affect transcript abundances and clinical traits such as body weight. The pairwise correlations between gene expression traits and/or clinical traits can be used to define undirected trait networks. Several authors have argued that genetic markers (e.g expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs) can serve as causal anchors for orienting the edges of a trait network. The availability of hundreds of thousands of genetic markers poses new challenges: how to relate (anchor) traits to multiple genetic markers, how to score the genetic evidence in favor of an edge orientation, and how to weigh the information from multiple markers. Results We develop and implement Network Edge Orienting (NEO) methods and software that address the challenges of inferring unconfounded and directed gene networks from microarray-derived gene expression data by integrating mRNA levels with genetic marker data and Structural Equation Model (SEM) comparisons. The NEO software implements several manual and automatic methods for incorporating genetic information to anchor traits. The networks are oriented by considering each edge separately, thus reducing error propagation. To summarize the genetic evidence in favor of a given edge orientation, we propose Local SEM-based Edge Orienting (LEO) scores that compare the fit of several competing causal graphs. SEM fitting indices allow the user to assess local and overall model fit. The NEO software allows the user to carry out a robustness analysis with regard to genetic marker selection. We demonstrate the utility of NEO by recovering known causal relationships in the sterol homeostasis pathway using liver gene expression data from an F2 mouse cross. Further, we use NEO to study the relationship between a disease gene and a biologically important gene co-expression module in liver tissue. Conclusion The NEO software can be used to orient the edges of gene co

  17. Genetic diversity analysis in Piper species (Piperaceae) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sandeep; Skaria, Reby; Abdul Muneer, P M

    2010-09-01

    The genetic diversity of eight species of Piper (Piperaceae) viz., P. nigrum, P. longum, P. betle, P. chaba, P. argyrophyllum, P. trichostachyon, P. galeatum, and P. hymenophyllum from Kerala state, India were analyzed by Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Out of 22 10-mer RAPD primers screened, 11 were selected for comparative analysis of different species of Piper. High genetic variations were found among different Piper species studied. Among the total of 149 RAPD fragments amplified, 12 bands (8.05%) were found monomorphic in eight species. The remaining 137 fragments were found polymorphic (91.95%). Species-specific bands were found in all eight species studied. The average gene diversity or heterozygosity (H) was 0.33 across all the species, genetic distances ranged from 0.21 to 0.69. The results of this study will facilitate germplasm identification, management, and conservation. PMID:20383613

  18. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Rosichan, J.L.; Arenaz, P.; Hodgdon, A.L.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1981-01-01

    To utilize pollen for in situ monitoring of the genetic hazards of environmental pollutants, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. These include ornamentation, shape and form, male sterility viability, intraspecific incompatibility, proteins, and starch deposition. Several proteins that meet the necessary criteria for mutagen detection systems are discussed. At Washington State Univ., a waxy pollen system is being developed in barley for in situ mutagen monitoring. Studies are being conducted to develop data concerning the nature of the mutations induced by various environmental mutagens.

  19. Genetic evaluation by best linear unbiased prediction using marker and trait information in a multibreed population.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T; Fernando, R L; Grossman, M

    1998-01-01

    Genetic evaluation by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) requires modeling genetic means, variances, and covariances. This paper presents theory to model means, variances, and covariances in a multibreed population, given marker and breed information, in the presence of gametic disequilibrium between the marker locus (ML) and linked quantitative trait locus (MQTL). Theory and algorithms are presented to construct the matrix of conditional covariances between relatives (Gv) for the MQTL effects in a multibreed population and to obtain the inverse of Gv efficiently. Theory presented here accounts for heterogeneity of variances among pure breeds and for segregation variances between pure breeds. A numerical example was used to illustrate how the theory and algorithms can be used for genetic evaluation by BLUP using marker and trait information in a multibreed population. PMID:9475759

  20. Integration of genetic and epigenetic markers for risk stratification: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pashayan, Nora; Reisel, Daniel; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Common genetic susceptibility variants could be used for risk stratification in risk-tailored cancer screening and prevention programmes. Combining genetic variants with environmental risk factors would improve risk stratification. Epigenetic changes are surrogate markers of environmental exposures during individual’s lifetime. Integrating epigenetic markers, in lieu of environmental exposure data, with genetic markers would potentially improve risk stratification. Epigenetic changes are reversible and acquired gradually, providing potentials for prevention and early detection strategies. The epigenetic changes are tissue-specific and stage-of-development-specific, raising challenges in choice of sample and timing for evaluation of cancer-associated changes. The Horizon 2020 funded research programme, FORECEE, using empirical data, will investigate the value of integration of epigenomics with genomics for risk prediction and prevention of women-specific cancers. PMID:27053939

  1. Breakpoint analysis: Precise localization of genetic markers by means of nonstatistical computation using relatively few genotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, T.I.; Albertsen, H.; Gerken, S.C.; Cartwright, P.; White, R.

    1995-02-01

    Placing new markers on a previously existing genetic map by using conventional methods of multilocus linkage analysis requires that a large number of reference families be genotyped. This paper presents a methodology for placing new markers on existing genetic maps by genotyping only a few individuals in a selected subset of the reference panel. We show that by identifying meiotic breakpoint events within existing genetic maps and genotyping individuals who exhibit these events, along with one nonrecombinant sibling and their parents, we can determine precise locations for new markers even within subcentimorgan chromosomal regions. This method also improves detection of errors in genotyping and assists in the observation of chromosome behavior in specific regions. 31 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  3. Genetic manipulation of Aedes aegypti: incorporation and maintenance of a genetic marker and a chromosomal translocation in natural populations*

    PubMed Central

    Rai, K. S.; Grover, K. K.; Suguna, S. G.

    1973-01-01

    Studies with Aedes aegypti were undertaken to determine if an alien genotype can be (1) incorporated into a natural population and (2) maintained for several generations on its own without any subsequent introductions. Such information is an essential prerequisite for successful application of any genetic control method. Data from a walk-in, field population cage and from field releases of a genetic marker and a chromosomal translocation have demonstrated both genetic incorporation and persistence for at least three successive generations. This is the first demonstration of its type with any vector species. PMID:4541148

  4. Molecular marker development and genetic diversity exploration by RNA-seq in Platycodon grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Jung, Jungsu; Kim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Je Min; Choi, Doil; Yeam, Inhwa

    2015-10-01

    Platycodon grandiflorum, generally known as the bellflower or balloon flower, is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae. Platycodon plants have been traditionally used as a medicinal crop in East Asia for their antiphlogistic, antitussive, and expectorant properties. Despite these practical uses, marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding in platycodons have lagged due to the lack of genetic information on this genus. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis of three platycodon accessions to develop molecular markers and explore genetic diversity. First, genic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were retrieved and compared; dinucleotide motifs were the most abundant repeats (39%-40%) followed by trinucleotide (25%-31%), tetranucleotide (1.5%-1.9%), and pentanucleotide (0.3%-1.0%) repeats. The result of in silico SSR analysis, three SSR markers were detected and showed possibility to distinguish three platycodon accessions. After several filtering procedures, 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to design 40 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Twelve of these PCR-based markers were validated as highly polymorphic and utilized to investigate genetic diversity in 21 platycodon accessions collected from various regions of South Korea. Collectively, the 12 markers yielded 35 alleles, with an average of 3 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.087 to 0.693, averaging 0.373 per locus. Since platycodon genetics have not been actively studied, the sequence information and the DNA markers generated from our research have the potential to contribute to further genetic improvements, genomic studies, and gene discovery in this genus. PMID:26501479

  5. Finding Markers That Make a Difference: DNA Pooling and SNP-Arrays Identify Population Informative Markers for Genetic Stock Identification

    PubMed Central

    Ozerov, Mikhail; Vasemägi, Anti; Wennevik, Vidar; Diaz-Fernandez, Rogelio; Kent, Matthew; Gilbey, John; Prusov, Sergey; Niemelä, Eero; Vähä, Juha-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Genetic stock identification (GSI) using molecular markers is an important tool for management of migratory species. Here, we tested a cost-effective alternative to individual genotyping, known as allelotyping, for identification of highly informative SNPs for accurate genetic stock identification. We estimated allele frequencies of 2880 SNPs from DNA pools of 23 Atlantic salmon populations using Illumina SNP-chip. We evaluated the performance of four common strategies (global FST, pairwise FST, Delta and outlier approach) for selection of the most informative set of SNPs and tested their effectiveness for GSI compared to random sets of SNP and microsatellite markers. For the majority of cases, SNPs selected using the outlier approach performed best followed by pairwise FST and Delta methods. Overall, the selection procedure reduced the number of SNPs required for accurate GSI by up to 53% compared with randomly chosen SNPs. However, GSI accuracy was more affected by populations in the ascertainment group rather than the ranking method itself. We demonstrated for the first time the compatibility of different large-scale SNP datasets by compiling the largest population genetic dataset for Atlantic salmon to date. Finally, we showed an excellent performance of our top SNPs on an independent set of populations covering the main European distribution range of Atlantic salmon. Taken together, we demonstrate how combination of DNA pooling and SNP arrays can be applied for conservation and management of salmonids as well as other species. PMID:24358184

  6. Finding markers that make a difference: DNA pooling and SNP-arrays identify population informative markers for genetic stock identification.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, Mikhail; Vasemägi, Anti; Wennevik, Vidar; Diaz-Fernandez, Rogelio; Kent, Matthew; Gilbey, John; Prusov, Sergey; Niemelä, Eero; Vähä, Juha-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Genetic stock identification (GSI) using molecular markers is an important tool for management of migratory species. Here, we tested a cost-effective alternative to individual genotyping, known as allelotyping, for identification of highly informative SNPs for accurate genetic stock identification. We estimated allele frequencies of 2880 SNPs from DNA pools of 23 Atlantic salmon populations using Illumina SNP-chip. We evaluated the performance of four common strategies (global F ST, pairwise F ST, Delta and outlier approach) for selection of the most informative set of SNPs and tested their effectiveness for GSI compared to random sets of SNP and microsatellite markers. For the majority of cases, SNPs selected using the outlier approach performed best followed by pairwise F ST and Delta methods. Overall, the selection procedure reduced the number of SNPs required for accurate GSI by up to 53% compared with randomly chosen SNPs. However, GSI accuracy was more affected by populations in the ascertainment group rather than the ranking method itself. We demonstrated for the first time the compatibility of different large-scale SNP datasets by compiling the largest population genetic dataset for Atlantic salmon to date. Finally, we showed an excellent performance of our top SNPs on an independent set of populations covering the main European distribution range of Atlantic salmon. Taken together, we demonstrate how combination of DNA pooling and SNP arrays can be applied for conservation and management of salmonids as well as other species. PMID:24358184

  7. Genetic bottlenecks in Turkish okra germplasm and utility of iPBS retrotransposon markers for genetic diversity assessment.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, M; Koçak, M; Baloch, F S

    2015-01-01

    Lack of requisite genetic variation in Turkish okra has necessitated the use of different types of markers for estimating the genetic diversity and identifying the source of variation. Transposable elements, present abundantly in plant genomes, generate genomic diversity through their replication and are thus an excellent source of molecular markers. We hypothesized that inter-primer binding site (iPBS)-retrotransposons could be the source of variation because of their genome plasticity nature. In the present study, genetic diversity of 66 okra landraces was analyzed using iPBS-retrotransposon markers. iPBS-retrotransposons detected 88 bands with 40.2% polymorphism and an average of 6.8 bands per primer. Gene diversity and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 and 0.02 to 0.21 for iPBS-retrotransposons and from 0.06 to 0.46 and 0.14 to 0.65 for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, respectively. Polymorphism information content value for retrotransposons varied between 0.12 and 0.99, while that for SSR was from 0.52 to 0.81. Neighbor joining analysis based on retrotransposons and SSRs divided all the accessions into four clusters; however, SSR markers were more efficient in clustering the landraces based on their origin. Using the STRUCTURE software for determining population structure, and two populations (at the number of hypothetical subpopulations, K = 2) were identified among the landraces. Low genetic diversity in Turkish okra highlights the need for the introduction of plants from countries with greater genetic diversity for these crops. This study also demonstrates the utility and role of iPBS-retrotransposons, a dominant and ubiquitous part of eukaryotic genomes, for diversity studies in okra. PMID:26400290

  8. Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  9. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  10. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gamal El-Dien, Omnia; Ratcliffe, Blaise; Klápště, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Charles; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-01-01

    The open-pollinated (OP) family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates’ offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of “half-sibling” in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure. PMID:26801647

  11. Serological and biochemical genetic markers and their associations with psychiatric disorders : a review.

    PubMed

    Balgir, R S

    1983-10-01

    The studies pertaining to associations of serological and biochemical genetic markers (blood groups in particular and scrum proteins and enzymes in general) with the psychiatric disorders such as psychoses in general, Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis including unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and neuroses have been critically examined. The reasons for inconsistent findings of various investigators have been pointed out to assist the future researchers to overcome the previous drawbacks. Implications of associations of genetic markers with the psychiatric disorders have been discussed and future areas of research suggested. PMID:21847304

  12. SEROLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL GENETIC MARKERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS : A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The studies pertaining to associations of serological and biochemical genetic markers (blood groups in particular and scrum proteins and enzymes in general) with the psychiatric disorders such as psychoses in general, Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis including unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and neuroses have been critically examined. The reasons for inconsistent findings of various investigators have been pointed out to assist the future researchers to overcome the previous drawbacks. Implications of associations of genetic markers with the psychiatric disorders have been discussed and future areas of research suggested. PMID:21847304

  13. Genome-Wide DNA Copy Number Analysis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Identifies New Genetic Markers Associated with Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Castro, Maribel; Robledo, Cristina; Benito, Rocío; Abáigar, María; África Martín, Ana; Arefi, Maryam; Fuster, José Luis; de las Heras, Natalia; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Quintero, Jonathan; Riesco, Susana; Hermosín, Lourdes; de la Fuente, Ignacio; Recio, Isabel; Ribera, Jordi; Labrador, Jorge; Alonso, José M.; Olivier, Carmen; Sierra, Magdalena; Megido, Marta; Corchete-Sánchez, Luis A.; Ciudad Pizarro, Juana; García, Juan Luis; Ribera, José M.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying additional genetic alterations associated with poor prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is still a challenge. Aims: To characterize the presence of additional DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) in children and adults with ALL by whole-genome oligonucleotide array (aCGH) analysis, and to identify their associations with clinical features and outcome. Array-CGH was carried out in 265 newly diagnosed ALLs (142 children and 123 adults). The NimbleGen CGH 12x135K array (Roche) was used to analyze genetic gains and losses. CNAs were analyzed with GISTIC and aCGHweb software. Clinical and biological variables were analyzed. Three of the patients showed chromothripsis (cth6, cth14q and cth15q). CNAs were associated with age, phenotype, genetic subtype and overall survival (OS). In the whole cohort of children, the losses on 14q32.33 (p = 0.019) and 15q13.2 (p = 0.04) were related to shorter OS. In the group of children without good- or poor-risk cytogenetics, the gain on 1p36.11 was a prognostic marker independently associated with shorter OS. In adults, the gains on 19q13.2 (p = 0.001) and Xp21.1 (p = 0.029), and the loss of 17p (p = 0.014) were independent markers of poor prognosis with respect to OS. In summary, CNAs are frequent in ALL and are associated with clinical parameters and survival. Genome-wide DNA copy number analysis allows the identification of genetic markers that predict clinical outcome, suggesting that detection of these genetic lesions will be useful in the management of patients newly diagnosed with ALL. PMID:26872047

  14. Genetic Authentication of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai by Improved RAPD-Derived DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Boxu; Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Imani, Saber; Chen, Hanchun; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    The evergreen shrub, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai is one of the most popular garden-plants, with significant ornamental importance. Here, we have cloned improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) derived fragments into T-vector, and developed sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. These markers have been deposited in GenBank database with the accession numbers KP641310, KP641311, KP641312 and KP641313 respectively. The BLAST search of database confirmed the novelty of these markers. The four SCAR markers, namely ZZH11, ZZH31, ZZH41 and ZZH51 can specifically recognize the genetic materials of G. jasminoides from other plant species. Moreover, SCAR marker ZZH31 can be used to distinguish G. jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai from other G. jasminoides on the market. Together, this study has developed four stably molecular SCAR markers by improved RAPD-derived DNA markers for the genetic identification and authentication, and for ecological conservation of medicinal and ornamental plant G. jasminoides. PMID:26569205

  15. Uniparental Markers in Italy Reveal a Sex-Biased Genetic Structure and Different Historical Strata

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Harmant, Christine; Useli, Antonella; Sanz, Paula; Yang-Yao, Daniele; Manry, Jeremy; Ciani, Graziella; Luiselli, Donata; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David; Pettener, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Located in the center of the Mediterranean landscape and with an extensive coastal line, the territory of what is today Italy has played an important role in the history of human settlements and movements of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Populated since Paleolithic times, the complexity of human movements during the Neolithic, the Metal Ages and the most recent history of the two last millennia (involving the overlapping of different cultural and demic strata) has shaped the pattern of the modern Italian genetic structure. With the aim of disentangling this pattern and understanding which processes more importantly shaped the distribution of diversity, we have analyzed the uniparentally-inherited markers in ∼900 individuals from an extensive sampling across the Italian peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily. Spatial PCAs and DAPCs revealed a sex-biased pattern indicating different demographic histories for males and females. Besides the genetic outlier position of Sardinians, a North West–South East Y-chromosome structure is found in continental Italy. Such structure is in agreement with recent archeological syntheses indicating two independent and parallel processes of Neolithisation. In addition, date estimates pinpoint the importance of the cultural and demographic events during the late Neolithic and Metal Ages. On the other hand, mitochondrial diversity is distributed more homogeneously in agreement with older population events that might be related to the presence of an Italian Refugium during the last glacial period in Europe. PMID:23734255

  16. Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; López-Mejías, Raquel; García-Bermúdez, Mercedes; González-Juanatey, Carlos; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Martín, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is the result of an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Both RA and atherosclerosis are complex polygenic diseases. Besides traditional CV risk factors and chronic inflammation, a number of studies have confirmed the role of genetic factors in the development of the atherogenesis observed in RA. In this regard, besides a strong association between the HLA-DRB1∗04 shared epitope alleles and both endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the atherosclerotic process, and clinically evident CV disease, other polymorphisms belonging to genes implicated in inflammatory and metabolic pathways, located inside and outside the HLA region, such as the 308 variant (G > A, rs1800629) of the TNFA locus, the rs1801131 polymorphism (A > C; position + 1298) of the MTHFR locus, or a deletion of 32 base pairs on the CCR5 gene, seem to be associated with the risk of CV disease in patients with RA. Despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic basis of CV disease in RA, further studies are required to better establish the genetic influence in the increased risk of CV events observed in patients with RA. PMID:22927710

  17. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-01-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  18. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-04-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  19. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is

  20. Development of microsatellite markers for Manilkara maxima T.D. Penn. (Sapotaceae) and their use in conservation genetics.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, José Audenor; de Souza França, Daniele; Moraes, Ramiris César Souza; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato

    2016-06-01

    Manilkara maxima is an endemic tree species of the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, Brazil. It is considered important for forest conservation due to its mutualistic interactions with endemic and endangered animals. Our aim was to develop microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity in order to provide information for effectiveness of future conservation programs. We used next generation sequencing technology to develop the first specific microsatellite markers for M. maxima. Seventeen new microsatellite loci were applied in 72 individuals sampled in three natural populations. On average, the number of alleles per loci was 8.8. The expected heterozygosity varied between 0.72 and 0.77, indicating that the developed set of molecular markers is useful for genetic diversity studies. Additionally, the estimated value for the combined probability of exclusion (Q) was greater than 0.999, which indicates the powerful of these molecular tools for paternity and kinship analysis. Our results demonstrate that the set of microsatellites developed in this work is a powerful tool for population genetics, molecular ecology and conservation biology purposes. PMID:27061192

  1. Genetic Map of Triticale Integrating Microsatellite, DArT and SNP Markers.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Mirosław; Tyrka, Dorota; Wędzony, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm) is an economically important crop for fodder and biomass production. To facilitate the identification of markers for agronomically important traits and for genetic and genomic characteristics of this species, a new high-density genetic linkage map of triticale was constructed using doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between cultivars 'Hewo' and 'Magnat'. The map consists of 1615 bin markers, that represent 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 842 diversity array technology (DArT), and 16888 DArTseq markers mapped onto 20 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes of triticale. No markers specific to chromosome 7R were found, instead mosaic linkage group composed of 1880 highly distorted markers (116 bins) from 10 wheat chromosomes was identified. The genetic map covers 4907 cM with a mean distance between two bins of 3.0 cM. Comparative analysis in respect to published maps of wheat, rye and triticale revealed possible deletions in chromosomes 4B, 5A, and 6A, as well as inversion in chromosome 7B. The number of bin markers in each chromosome varied from 24 in chromosome 3R to 147 in chromosome 6R. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 50.7 cM for chromosome 2R and 386.2 cM for chromosome 7B. A total of 512 (31.7%) bin markers showed significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion across all chromosomes. The number of 8 the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) were identified on 1A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 7B (2 SDRs), 5R and 6R chromosomes. The high-density genetic map of triticale will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes and map-based cloning. PMID:26717308

  2. Development of SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Renfeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Jiang, Mengying; Shen, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhi'an; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium, is a well-known flowering plant worldwide, and has a high commercial, floricultural, and medicinal value. In this study, simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were generated from EST datasets and were applied to assess the genetic diversity among 32 cultivars. A total of 218 in silico SSR loci were identified from 7300 C. morifolium ESTs retrieved from GenBank. Of all SSR loci, 61.47% of them (134) were hexa-nucleotide repeats, followed by tri-nucleotide repeats (17.89%), di-nucleotide repeats (12.39%), tetra-nucleotide repeats (4.13%), and penta-nucleotide repeats (4.13%). In this study, 17 novel EST-SSR markers were verified. Along with 38 SSR markers reported previously, 55 C. morifolium SSR markers were selected for further genetic diversity analysis. PCR amplification of these EST-SSRs produced 1319 fragments, 1306 of which showed polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content of the SSR primer pairs was 0.972 (0.938–0.993), which showed high genetic diversity among C. morifolium cultivars. Based on SSR markers, 32 C. morifolium cultivars were separated into two main groups by partitioning of the clusters using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, which was further supported by a principal coordinate analysis plot. Phylogenetic relationship among C. morifolium cultivars as revealed by SSR markers was highly consistent with the classification of medicinal C. morifolium populations according to their origin and ecological distribution. Our results demonstrated that SSR markers were highly reproducible and informative, and could be used to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among medicinal C. morifolium cultivars. PMID:27379163

  3. Development of SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Renfeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Jiang, Mengying; Shen, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhi'an; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium, is a well-known flowering plant worldwide, and has a high commercial, floricultural, and medicinal value. In this study, simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were generated from EST datasets and were applied to assess the genetic diversity among 32 cultivars. A total of 218 in silico SSR loci were identified from 7300 C. morifolium ESTs retrieved from GenBank. Of all SSR loci, 61.47% of them (134) were hexa-nucleotide repeats, followed by tri-nucleotide repeats (17.89%), di-nucleotide repeats (12.39%), tetra-nucleotide repeats (4.13%), and penta-nucleotide repeats (4.13%). In this study, 17 novel EST-SSR markers were verified. Along with 38 SSR markers reported previously, 55 C. morifolium SSR markers were selected for further genetic diversity analysis. PCR amplification of these EST-SSRs produced 1319 fragments, 1306 of which showed polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content of the SSR primer pairs was 0.972 (0.938-0.993), which showed high genetic diversity among C. morifolium cultivars. Based on SSR markers, 32 C. morifolium cultivars were separated into two main groups by partitioning of the clusters using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, which was further supported by a principal coordinate analysis plot. Phylogenetic relationship among C. morifolium cultivars as revealed by SSR markers was highly consistent with the classification of medicinal C. morifolium populations according to their origin and ecological distribution. Our results demonstrated that SSR markers were highly reproducible and informative, and could be used to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among medicinal C. morifolium cultivars. PMID:27379163

  4. Genetic Map of Triticale Integrating Microsatellite, DArT and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Mirosław; Tyrka, Dorota; Wędzony, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm) is an economically important crop for fodder and biomass production. To facilitate the identification of markers for agronomically important traits and for genetic and genomic characteristics of this species, a new high-density genetic linkage map of triticale was constructed using doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between cultivars ‘Hewo’ and ‘Magnat’. The map consists of 1615 bin markers, that represent 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 842 diversity array technology (DArT), and 16888 DArTseq markers mapped onto 20 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes of triticale. No markers specific to chromosome 7R were found, instead mosaic linkage group composed of 1880 highly distorted markers (116 bins) from 10 wheat chromosomes was identified. The genetic map covers 4907 cM with a mean distance between two bins of 3.0 cM. Comparative analysis in respect to published maps of wheat, rye and triticale revealed possible deletions in chromosomes 4B, 5A, and 6A, as well as inversion in chromosome 7B. The number of bin markers in each chromosome varied from 24 in chromosome 3R to 147 in chromosome 6R. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 50.7 cM for chromosome 2R and 386.2 cM for chromosome 7B. A total of 512 (31.7%) bin markers showed significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion across all chromosomes. The number of 8 the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) were identified on 1A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 7B (2 SDRs), 5R and 6R chromosomes. The high-density genetic map of triticale will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes and map-based cloning. PMID:26717308

  5. Genetic diversity in Tunisian populations of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on morphological traits and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Backouchi, I Z; Aouida, M; Khemiri, N; Jebara, M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity within Vicia faba L. is key to the genetic improvement of this important species. In this study, morphological traits and RAPD molecular markers were used to assess the levels of polymorphism across 12 Tunisian populations, three major and nine minor from different locations. Analysis of morphological traits indicated that the three major populations showed significant differences and the nine minor populations exhibited considerable variation for most traits. The grain yield of the Alia population could be increased by inoculation. Of the seven primers tested, it was clear that the Cs12 primer would be recommend for genetic diversity analysis of V. faba.Within population genetic diversity exhibited 94% of total diversity. Intra-population genetic diversity (HS) was 0.16, which was clearly higher than between population genetic diversity (DST = 0.06) UPG-MA showed a high level of genetic variation between major and minor populations of V. faba L. Particularly the minor populations showed a high level of diversity and was divided into two subclusters. Ltaifia was separated from the other populations. In addition to a high grain yield, these populations showed the lowest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.08 and I = 0.13) justifying their homogeneity. For these reasons, these cultivars can be considered a selected population. However, the Takelsa population showed the highest Nei and Shannon indices (H = 0.13 and I = 0.21), indicating that this population was the most heterogeneous, which is interesting for breeding programs. PMID:26214437

  6. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  7. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Aranguren-Méndez, José; Jordana, Jordi; Gomez, Mariano

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in five endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano-Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplified and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was monomorphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency distributions and mean heterozygosities were very similar among the Spanish donkey breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (HE) over all the populations varied between 0.637 and 0.684 in this study. The low GST value showed that only 3.6% of the diversity was between breeds (P < 0.01). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were shown for a number of locus-population combinations, except HMS5 that showed agreement in all analysed populations. The cumulative exclusion probability (PE) was 0.999 in each breed, suggesting that the loci would be suitable for donkey parentage testing. The constructed dendrogram from the DA distance matrix showed little differentiation between Spanish breeds, but great differentiation between them and the Moroccan ass and also with the horse, used as an outgroup. These results confirm the potential use of equine microsatellite loci as a tool for genetic studies in domestic donkey populations, which could also be useful for conservation plans. PMID:11559485

  8. Pleiotropy between genetic markers of obesity and risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Giri, Ayush; Motley, Saundra; Duong, Wynne; Fowke, Jay H.

    2013-01-01

    Background To address inconsistent findings of obesity and prostate cancer risk, we analyzed the association between prostate cancer (PC) and genetic markers of obesity and metabolism. Methods Analyses included 176,520 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 23 metabolic traits. We examined the association between SNPs and PC in 871 cases and 906 controls, including 427 high-grade cases with Gleason ≥7. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) for body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were also created by summing alleles associated with increasing BMI or WHR. Results PC was associated with 5 loci, including cyclin M2, with p-values less than 1×10−4. In addition, the WHR GRS was associated with high-grade PC versus controls (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11, p-value = 0.048), and high-grade PC versus low-grade PC (OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.13, p-value = 0.03). None of these findings exceed the threshold for significance after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions Variants in genes known to be associated with metabolism and obesity may be associated with PC. We show evidence for pleiotropy between WHR GRS and PC grade. This finding is consistent with the function of several WHR genes, and previously described relationships with cancer traits. Impact Limitations in standard obesity measures suggest alternative characterizations of obesity may be needed to understand the role of metabolic dysregulation in PC. The underlying genetics of WHR or other Metabochip SNPs, while not statistically significant beyond multiple testing thresholds within our sample size, support the metabolic hypothesis of prostate carcinogenesis and warrant further investigation in independent samples. PMID:23810916

  9. Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Sapp, P.; O`Regan, J.; McKenna-Yasek, D.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Haines, J.L.; Gusella, J.F.; Horvitz, H.R.; Brown, R.H. Jr.

    1994-05-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig`s Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS familes for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers reveal recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219. The only characterized gene within this segment was SOD-1, the structural gene for Cu, Zn SOD. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. An empirical review: Characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation1

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Benjamin J.; Culley, Theresa M.; Avanesyan, Alina; Stokes, Richard; Brzyski, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A) with the following marker characteristics: repeat type, motif length, motif region, repeat frequency, and microsatellite size. Variation across taxonomic groups was also analyzed. There were significant differences between imperfect and perfect repeat types in A and He. Dinucleotide motifs exhibited significantly higher A, He, and Ho than most other motifs. Repeat frequency and motif region were positively correlated with A, He, and Ho, but correlations with microsatellite size were minimal. Higher taxonomic groups were disproportionately represented in the literature and showed little consistency. In conclusion, researchers should carefully consider marker characteristics so they can be tailored to the desired application. If researchers aim to target high genetic variation, dinucleotide motif lengths with large repeat frequencies may be best. PMID:26312192

  11. Development of INDEL Markers for Genetic Mapping Based on Whole Genome Resequencing in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wei, Haichao; Cheng, Wen; Yang, Suxin; Zhao, Yanxiu; Li, Xuan; Luo, Da; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop worldwide. In this study, a Chinese local soybean cultivar, Hedou 12, was resequenced by next generation sequencing technology to develop INsertion/DELetion (INDEL) markers for genetic mapping. 49,276 INDEL polymorphisms and 242,059 single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between Hedou 12 and the Williams 82 reference sequence. Of these, 243 candidate INDEL markers ranging from 5–50 bp in length were chosen for validation, and 165 (68%) of them revealed polymorphisms between Hedou 12 and Williams 82. The validated INDEL markers were also tested in 12 other soybean cultivars. The number of polymorphisms in the pairwise comparisons of 14 soybean cultivars varied from 27 to 165. To test the utility of these INDEL markers, they were used to perform genetic mapping of a crinkly leaf mutant, and the CRINKLY LEAF locus was successfully mapped to a 360 kb region on chromosome 7. This research shows that high-throughput sequencing technologies can facilitate the development of genome-wide molecular markers for genetic mapping in soybean. PMID:26483012

  12. Miniature inverted-repeat transposable element identification and genetic marker development in Agrostis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is an important species to the turfgrass industry because of its adaptation for use in high quality turf stands such as golf course putting greens, tees, and fairways. A. stolonifera is a highly outcrossing allotetraploid making genetic marker developmen...

  13. Mitochondrial genomes of Bremia lactucae and development of haplotype markers for population and genetic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bremia lactucae, the causative agent of lettuce downy mildew, is the most important pathogen of lettuce in the US and worldwide. In order to identify cytoplasmic markers for use in population and genetic studies the reference mitochondrial genome of B. lactucae isolate SF5 was assembled from Illumi...

  14. On marker-assisted prediction of genetic value: beyond the ridge.

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Toro, Miguel A

    2003-01-01

    Marked-assisted genetic improvement of agricultural species exploits statistical dependencies in the joint distribution of marker genotypes and quantitative traits. An issue is how molecular (e.g., dense marker maps) and phenotypic information (e.g., some measure of yield in plants) is to be used for predicting the genetic value of candidates for selection. Multiple regression, selection index techniques, best linear unbiased prediction, and ridge regression of phenotypes on marker genotypes have been suggested, as well as more elaborate methods. Here, phenotype-marker associations are modeled hierarchically via multilevel models including chromosomal effects, a spatial covariance of marked effects within chromosomes, background genetic variability, and family heterogeneity. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients are suggested for assessing the inequality of the contribution of different marked effects to genetic variability. Classical and Bayesian methods are presented. The Bayesian approach includes a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. The generality and flexibility of the Bayesian method is illustrated when a Lorenz curve is to be inferred. PMID:12586721

  15. Genetic management of broodstock populations with DNA markers in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers are very useful for aquaculture and fisheries broodstock management. They have been used for parentage assignment when spawning families share common environments, and to evaluate genetic parameters in broodstock populations. The selective breeding program at the National Center for Cool...

  16. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in Saccharum using SSR markers and capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity amongst 12 Saccharum clones from 3 species using SSR markers and CE (capillary electrophoresis). Genomic DNA of 12 sugarcane cultivars was amplified with 19 SSR primer pairs. A total of 229 bands generated with a size range between 100 and 26...

  18. Genetic Diversity of Lablab (L. purpureus) Germplasm Assessed by SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of the USDA Lablab purpureus germplasm collection is unknown and was assessed by using polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Medicago, soybean and cowpea. Phylogenetic analysis partitioned 47 representative accessions into two main clades (wild clade pr...

  19. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measure of flight speed for cattle has been shown to be a predictive indicator of temperament and has also been associated with feed efficiency phenotypes, thus, genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with the selection of animals with calmer disposition and economic value. Chrom...

  20. Genetic characterization of four strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Rutten, M J M; Komen, H; Deerenberg, R M; Siwek, M; Bovenhuis, H

    2004-04-01

    Four domesticated strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were genetically characterized using 14 microsatellite markers and 64 animals per strain. Two strains, Chitralada (AIT) and International Development Research Centers (IDRC) were obtained from the AIT institute, Bangkok, Thailand. The GIFT strain (5th generation) came from NAGRI, Thailand, and the GOTT strain was supplied by the University of Göttingen, Germany. The average numbers of alleles per marker were 5.0 (GOTT), 5.4 (AIT), 5.6 (IDRC) and 7.5 (GIFT). Private alleles were found at all markers with the exception of two. No fixation of alleles was found at any marker. Population differentiation, FST, was 0.178 (great genetic differentiation) and confirmed grouping of the animals in strains. The expected level of heterozygosity ranged from 0.624 to 0.711, but the observed level of heterozygosity significantly deviated from the expected level in three strains. This was probably because of small population size. Moderate to great genetic differentiation was found between strains. A phylogenetic tree reflected the strains known histories. Application of the Weitzman approach showed that all strains have added value for the total genetic diversity and thus should be retained. PMID:15025567

  1. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described cow feces-spec...

  2. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of the USDA Lablab Purpureus Germplasm Collection Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of the USDA Lablab purpureus germplasm collection is unknown and was assessed by using polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Medicago, soybean and cowpea. Phylogenetic analysis paritioned 47 representative accessions into two main clades (wild clade prod...

  3. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

  4. Genetic diversity assessment of Saccharum species and elite cultivars from China using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity amongst 52 sugarcane clones including Saccharum species and cultivars (used for breeding and commercial production since the beginning of 20th century) has been assessed using 21 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique. Use of 21 SSR primer...

  5. Preliminary Genetic Map of Hydrangea macrophylla Using SSR Markers and a Pseudo-Testcross Strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a “two-way pseudo-testcross” mapping strategy in combination with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to construct a genetic map of Hydrangea macrophylla. Mapping populations were developed from reciprocal crosses between two divergent cultivars, “Bailmer” and “Veitchii”. “Bailmer”, which i...

  6. Genetic markers in bovine chromosome 14 are significant for residual feed intake in steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection for animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers with predictive merit for differences among cattle for traits associated wit...

  7. Diverse Genetic Markers Concordantly Identify Bovine Origin Escherichia coli O157 Genotypes Underrepresented in Human Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers previously reported to occur at significantly different frequencies in isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 obtained from cattle and from clinically affected humans are congruent and delineate at least five groups. Isolates in three of these groups consistently carry one or more mark...

  8. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Rosichan, J.L.; Arenaz, P.; Hodgdon, A.L.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1980-01-01

    To utilize and exploit pollen for in situ mutagen monitoring, screening and toxicology, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. To be useful for the development of mutagen detection systems proteins should be: (1) activity stainable or immunologically identifiable in the pollen, (2) the products of one to three loci; and (3) gametophytic and nuclear in origin. Several proteins, including alcohol dehydrogenase in maize, which meet these criteria are discussed. The waxy locus in barley and maize which controls starch deposition for pollen screening and mutant detection. Thirty waxy mutant lines, induced by sodium azide and gamma-rays are characterized for spontaneous and induced reversion frequencies, allelism, karyotype, amylose content, and UDPglucose glucosyltransferase (waxy gene product) activity. Twelve mutant alleles are being mapped by recombinant frequencies.

  9. mazF as a counter-selectable marker for unmarked genetic modification of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjie; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Sheng

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for unmarked genetic modification of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, in which the Escherichia coli toxin gene mazF was used as a counter-selectable marker. mazF was placed under the tightly controlled AOX1 promoter, and the induced expression of MazF in P. pastoris halted cell growth. A modular plasmid was constructed in which mazF and a Zeocin resistance gene acted as counter-selectable and active-selectable markers, respectively, and the MazF-ZeoR cassette was flanked by two direct repeats for marker recycling. Linearized delivery vectors constructed from the modular plasmid were integrated into the P. pastoris genome via homologous recombination, introducing genetic modifications. Upon counter-selection with methanol medium, which induces the AOX1 promoter, the markers were recycled efficiently via homologous recombination between the direct repeats. We used this method successfully to knock-out the ARG1 and MET2 genes, knock-in a green fluorescent protein expression cassette, and perform site-directed mutagenesis on the ARG1 gene, all without introducing unwanted selection markers. The novel method allows repeated use of the selectable marker gene for multiple modifications and will be a useful tool for P. pastoris studies. PMID:19416369

  10. Genetic diversity and relationship of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Liang, X Y; Zhang, X Q; Bai, S Q; Huang, L K; Luo, X M; Ji, Y; Jiang, L F

    2014-01-01

    Chicory is a crop with economically important roles and is cultivated worldwide. The genetic diversity and relationship of 80 accessions of chicories and endives were evaluated by sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers to provide a theoretical basis for future breeding programs in China. The polymorphic rate was 96.83%, and the average polymorphic information content was 0.323, suggesting the rich genetic diversity of chicory. The genetic diversity degree of chicory was higher (GS = 0.677) than that of endive (GS = 0.701). The accessions with the highest genetic diversity (effective number of alleles, NE = 1.609; Nei's genetic diversity, H = 0.372; Shannon information index, I = 0.556) were from Italy. The richest genetic diversity was revealed in a chicory line (NE = 1.478, H = 0.289, I = 0.443) among the 3 types (line, wild, and cultivar). The chicory genetic structure of 8 geographical groups showed that the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) was 14.20% and the number of immigrants per generation (Nm) was 3.020. A GST of 6.80% and an Nm of 6.853 were obtained from different types. This observation suggests that these chicory lines, especially those from the Mediterranean region, have potential for providing rich genetic resources for further breeding programs, that the chicory genetic structure among different countries obviously differs with a certain amount of gene flow, and that SRAP markers could be applied to analyze genetic relationships and classifications of Cichorium intybus and C. endivia. PMID:25299087

  11. The chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic region, a potential genetic marker for broad sectional relationships in Anthurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear and chloroplast genetic markers have been extensively used for plant identification and molecular taxonomy studies. The efficacy of genetic markers to be used as DNA barcodes is under constant evaluation and improvement, with identification of new barcodes that provide greater resolution an...

  12. Genetic mapping and marker development for resistance of wheat against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Rlnn1 locus, which resides on chromosome 7A of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) confers moderate resistance against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. Prior to this research, the exact linkage relationships of Rlnn1 with other loci on chromosome 7A were not clear and there were no simple codominant markers available for selection of Rlnn1 in wheat breeding. The objectives of the research reported here were to (1) develop an improved genetic map of the Rlnn1 region of chromosome 7A and (2) develop molecular markers that could be used in marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of wheat against P. neglectus. Results A large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance against P. neglectus was genetically mapped using a population of Excalibur/Kukri doubled haploid lines. This QTL coincides in position with the rust resistance gene(s) Lr20/Sr15, the phytoene synthase gene Psy-A1 and 10 molecular markers, including five new markers designed using wheat-rice comparative genomics and wheat expressed sequence tags. Two of the new markers are suitable for use as molecular diagnostic tools to distinguish plants that carry Rlnn1 and Lr20/Sr15 from those that do not carry these resistance genes. Conclusions The genomic location of Rlnn1 was confirmed to be in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Molecular markers were developed that provide simple alternatives to costly phenotypic assessment of resistance against P. neglectus in wheat breeding. In Excalibur, genetic recombination seems to be completely suppressed in the Rlnn1 region. PMID:24377498

  13. Development of a genetic linkage map for Louisiana sugarcane: New microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers identified for LCP 85-384

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of the recently developed genetic linkage map of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar LCP 85-384 has been limited due to the small number of DNA markers, in particular microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers, on the map. Adding DNA markers to the map improves its usefulness in identifying assoc...

  14. Gains in reliability from combining subsets of 500, 5,000, 50,000 or 500,000 genetic markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More genetic markers can increase both reliability and cost of genomic selection. Fewer markers can be used to trace chromosome segments within a population once identified by high-density haplotyping. Combinations of marker densities can improve reliability at lower cost. As of January 2010, 33,414...

  15. Genetically encoded dendritic marker sheds light on neuronal connectivity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Laura J. J.; Ramaekers, Ariane; Raemaekers, Tim; Drozdzecki, Andrzej; Mauss, Alex S.; Yan, Jiekun; Landgraf, Matthias; Annaert, Wim; Hassan, Bassem A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful model for neuronal circuit development, pathology, and function. A major impediment to these studies has been the lack of a genetically encoded, specific, universal, and phenotypically neutral marker of the somatodendritic compartment. We have developed such a marker and show that it is effective and specific in all neuronal populations tested in the peripheral and central nervous system. The marker, which we name DenMark (Dendritic Marker), is a hybrid protein of the mouse protein ICAM5/Telencephalin and the red fluorescent protein mCherry. We show that DenMark is a powerful tool for revealing novel aspects of the neuroanatomy of developing dendrites, identifying previously unknown dendritic arbors, and elucidating neuronal connectivity. PMID:21059961

  16. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region. PMID:27156082

  17. Genetic markers on BTA14 predictive for residual feed intake in beef steers and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Kuehn, L A; Snelling, W M; Smith, T P L; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G; King, D Andy; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2012-10-01

    With the high cost of feed for animal production, genetic selection for animals that metabolize feed more efficiently could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers predictive for differences among cattle for traits associated with feed efficiency. Crossbred steers were fed a high-corn diet for 140 days and average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and residual feed intake (RFI) phenotypes were obtained. A region on chromosome 14 was previously associated with RFI in this population of animals. To develop markers with the highest utility for predicting an animal's genetic potential for RFI, we genotyped additional markers within this chromosomal region. These polymorphisms were genotyped on the same animals (n = 1066) and tested for association with ADFI, ADG and RFI. Six markers within this region were associated with RFI (P ≤ 0.05). After conservative correction for multiple testing, one marker at 25.09 Mb remained significant (P = 0.02) and is responsible for 3.6% of the RFI phenotypic variation in this population of animals. Several of these markers were also significant for ADG, although none were significant after correction. Marker alleles with positive effects on ADG corresponded to lower RFI, suggesting an effect increasing growth without increasing feed intake. All markers were also assessed for their effects on meat quality and carcass traits. All of the markers associated with RFI were associated with adjusted fat thickness (AFT, P ≤ 0.009) and three were also associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, P ≤ 0.003). Marker alleles associated with lower RFI were also associated with reduced AFT, and if they were associated for HCW, the effect was an increase in weight. These markers may be useful as prediction tools for animals that utilize feed more efficiently; however, validation with additional populations of cattle is required. PMID:22497335

  18. Genetic relationships of ethnic minorities in Southwest China revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongbin; Fan, Hao; Zhang, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Hu, Songnian; Chu, Jiayou; Wang, Duen-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Population migrations in Southwest and South China have played an important role in the formation of East Asian populations and led to a high degree of cultural diversity among ethnic minorities living in these areas. To explore the genetic relationships of these ethnic minorities, we systematically surveyed the variation of 10 autosomal STR markers of 1,538 individuals from 30 populations of 25 ethnic minorities, of which the majority were chosen from Southwest China, especially Yunnan Province. With genotyped data of the markers, we constructed phylogenies of these populations with both D(A) and D(C) measures and performed a principal component analysis, as well as a clustering analysis by structure. Results showed that we successfully recovered the genetic structure of analyzed populations formed by historical migrations. Aggregation patterns of these populations accord well with their linguistic affiliations, suggesting that deciphering of genetic relationships does in fact offer clues for study of ethnic differentiation. PMID:20360948

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of sweet kernel apricot in China based on SSR and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, M P; Du, H Y; Zhu, G P; Fu, D L; Tana, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity among 22 sweet kernel apricot accessions and 12 cultivars in China to provide information on how to improve the utilization of kernel apricot germplasms. The results showed that 10 pairs of SSR primers screened from 40 primer pairs amplified 43 allelic variants, all of which were polymorphic (100%), and 9 ISSR primers selected from 100 primers amplified 67 allelic variants with 50 polymorphic bands (74.63%). There was a relatively distant genetic relationship between the 34 samples, where their genetic similarity coefficient was between 0.62 and 0.99. The UPGMA dendrogram constructed using combined data of the two marker systems separated the genotypes into three main clusters. PMID:26345904

  20. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity of Persea bombycina "Som" using RAPD-based molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Bhau, Brijmohan Singh; Medhi, Kalyani; Das, Ambrish P; Saikia, Siddhartha P; Neog, Kartik; Choudhury, S N

    2009-08-01

    The utility of RAPD markers in assessing genetic diversity and phenetic relationships in Persea bombycina, a major tree species for golden silk (muga) production, was investigated using 48 genotypes from northeast India. Thirteen RAPD primer combinations generated 93 bands. On average, seven RAPD fragments were amplified per reaction. In a UPGMA phenetic dendrogram based on Jaccard's coefficient, the P. bombycina accessions showed a high level of genetic variation, as indicated by genetic similarity. The grouping in the phenogram was highly consistent, as indicated by high values of cophenetic correlation and high bootstrap values at the key nodes. The accessions were scattered on a plot derived from principal correspondence analysis. The study concluded that the high level of genetic diversity in the P. bombycina accessions may be attributed to the species' outcrossing nature. This study may be useful in identifying diverse genetic stocks of P. bombycina, which may then be conserved on a priority basis. PMID:19424786

  2. Development of new genomic microsatellite markers from robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) showing broad cross-species transferability and utility in genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Hendre, Prasad Suresh; Phanindranath, Regur; Annapurna, V; Lalremruata, Albert; Aggarwal, Ramesh K

    2008-01-01

    Background Species-specific microsatellite markers are desirable for genetic studies and to harness the potential of MAS-based breeding for genetic improvement. Limited availability of such markers for coffee, one of the most important beverage tree crops, warrants newer efforts to develop additional microsatellite markers that can be effectively deployed in genetic analysis and coffee improvement programs. The present study aimed to develop new coffee-specific SSR markers and validate their utility in analysis of genetic diversity, individualization, linkage mapping, and transferability for use in other related taxa. Results A small-insert partial genomic library of Coffea canephora, was probed for various SSR motifs following conventional approach of Southern hybridisation. Characterization of repeat positive clones revealed a very high abundance of DNRs (1/15 Kb) over TNRs (1/406 kb). The relative frequencies of different DNRs were found as AT >> AG > AC, whereas among TNRs, AGC was the most abundant repeat. The SSR positive sequences were used to design 58 primer pairs of which 44 pairs could be validated as single locus markers using a panel of arabica and robusta genotypes. The analysis revealed an average of 3.3 and 3.78 alleles and 0.49 and 0.62 PIC per marker for the tested arabicas and robustas, respectively. It also revealed a high cumulative PI over all the markers using both sib-based (10-6 and 10-12 for arabicas and robustas respectively) and unbiased corrected estimates (10-20 and 10-43 for arabicas and robustas respectively). The markers were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage dis-equilibrium, and were successfully used to ascertain generic diversity/affinities in the tested germplasm (cultivated as well as species). Nine markers could be mapped on robusta linkage map. Importantly, the markers showed ~92% transferability across related species/genera of coffee. Conclusion The conventional approach of genomic library was successfully

  3. Using genetic markers to estimate the pollen dispersal curve.

    PubMed

    Austerlitz, Frederic; Dick, Christopher W; Dutech, Cyril; Klein, Etienne K; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Smouse, Peter E; Sork, Victoria L

    2004-04-01

    Pollen dispersal is a critical process that shapes genetic diversity in natural populations of plants. Estimating the pollen dispersal curve can provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of populations and is essential background for making predictions about changes induced by perturbations. Specifically, we would like to know whether the dispersal curve is exponential, thin-tailed (decreasing faster than exponential), or fat-tailed (decreasing slower than the exponential). In the latter case, rare events of long-distance dispersal will be much more likely. Here we generalize the previously developed TWOGENER method, assuming that the pollen dispersal curve belongs to particular one- or two-parameter families of dispersal curves and estimating simultaneously the parameters of the dispersal curve and the effective density of reproducing individuals in the population. We tested this method on simulated data, using an exponential power distribution, under thin-tailed, exponential and fat-tailed conditions. We find that even if our estimates show some bias and large mean squared error (MSE), we are able to estimate correctly the general trend of the curve - thin-tailed or fat-tailed - and the effective density. Moreover, the mean distance of dispersal can be correctly estimated with low bias and MSE, even if another family of dispersal curve is used for the estimation. Finally, we consider three case studies based on forest tree species. We find that dispersal is fat-tailed in all cases, and that the effective density estimated by our model is below the measured density in two of the cases. This latter result may reflect the difficulty of estimating two parameters, or it may be a biological consequence of variance in reproductive success of males in the population. Both the simulated and empirical findings demonstrate the strong potential of TWOGENER for evaluating the shape of the dispersal curve and the effective density of the population (d(e)). PMID:15012767

  4. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M.; Bazan, H.

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  5. Identification of genetic markers associated with residual feed intake and meat quality traits in the pig.

    PubMed

    Fan, B; Lkhagvadorj, S; Cai, W; Young, J; Smith, R M; Dekkers, J C M; Huff-Lonergan, E; Lonergan, S M; Rothschild, M F

    2010-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has become increasingly important and is being considered as a more reasonable approach to evaluate feed efficiency in livestock. However, the cost and technical difficulties in measuring this trait restrict the extensive adoption of RFI selection, and this makes marker assisted selection (MAS) a feasible tool. In addition, the effects on meat quality caused by low RFI selection have yet to be clarified. In this study, 11 SNPs from eight candidate genes were evaluated in a Yorkshire pig experimental population (n=169) consisting of a low RFI selection line and a randomly selected control line. Associations of these SNPs with RFI, growth rate, carcass composition, and meat quality measures including water holding capacity, pH at 2d postmortem, meat color and sensory traits were analyzed. The SNPs FTO p.Ala198Ala and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G showed significant (P<0.05) and suggestively significant (P<0.1) associations with RFI, respectively. The MC4R SNP p.Asp298Asn was associated with backfat but it was not with ADG and meat quality attributes. Both SNPs within HNF1A were associated with intramuscular lipid content and sensory juiciness. The SNPs ACC1 c(*)384C>T and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were significantly (P<0.05) associated with ADG. The SNPs CTSZ p.Arg64Lys and TCF7L2 c.646+514A>G were associated with both visual scoring of meat color and the objective L-value measure of meat color. This study has identified potential genetic markers suitable for MAS in improving RFI, ADG, and meat color traits, but these associations need to be validated in other larger populations. PMID:20374837

  6. Genetic characterization of European-Zebu composite bovine using RFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Marson, Erica Perez; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Balieiro, Júlio César de Carvalho; Eler, Joanir Pereira; Figueiredo, Luís Gustavo Girardi; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

    2005-01-01

    A population of 370 European-Zebu composite beef heifers, consisting of six different breed compositions (A-F), were characterized genetically, using RFLP markers of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes. Our objectives were to genetically characterize this population and to determine the structure and the genetic variability of this hybrid herd. The genotypes were determined through PCR, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases. The PCR-RFLP analysis made it possible to identify the LHR and FSHR genotypes, as well as to characterize the degree of heterozygosis, which was high for all of the breed compositions, for both loci, except for two combinations for LHR (B and C). The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He) for compositions C (for LHR) and A and D (for FSHR); however, for the population as a whole, Ho was above He (with a mean of 57 versus 46%, respectively), reflecting the elevated genetic variability in this population and also the informative value of the RFLP markers, which could be useful for population genetic characterization studies. The analysis of the degree of genetic structure of this population, estimated by the Nei's statistic, for both loci, indicated an elevated total genetic diversity (HT = 47%), with most of this variability being due to intrapopulational diversity (HS = 46%), with a low degree of genetic differentiation among the six breed compositions (GST = 1.2%). The estimates generated by the Wright's F statistic indicated a non-endogamic population, with excess heterozygotes (FIT = -0.22), which was also observed at the intrapopulational level (FIS = -0.23). The results gave evidence that the genetic selection applied to this European-Zebu composite population did not affect the expected high genetic variability for this type of crossbreeding, which makes it possible to use these animals to obtain economically valuable productive and

  7. Merozoite surface protein-3 alpha as a genetic marker for epidemiologic studies in Plasmodium vivax: a cautionary note

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread of the human malaria parasites in terms of geography, and is thought to present unique challenges to local efforts aimed at control and elimination. Parasite molecular markers can provide much needed data on P. vivax populations, but few such markers have been critically evaluated. One marker that has seen extensive use is the gene encoding merozoite surface protein 3-alpha (MSP-3α), a blood-stage antigen known to be highly variable among P. vivax isolates. Here, a sample of complete msp-3α gene sequences is analysed in order to assess its utility as a molecular marker for epidemiologic investigations. Methods Amplification, cloning and sequencing of additional P. vivax isolates from different geographic locations, including a set of Venezuelan field isolates (n = 10), yielded a sample of 48 complete msp-3α coding sequences. Characterization of standard population genetic measures of diversity, phylogenetic analysis, and tests for recombination were performed. This allowed comparisons to patterns inferred from the in silico simulation of a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocol used widely. Results The larger sample of MSP-3α diversity revealed incongruence between the observed levels of nucleotide polymorphism, which were high in all populations, and the pattern of PCR-RFLP haplotype diversity. Indeed, PCR-RFLP haplotypes were not informative of a population’s genetic diversity and identical haplotypes could be produced from analogous bands in the commonly used protocol. Evidence of frequent and variable insertion-deletion mutations and recurrent recombination between MSP-3α haplotypes complicated the inference of genetic diversity patterns and reduced the phylogenetic signal. Conclusions The genetic diversity of P. vivax msp-3α involves intragenic recombination events. Whereas the high genetic diversity of msp-3α makes it a promising marker for some

  8. Genetic variation and population genetic structure of Rhizophora apiculata (Rhizophoraceae) in the Greater Sunda Islands, Indonesia using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Andi Fadly; Hyun, Jung Oh; Lee, Jae Ho; Kim, Yong Yul; Lee, Kyung Mi; Hong, Kyung Nak; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2014-03-01

    Genetic variations within and among Rhizophora apiculata populations in the Greater Sunda Islands of Indonesia were studied using microsatellite markers. The study found 38 alleles on five loci in 15 populations. The observed (H(o)) and expected (H(e)) heterozygosity values are 0.338 and 0.378, respectively. Inbreeding effect from self-pollination might explain its heterozygote deficiency. Population genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.381) was similar to other mangrove species. The genetic diversity of R. apiculata populations along the coastline inside the archipelago (e.g., Buleleng, Donggala, Mamuju, and Takalar) was higher than those of population along the coastline outside the archipelago, especially northern Sumatra populations (i.e., Langkat, Tapanuli Tengah, Dumai, and Padang). The isolation by distances and sea currents directions as well as their connectivity might affect the gene flow and genetic exchange. The more isolated with fewer connections by sea currents, the smaller gene flow and genetic exchange observed between populations. The higher genetic exchange, on the contrary, occurred when population location was closer to the meeting point of the sea currents. The study also showed that the patterns of sea current movement seemed to have influence genetic clustering of populations which fell into three main groups (Sunda Shelf Mangroves) and one isolated population (New Guinea Mangroves). PMID:24323307

  9. A reference genetic linkage map of apomictic Hieracium species based on expressed markers derived from developing ovule transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Hand, Melanie L.; Henderson, Steven T.; Okada, Takashi; Johnson, Susan D.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Spriggs, Andrew; Siddons, Hayley; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Koltunow, Anna M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Apomixis in plants generates clonal progeny with a maternal genotype through asexual seed formation. Hieracium subgenus Pilosella (Asteraceae) contains polyploid, highly heterozygous apomictic and sexual species. Within apomictic Hieracium, dominant genetic loci independently regulate the qualitative developmental components of apomixis. In H. praealtum, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) enables formation of embryo sacs without meiosis and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) enables fertilization-independent seed formation. A locus required for fertilization-independent endosperm formation (AutE) has been identified in H. piloselloides. Additional quantitative loci appear to influence the penetrance of the qualitative loci, although the controlling genes remain unknown. This study aimed to develop the first genetic linkage maps for sexual and apomictic Hieracium species using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from expressed transcripts within the developing ovaries. Methods RNA from microdissected Hieracium ovule cell types and ovaries was sequenced and SSRs were identified. Two different F1 mapping populations were created to overcome difficulties associated with genome complexity and asexual reproduction. SSR markers were analysed within each mapping population to generate draft linkage maps for apomictic and sexual Hieracium species. Key Results A collection of 14 684 Hieracium expressed SSR markers were developed and linkage maps were constructed for Hieracium species using a subset of the SSR markers. Both the LOA and LOP loci were successfully assigned to linkage groups; however, AutE could not be mapped using the current populations. Comparisons with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) revealed partial macrosynteny between the two Asteraceae species. Conclusions A collection of SSR markers and draft linkage maps were developed for two apomictic and one sexual Hieracium species. These maps will support cloning of controlling genes at LOA and LOP loci

  10. A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations.

    PubMed

    Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas; Egeland, Thore; Mostad, Petter

    2015-09-01

    Several applications necessitate an unbiased determination of relatedness, be it in linkage or association studies or in a forensic setting. An appropriate model to compute the joint probability of some genetic data for a set of persons given some hypothesis about the pedigree structure is then required. The increasing number of markers available through high-density SNP microarray typing and NGS technologies intensifies the demand, where using a large number of markers may lead to biased results due to strong dependencies between closely located loci, both within pedigrees (linkage) and in the population (allelic association or linkage disequilibrium (LD)). We present a new general model, based on a Markov chain for inheritance patterns and another Markov chain for founder allele patterns, the latter allowing us to account for LD. We also demonstrate a specific implementation for X chromosomal markers that allows for computation of likelihoods based on hypotheses of alleged relationships and genetic marker data. The algorithm can simultaneously account for linkage, LD, and mutations. We demonstrate its feasibility using simulated examples. The algorithm is implemented in the software FamLinkX, providing a user-friendly GUI for Windows systems (FamLinkX, as well as further usage instructions, is freely available at www.famlink.se ). Our software provides the necessary means to solve cases where no previous implementation exists. In addition, the software has the possibility to perform simulations in order to further study the impact of linkage and LD on computed likelihoods for an arbitrary set of markers. PMID:25425094

  11. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

  12. Competitive Metagenomic DNA Hybridization Identifies Host-Specific Microbial Genetic Markers in Cow Fecal Samples†

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lamendella, Regina; Kelty, Catherine A.; Graham, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host-specific markers. Here we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to identify host-specific genetic markers from fecal microbial community DNA. As a proof of concept, bovine fecal DNA was challenged against a porcine fecal DNA background to select for bovine-specific DNA sequences. Bioinformatic analyses of 380 bovine enriched metagenomic sequences indicated a preponderance of Bacteroidales-like regions predicted to encode membrane-associated and secreted proteins. Oligonucleotide primers capable of annealing to select Bacteroidales-like bovine GFE sequences exhibited extremely high specificity (>99%) in PCR assays with total fecal DNAs from 279 different animal sources. These primers also demonstrated a broad distribution of corresponding genetic markers (81% positive) among 148 different bovine sources. These data demonstrate that direct metagenomic DNA analysis by the competitive solution hybridization approach described is an efficient method for identifying potentially useful fecal genetic markers and for characterizing differences between environmental microbial communities. PMID:16751515

  13. Genetic diversity of the Hungarian Gidran horse in two mitochondrial DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Sziszkosz, Nikolett; Mihók, Sándor; Jávor, András; Kusza, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    The Gidran is a native Hungarian horse breed that has approached extinction several times. Phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial markers (D-loop and cytochrome-b) was performed to determine the genetic characterization of the Gidran for the first time as well as to detect errors in the management of the Gidran stud book. Sequencing of 686 bp of CYTB and 202 bp of the D-loop in 260 mares revealed 24 and 32 haplotypes, respectively, among 31 mare families. BLAST analysis revealed six novel CYTB and four D-loop haplotypes that have not been previously reported. The Gidran mares showed high haplotype (CYTB: 0.8735 ± 0.011; D-loop: 0.9136 ± 0.008) and moderate nucleotide (CYTB: 0.00472 ± 0.00017; D-loop: 0.02091 ± 0.00068) diversity. Of the 31 Gidran mare families, only 15 CYTB (48.4%) and 17 D-loop (54.8%) distinct haplotypes were formed using the two markers separately. Merged markers created 24 (77.4%) mare families, which were in agreement with the mare families in the stud book. Our key finding was that the Gidran breed still possesses high genetic diversity despite its history. The obtained haplotypes are mostly consistent with known mare families, particularly when the two mtDNA markers were merged. Our results could facilitate conservation efforts for preserving the genetic diversity of the Gidran. PMID:27168959

  14. Genetic diversity of the Hungarian Gidran horse in two mitochondrial DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Sziszkosz, Nikolett; Mihók, Sándor; Jávor, András

    2016-01-01

    The Gidran is a native Hungarian horse breed that has approached extinction several times. Phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial markers (D-loop and cytochrome-b) was performed to determine the genetic characterization of the Gidran for the first time as well as to detect errors in the management of the Gidran stud book. Sequencing of 686 bp of CYTB and 202 bp of the D-loop in 260 mares revealed 24 and 32 haplotypes, respectively, among 31 mare families. BLAST analysis revealed six novel CYTB and four D-loop haplotypes that have not been previously reported. The Gidran mares showed high haplotype (CYTB: 0.8735 ± 0.011; D-loop: 0.9136 ± 0.008) and moderate nucleotide (CYTB: 0.00472 ± 0.00017; D-loop: 0.02091 ± 0.00068) diversity. Of the 31 Gidran mare families, only 15 CYTB (48.4%) and 17 D-loop (54.8%) distinct haplotypes were formed using the two markers separately. Merged markers created 24 (77.4%) mare families, which were in agreement with the mare families in the stud book. Our key finding was that the Gidran breed still possesses high genetic diversity despite its history. The obtained haplotypes are mostly consistent with known mare families, particularly when the two mtDNA markers were merged. Our results could facilitate conservation efforts for preserving the genetic diversity of the Gidran. PMID:27168959

  15. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

  16. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-Qing; Sun, Shuang-Yan; Pu, Min

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern. PMID:23951339

  17. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of microsatellite markers among four strains of Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Dias, M A D; de Freitas, R T F; Arranz, S E; Villanova, G V; Hilsdorf, A W S

    2016-06-01

    Different strains of Nile tilapia can be found worldwide. To successfully use them in breeding programs, they must be genetically characterized. In this study, four strains of Nile tilapia - UFLA, GIFT, Chitralada and Red-Stirling - were genetically characterized using 10 noncoding microsatellite loci and two microsatellites located in the promoter and first intron of the growth hormone gene (GH). The two microsatellites in the GH gene were identified at positions -693 to -679 in the promoter [motif (ATTCT)8 ] and in intron 1 at positions +140 to +168 [motif (CTGT)7 ]. Genetic diversity was measured as mean numbers of alleles and expected heterozygosity, which were 4 and 0.60 (GIFT), 3.5 and 0.71 (UFLA), 4.5 and 0.57 (Chitralada) and 2.5 and 0.42 (Red-Stirling) respectively. Genetic differentiation was estimated both separately and in combination for noncoding and GH microsatellites markers using Jost's DEST index. The UFLA and GIFT strains were the least genetically divergent (DEST  = 0.10), and Chitralada and Red-Stirling were the most (DEST  = 0.58). The UFLA strain was genetically characterized for the first time and, because of its unique origin and genetic distinctness, may prove to be an important resource for genetic improvement of Nile tilapia. This study shows that polymorphisms found in coding gene regions might be useful for assessing genetic differentiation among strains. PMID:26932188

  18. Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Korean Chicken Breeds Based on 30 Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (FIT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of FIT was contributed by within-population deficiency (FIS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds PMID:25178290

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi; Zhuge, Zengyu; Su, Guosheng; Wang, Jiufeng

    2010-10-01

    The eared pheasant consists of four species: white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), Tibetan eared pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani), blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), and brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum). These species are found only in China, and are also on the list of the world's threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all markers, 329 AFLPs were polymorphic. Each primer combination produced in reactions from 19 to 72 fragments and the polymorphic peaks percentage ranged from 53.33% to 86.11% with an average of 74.36% polymorphic bands. Genetic distance between species and genetic diversity within species were evaluated using Jaccard's similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC=0.674-0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC=0.832), while white eared pheasant was more closely related to Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.812). Genetic diversity was lower in brown eared pheasant (SC=0.913) and Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.903) than in white eared pheasant (SC=0.832) and blue eared pheasant (SC=0.853). PMID:20595068

  20. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes. PMID:25846880

  1. [Developing and applying of a parentage identification approach based on high density genetic markers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Luo, Yuanyu; Li, Qingqing; He, Jinlong; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qin; Li, Jiaqi

    2014-08-01

    Pedigree is an important information source in the studies on human genetics and animal/plant breeding. Pedigree error is a common data error in breeding practice. It can affect the reliability of results from researches such as gene mapping, genetic or phenotypic value prediction. By using genetic markers, several approaches can identify the suspected pedigrees, but most of them are complex and the allowed number of genetic markers is limited, such as Cervus. Since the wide use of high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human genetic and animal/plant breeding, a new parentage identification approach (named EasyPC, Easy Pedigree Checking) based on whole genome genetic data was proposed in this study. EasyPC was compared with Cervus on efficiency, and validated with a Chinese Holstein cattle (n=2180) and a Duroc swine (n=191) population. Results showed that EasyPC was much less time demanding than Cervus, and pedigree error rates were 20% for cattle and 6% for swine. Result from the cattle population is in accordance with previous study. By analyzing the empirical distribution of Mendelian error rate calculated in a population using all available SNPs, EasyPC not only can identify the correctness of a pedigree in a simple, fast, and accurate manner, but also can correct the wrong pedigree. EasyPC provides a promising alternative solution to traditional pedigree correction approaches and eases the data analysis of whole genome related studies. PMID:25143282

  2. Gene-Based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic and Association Mapping in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies. Results In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93 × JALO EEP558 and DOR364 × BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings. Conclusions In short, this study illustrates the power of intron

  3. Evolution of the tRNALeu (UAA) Intron and Congruence of Genetic Markers in Lichen-Symbiotic Nostoc

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Olsson, Sanna; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    The group I intron interrupting the tRNALeu UAA gene (trnL) is present in most cyanobacterial genomes as well as in the plastids of many eukaryotic algae and all green plants. In lichen symbiotic Nostoc, the P6b stem-loop of trnL intron always involves one of two different repeat motifs, either Class I or Class II, both with unresolved evolutionary histories. Here we attempt to resolve the complex evolution of the two different trnL P6b region types. Our analysis indicates that the Class II repeat motif most likely appeared first and that independent and unidirectional shifts to the Class I motif have since taken place repeatedly. In addition, we compare our results with those obtained with other genetic markers and find strong evidence of recombination in the 16S rRNA gene, a marker widely used in phylogenetic studies on Bacteria. The congruence of the different genetic markers is successfully evaluated with the recently published software Saguaro, which has not previously been utilized in comparable studies. PMID:26098760

  4. Evolution of the tRNALeu (UAA) Intron and Congruence of Genetic Markers in Lichen-Symbiotic Nostoc.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Olsson, Sanna; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    The group I intron interrupting the tRNALeu UAA gene (trnL) is present in most cyanobacterial genomes as well as in the plastids of many eukaryotic algae and all green plants. In lichen symbiotic Nostoc, the P6b stem-loop of trnL intron always involves one of two different repeat motifs, either Class I or Class II, both with unresolved evolutionary histories. Here we attempt to resolve the complex evolution of the two different trnL P6b region types. Our analysis indicates that the Class II repeat motif most likely appeared first and that independent and unidirectional shifts to the Class I motif have since taken place repeatedly. In addition, we compare our results with those obtained with other genetic markers and find strong evidence of recombination in the 16S rRNA gene, a marker widely used in phylogenetic studies on Bacteria. The congruence of the different genetic markers is successfully evaluated with the recently published software Saguaro, which has not previously been utilized in comparable studies. PMID:26098760

  5. Genetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L

    2016-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  6. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  7. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  8. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Piper spp using RAPD and SRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Liu, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis were applied to 74 individual plants of Piper spp in Hainan Island. The results showed that the SRAP technique may be more informative and more efficient and effective for studying genetic diversity of Piper spp than the RAPD technique. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp in Hainan was relatively high, with the mean Shannon diversity index being 0.2822 and 0.2909, and the mean Nei's genetic diversity being 0.1880 and 0.1947, calculated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. The ranges of the genetic similarity coefficient were 0.486-0.991 and 0.520-1.000 for 74 individual plants of Piper spp (the mean genetic distance was 0.505 and 0.480) and the within-species genetic distance ranged from 0.063 to 0.291 and from 0.096 to 0.234, estimated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. These genetic indices indicated that these species are closely related genetically. The dendrogram generated with the RAPD markers was topologically different from the dendrogram based on SRAP markers, but the SRAP technique clearly distinguished all Piper spp from each other. Evaluation of genetic variation levels of six populations showed that the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity and the Shannon information index within Jianfengling and Diaoluoshan populations are higher than those elsewhere; consequently conservation of wild resources of Piper in these two regions should have priority. PMID:22179965

  9. Genetic characterization of local Criollo pig breeds from the Americas using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Revidatti, M A; Delgado Bermejo, J V; Gama, L T; Landi Periati, V; Ginja, C; Alvarez, L A; Vega-Pla, J L; Martínez, A M

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about local Criollo pig genetic resources and relationships among the various populations. In this paper, genetic diversity and relationships among 17 Criollo pig populations from 11 American countries were assessed with 24 microsatellite markers. Heterozygosities, F-statistics, and genetic distances were estimated, and multivariate, genetic structure and admixture analyses were performed. The overall means for genetic variability parameters based on the 24 microsatellite markers were the following: mean number of alleles per locus of 6.25 ± 2.3; effective number of alleles per locus of 3.33 ± 1.56; allelic richness per locus of 4.61 ± 1.37; expected and observed heterozygosity of 0.62 ± 0.04 and 0.57 ± 0.02, respectively; within-population inbreeding coefficient of 0.089; and proportion of genetic variability accounted for by differences among breeds of 0.11 ± 0.01. Genetic differences were not significantly associated with the geographical location to which breeds were assigned or their country of origin. Still, the NeighborNet dendrogram depicted the clustering by geographic origin of several South American breeds (Criollo Boliviano, Criollo of northeastern Argentina wet, and Criollo of northeastern Argentina dry), but some unexpected results were also observed, such as the grouping of breeds from countries as distant as El Salvador, Mexico, Ecuador, and Cuba. The results of genetic structure and admixture analyses indicated that the most likely number of ancestral populations was 11, and most breeds clustered separately when this was the number of predefined populations, with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. These results indicate that Criollo pigs represent important reservoirs of pig genetic diversity useful for local development as well as for the pig industry. PMID:25349337

  10. Construction of Genetic Linkage Maps and Comparative Genome Analysis of Catfish Using Gene-Associated Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kucuktas, Huseyin; Wang, Shaolin; Li, Ping; He, Chongbo; Xu, Peng; Sha, Zhenxia; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Wang, Yaping; Abernathy, Jason; Guo, Ximing; Liu, Lei; Muir, William; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of the channel catfish genome (N = 29) was constructed using EST-based microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in an interspecific reference family. A total of 413 microsatellites and 125 SNP markers were polymorphic in the reference family. Linkage analysis using JoinMap 4.0 allowed mapping of 331 markers (259 microsatellites and 72 SNPs) to 29 linkage groups. Each linkage group contained 3–18 markers. The largest linkage group contained 18 markers and spanned 131.2 cM, while the smallest linkage group contained 14 markers and spanned only 7.9 cM. The linkage map covered a genetic distance of 1811 cM with an average marker interval of 6.0 cM. Sex-specific maps were also constructed; the recombination rate for females was 1.6 times higher than that for males. Putative conserved syntenies between catfish and zebrafish, medaka, and Tetraodon were established, but the overall levels of genome rearrangements were high among the teleost genomes. This study represents a first-generation linkage map constructed by using EST-derived microsatellites and SNPs, laying a framework for large-scale comparative genome analysis in catfish. The conserved syntenies identified here between the catfish and the three model fish species should facilitate structural genome analysis and evolutionary studies, but more importantly should facilitate functional inference of catfish genes. Given that determination of gene functions is difficult in nonmodel species such as catfish, functional genome analysis will have to rely heavily on the establishment of orthologies from model species. PMID:19171943

  11. Human genetic marker for resistance to radiations and chemicals. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    'The specific aims listed in the original application will essentially be pursued as indicated. The major goal of the grant is to characterize a human homologue of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9 checkpoint control, radioresistance and chemoresistance gene, which is called HRAD9. The purpose is to gain information about the gene, including its structure and function, such that it can potentially be developed as a human genetic marker indicative of hypersensitivity to the deleterious effects associated with exposure to radiations or certain chemicals. The specific aims are divided into two major sections. The first section includes experiments designed to characterize the HRAD9 gene at the molecular level. Specifically, the genomic version of the gene will be isolated and its DNA sequence determined, in vitro mutagenesis will be used to assess structure/function relationships, and expression in cells and tissues will be examined. The second major set of aims focuses on determining the role of HRAD9 in radio/chemoresponsiveness and cancer. For this aim, human HRAD9 mutants will be constructed and characterized. In addition, the status of HRAD9 in cancer cells and tissues will be assessed.'

  12. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species. PMID:26121637

  13. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124715

  14. Genetic markers in a multi-ethnic sample for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, M Fatih; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple risk loci for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but mostly in European/White populations, despite Hispanics having a greater risk. We re-examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of known associations with childhood ALL and known human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region lymphoma risk markers in a multi-ethnic population. Significant associations were found in two ARID5B variants (rs7089424 and rs10821936). We replicated a strong risk association in non-Hispanic White males with rs2395185, a protective marker for lymphoma. Another HLA region marker, rs2647012, showed a risk association among Hispanics only, while a strong protective association was found with rs1048456, a follicular lymphoma risk marker. Our study validated this new case-control sample by confirming genetic markers associated with childhood ALL, and yielded new associations with lymphoma markers. Despite positive results, our study did not provide any clues as to why Hispanics have a higher susceptibility to childhood leukemia, suggesting that environmental factors may have a strong contribution. PMID:24707947

  15. Structural Variation (SV) Markers in the Basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea and Their Application in the Construction of a Genetic Map.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Bingzhi; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Junjie; Lu, Yuanping; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Yuji; Wu, Taju; van Peer, Arend Frans; Li, Shaojie; Xie, Baogui

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers and genetic maps are useful tools in genetic studies. Novel molecular markers and their applications have been developed in recent years. With the recent advancements in sequencing technology, the genomic sequences of an increasingly great number of fungi have become available. A novel type of molecular marker was developed to construct the first reported linkage map of the edible and economically important basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea by using 104 structural variation (SV) markers that are based on the genomic sequences. Because of the special and simple life cycle in basidiomycete, SV markers can be effectively developed by genomic comparison and tested in single spore isolates (SSIs). This stable, convenient and rapidly developed marker may assist in the construction of genetic maps and facilitate genomic research for other species of fungi. PMID:26204838

  16. Structural Variation (SV) Markers in the Basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea and Their Application in the Construction of a Genetic Map

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Bingzhi; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Junjie; Lu, Yuanping; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Yuji; Wu, Taju; van Peer, Arend Frans; Li, Shaojie; Xie, Baogui

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers and genetic maps are useful tools in genetic studies. Novel molecular markers and their applications have been developed in recent years. With the recent advancements in sequencing technology, the genomic sequences of an increasingly great number of fungi have become available. A novel type of molecular marker was developed to construct the first reported linkage map of the edible and economically important basidiomycete Volvariella volvacea by using 104 structural variation (SV) markers that are based on the genomic sequences. Because of the special and simple life cycle in basidiomycete, SV markers can be effectively developed by genomic comparison and tested in single spore isolates (SSIs). This stable, convenient and rapidly developed marker may assist in the construction of genetic maps and facilitate genomic research for other species of fungi. PMID:26204838

  17. Genetic Structure of Earthworm Populations at a Regional Scale: Inferences from Mitochondrial and Microsatellite Molecular Markers in Aporrectodea icterica (Savigny 1826)

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Leguizamon, Magally; Mathieu, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dupont, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fundamental role that soil invertebrates (e.g. earthworms) play in soil ecosystems, the magnitude of their spatial genetic variation is still largely unknown and only a few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of these organisms. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of seven populations of a common endogeic earthworm (Aporrectodea icterica) sampled in northern France to explore how historical species range changes, microevolutionary processes and human activities interact in shaping genetic variation at a regional scale. Because combining markers with distinct modes of inheritance can provide extra, complementary information on gene flow, we compared the patterns of genetic structure revealed using nuclear (7 microsatellite loci) and mitochondrial markers (COI). Both types of markers indicated low genetic polymorphism compared to other earthworm species, a result that can be attributed to ancient bottlenecks, for instance due to species isolation in southern refugia during the ice ages with subsequent expansion toward northern Europe. Historical events can also be responsible for the existence of two divergent, but randomly interbreeding mitochondrial lineages within all study populations. In addition, the comparison of observed heterozygosity among microsatellite loci and heterozygosity expected under mutation-drift equilibrium suggested a recent decrease in effective size in some populations that could be due to contemporary events such as habitat fragmentation. The absence of relationship between geographic and genetic distances estimated from microsatellite allele frequency data also suggested that dispersal is haphazard and that human activities favour passive dispersal among geographically distant populations. PMID:25003795

  18. Acrocomia emensis (Arecaceae) genetic structure and diversity using SSR molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Neiva, D S; Melo Júnior, A F; Oliveira, D A; Royo, V A; Brandão, M M; Menezes, E V

    2016-01-01

    Acrocomia emensis, popularly known as the creeping tucum, belongs to the family Arecaceae, and is an oilseed specie of the Brazilian Savannah. The expansion of agricultural activity has rapidly destroyed its natural habitat, leading to a decrease in its population size. Genetic studies can be used to investigate the genetic variability, and may assist with the charting future conservation strategies. In this study the genetic diversity and structure of 150 individuals sampled in three locations in Minas Gerais were analysed, based on the transferability of six microsatellite markers, previously developed for A. aculeata. The results indicate that the populations studied have low levels of genetic variability (Ho = 0.148) and high, positive and significant inbreeding coefficient, indicating an excess of homozygotes. The average heterozygosity within the population (Hs = 0.700) accounted for 95.03% of the total genetic diversity, indicating that there is greater variability within population than between them, consistent with low genetic differentiation between population (GST = 0.046). Bayesian analysis identified three distinct groups; however, populations shared large numbers of alleles, which can be explained by the reduced distance between populations. These results reveal the need to implement genetic conservation programs for the maintenance of this species and to prioritize population from Bonito and Brasília, which showed the lowest values of genetic diversity. PMID:27050985

  19. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among Tunisian cactus species (Opuntia) as revealed by random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Bendhifi Zarroug, M; Baraket, G; Zourgui, L; Souid, S; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica is one of the most economically important species in the Cactaceae family. Increased interest in this crop stems from its potential contribution to agricultural diversification, application in the exploitation of marginal lands, and utility as additional income sources for farmers. In Tunisia, O. ficus indica has been affected by drastic genetic erosion resulting from biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, it is imperative to identify and preserve this germplasm. In this study, we focused on the use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms to assess genetic diversity among 25 representatives of Tunisian Opuntia species maintained in the collection of the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia. Seventy-two DNA markers were screened to discriminate accessions using 16 successful primer combinations. The high percentage of polymorphic band (100%), the resolving power value (5.68), the polymorphic information content (0.94), and the marker index (7.2) demonstrated the efficiency of the primers tested. Therefore, appropriate cluster analysis used in this study illustrated a divergence among the cultivars studied and exhibited continuous variation that occurred independently of geographic origin. O. ficus indica accessions did not cluster separately from the other cactus pear species, indicating that their current taxonomical classifications are not well aligned with their genetic variability or locality of origin. PMID:25730081

  20. Genetic diversity and population differentiation in the cockle Cerastoderma edule estimated by microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, L.; Méndez, J.; Insua, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.

    2013-03-01

    The edible cockle Cerastoderma edule is a marine bivalve commercially fished in several European countries that have lately suffered a significant decrease in production. Despite its commercial importance, genetic studies in this species are scarce. In this work, genetic diversity and population differentiation of C. edule has been assessed using 11 microsatellite markers in eight locations from the European Atlantic coast. All localities showed similar observed and expected heterozygosity values, but displayed differences in allelic richness, with lowest values obtained for localities situated farther north. Global Fst value revealed the existence of significant genetic structure; all but one locality from the Iberian Peninsula were genetically homogeneous, while more remote localities from France, The Netherlands, and Scotland were significantly different from all other localities. A combined effect of isolation by distance and the existence of barriers that limit gene flow may explain the differentiation observed.

  1. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ritschel, Patricia Silva; Lins, Tulio Cesar de Lima; Tristan, Rodrigo Lourenço; Buso, Gláucia Salles Cortopassi; Buso, José Amauri; Ferreira, Márcio Elias

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and implementation of marker assisted breeding programs. Genomic microsatellite enriched libraries can be an efficient alternative for marker development in such species. Results Seven hundred clones containing microsatellite sequences from a Tsp-AG/TC microsatellite enriched library were identified and one-hundred and forty-four primer pairs designed and synthesized. When 67 microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of melon and other cucurbit accessions, 65 revealed DNA polymorphisms among the melon accessions. For some cucurbit species, such as Cucumis sativus, up to 50% of the melon microsatellite markers could be readily used for DNA polymophism assessment, representing a significant reduction of marker development costs. A random sample of 25 microsatellite markers was extracted from the new microsatellite marker set and characterized on 40 accessions of melon, generating an allelic frequency database for the species. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.52, varying from 0.45 to 0.70, indicating that a small set of selected markers should be sufficient to solve questions regarding genotype identity and variety protection. Genetic distances based on microsatellite polymorphism were congruent with data obtained from RAPD marker analysis. Mapping analysis was initiated with 55 newly developed markers and most primers showed segregation according to Mendelian expectations. Linkage analysis detected linkage between 56% of the markers, distributed in nine linkage groups. Conclusions Genomic library microsatellite enrichment is an efficient procedure for marker

  2. Using host-associated genetic markers to investigate sources of fecal contamination in two Vermont streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura; Matthews, Leslie J.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of host-associated Bacteroidales-based 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genetic markers was investigated as a tool for providing information to managers on sources of bacterial impairment in Vermont streams. The study was conducted during 2009 in two watersheds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters, the Huntington and the Mettawee Rivers. Streamwater samples collected during high-flow and base-flow conditions were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, Human qHF183 and BacHum, Ruminant BoBac, and Canid BacCan) to identify humans, ruminants, and canids as likely or unlikely major sources of fecal contamination. Fecal reference samples from each of the potential source groups, as well as from common species of wildlife, were collected during the same season and from the same watersheds as water samples. The results were combined with data from other states to assess marker cross reaction and to relate marker results to E. coli, the regulated water-quality parameter, with a higher degree of statistical significance. Results from samples from the Huntington River collected under different flow conditions on three dates indicated that humans were unlikely to be a major source of fecal contamination, except for a single positive result at one station that indicated the potential for human sources. Ruminants (deer, moose, cow, or sheep) were potential sources of fecal contamination at all six stations on the Huntington River during one high-flow event and at all but two stations during the other high-flow event. Canids were potential sources of fecal contamination at some stations during two high-flow events, with genetic-marker concentrations in samples from two of the six stations showing consistent positive results for canids for both storm dates. A base-flow sample showed no evidence of major fecal contamination in the Huntington River from humans

  3. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  4. Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Assone, Tatiane; Paiva, Arthur; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M.; Casseb, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies have reported the influence of genetic markers on the host immune response against different persistent viral infections, such as HTLV-1 infection, pointing to the importance of the individual genetic background on their outcomes. However, despite recent advances on the knowledge of the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection, gaps in the understanding of the role of the individual genetic background on the progress to disease clinically manifested still remain. In this scenario, much less is known regarding the influence of genetic factors in the context of dual or triple infections or their influence on the underlying mechanisms that lead to outcomes that differ from those observed in monoinfection. This review describes the main factors involved in the virus–host balance, especially for some particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, and other important genetic markers in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other persistent viruses, such as HIV and HCV. PMID:26848682

  5. Association of Wegener's granulomatosis with HLA antigens and other genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Papiha, S S; Murty, G E; Ad'Hia, A; Mains, B T; Venning, M

    1992-01-01

    The frequencies of the HLA-A, B, C, DR, DQ antigens and of several other genetic markers in biopsy proved and well characterised patients with Wegener's granulomatosis were compared with control frequencies of the region. A highly significant increase in HLA-DR1 was found. The percentage combined frequency of DR1-DQw1 was significantly higher in patients than in the controls. Interestingly, association with the red cell enzyme GLOI and complement locus C4B was also seen. As both of these markers are either linked or within the major histocompatibility complex region (MHC) this is further evidence for the involvement of chromosome 6 in the pathogenesis of Wegener's granulomatosis. To understand the pathology of the disease fully molecular genetic studies of the MHC region are warranted. PMID:1550412

  6. Genetic relationships among seven sections of genus Arachis studied by using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Arachis, originated in South America, is divided into nine taxonomical sections comprising of 80 species. Most of the Arachis species are diploids (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid species (2n = 2x = 40) are found in sections Arachis, Extranervosae and Rhizomatosae. Diploid species have great potential to be used as resistance sources for agronomic traits like pests and diseases, drought related traits and different life cycle spans. Understanding of genetic relationships among wild species and between wild and cultivated species will be useful for enhanced utilization of wild species in improving cultivated germplasm. The present study was undertaken to evaluate genetic relationships among species (96 accessions) belonging to seven sections of Arachis by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Arachis hypogaea genomic library and gene sequences from related genera of Arachis. Results The average transferability rate of 101 SSR markers tested to section Arachis and six other sections was 81% and 59% respectively. Five markers (IPAHM 164, IPAHM 165, IPAHM 407a, IPAHM 409, and IPAHM 659) showed 100% transferability. Cluster analysis of allelic data from a subset of 32 SSR markers on 85 wild and 11 cultivated accessions grouped accessions according to their genome composition, sections and species to which they belong. A total of 109 species specific alleles were detected in different wild species, Arachis pusilla exhibited largest number of species specific alleles (15). Based on genetic distance analysis, the A-genome accession ICG 8200 (A. duranensis) and the B-genome accession ICG 8206 (A. ipaënsis) were found most closely related to A. hypogaea. Conclusion A set of cross species and cross section transferable SSR markers has been identified that will be useful for genetic studies of wild species of Arachis, including comparative genome mapping, germplasm analysis, population genetic structure and phylogenetic inferences

  7. Selection of Genetic Markers for Association Analyses, Using Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhaoling; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Xu, Chun-Fang; Wagner, Michael; Ehm, Margaret G.

    2003-01-01

    The genotyping of closely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers frequently yields highly correlated data, owing to extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers. The extent of LD varies widely across the genome and drives the number of frequent haplotypes observed in small regions. Several studies have illustrated the possibility that LD or haplotype data could be used to select a subset of SNPs that optimize the information retained in a genomic region while reducing the genotyping effort and simplifying the analysis. We propose a method based on the spectral decomposition of the matrices of pairwise LD between markers, and we select markers on the basis of their contributions to the total genetic variation. We also modify Clayton’s “haplotype tagging SNP” selection method, which utilizes haplotype information. For both methods, we propose sliding window–based algorithms that allow the methods to be applied to large chromosomal regions. Our procedures require genotype information about a small number of individuals for an initial set of SNPs and selection of an optimum subset of SNPs that could be efficiently genotyped on larger numbers of samples while retaining most of the genetic variation in samples. We identify suitable parameter combinations for the procedures, and we show that a sample size of 50–100 individuals achieves consistent results in studies of simulated data sets in linkage equilibrium and LD. When applied to experimental data sets, both procedures were similarly effective at reducing the genotyping requirement while maintaining the genetic information content throughout the regions. We also show that haplotype-association results that Hosking et al. obtained near CYP2D6 were almost identical before and after marker selection. PMID:12796855

  8. The use and abuse of genetic marker-based estimates of relatedness and inbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Genetic marker-based estimators remain a popular tool for measuring relatedness (rxy) and inbreeding (F) coefficients at both the population and individual level. The performance of these estimators fluctuates with the number and variability of markers available, and the relatedness composition and demographic history of a population. Several methods are available to evaluate the reliability of the estimates of rxy and F, some of which are implemented in the program COANCESTRY. I used the simulation module in COANCESTRY since assess the performance of marker-based estimators of rxy and F in a species with very low genetic diversity, New Zealand’s little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii). I also conducted a review of published papers that have used COANCESTRY as its release to assess whether and how the reliability of the estimates of rxy and F produced by genetic markers are being measured and reported in published studies. My simulation results show that even when the correlation between true (simulated) and estimated rxy or F is relatively high (Pearson’s r = 0.66–0.72 and 0.81–0.85, respectively) the imprecision of the estimates renders them highly unreliable on an individual basis. The literature review demonstrates that the majority of studies do not report the reliability of marker-based estimates of rxy and F. There is currently no standard practice for selecting the best estimator for a given data set or reporting an estimator’s performance. This could lead to experimental results being interpreted out of context and render the robustness of conclusions based on measures of rxy and F debatable. PMID:26357542

  9. Genetic mapping of microsatellite markers around the arcelin bruchid resistance locus in common bean.

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Muñoz, Claritza; Buendía, Héctor F; Flower, José; Bueno, Juan M; Cardona, César

    2010-07-01

    The deployment in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of arcelin-based bruchid resistance could help reduce post-harvest storage losses to the Mexican bean weevil [(Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman)]. Arcelin is a member of the arcelin-phytohemagglutinin-alpha-amylase inhibitor (APA) family of seed proteins, which has been extensively studied but not widely used in bean breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of arcelin-based bruchid resistance and to determine the orientation of markers and the rate of recombination around the APA locus. A total of 10 previously developed microsatellites and 22 newly developed markers based on a sequenced BAC from the APA locus were screened for polymorphism and of these 15 were mapped with an F(2) population of 157 individuals resulting from a susceptible x resistant cross of SEQ1006 x RAZ106 that segregated for both the arcelin 1 allele and resistance to the bruchid, Z. subfasciatus. Microsatellites derived from APA gene sequences were linked within 0.8 cM of each other and were placed relative to the rest of the b04 linkage group. In a comparison of genetic to physical distance on the BAC sequence, recombination was found to be moderate with a ratio of 125 kb/cM, but repressed within the APA locus itself. Several markers were predicted to be very effective for genetic studies or marker-assisted selection, based on their significant associations with bruchid resistance and on low adult insect emergence and positions flanking the arcelin and phytohemagglutinin genes. PMID:20358173

  10. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  11. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  12. A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.

    PubMed Central

    González, R; Ballester, J M; Estrada, M; Lima, F; Martínez, G; Wade, M; Colombo, B; Vento, R

    1976-01-01

    Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population. PMID:1008061

  13. Genetic analysis of STR markers on chromosome 21 in a Han population from southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y N; Lu, S M; Wang, M; Shen, F X; Chen, Y; Hu, J J

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic sequences and have been extensively used as genetic markers in mapping studies, disease diagnosis, and human identity testing. In this study, 11 STR markers on chromosome 21, including D21S1432, D21S11, D21S1246, D21S1412, D21S1437, D21S1442, D21S2039, D21S1270, D21S1435, D21S1409, and D21S1446, were analyzed in 740 unrelated Han individuals from southeast China. A total of 132 alleles, ranging from 7-21 for each locus, were named according to the guidelines of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics. The distributions of allelic frequencies for the 11 STRs and population genetic parameters were determined. All 11 STR markers showed high polymorphism and heterogeneity in the southeast Han population, with polymorphism information content of 0.61-0.87, heterogeneity of 64.5-86.1%, and power of discrimination of 0.835-0.973. Among the 11 STR markers, D21S1412, D21S1270, D21S11, and D21S1442 showed relatively higher heterogeneity. Their combination was relatively informative and was used in a quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Down syndrome (trisomy 21) in a southeast Chinese Han population. The genetic information and population data for these 11 STRs may be used not only in quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction assays but also in forensic studies and other genetic tests. PMID:25867314

  14. A KRAS-variant in ovarian cancer acts as a genetic marker of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Elena; Lu, Lingeng; Boeke, Marta; Barnett, Rachel; Nallur, Sunitha; Chin, Lena J; Pelletier, Cory; Blitzblau, Rachel; Tassi, Renata; Paranjape, Trupti; Hui, Pei; Godwin, Andrew K; Yu, Herbert; Risch, Harvey; Rutherford, Thomas; Schwartz, Peter; Santin, Alessandro; Matloff, Ellen; Zelterman, Daniel; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2010-08-15

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the single most deadly form of women's cancer, typically presenting as an advanced disease at diagnosis in part due to a lack of known risk factors or genetic markers of risk. The KRAS oncogene and altered levels of the microRNA (miRNA) let-7 are associated with an increased risk of developing solid tumors. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized association between an increased risk of OC and a variant allele of KRAS at rs61764370, referred to as the KRAS-variant, which disrupts a let-7 miRNA binding site in this oncogene. Specimens obtained were tested for the presence of the KRAS-variant from nonselected OC patients in three independent cohorts, two independent ovarian case-control studies, and OC patients with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) as well as their family members. Our results indicate that the KRAS-variant is associated with more than 25% of nonselected OC cases. Further, we found that it is a marker for a significant increased risk of developing OC, as confirmed by two independent case-control analyses. Lastly, we determined that the KRAS-variant was present in 61% of HBOC patients without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, previously considered uninformative, as well as in their family members with cancer. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that the KRAS-variant is a genetic marker for increased risk of developing OC, and they suggest that the KRAS-variant may be a new genetic marker of cancer risk for HBOC families without other known genetic abnormalities. PMID:20647319

  15. Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genetic Marker in Isolates of Bovine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.; Takemura, Kaori; Christie, Nicholas P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    The antiterminator Q gene of bacteriophage 933W (Q933) was identified upstream of the stx2 gene in 90% of human disease–origin Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates and in 44.5% of bovine isolates. Shiga toxin production was higher in Q933-positive isolates than Q933-negative isolates. This genetic marker may provide a useful molecular tool for epidemiologic studies. PMID:15496255

  16. GENETIC VARIATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROMISING SOUR CHERRIES INFERRED FROM MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, R; Arzani, K; Bouzari, N; Saei, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the group of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for identification of promising sour cherries. From among 30 tested microsatellite (SSR) markers, 19 were selected to profile genetic variation in sour cherries due to high polymorphisms. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the accessions based on these markers. Totally 148 alleles were generated at 19 SSR loci which 122 alleles were polymorphic. The number of total alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15 with an average of 7.78 and polymorphism percentage varied from 50 to 100% with an average of 78.76%. Also, PIC varied from 0.47 to 0.89 with an average of 0.79 and heterozygosity ranged from 0.35 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.45. According to these results, these markers specially PMS3, PS12A02, PceGA34, BPPCT021, EMPA004, EMPA018, and Pchgms3 produced good and various levels of amplifications and showed high heterozygosity levels. By the way, the genetic similarity showed a high diversity among the sour cherries. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising sour cherries, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the studied sour cherries were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these sour cherries can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that the set of microsatellite markers employed in this study demonstrated usefulness of microsatellite markers for the identification of sour cherry genotypes. PMID:27183795

  17. Genetic variability and structure of Quercus brantii assessed by ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Leila; Rahmani, Mohammad-Shafie; Shabanian, Naghi; Badakhshan, Hedieh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

    2014-11-15

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) is one of the most important woody species of the Zagros forests in Iran. Three molecular marker techniques: start codon targeted (SCoT), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were compared for fingerprinting of 125 individuals of this species collected from different geographical locations of north-west of Iran. A total of 233 bands were amplified by 18 ISSR primers, of which 224 (96.10%) were polymorphic, and 126 polymorphic bands (97.65%) were observed in 129 bands amplified by 10 IRAP primers. Besides, 118 bands were observed for all 10 SCoT primers, of which 113 were polymorphic (95.71%). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers was 0.30, 0.32 and 0.38, respectively, and this revealed that SCoT markers were more informative than IRAP and ISSR for the assessment of diversity among individuals. Based on the three different molecular types, cluster analysis revealed that 125 individuals taken for the analysis can be divided into three distinct clusters. The Jaccard's genetic similarity based on the combined data ranged from 0.23 to 0.76. These results suggest that efficiency of SCoT, IRAP and ISSR markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of individuals. All molecular marker types revealed a low genetic differentiation among populations, indicating the possibility of gene flow between the studied populations. These results have an important implication for Persian oak (Q. brantii) germplasm characterization, improvement, and conservation. PMID:25241382

  18. Genetic variation in two conserved local Romanian pig breeds using type 1 DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Daniel C; Day, Andrew E; Nagy, Alexandru; Wales, Richard; Rothschild, Max F; Plastow, Graham S

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the genetic variation of an endangered population is an important component for the success of conservation. Animals from two local Romanian pig breeds, the Mangalitsa and Bazna, were analysed for variation at a number of genetic loci using PCR-based DNA tests. Polymorphism was assessed at loci which 1) are known to cause phenotypic variation, 2) are potentially involved in trait differences or 3) are putative candidate genes. The traits considered are disease resistance, growth, coat colour, meat quality and prolificacy. Even though the populations are small and the markers are limited to specific genes, we found significant differences in five of the ten characterised loci. In some cases the observed allele frequencies were interesting in relation to gene function and the phenotype of the breed. These breeds are part of a conservation programme in Romania and marker information may be useful in preserving a representative gene pool in the populations. The use of polymorphisms in type 1 (gene) markers may be a useful complement to analysis based on anonymous markers. PMID:11559484

  19. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-10-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 landraces derived from natural interspecific crosses. Out of 106 SSR markers, 25 polymorphic SSR markers (24 %) detected a total of 76 alleles (average, 3.04; range, 2-5). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.69 (range, 0.29-0.92). Seventeen RAMPO markers produced 87 polymorphic fragments with average PIC of 0.63 (range, 0.44-0.81). Dendrograms based on SSRs and RAMPOs generated two clusters. All 38 Capsicum annuum genotypes and an interspecific landrace clustered together, whereas nine non-annuum (three Capsicum frutescens, one Capsicum chinense, one Capsicum baccatum and four interspecific landraces) genotypes clustered separately. Genetic variation within non-annuum genotypes was greater than the C. annuum genotypes. Distinctness of interspecific derivative landraces grown in northeast India was validated; natural crossing between sympatric Capsicum species has been proposed as the mechanism of their origin. PMID:24431527

  20. Study on the application of parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation markers to forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guisen; Yang, Qingen; Huang, Daixin; Yu, Chunying; Yang, Rongzhi; Chen, Hui; Mei, Kun

    2005-11-25

    In paternity test, especially in motherless cases, the allele inherited from father (obligatory gene, OG) often cannot be determined. The paternity exclusion probability (PE) of a genetic marker is reduced considerably. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new technique, by which the parental origin of alleles can be determined without genealogical analysis. In this paper, we explored the possibility of using parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation markers to determine the parental origin of alleles, choosing the imprinted single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) locus rs220028 (A/G) as a model system. We typed the SNP by mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR). The frequencies of alleles were A = 0.5085, G = 0.4915; the unbiased heterozygosity was 0.5020. In order to discriminate between the maternal allele and paternal allele, post-digestion MS-PCR, a novel PCR based methylation analysis and SNP typing technique was developed and performed on 18 heterozygous children, and the methylated maternal allele was detected specifically. As a pilot study on the use of epigenetic markers in forensic genetics, our results demonstrated the feasibility of using parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation markers to determine the parental origin of alleles. PMID:16182958

  1. Predicting complex traits using a diffusion kernel on genetic markers with an application to dairy cattle and wheat data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arguably, genotypes and phenotypes may be linked in functional forms that are not well addressed by the linear additive models that are standard in quantitative genetics. Therefore, developing statistical learning models for predicting phenotypic values from all available molecular information that are capable of capturing complex genetic network architectures is of great importance. Bayesian kernel ridge regression is a non-parametric prediction model proposed for this purpose. Its essence is to create a spatial distance-based relationship matrix called a kernel. Although the set of all single nucleotide polymorphism genotype configurations on which a model is built is finite, past research has mainly used a Gaussian kernel. Results We sought to investigate the performance of a diffusion kernel, which was specifically developed to model discrete marker inputs, using Holstein cattle and wheat data. This kernel can be viewed as a discretization of the Gaussian kernel. The predictive ability of the diffusion kernel was similar to that of non-spatial distance-based additive genomic relationship kernels in the Holstein data, but outperformed the latter in the wheat data. However, the difference in performance between the diffusion and Gaussian kernels was negligible. Conclusions It is concluded that the ability of a diffusion kernel to capture the total genetic variance is not better than that of a Gaussian kernel, at least for these data. Although the diffusion kernel as a choice of basis function may have potential for use in whole-genome prediction, our results imply that embedding genetic markers into a non-Euclidean metric space has very small impact on prediction. Our results suggest that use of the black box Gaussian kernel is justified, given its connection to the diffusion kernel and its similar predictive performance. PMID:23763755

  2. Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

    2014-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

  3. Identifying the genetic diversity, genetic structure and a core collection of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. jujuba accessions using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chaoqun; Gao, Jiao; Du, Zengfeng; Li, Dengke; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Pang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ziziphus is a genus of spiny shrubs and small trees in the Rhamnaceae family. This group has a controversial taxonomy, with more than 200 species described, including Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. jujuba) and Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana), as well as several other important cultivated fruit crops. Using 24 SSR markers distributed across the Chinese jujube genome, 962 jujube accessions from the two largest germplasm repositories were genotyped with the aim of analyzing the genetic diversity and structure and constructing a core collection that retain high genetic diversity. A molecular profile comparison revealed 622 unique genotypes, among which 123 genotypes were genetically identical to at least one other accessions. STRUCTURE analysis and multivariate analyses (Cluster and PCoA) roughly divided the accessions into three major groups, with some admixture among groups. A simulated annealing algorithm and a heuristic algorithm were chosen to construct the core collection. A final core of 150 accessions was selected, comprising 15.6% of the analyzed accessions and retaining more than 99.5% of the total alleles detected. We found no significant differences in allele frequency distributions or in genetic diversity parameters between the chosen core accessions and the 622 genetically unique accessions. This work contributes to the understanding of Chinese jujube diversification and the protection of important germplasm resources. PMID:27531220

  4. Identifying the genetic diversity, genetic structure and a core collection of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. jujuba accessions using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoqun; Gao, Jiao; Du, Zengfeng; Li, Dengke; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Pang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ziziphus is a genus of spiny shrubs and small trees in the Rhamnaceae family. This group has a controversial taxonomy, with more than 200 species described, including Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. jujuba) and Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana), as well as several other important cultivated fruit crops. Using 24 SSR markers distributed across the Chinese jujube genome, 962 jujube accessions from the two largest germplasm repositories were genotyped with the aim of analyzing the genetic diversity and structure and constructing a core collection that retain high genetic diversity. A molecular profile comparison revealed 622 unique genotypes, among which 123 genotypes were genetically identical to at least one other accessions. STRUCTURE analysis and multivariate analyses (Cluster and PCoA) roughly divided the accessions into three major groups, with some admixture among groups. A simulated annealing algorithm and a heuristic algorithm were chosen to construct the core collection. A final core of 150 accessions was selected, comprising 15.6% of the analyzed accessions and retaining more than 99.5% of the total alleles detected. We found no significant differences in allele frequency distributions or in genetic diversity parameters between the chosen core accessions and the 622 genetically unique accessions. This work contributes to the understanding of Chinese jujube diversification and the protection of important germplasm resources. PMID:27531220

  5. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  6. Genetic differentiation between natural and hatchery populations of Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xing, K; Gao, M L; Li, H J

    2014-01-01

    Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is one of the major aquaculture species around the world and supports an important segment of the aquaculture industry in China. In this study, we used ten microsatellite markers to detect genetic diversity within six R. philippinarum populations and genetic differentiation between them. A total of 109 alleles were detected across all loci. Compared to wild populations (N(A) = 8.4-9.1 alleles/locus, H(E) = 0.75-0.77, H(O) = 0.67-0.73), hatchery stocks showed less genetic variation as revealed in lower number of alleles and lower heterozygosity (N(A) = 7.4-7.5 alleles/locus, H(E) = 0.72-0.75, H(O) = 0.68-0.70), indicating that a bottleneck effect has occurred in hatchery history. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between cultured stocks (P < 0.05), and between cultured and wild populations (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis showed a clear separation of the northern three populations and the southern three populations, suggesting that geographically separated populations of R. philippinarum could be genetically differentiated with limited genetic information exchanged between them. The information obtained in this study indicates that the northern and southern populations of R. philippinarum should be managed separately in hatchery practices for the preservation of genetic diversity in wild populations. PMID:24535849

  7. Genetic Relationships of Aglaonema Species and Cultivars Inferred from AFLP Markers

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIANJUN; DEVANAND, PACHANOOR S.; NORMAN, DAVID J.; HENNY, RICHARD J.; CHAO, CHIH‐CHENG T.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Aglaonema is an important ornamental foliage plant genus, but genetic relationships among its species and cultivars have not been reported. This study analysed genetic relatedness of 54 cultivars derived from nine species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. • Methods Initially, 48 EcoRI + 2/MseI + 3 primer set combinations were screened, from which six primer sets that showed clear scoreable and highly polymorphic fragments were selected and used for AFLP reactions. AFLP fragments were scored and entered into a binary data matrix as discrete variables. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity was calculated for all pair‐wise comparisons among the 54 cultivars, and a dendrogram was constructed by the unweighted pair‐group method using the arithmetic average (UPGMA). • Key Results The number of AFLP fragments generated per primer set ranged from 59 to 112 with fragment sizes varying from 50 to 565 bp. A total of 449 AFLP fragments was detected, of which 314 were polymorphic (70 %). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their AFLP fingerprints. The 54 cultivars were divided into seven clusters; cultivars within each cluster generally share similar morphological characteristics. Cluster I contains 35 cultivars, most of them are interspecific hybrids developed mainly from A. commutatum, A. crispum or A. nitidum. However, Jaccard’s similarity coefficients among these hybrids are 0·84 or higher, suggesting that these popular hybrid cultivars are genetically much closer than previously thought. This genetic similarity may imply that A. nitidum and A. crispum are likely progenitors of A. commutatum. • Conclusions Results of this study demonstrate the efficiency and ease of using AFLP markers for investigating genetic relationships of ornamental foliage plants, a group usually propagated vegetatively. The AFLP markers developed will help future Aglaonema cultivar identification, germplasm conservation and

  8. Elucidating genetic diversity among sour orange rootstocks: a comparative study of the efficiency of RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lamine, Myriam; Mliki, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of two molecular marker systems, a set of six RAPD and nine SSR markers were used to study the genetic diversity in a population of 46 sour orange accessions, a common rootstock used in almost all citrus orchards in Tunisia. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, percentage of polymorphism, polymorphic information content (PIC), effective marker index (EMI), and marker index (MI) parameters] for RAPD, SSR, and RAPD + SSR were determined in order to assess the efficiency of the two marker systems. The results revealed that these parameters were significantly higher when using RAPD markers. Similarly, cluster analysis using the results of RAPD was practically the same as that obtained when combining data from the two marker systems (RAPD + SSR) demonstrating the efficiency of RAPD in discriminating between sour orange accessions. Therefore, the use of SSR markers, known to be more efficient and discriminatory, does not bring significant supplementary information in this work. Indeed, results would have been obtained using only the RAPD markers. Accordingly, this work highlights the efficiency and advantages of RAPD, as an easy and efficient technique, in studying citrus rootstock's genetic diversity, and establishing genetic relationships among citrus accessions. PMID:25586488

  9. First genetic linkage map for the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Ma, H Y; Li, S J; Feng, N N; Ma, C Y; Wang, W; Chen, W; Ma, L B

    2016-01-01

    The mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is of economic importance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry in China. In this study, we constructed the first genetic linkage map for this species using microsatellite and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The map consisted of 65 linkage groups, including 34 triplets and 9 doublets. A total of 212 molecular markers were mapped, including 60 microsatellites and 152 AFLP markers. The linkage groups ranged from 7 to 102.5 cM and covered 2746.4 cM in length. The mean length was 42.3 cM per linkage group, and the mean spacing was 18.68 cM. The genome size was estimated to be 5539.62 cM, with 50% coverage by the present map. Moreover, we reported 5 transcriptome-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers and characterized their polymorphism in a first-generation family. This study will facilitate studies on high-density maps and molecular marker-assisted selection in S. paramamosain and related crustacean species. PMID:27323059

  10. Interpretation of Genetic Association Studies: Markers with Replicated Highly Significant Odds Ratios May Be Poor Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Gorin, Michael B.; Conley, Yvette P.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions. However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10−13, 10−13, and 10−3, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.79, but assuming prevalences of 15%, 5.5%, and 1.5% (which are realistic for age groups 80 y, 65 y, and 40 y and older, respectively), only 30%, 12%, and 3% of the group classified as high risk are cases. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered. In type 2 diabetes, our classification model of 12 SNPs has an AUC of only 0.64, and two SNPs achieve an AUC of only 0.56 for prostate cancer. Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls. The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms of

  11. Genetic variability of oil palm parental genotypes and performance of its' progenies as revealed by molecular markers and quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norziha; Rafii Yusop, Mohd; Ithnin, Maizura; Saleh, Ghizan; Latif, M A

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the genetic relationships between the parental palms (dura and pisifera) and performance of their progenies based on nine microsatellite markers and 29 quantitative traits. Correlation analyses between genetic distances and hybrids performance were estimated. The coefficients of correlation values of genetic distances with hybrid performance were non-significant, except for mean nut weight and leaf number. However, the correlation coefficient of genetic distances with these characters was low to be used as predicted value. These results indicated that genetic distances based on the microsatellite markers may not be useful for predicting hybrid performance. The genetic distance analysis using UPGMA clustering system generated 5 genetic clusters with coefficient of 1.26 based on quantitative traits of progenies. The genotypes, DP16, DP14, DP4, DP13, DP12, DP15, DP8, DP1 and DP2 belonging to distant clusters and greater genetic distances could be selected for further breeding programs. PMID:21513898

  12. Novel molecular markers of Chlamydia pecorum genetic diversity in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlamydia pecorum is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of reproductive and ocular disease in several animal hosts including koalas, sheep, cattle and goats. C. pecorum strains detected in koalas are genetically diverse, raising interesting questions about the origin and transmission of this species within koala hosts. While the ompA gene remains the most widely-used target in C. pecorum typing studies, it is generally recognised that surface protein encoding genes are not suited for phylogenetic analysis and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the ompA gene locus is not congruent with the phylogeny of the C. pecorum genome. Using the recently sequenced C. pecorum genome sequence (E58), we analysed 10 genes, including ompA, to evaluate the use of ompA as a molecular marker in the study of koala C. pecorum genetic diversity. Results Three genes (incA, ORF663, tarP) were found to contain sufficient nucleotide diversity and discriminatory power for detailed analysis and were used, with ompA, to genotype 24 C. pecorum PCR-positive koala samples from four populations. The most robust representation of the phylogeny of these samples was achieved through concatenation of all four gene sequences, enabling the recreation of a "true" phylogenetic signal. OmpA and incA were of limited value as fine-detailed genetic markers as they were unable to confer accurate phylogenetic distinctions between samples. On the other hand, the tarP and ORF663 genes were identified as useful "neutral" and "contingency" markers respectively, to represent the broad evolutionary history and intra-species genetic diversity of koala C. pecorum. Furthermore, the concatenation of ompA, incA and ORF663 sequences highlighted the monophyletic nature of koala C. pecorum infections by demonstrating a single evolutionary trajectory for koala hosts that is distinct from that seen in non-koala hosts. Conclusions While the continued use of ompA as a fine

  13. Utility of EST-derived SSRs as population genetics markers in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Ratcliffe, Susan T; French, B Wade; Liu, Lei; Sappington, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), loci can be identified by mining expressed sequence tag (EST) databases, and where these are available, marker development time and expense can be decreased considerably over conventional strategies of probing the entire genome. However, it is unclear whether they provide information on population structure similar to that generated by anonymous genomic SSRs. We performed comparative population genetic analyses between EST-derived SSRs (EST-SSRs) and anonymous SSRs developed from genomic DNA for the same set of populations of the insect Diabrotica virgifera, a beetle in the family Chrysomelidae. Compared with noncoding, nontranscribed regions, EST-SSRs were generally less polymorphic but had reduced occurrence of null alleles and greater cross-species amplification. Neutrality tests suggested the loci were not under positive selection. Across all populations and all loci, the genomic and EST-SSRs performed similarly in estimating genetic diversity, F(IS), F(ST), population assignment and exclusion tests, and detection of distinct populations. These findings, therefore, indicate that the EST-SSRs examined can be used with confidence in future genetic studies of Diabrotica populations and suggest that EST libraries can be added as a valuable source of markers for population genetics studies in insects and other animals. PMID:18222933

  14. Random amplified polymorphic markers as indicator for genetic conservation program in Iranian pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Elyasi Zarringhabaie, Ghorban; Javanmard, Arash; Pirahary, Ommolbanin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study was identification of genetic similarity between wild Iran and captive Azerbaijan Pheasant using PCR-RAPD markers. For this purpose, in overall, 28 birds were taken for DNA extraction and subsequently 15 arbitrary primers were applied for PCR-RAPD technique. After electrophoresis, five primers exhibited sufficient variability which yielded overall 65 distinct bands, 59 polymorphic bands, for detalis, range of number of bands per primer was 10 to 14, and produced size varied between 200 to 1500 bp. Highest and lowest polymorphic primers were OPC5, OPC16 (100%) and OPC15 (81%), respectively. Result of genetic variation between two groups was accounted as nonsignificant (8.12%) of the overall variation. According to our expectation the wild Iranian birds showed higher genetic diversity value than the Azerbaijan captive birds. As general conclusion, two pheasant populations have almost same genetic origin and probably are subpopulations of one population. The data reported herein could open the opportunity to search for suitable conservation strategy to improve richness of Iran biodiversity and present study here was the first report that might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation program of Iranian pheasant gene pool. Analyses using more regions, more birds, and more DNA markers will be useful to confirm or to reject these findings. PMID:23002388

  15. Additional pea EST-SSR markers for comparative mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of a large set of molecular markers is an excellent resource for both applied and basic research for any organism. The current consensus molecular map of pea is 1,430 cM and contains 239 simple sequence repeat markers. The goal was to identify and test unique gene-based simple sequ...

  16. [Genome-wide association study on complex diseases: study design and genetic markers].

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei-Li

    2008-04-01

    Genome-wide association study used to be a dream of geneticists years ago, but now it came true. Since the first paper reported the finding of genetic variation contributing to human age-related macular degeneration by genome-wide association study in 2005, a numbers of whole genome studies have been published. The present paper reviewed some common comments in whole genome association study on complex diseases, including achievements of genome-wide association studies on complex traits or diseases, principles of study design, selection of genetic marker in genome, and comparisons of different commercial products for whole genome association study. Finally a newly defined genetic variation, copy number variation, was briefly introduced. This paper also summarized the shortcomings of current genome-wide association studies and perspectives of its future. PMID:18424408

  17. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement. PMID:22194201

  18. Informativeness of minisatellite and microsatellite markers for genetic analysis in papaya.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, G A F; Dantas, J L L; Oliveira, E J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate information on minisatellite and microsatellite markers in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Forty minisatellites and 91 microsatellites were used for genotyping 24 papaya accessions. Estimates of genetic diversity, genetic linkage and analyses of population structure were compared. A lower average number of alleles per locus was observed in minisatellites (3.10) compared with microsatellites (3.57), although the minisatellites showed rarer alleles (18.54 %) compared with microsatellite (13.85 %). Greater expected (He = 0.52) and observed (Ho = 0.16) heterozygosity was observed in the microsatellites compared with minisatellites (He = 0.42 and Ho = 0.11), possibly due to the high number of hermaphroditic accessions, resulting in high rates of self-fertilization. The polymorphic information content and Shannon-Wiener diversity were also higher for microsatellites (from 0.47 to 1.10, respectively) compared with minisatellite (0.38 and 0.85, respectively). The probability of paternity exclusion was high for both markers (>0.999), and the combined probability of identity was from 1.65(-13) to 4.33(-38) for mini- and micro-satellites, respectively, which indicates that both types of markers are ideal for genetic analysis. The Bayesian analysis indicated the formation of two groups (K = 2) for both markers, although the minisatellites indicated a substructure (K = 4). A greater number of accessions with a low probability of assignment to specific groups were observed for microsatellites. Collectively, the results indicated higher informativeness of microsatellites. However, the lower informative power of minisatellites may be offset by the use of larger number of loci. Furthermore, minisatellites are subject to less error in genotyping because there is greater power to detect genotyping systems when larger motifs are used. PMID:26280323

  19. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing) loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians). The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i) rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii) compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa. PMID:20836842

  20. pyrF as a Counterselectable Marker for Unmarked Genetic Manipulations in Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Kurniyati, Kurni

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Treponema denticola, an oral pathogen associated with both periodontal and endodontic infections, is poorly understood due to its fastidious growth and recalcitrance to genetic manipulations. Counterselectable markers are instrumental in constructing clean and unmarked mutations in bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that pyrF, a gene encoding orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase, can be used as a counterselectable marker in T. denticola to construct marker-free mutants. T. denticola is susceptible to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). To establish a pyrF-based counterselectable knockout system in T. denticola, the pyrF gene was deleted. The deletion conferred resistance to 5-FOA in T. denticola. Next, a single-crossover mutant was constructed by reintroducing pyrF along with a gentamicin resistance gene (aacC1) back into the chromosome of the pyrF mutant at the locus of choice. In this study, we chose flgE, a flagellar hook gene that is located within a large polycistronic motility gene operon, as our target gene. The obtained single-crossover mutant (named FlgEin) regained the susceptibility to 5-FOA. Finally, FlgEin was plated on solid agar containing 5-FOA. Numerous colonies of the 5-FOA-resistant mutant (named FlgEout) were obtained and characterized by PCR and Southern blotting analyses. The results showed that the flgE gene was deleted and FlgEout was free of selection markers (i.e., pyrF and aacC1). Compared to previously constructed flgE mutants that contain an antibiotic selection marker, the deletion of flgE in FlgEout has no polar effect on its downstream gene expression. The system developed here will provide us with a new tool for investigating the genetics and pathogenicity of T. denticola. PMID:26682856

  1. Molecular profiling for genetic variability in Capsicum species based on ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Thul, Sanjog T; Darokar, Mahendra P; Shasany, Ajit K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2012-06-01

    The taxonomic identity of Capsicum species is found to be difficult as it displays variations at morpho-chemical characters. Twenty-two accessions of six Capsicum species, namely, C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. eximium, C. frutescens, and C. luteum were investigated for phenotypic diversity based on flower color and for genetic differences by molecular makers. The genetic cluster analyses of 27 RAPD and eight ISSR primers, respectively, revealed genetic similarities in the ranges of 23-88% and 11-96%. Principal component analysis of the pooled RAPD and ISSR data further supports the genetic similarity and groupings. Different species showed variations in relation to corolla shade of flower. C. annuum accessions formed a single cluster in the molecular analysis as maintaining their flower characteristic. C. chinense accession shared flower features with the accessions of C. frutescens and were found to be closer at genotypic level. C. luteum was found to be rather closer to C. baccatum complex, both phenotypically and genetically. The only accession of C. eximium presenting purple flowers falls apart from the groupings. The floral characteristics and the molecular markers are found to be useful toward the delineation of the species specificity in Capsicum collection and identification of genetic stock. PMID:21861246

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese pony breeds using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xu, L X; Yang, S L; Lin, R Y; Yang, H B; Li, A P; Wan, Q S

    2012-01-01

    China is one of the principal origins of ponies in the world. We made a comprehensive analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese ponies based on 174 animals of five indigenous Chinese pony breeds from five provinces using 13 microsatellite markers. One hundred and forty-four alleles were detected; the mean number of effective alleles among the pony breeds ranged from 5.38 (Guizhou) to 6.78 (Sichuan); the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.82 (Guizhou) to 0.85 (Debao, Sichuan). Although abundant genetic variation was found, the genetic differentiation was low between the ponies, with 6% total genetic variance among the different breeds. All the pairwise F(ST) values were significant; they varied from 0.0424 for the Sichuan-Yunnan pair to 0.0833 for the Guizhou-Sichuan pair. All five pony breeds deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except the Yunnan pony. Phylogenetic trees of the five pony breeds based on genetic distances were constructed using a neighbor-joining method. The Sichuan and Yunnan ponies were grouped into the same branch, with a high bootstrap support value (97%). Guizhou and Ningqiang ponies were clustered into the same branch with a bootstrap value of 56%, whereas the Debao pony was placed in a separate group, with a bootstrap value of 56%. This grouping pattern was supported by genetic structure analysis. PMID:22782636

  3. Estimating black bear population density and genetic diversity at Tensas River, Louisiana using microsatellite DNA markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boersen, Mark R.; Clark, Joseph D.; King, Tim L.

    2003-01-01

    The Recovery Plan for the federally threatened Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) mandates that remnant populations be estimated and monitored. In 1999 we obtained genetic material with barbed-wire hair traps to estimate bear population size and genetic diversity at the 329-km2 Tensas River Tract, Louisiana. We constructed and monitored 122 hair traps, which produced 1,939 hair samples. Of those, we randomly selected 116 subsamples for genetic analysis and used up to 12 microsatellite DNA markers to obtain multilocus genotypes for 58 individuals. We used Program CAPTURE to compute estimates of population size using multiple mark-recapture models. The area of study was almost entirely circumscribed by agricultural land, thus the population was geographically closed. Also, study-area boundaries were biologically discreet, enabling us to accurately estimate population density. Using model Chao Mh to account for possible effects of individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities, we estimated the population size to be 119 (SE=29.4) bears, or 0.36 bears/km2. We were forced to examine a substantial number of loci to differentiate between some individuals because of low genetic variation. Despite the probable introduction of genes from Minnesota bears in the 1960s, the isolated population at Tensas exhibited characteristics consistent with inbreeding and genetic drift. Consequently, the effective population size at Tensas may be as few as 32, which warrants continued monitoring or possibly genetic augmentation.

  4. Genetic structure of the Korean black scraper Thamnaconus modestus inferred from microsatellite marker analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Park, Jung Yeon; Jung, Hyung Taek

    2013-05-01

    The Korean black scraper, Thamnaconus modestus, is one of the most economically important maricultural fish species in Korea. However, the annual catch of this fish has been continuously declining over the past several decades. In this study, the genetic diversity and relationships among four wild populations and two hatchery stocks of Korean black scraper were assessed based on 16 microsatellite (MS) markers. A total of 319 different alleles were detected over all loci with an average of 19.94 alleles per locus. The hatchery stocks [mean number of alleles (N(A)) = 12, allelic richness (A(R)) = 12, expected heterozygosity (He) = 0.834] showed a slight reduction (P > 0.05) in genetic variability in comparison with wild populations (mean N(A) = 13.86, A(R) = 12.35, He = 0.844), suggesting a sufficient level of genetic variation in the hatchery populations. Similarly low levels of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both wild and hatchery populations. The genetic subdivision among all six populations was low but significant (overall F(ST) = 0.008, P < 0.01). Pairwise F(ST), a phylogenetic tree, and multidimensional scaling analysis suggested the existence of three geographically structured populations based on different sea basin origins, although the isolation-by-distance model was rejected. This result was corroborated by an analysis of molecular variance. This genetic differentiation may result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment and ocean currents. These three geographical groups can be considered as independent management units. Our results show that MS markers may be suitable not only for the genetic monitoring of hatchery stocks but also for revealing the population structure of Korean black scraper populations. These results will provide critical information for breeding programs, the management of cultured stocks and the conservation of this species. PMID

  5. “Refractario” cocoa – genetic identity and genetic structure assessed using microsallite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utilization of germplasm for crop improvement is often hampered by the absence of detailed information regarding the origin, genetic identity and genealogical relationship of germplasm groups or populations. The majority of cacao germplasm held in the Universal Collection of the International Co...

  6. Genome-Enabled Estimates of Additive and Nonadditive Genetic Variances and Prediction of Apple Phenotypes Across Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Molloy, Claire; Muñoz, Patricio; Daetwyler, Hans; Chagné, David; Volz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The nonadditive genetic effects may have an important contribution to total genetic variation of phenotypes, so estimates of both the additive and nonadditive effects are desirable for breeding and selection purposes. Our main objectives were to: estimate additive, dominance and epistatic variances of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) phenotypes using relationship matrices constructed from genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; and compare the accuracy of genomic predictions using genomic best linear unbiased prediction models with or without including nonadditive genetic effects. A set of 247 clonally replicated individuals was assessed for six fruit quality traits at two sites, and also genotyped using an Illumina 8K SNP array. Across several fruit quality traits, the additive, dominance, and epistatic effects contributed about 30%, 16%, and 19%, respectively, to the total phenotypic variance. Models ignoring nonadditive components yielded upwardly biased estimates of additive variance (heritability) for all traits in this study. The accuracy of genomic predicted genetic values (GEGV) varied from about 0.15 to 0.35 for various traits, and these were almost identical for models with or without including nonadditive effects. However, models including nonadditive genetic effects further reduced the bias of GEGV. Between-site genotypic correlations were high (>0.85) for all traits, and genotype-site interaction accounted for <10% of the phenotypic variability. The accuracy of prediction, when the validation set was present only at one site, was generally similar for both sites, and varied from about 0.50 to 0.85. The prediction accuracies were strongly influenced by trait heritability, and genetic relatedness between the training and validation families. PMID:26497141

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity among faba bean genotypes using agro-morphological and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Megahed H; Alghamdi, Salem S; Migdadi, Hussein M; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Harty, Ehab H; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A

    2015-05-01

    Forty faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were evaluated for their agro-morphological performance and molecular diversity under Central Region of Saudi Arabia conditions during 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. Field performance results showed that faba genotypes exhibited a significant amount of variation for their agro-morphological studied parameters. Giza40 recorded the tallest genotype (139.5 cm), highest number of seeds per plants (100.8), and the highest seed yield per plant (70.8 g). The best performing genotypes were Giza40, FLIP03-014FB, Gazira1 and Goff1. Genetic variability among genotypes was determined using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 183 amplified fragments (alleles) and 1758 polymorphic fragments (bands) in SRAP and 202 alleles and 716 bands in AFLP were obtained using six SRAP and four AFLP primer combinations respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for AFLP and SRAP markers were higher than 0.8, indicating the existence of a considerable amount of genetic diversity among faba tested genotypes. The UPGMA based clustering of faba genotypes was largely based on origin and/or genetic background. Result of cluster analysis based on SRAP showed weak and not significant correlation while, it was highly significant based on AFLP analysis with agro-morphological characters (r = 0.01, p > 0.54 and r = 0.26, p < 0.004 respectively). Combined SRAP and AFLP markers proved to be significantly useful for genetic diversity assessment at molecular level. They exhibited high discrimination power, and were able to distinguish the faba bean genotypes with high efficiency and accuracy levels. PMID:25972757

  8. Novel Genetic Markers Associate with Atrial Fibrillation Risk in Europeans and Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sunil K.; Bis, Joshua C.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Chen, Lin Y.; Everett, Brendan M.; Ford, Ian; Franco, Oscar H.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Kääb, Stefan; Mahida, Saagar; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kubo, Michiaki; Launer, Lenore J.; MacFarlane, Peter W.; Magnani, Jared W.; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D.; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Silbernagel, Guenther; Smith, Jonathan D.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Stott, David J.; Taylor, Kent D.; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify non-redundant atrial fibrillation (AF) genetic susceptibility signals and examine their cumulative relations with AF risk. Background AF-associated loci span broad genomic regions that may contain multiple susceptibility signals. Whether multiple signals exist at AF loci has not been systematically explored. Methods We performed association testing conditioned on the most significant, independently associated genetic markers at nine established AF loci using two complementary techniques in 64,683 individuals of European ancestry (3,869 incident and 3,302 prevalent AF cases). Genetic risk scores were created and tested for association with AF in Europeans and an independent sample of 11,309 individuals of Japanese ancestry (7,916 prevalent AF cases). Results We observed at least four distinct AF susceptibility signals on chromosome 4q25 upstream of PITX2, but not at the remaining eight AF loci. A multilocus score comprised of 12 genetic markers demonstrated an estimated 5-fold gradient in AF risk. We observed a similar spectrum of risk associated with these markers in Japanese. Regions containing AF signals on chromosome 4q25 displayed a greater degree of evolutionary conservation than the remainder of the locus, suggesting that they may tag regulatory elements. Conclusions The chromosome 4q25 AF locus is architecturally complex and harbors at least four AF susceptibility signals in individuals of European ancestry. Similar polygenic AF susceptibility exists between Europeans and Japanese. Future work is necessary to identify causal variants, determine mechanisms by which associated loci predispose to AF, and explore whether AF susceptibility signals classify individuals at risk for AF and related morbidity. PMID:24486271

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity among faba bean genotypes using agro-morphological and molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Megahed H.; Alghamdi, Salem S.; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Khan, Muhammad A.; El-Harty, Ehab H.; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A.

    2015-01-01

    Forty faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were evaluated for their agro-morphological performance and molecular diversity under Central Region of Saudi Arabia conditions during 2010–11 and 2011–12 seasons. Field performance results showed that faba genotypes exhibited a significant amount of variation for their agro-morphological studied parameters. Giza40 recorded the tallest genotype (139.5 cm), highest number of seeds per plants (100.8), and the highest seed yield per plant (70.8 g). The best performing genotypes were Giza40, FLIP03-014FB, Gazira1 and Goff1. Genetic variability among genotypes was determined using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 183 amplified fragments (alleles) and 1758 polymorphic fragments (bands) in SRAP and 202 alleles and 716 bands in AFLP were obtained using six SRAP and four AFLP primer combinations respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for AFLP and SRAP markers were higher than 0.8, indicating the existence of a considerable amount of genetic diversity among faba tested genotypes. The UPGMA based clustering of faba genotypes was largely based on origin and/or genetic background. Result of cluster analysis based on SRAP showed weak and not significant correlation while, it was highly significant based on AFLP analysis with agro-morphological characters (r = 0.01, p > 0.54 and r = 0.26, p < 0.004 respectively). Combined SRAP and AFLP markers proved to be significantly useful for genetic diversity assessment at molecular level. They exhibited high discrimination power, and were able to distinguish the faba bean genotypes with high efficiency and accuracy levels. PMID:25972757

  10. The Multi-allelic Genetic Architecture of a Variance-Heterogeneity Locus for Molybdenum Concentration in Leaves Acts as a Source of Unexplained Additive Genetic Variance

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Simon K. G.; Andreatta, Matthew E.; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Danku, John; Salt, David E.; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have generally been used to detect individual loci contributing to the phenotypic diversity in a population by the effects of these loci on the trait mean. More rarely, loci have also been detected based on variance differences between genotypes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the possible genetic mechanisms leading to such variance signals. However, little is known about what causes these signals, or whether this genetic variance-heterogeneity reflects mechanisms of importance in natural populations. Previously, we identified a variance-heterogeneity GWA (vGWA) signal for leaf molybdenum concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, fine-mapping of this association reveals that the vGWA emerges from the effects of three independent genetic polymorphisms that all are in strong LD with the markers displaying the genetic variance-heterogeneity. By revealing the genetic architecture underlying this vGWA signal, we uncovered the molecular source of a significant amount of hidden additive genetic variation or “missing heritability”. Two of the three polymorphisms underlying the genetic variance-heterogeneity are promoter variants for Molybdate transporter 1 (MOT1), and the third a variant located ~25 kb downstream of this gene. A fourth independent association was also detected ~600 kb upstream of MOT1. Use of a T-DNA knockout allele highlights Copper Transporter 6; COPT6 (AT2G26975) as a strong candidate gene for this association. Our results show that an extended LD across a complex locus including multiple functional alleles can lead to a variance-heterogeneity between genotypes in natural populations. Further, they provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of ion homeostasis in A. thaliana, and empirically confirm that variance-heterogeneity based GWA methods are a valuable tool to detect novel associations of biological importance in natural populations. PMID:26599497

  11. A high density consensus genetic map of tetraploid cotton that integrates multiple component maps through molecular marker redundancy check

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra-dense consensus (UDC) genetic map of tetraploid cotton was constructed using six high-density component maps and after the integration of a sequence-based marker redundancy check. Public cotton SSR libraries (17,343 markers) were curated for sequence redundancy using 90% as a similarity cut...

  12. Genetic marker comparison for the purpose of determining off-type cacao clones within a West African germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites are co-dominant PCR-based genetic markers, which are commonly used in modern Marker Aided Selection (MAS) breeding programs. Although many MAS breeding programs have and continue to successfully use microsatellites, various issues with analysis, such as comparing results across diff...

  13. Genetic typing of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains with microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xia, C; Higuchi, K; Shimizu, M; Matsushita, T; Kogishi, K; Wang, J; Chiba, T; Festing, M F; Hosokawa, M

    1999-03-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains constitute a murine model of accelerated senescence originating from the ancestral AKR/J strains and consist of nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and four senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. The chromosomes (Chrs) of the SAM strains were typed with 581 microsatellite markers amplified by PCR, and the fundamental genetic information of the SAM strains was obtained. One-third of the examined markers displayed polymorphism among the strains, and only two alleles were detected in almost all loci among the SAM and AKR/J strains. However, in 12 loci (5.6% of total 215 polymorphic markers), the third allele was detected among the SAM strains. The genetic typing and developmental history suggested that the SAM strains were related inbred strains developed by the accidental crossing between the AKR/J strain and other unknown strain(s). Comparison of the distribution of the loci in the SAMP and the SAMR series revealed notable differences in the four regions on Chrs 4, 14, 16, and 17. This indicated that some of these chromosomal sites might contain the genes responsible for accelerated senescence in the SAMP series. PMID:10051317

  14. Genetic transformation of Nannochloropsis oculata with a bacterial phleomycin resistance gene as dominant selective marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Pan, Kehou; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Baohua; Yang, Guanpin; Zhang, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    The gene ble from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus is widely used as a selective antibiotic marker. It can control the phleomycin resistance, and significantly increase the tolerance of hosts to zeocin. The unicellular marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is extremely sensitive to zeocin. We selected ble as the selective marker for the genetic transformation of N. oculata. After the algal cells at a density of 2×107 cells mL-1 was digested with 4% hemicellulase and 2% driselase for 1 h, the protoplasts accounted for 90% of the total. The ble was placed at the downstream of promoter HSP70A-RUBS2 isolated from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, yielding a recombinant expression construct pMS188. The construct was transferred into the protoplasts through electroporation (1 kV, 15 μS). The transformed protoplasts were cultured in fresh f/2 liquid medium, and selected on solid f/2 medium supplemented with 500 ng mL-1 zeocin. The PCR result proved that ble existed in the transformants. Three transformants had been cultured for at least 5 generations without losing ble. Southern blotting analysis showed that the ble has been integrated into the genome of N. oculata. The ble will serve as a new dominant selective marker in genetic engineering N. oculata.

  15. A New Comparative-Genomics Approach for Defining Phenotype-Specific Indicators Reveals Specific Genetic Markers in Predatory Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Zohar; Ben Sasson, Tom; Cohen, Yossi; Segev, Elad; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Predatory bacteria seek and consume other live bacteria. Although belonging to taxonomically diverse groups, relatively few bacterial predator species are known. Consequently, it is difficult to assess the impact of predation within the bacterial realm. As no genetic signatures distinguishing them from non-predatory bacteria are known, genomic resources cannot be exploited to uncover novel predators. In order to identify genes specific to predatory bacteria, we developed a bioinformatic tool called DiffGene. This tool automatically identifies marker genes that are specific to phenotypic or taxonomic groups, by mapping the complete gene content of all available fully-sequenced genomes for the presence/absence of each gene in each genome. A putative ‘predator region’ of ~60 amino acids in the tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) protein was found to probably be a predator-specific marker. This region is found in all known obligate predator and a few facultative predator genomes, and is absent from most facultative predators and all non-predatory bacteria. We designed PCR primers that uniquely amplify a ~180bp-long sequence within the predators’ TDO gene, and validated them in monocultures as well as in metagenetic analysis of environmental wastewater samples. This marker, in addition to its usage in predator identification and phylogenetics, may finally permit reliable enumeration and cataloguing of predatory bacteria from environmental samples, as well as uncovering novel predators. PMID:26569499

  16. Population genetic structure of rare and endangered plants using molecular markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raji, Jennifer; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the remaining populations of Phyllostegia stachyoides and Melicope zahlbruckneri in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and determine the extent of gene flow to identify genetically distinct individuals or groups for conservation purposes. Thirty-six Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic (AFLP) primer combinations generated a total of 3,242 polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments in the P. stachyoides population with a percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranging from 39.3 to 65.7% and 2,780 for the M. zahlbruckneri population with a PPB of 18.8 to 64.6%. Population differentiation (Fst) of AFLP loci between subpopulations of P. stachyoides was low (0.043) across populations. Analysis of molecular variance of P. stachyoides showed that 4% of the observed genetic differentiation occurred between populations in different kīpuka and 96% when individuals were pooled from all kīpuka. Moderate genetic diversity was detected within the M. zahlbruckneri population. Bayesian and multivariate analyses both classified the P. stachyoides and M. zahlbruckneri populations into genetic groups with considerable sub-structuring detected in the P. stachyoides population. The proportion of genetic differentiation among populations explained by geographical distance was estimated by Mantel tests. No spatial correlation was found between genetic and geographic distances in both populations. Finally, a moderate but significant gene flow that could be attributed to insect or bird-mediated dispersal of pollen across the different kīpuka was observed. The results of this study highlight the utility of a multi-allelic DNA-based marker in screening a large number of polymorphic loci in small and closely related endangered populations and revealed the presence of genetically unique groups of individuals in both M. zahlbruckneri and P. stachyoides populations. Based on these findings

  17. Prevalence of gene expression additivity in genetically stable wheat allohexaploids.

    PubMed

    Chelaifa, Houda; Chagué, Véronique; Chalabi, Smahane; Mestiri, Imen; Arnaud, Dominique; Deffains, Denise; Lu, Yunhai; Belcram, Harry; Huteau, Virginie; Chiquet, Julien; Coriton, Olivier; Just, Jérémy; Jahier, Joseph; Chalhoub, Boulos

    2013-02-01

    The reprogramming of gene expression appears as the major trend in synthetic and natural allopolyploids where expression of an important proportion of genes was shown to deviate from that of the parents or the average of the parents. In this study, we analyzed gene expression changes in previously reported, highly stable synthetic wheat allohexaploids that combine the D genome of Aegilops tauschii and the AB genome extracted from the natural hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of transcriptional changes using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array was conducted. Prevalence of gene expression additivity was observed where expression does not deviate from the average of the parents for 99.3% of 34,820 expressed transcripts. Moreover, nearly similar expression was observed (for 99.5% of genes) when comparing these synthetic and natural wheat allohexaploids. Such near-complete additivity has never been reported for other allopolyploids and, more interestingly, for other synthetic wheat allohexaploids that differ from the ones studied here by having the natural tetraploid Triticum turgidum as the AB genome progenitor. Our study gave insights into the dynamics of additive gene expression in the highly stable wheat allohexaploids. PMID:23278496

  18. Insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) as genetic markers in natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Väli, Ülo; Brandström, Mikael; Johansson, Malin; Ellegren, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background We introduce the use of short insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) for genetic analysis of natural populations. Results Sequence reads from light shot-gun sequencing efforts of different dog breeds were aligned to the dog genome reference sequence and gaps corresponding to indels were identified. One hundred candidate markers (4-bp indels) were selected and genotyped in unrelated dogs (n = 7) and wolves (n = 18). Eighty-one and 76 out of 94 could be validated as polymorphic loci in the respective sample. Mean indel heterozygosity in a diverse set of wolves was 19%, and 74% of the loci had a minor allele frequency of >10%. Indels found to be polymorphic in wolves were subsequently genotyped in a highly bottlenecked Scandinavian wolf population. Fifty-one loci turned out to be polymorphic, showing their utility even in a population with low genetic diversity. In this population, individual heterozygosity measured at indel and microsatellite loci were highly correlated. Conclusion With an increasing amount of sequence information gathered from non-model organisms, we suggest that indels will come to form an important source of genetic markers, easy and cheap to genotype, for studies of natural populations. PMID:18211670

  19. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard’s similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them. PMID:22312259

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of tree peony germplasm using iPBS markers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y B; Guo, D L; Guo, L L; Wei, D F; Hou, X G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the genetic diversity of 10 wild species (populations) and 55 varieties of tree peony using inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers. From a total of 36 iPBS primers, 16 were selected based on polymorphic amplification. The number of bands amplified by each primer ranged from 9 to 19, with an average of 12.88 bands per primer. The length of bands ranged from 100 to 2000 bp, concentrated at 200 to 1800 bp. Sixteen primers amplified 206 bands in total, of which 173 bands were polymorphic with a polymorphism ratio of 83.98%. Each primer amplified 10.81 polymorphic bands on average. The data were then used to construct a phylogenetic tree using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods. Clustering analysis showed that the genetic relationships among the varieties were not only related to the genetic background or geographic origin, but also to the flowering phase, flower color, and flower type. Our data also indicated that iPBS markers were useful tools for classifying tree peony germplasms and for tree peony breeding, and the specific bands were helpful for molecular identification of tree peony varieties. PMID:26214434

  1. Genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits and ISSR markers in 48 Okras (Abelmoschus escullentus L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cong-Ying; Wang, Ping; Chen, Pang-Pang; Xiao, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Cheng; Hu, Shuai; Zhou, Ping; Chang, Hong-Ping; He, Zhuang; Hu, Rong; Lu, Xiu-Tao; Ye, Jia-Zhuo; Guo, Xin-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Okra is a widely distributed crop in the tropics, subtropics, and warmer areas of the temperate zones. Its major potential uses as a vegetable, oil and protein source, and source of paper pulp and fuel, or biomass are compatible. It is expected to have high value of exploitation and application. Due to the limited number of molecular studies focused on okras, the methods of morphological and ISSR markers were used to analysis the genetic diversity of 48 okras in the present study. The 22 primers were picked for ISSR-PCR, and a total of 154 fragments were amplified with an overall average polymorphism of 54.55 %. We used the 154 markers to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). A high level of genetic diversity was found among 48 individuals. The 48 Okras was divided into four clusters at Dice's coefficient of 0.19 with clustering analysis. Based on these data of the genetic diversity, it will be possible to exploit the available resources of okra in more valuable ways. PMID:26261400

  2. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups. PMID:26634331

  3. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts). We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L) and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S). Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs) among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189), and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159). Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001). Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis. PMID:26147677

  4. Genetic stability of micropropagated plants of Crambe abyssinica Hochst using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Werner, E T; Soares, T C B; Gontijo, A B P L; Souza Neto, J D; do Amaral, J A T

    2015-01-01

    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a non-edible annual herb, which was first cultivated to extract oil for industry, and now has great potential for biodiesel production. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the genetic stability of micropropagated plants of the C. abyssinica Hochst cultivar 'FMS brilhante' using polymerase chain reaction techniques based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The aim was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of these plants with low genetic variation as compared to the donor plant. For micropropagation, shoot tips from in vitro germinated seedlings were used as explants and were initially cultivated for 90 days on MS medium with 5.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which at 90 days, led to the highest number of shoots per explant (NSE) (12.20 shoots) being detected. After 120 days, the interaction between BAP concentration and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was tested, and the highest NSE was observed following exposure to 0.0/0.5 μM BAP/NAA (11.40 shoots) and 1.0/0.0 μM BAP/NAA (11.00 shoots). The highest proportion of rooting phase were observed following exposure to 0.5 μM NAA (30%). The 13 ISSR primers used to analyze genetic stability produced 91 amplification products, of which only eight bands were polymorphic and 83 were monomorphic for all 10 regenerated crambe plants, compared to the donor plant explant. These results indicate that crambe shoot tips are a highly reliable explant that can be used to micropropagate genetically true-to-type plants or to maintain genetic stability, as verified using ISSR markers. PMID:26662443

  5. Additive genetic variation and evolvability of a multivariate trait can be increased by epistatic gene action.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Cortland K

    2015-12-21

    Epistatic gene action occurs when mutations or alleles interact to produce a phenotype. Theoretically and empirically it is of interest to know whether gene interactions can facilitate the evolution of diversity. In this paper, we explore how epistatic gene action affects the additive genetic component or heritable component of multivariate trait variation, as well as how epistatic gene action affects the evolvability of multivariate traits. The analysis involves a sexually reproducing and recombining population. Our results indicate that under stabilizing selection conditions a population with a mixed additive and epistatic genetic architecture can have greater multivariate additive genetic variation and evolvability than a population with a purely additive genetic architecture. That greater multivariate additive genetic variation can occur with epistasis is in contrast to previous theory that indicated univariate additive genetic variation is decreased with epistasis under stabilizing selection conditions. In a multivariate setting, epistasis leads to less relative covariance among individuals in their genotypic, as well as their breeding values, which facilitates the maintenance of additive genetic variation and increases a population׳s evolvability. Our analysis involves linking the combinatorial nature of epistatic genetic effects to the ancestral graph structure of a population to provide insight into the consequences of epistasis on multivariate trait variation and evolution. PMID:26431770

  6. Genetic linkage analysis of schizophrenia using chromosome 11q13-24 markers in Israeli pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcrone, J.; Marchblanks, R.; Whatley, S.A.

    1995-04-24

    It is generally agreed that there is a genetic component in the etiology of schizophrenia which may be tested by the application of linkage analysis to multiply-affected families. One genetic region of interest is the long arm of chromosome 11 because of previously reported associations of genetic variation in this region with schizophrenia, and because of the fact that it contains the locus for the dopamine D2 receptor gene. In this study we have examined the segregation of schizophrenia with microsatellite dinucleotide repeat DNA markers along chromosome 11q in 5 Israeli families multiply-affected for schizophrenia. The hypothesis of linkage under genetic homogeneity of causation was tested under a number of genetic models. Linkage analysis provided no evidence for significant causal mutations within the region bounded by INT and D11S420 on chromosome 11q. It is still possible, however, that a gene of major effect exists in this region, either with low penetrance or with heterogeneity. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Study of Genetic Diversity among Simmental Cross Cattle in West Sumatra Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Agung, Paskah Partogi; Saputra, Ferdy; Septian, Wike Andre; Lusiana; Zein, Moch. Syamsul Arifin; Sulandari, Sri; Anwar, Saiful; Wulandari, Ari Sulistyo; Said, Syahruddin; Tappa, Baharuddin

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity among Simmental Cross cattle in West Sumatra using microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 176 individual cattle blood samples was used for obtaining DNA samples. Twelve primers of microsatellite loci as recommended by FAO were used to identify the genetic diversity of the Simmental Cross cattle population. Multiplex DNA fragment analysis method was used for allele identification. All the microsatellite loci in this study were highly polymorphic and all of the identified alleles were able to classify the cattle population into several groups based on their genetic distance. The heterozygosity values of microsatellite loci in this study ranged from 0.556 to 0.782. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value of the 12 observed loci is high (PIC>0.5). The highest PIC value in the Simmental cattle population was 0.893 (locus TGLA53), while the lowest value was 0.529 (locus BM1818). Based on the genetic distance value, the subpopulation of the Simmental Cross-Agam and the Simmental Cross-Limapuluh Kota was exceptionally close to the Simmental Purebred thus indicating that a grading-up process has taken place with the Simmental Purebred. In view of the advantages possessed by the Simmental Cross cattle and the evaluation of the genetic diversity results, a number of subpopulations in this study can be considered as the initial (base) population for the Simmental Cross cattle breeding programs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. PMID:26732442

  8. Estimation of genetic structure of a Mycosphaerella musicola population using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Peixouto, Y S; Dórea Bragança, C A; Andrade, W B; Ferreira, C F; Haddad, F; Oliveira, S A S; Darosci Brito, F S; Miller, R N G; Amorim, E P

    2015-01-01

    Among the diseases affecting banana (Musa sp), yellow Sigatoka, caused by the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola Leach, is considered one of the most important in Brazil, causing losses throughout the year. Understanding the genetic structure of pathogen populations will provide insight into the life history of pathogens, including the evolutionary processes occurring in agrosystems. Tools for estimating the possible emergence of pathogen variants with altered pathogenicity, virulence, or aggressiveness, as well as resistance to systemic fungicides, can also be developed from such data. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity and population genetics of M. musicola in the main banana-producing regions in Brazil. A total of 83 isolates collected from different banana cultivars in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, and Minas Gerais were evaluated using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. High variability was detected between the isolates, and 85.5% of the haplotypes were singletons in the populations. The highest source of genetic diversity (97.22%) was attributed to variations within populations. Bayesian cluster analysis revealed the presence of 2 probable ancestral groups, however, showed no relationship to population structure in terms of collection site, state of origin, or cultivar. Similarly, we detected noevidence of genetic recombination between individuals within different states, indicating that asexual cycles play a major role in M. musicola reproduction and that long-distance dispersal of the pathogen is the main factor contributing to the lack of population structure in the fungus. PMID:26214487

  9. Study of Genetic Diversity among Simmental Cross Cattle in West Sumatra Based on Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Agung, Paskah Partogi; Saputra, Ferdy; Septian, Wike Andre; Lusiana; Zein, Moch Syamsul Arifin; Sulandari, Sri; Anwar, Saiful; Wulandari, Ari Sulistyo; Said, Syahruddin; Tappa, Baharuddin

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity among Simmental Cross cattle in West Sumatra using microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 176 individual cattle blood samples was used for obtaining DNA samples. Twelve primers of microsatellite loci as recommended by FAO were used to identify the genetic diversity of the Simmental Cross cattle population. Multiplex DNA fragment analysis method was used for allele identification. All the microsatellite loci in this study were highly polymorphic and all of the identified alleles were able to classify the cattle population into several groups based on their genetic distance. The heterozygosity values of microsatellite loci in this study ranged from 0.556 to 0.782. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value of the 12 observed loci is high (PIC>0.5). The highest PIC value in the Simmental cattle population was 0.893 (locus TGLA53), while the lowest value was 0.529 (locus BM1818). Based on the genetic distance value, the subpopulation of the Simmental Cross-Agam and the Simmental Cross-Limapuluh Kota was exceptionally close to the Simmental Purebred thus indicating that a grading-up process has taken place with the Simmental Purebred. In view of the advantages possessed by the Simmental Cross cattle and the evaluation of the genetic diversity results, a number of subpopulations in this study can be considered as the initial (base) population for the Simmental Cross cattle breeding programs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. PMID:26732442

  10. Genetic Diversity of Hibiscus tiliaceus (Malvaceae) in China Assessed using AFLP Markers

    PubMed Central

    TANG, TIAN; ZHONG, YANG; JIAN, SHUGUANG; SHI, SUHUA

    2003-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to investigate the genetic variations within and among nine natural populations of Hibiscus tiliaceus in China. DNA from 145 individuals was amplified with eight primer pairs. No polymorphisms were found among the 20 samples of a marginal population of recent origin probably due to a founder effect. Across the other 125 individuals, 501 of 566 bands (88·5 %) were polymorphic, and 125 unique AFLP phenotypes were observed. Estimates of genetic diversity agreed with life history traits of H. tiliaceus and geographical distribution. AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic diversity resided within populations (84·8 %), which corresponded to results reported for outcrossing plants. The indirect estimate of gene flow based on ϕST was moderate (Nm = 1·395). Long-distance dispersal of floating seeds and local environments may play an important role in shaping the genetic diversity of the population and the genetic structure of this species. PMID:12930729

  11. Genetic Analysis of Phytophthora nicotianae Populations from Different Hosts Using Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Biasi, Antonio; Martin, Frank N; Cacciola, Santa O; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    In all, 231 isolates of Phytophthora nicotianae representing 14 populations from different host genera, including agricultural crops (Citrus, Nicotiana, and Lycopersicon), potted ornamental species in nurseries (Lavandula, Convolvulus, Myrtus, Correa, and Ruta), and other plant genera were characterized using simple-sequence repeat markers. In total, 99 multilocus genotypes (MLG) were identified, revealing a strong association between genetic grouping and host of recovery, with most MLG being associated with a single host genus. Significant differences in the structure of populations were revealed but clonality prevailed in all populations. Isolates from Citrus were found to be genetically related regardless of their geographic origin and were characterized by high genetic uniformity and high inbreeding coefficients. Higher variability was observed for other populations and a significant geographical structuring was determined for isolates from Nicotiana. Detected differences were related to the propagation and cultivation systems of different crops. Isolates obtained from Citrus spp. are more likely to be distributed worldwide with infected plant material whereas Nicotiana and Lycopersicon spp. are propagated by seed, which would not contribute to the spread of the pathogen and result in a greater chance for geographic isolation of lineages. With regard to ornamental species in nurseries, the high genetic variation is likely the result of the admixture of diverse pathogen genotypes through the trade of infected plant material from various geographic origins, the presence of several hosts in the same nursery, and genetic recombination through sexual reproduction of this heterothallic species. PMID:27111805

  12. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sugarcane Parents in Chinese Breeding Programmes Using gSSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

  13. Microsatellite marker based genetic linkage maps of Oreochromis aureus and O. niloticus (Cichlidae): extensive linkage group segment homologies revealed.

    PubMed

    McConnell, S K; Beynon, C; Leamon, J; Skibinski, D O

    2000-06-01

    Partial genetic linkage maps, based on microsatellite markers, were constructed for two tilapia species, Oreochromis aureus and Oreochromis niloticus using an interspecific backcross population. The linkage map for O. aureus comprised 28 markers on 10 linkage groups and covered 212.8 CM. Nine markers were mapped to four linkage groups on an O. niloticus female linkage map covering 40.6 CM. Results revealed a high degree of conservation of synteny between the linkage groups defined in O. aureus and the previously published genetic linkage map of O. niloticus. PMID:10895314

  14. [THE SOMATIC MUTATIONS AND ABERRANT METHYLATION AS POTENTIAL GENETIC MARKERS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER].

    PubMed

    Mikhailenko, D S; Kushlinskii, N E

    2016-02-01

    All around the world, more than 330 thousands cases of bladder cancer are registered annually hence representing actual problem of modern oncology. Still in demand are search and characteristic of new molecular markers of bladder cancer detecting in tumor cells from urinary sediment and having high diagnostic accuracy. The studies of last decade, especially using methods of genome-wide sequencing, permitted to receive a large amount of experimental data concerning development and progression of bladder cancer The review presents systematic analysis of publications available in PubMed data base mainly of last five years. The original studies of molecular genetic disorders under bladder cancer and meta-analyzes were considered This approach permitted to detected the most common local alterations of DNA under bladder cancer which can be detected using routine genetic methods indifferent clinical material and present prospective interest for development of test-systems. The molecular genetic markers of disease can be activating missense mutations in 7 and 10 exons of gene of receptor of growth factor of fibroblasts 3 (FGFR3), 9 and 20 exons of gene of Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bi-phosphate-3-kinase (PIK3CA) and mutation in -124 and -146 nucleotides in promoter of gene of catalytic subunit telomerase (TERT). The development of test-systems on the basis of aberrant methylation of CpG-islets of genes-suppressors still is seemed as a difficult task because of differences in pattern of methylation of different primary tumors at various stages of clonal evolution of bladder cancer though they can be considered as potential markers. PMID:27455559

  15. Genetic linkage maps for Asian and American lotus constructed using novel SSR markers derived from the genome of sequenced cultivar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Nelumbo Adans. comprises two living species, N. nucifera Gaertan. (Asian lotus) and N. lutea Pers. (American lotus). A genetic linkage map is an essential resource for plant genetic studies and crop improvement but has not been generated for Nelumbo. We aimed to develop genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the genome sequence and construct two genetic maps for Nelumbo to assist genome assembly and integration of a genetic map with the genome sequence. Results A total of 86,089 SSR motifs were identified from the genome sequences. Di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, and accounted for 60.73% and 31.66% of all SSRs, respectively. AG/GA repeats constituted 51.17% of dinucleotide repeat motifs, followed by AT/TA (44.29%). Of 500 SSR primers tested, 386 (77.20%) produced scorable alleles with an average of 2.59 per primer, and 185 (37.00%) showed polymorphism among two parental genotypes, N. nucifera ‘Chinese Antique’ and N. lutea ‘AL1’, and six progenies of their F1 population. The normally segregating markers, which comprised 268 newly developed SSRs, 37 previously published SSRs and 53 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers, were used for genetic map construction. The map for Asian lotus was 365.67 cM with 47 markers distributed in seven linkage groups. The map for American lotus was 524.51 cM, and contained 177 markers distributed in 11 genetic linkage groups. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from three to 34 with an average genetic distance of 3.97 cM between adjacent markers. Moreover, 171 SSR markers contained in linkage groups were anchored to 97 genomic DNA sequence contigs of ‘Chinese Antique’. The 97 contigs were merged into 60 scaffolds. Conclusion Genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced contigs in Nelumbo enabled the associated contigs to be anchored in the linkage map and facilitated assembly of the genome sequences of ‘Chinese Antique’. The

  16. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

  17. Identification of genetic markers to distinguish the virulent and avirulent subspecies of Pantoea stewartii by comparative proteomics and genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Jiang, Zide; Liao, Jinliang; Chen, Zhinan; Li, Huaping; Mei, Mantong; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2007-02-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize and sweet corn, is one of the quarantine pathogens in many countries and regions. In contrast, P. stewartii subsp. indologenes (Pnsi), the closely related subspecies of Pnss, is avirulent on these plants. In this study, the protein expression profiles of these two subspecies were compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis. Twenty-one unique protein spots consistently detected in Pnss but not in Pnsi were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Some of these Pnss-specific proteins are known to be essential for virulence and survival in host, such as FoxR and HrcJ, which are the key components of iron uptake and Type III secretion systems, respectively. For further genetic analysis, six Pnss-specific proteins were characterized by peptide sequencing. Southern and Northern blot analyses revealed that the differences in protein expression profiles of the two subspecies were either due to the discrepancy at genome level or because of the variations in transcriptional expression. The results provide novel genetic markers to distinguish the two closely related subspecies and may also serve as useful clues for investigation of the genetic basis accounting for their sharp difference in virulence. PMID:17086414

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    PubMed Central

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation FST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies. PMID:26550601

  19. Quick diagnosis of human brain meningitis using omp85 gene amplicon as a genetic marker.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sandip K; Sharma, Minakshi; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-06-01

    The usual diagnosis of life-threatening human brain bacterial meningitis are expensive, time consuming or non-confirmatory. A quick PCR based diagnosis of meningitis in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) using specific primers of virulent Omp85 gene of Neisseria meningitidis can detect as low as 1.0 ng of genomic DNA (G-DNA) in 80 min for confirmation of bacterial meningitis caused by N. meningitidis infection. The 257 bp amplicon of Omp85 gene does not show homology with other suspected pathogens in CSF and can be used as a specific genetic marker for diagnosis of the disease. PMID:24426115

  20. Genetic Divesity of Cultivated and Wild Type Peanuts Evaluated with M13-Tailed SSR Markers and Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one peanut genomic SSR markers with a M13-tail attached were used to assess the genetic diversity in the peanut mini core collection, which is maintained by the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit (USDA, ARS, PGRCU). The M13-tailed method was effective in discriminating indi...

  1. Genetic diversity and structure of farm and genebank accessions of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon revealed by microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of 400 accessions collected in cacao farms, 95 genebank and 31 reference accessions was analyzed using 12 microsatelitte markers. The genebank and reference accessions were sub-divided into 12 accession groups (AG) that belong to the traditional cacao genetic groups (GG) Lower ...

  2. Genetic characterization of 12 heterologous microsatellite markers for the giant tropical tree Cariniana legalis (Lecythidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Twelve microsatellite loci previously developed in the tropical tree Cariniana estrellensis were genetically characterized in Cariniana legalis. Polymorphisms were assessed in 28 C. legalis individuals found between the Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu River basins in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 12 loci, 10 were polymorphic and exhibited Mendelian inheritance. The allelic richness at each locus ranged from 2-11, with an average of 7 alleles per locus, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.07-0.88. These loci showed a high probability of paternity exclusion. The characteristics of these heterologous microsatellite markers indicate that they are suitable tools for investigating questions concerning population genetics in C. legalis. PMID:21637616

  3. Short Communication Development of microsatellite markers and genetic diversity analysis for Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Zhao, J; Li, W; Shi, Y; Hong, X Y; Zhu, X P

    2016-01-01

    Pelodiscus sinensis is a common freshwater soft-shell turtle found in China, and is an important aquaculture species. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite primers were developed from the transcriptome. The genetic diversity of three populations of P. sinensis was evaluated, using 72 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 26. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.208 to 0.958, and from 0.302 to 0.963, respectively. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.283 to 0.953. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected. These markers will be useful for future population genetic studies and molecular breeding of P. sinensis. PMID:27525890

  4. The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam D; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Sweeney, Oisín F; Whiterod, Nick S; Weeks, Andrew R

    2013-07-01

    The Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, is an iconic freshwater invertebrate of south eastern Australia and listed as 'endangered' under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'vulnerable' under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. The species has suffered major population declines as a result of over-fishing, low environmental flows, the introduction of invasive fish species and habitat degradation. In order to develop an effective conservation strategy, patterns of gene flow, genetic structure and genetic diversity across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. In this study we develop a suite of polymorphic microsatellite markers by next generation sequencing. A total of 15 polymorphic loci were identified and 10 characterized using 22 individuals from the lower Glenelg River. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.80; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.36) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Individuals from two additional sites (Crawford River, Victoria; Ewens Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia) were genotyped at all 10 loci and a preliminary investigation of genetic diversity and population structure was undertaken. Analyses indicate high levels of genetic differentiation among sample locations (F ST = 0.49), while the Ewens Ponds population is genetically homogeneous, indicating a likely small founder group and ongoing inbreeding. Management actions will be needed to restore genetic diversity in this and possibly other at risk populations. These markers will provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments so that an effective framework can be developed for implementing conservation strategies for E

  5. Identification of species-specific nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA (numts) in gorillas and their potential as population genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Clark Nicholas, Jonathan; Wildschutte Julia, Vera Halo; DiMattio, Kelly; Jensen-Seaman, Michael Ignatius; Anthony, Nicola Mary

    2014-01-01

    The first hyper-variable region (HV1) of the mitochondrial control region (MCR) has been widely used as a molecular tool in population genetics, but inadvertent amplification of nuclear translocated copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts) in gorillas has compromised the use of mitochondrial DNA in population genetic studies. At least three putative classes (I, II, III) of gorilla-specific HV1 MCR numts have been uncovered over the past decade. However, the number, size and location of numt loci in gorillas and other apes are completely unknown. Furthermore, little work to date has assessed the utility of numts as candidate population genetic markers. In the present study, we screened Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic libraries in the chimpanzee and gorilla to compare patterns of mitochondrial-wide insertion in both taxa. We conducted an intensive BLAST search for numts in the gorilla genome and compared the prevalence of numt loci originating from the MCR with other great ape taxa. Additional gorilla-specific MCR numts were retrieved either through BAC library screens or using an anchored-PCR (A-PCR) amplification using genomic DNA from five unrelated gorillas. Locus-specific primers were designed to identify numt insertional polymorphisms and evaluate their potential as population genetic markers. Mitochondrial-wide surveys of chimpanzee and gorilla BACs showed that the number of numts does not differ between these two taxa. However, MCR numts are more abundant in chimpanzees than in other great apes. We identified and mapped 67 putative gorilla-specific numts, including two that contain the entire HV1 domain, cluster with sequences from two numt classes (I, IIb) and will likely co-amplify with mitochondrial sequences using most published HV1 primers. However, phylogenetic analysis coupled with post-hoc analysis of mitochondrial variation can successfully differentiate nuclear sequences. Insertional polymorphisms were evident in three out of five numts

  6. Identification of species-specific nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA (numts) in gorillas and their potential as population genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Soto-Calderón, Iván Darío; Clark, Nicholas Jonathan; Wildschutte, Julia Vera Halo; DiMattio, Kelly; Jensen-Seaman, Michael Ignatius; Anthony, Nicola Mary

    2014-12-01

    The first hyper-variable region (HV1) of the mitochondrial control region (MCR) has been widely used as a molecular tool in population genetics, but inadvertent amplification of nuclear translocated copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts) in gorillas has compromised the use of mitochondrial DNA in population genetic studies. At least three putative classes (I, II, III) of gorilla-specific HV1 MCR numts have been uncovered over the past decade. However, the number, size and location of numt loci in gorillas and other apes are completely unknown. Furthermore, little work to date has assessed the utility of numts as candidate population genetic markers. In the present study, we screened Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic libraries in the chimpanzee and gorilla to compare patterns of mitochondrial-wide insertion in both taxa. We conducted an intensive BLAST search for numts in the gorilla genome and compared the prevalence of numt loci originating from the MCR with other great ape taxa. Additional gorilla-specific MCR numts were retrieved either through BAC library screens or using an anchored-PCR (A-PCR) amplification using genomic DNA from five unrelated gorillas. Locus-specific primers were designed to identify numt insertional polymorphisms and evaluate their potential as population genetic markers. Mitochondrial-wide surveys of chimpanzee and gorilla BACs showed that the number of numts does not differ between these two taxa. However, MCR numts are more abundant in chimpanzees than in other great apes. We identified and mapped 67 putative gorilla-specific numts, including two that contain the entire HV1 domain, cluster with sequences from two numt classes (I, IIb) and will likely co-amplify with mitochondrial sequences using most published HV1 primers. However, phylogenetic analysis coupled with post-hoc analysis of mitochondrial variation can successfully differentiate nuclear sequences. Insertional polymorphisms were evident in three out of five numts

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cucurbit Gummy Stem Blight Fungi Based on Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Rath, Manisha; Li, Hao-Xi

    2015-06-01

    Combining population genetics with epidemiology provides insight into the population biology of pathogens, which could lead to improved management of plant diseases. Gummy stem blight, caused by three closely related species of Stagonosporopsis-Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum (syn. Didymella bryoniae), S. citrulli, and S. caricae-is a devastating disease of cucurbits worldwide. Sources of inoculum for epidemics, mechanisms of dispersal, and the mating system of these species are not well understood. To improve our knowledge of gummy stem blight epidemiology, we developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers by combining microsatellite motif enrichment with next-generation sequencing. When tested on 46 isolates from diverse cucurbit hosts and regions, the markers were robust for the dominant and widely distributed S. citrulli. Within this species, we found no population structure based on broad-scale geographic region or host of origin. Using the microsatellites, a rapid polymerase chain reaction-based method was developed to distinguish the three morphologically similar species causing gummy stem blight. To better understand dispersal, reproduction, and fine-scale genetic diversity of S. citrulli within and among watermelon fields, 155 isolates from two field populations in Georgia, United States were genotyped with the 18 microsatellite loci. Although dominant and widespread clones were detected, we found relatively high genotypic diversity and recombinant genotypes consistent with outcrossing. Significant population genetic structure between the two field populations demonstrated that there is regional geographic structure and limited dispersal among fields. This study provides insight into the fine-scale genetic diversity and reproductive biology of the gummy stem blight pathogen S. citrulli in the field. PMID:25710205

  8. Genetic diversity of cultivated and wild tomatoes revealed by morphological traits and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, R; Wu, Z; Cao, X; Jiang, F L

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, morphological traits and molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 29 cultivated tomatoes, 14 wild tomatoes and seven introgression lines. The three components of the principal component analysis (PCA) explained 78.54% of the total morphological variation in the 50 tomato genotypes assessed. Based on these morphological traits, a three-dimensional PCA plot separated the 50 genotypes into distinct groups, and a dendrogram divided them into six clusters. Fifteen polymorphic genomic simple- sequence repeat (genomic-SSR) and 13 polymorphic expressed sequence tag-derived SSR (EST-SSR) markers amplified 1115 and 780 clear fragments, respectively. Genomic-SSRs detected a total of 64 alleles, with a mean of 4 alleles per primer, while EST-SSRs detected 52 alleles, with a mean of 4 alleles per primer. The polymorphism information content was slightly higher in genomic-SSRs (0.49) than in EST-SSRs (0.45). The mean similarity coefficient among the wild tomatoes was lower than the mean similarity coefficient among the cultivated tomatoes. The dendrogram based on genetic distance divided the 50 tomato genotypes into eight clusters. The Mantel test between genomic-SSR and EST-SSR matrices revealed a good correlation, whereas the morphological matrices and the molecular matrices were weakly correlated. We confirm the applicability of EST-SSRs in analyzing genetic diversity among cultivated and wild tomatoes. High variability of the 50 tomato genotypes was observed at the morphological and molecular level, indicating valuable tomato germplasm, especially in the wild tomatoes, which could be used for further genetic studies. PMID:26535702

  9. Predicting risk in space: Genetic markers for differential vulnerability to sleep restriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2012-08-01

    Several laboratories have found large, highly reliable individual differences in the magnitude of cognitive performance, fatigue and sleepiness, and sleep homeostatic vulnerability to acute total sleep deprivation and to chronic sleep restriction in healthy adults. Such individual differences in neurobehavioral performance are also observed in space flight as a result of sleep loss. The reasons for these stable phenotypic differential vulnerabilities are unknown: such differences are not yet accounted for by demographic factors, IQ or sleep need, and moreover, psychometric scales do not predict those individuals cognitively vulnerable to sleep loss. The stable, trait-like (phenotypic) inter-individual differences observed in response to sleep loss—with intraclass correlation coefficients accounting for 58-92% of the variance in neurobehavioral measures—point to an underlying genetic component. To this end, we utilized multi-day highly controlled laboratory studies to investigate the role of various common candidate gene variants—each independently—in relation to cumulative neurobehavioral and sleep homeostatic responses to sleep restriction. These data suggest that common genetic variations (polymorphisms) involved in sleep-wake, circadian, and cognitive regulation may serve as markers for prediction of inter-individual differences in sleep homeostatic and neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep restriction in healthy adults. Identification of genetic predictors of differential vulnerability to sleep restriction—as determined from candidate gene studies—will help identify astronauts most in need of fatigue countermeasures in space flight and inform medical standards for obtaining adequate sleep in space. This review summarizes individual differences in neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep deprivation and ongoing genetic efforts to identify markers of such differences.

  10. The age related markers lipofuscin and apoptosis show different genetic architecture by QTL mapping in short-lived Nothobranchius fish

    PubMed Central

    Ng'oma, Enoch; Reichwald, Kathrin; Dorn, Alexander; Wittig, Michael; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Allesandro

    2014-01-01

    Annual fish of the genus Nothobranchius show large variations in lifespan and expression of age-related phenotypes between closely related populations. We studied N. kadleci and its sister species N. furzeri GRZ strain, and found that N.kadleci is longer-lived than the N. furzeri. Lipofuscin and apoptosis measured in the liver increased with age in N. kadleci with different profiles: lipofuscin increased linearly, while apoptosis declined in the oldest animals. More lipofuscin (P < 0.001) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) was observed in N. furzeri than in N. kadleci at 16w age. Lipofuscin and apoptotic cells were then quantified in hybrids from the mating of N. furzeri to N. kadleci. F1 individuals showed heterosis for lipofuscin but additive effects for apoptosis. These two age-related phenotypes were not correlated in F2 hybrids. Quantitative trait loci analysis of 287 F2 fish using 237 markers identified two QTL accounting for 10% of lipofuscin variance (P < 0.001) with overdominance effect. Apoptotic cells revealed three significant- and two suggestive QTL explaining 19% of variance (P < 0.001), showing additive and dominance effects, and two interacting loci. Our results show that lipofuscin and apoptosis are markers of different age-dependent biological processes controlled by different genetic mechanisms. PMID:25093339

  11. A rat genetic map constructed by representational difference analysis markers with suitability for large-scale typing.

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, M; Canzian, F; Ushijima, T; Hosoya, Y; Kuramoto, T; Serikawa, T; Imai, K; Sugimura, T; Nagao, M

    1996-01-01

    Representational difference analysis (RDA) was applied to isolate chromosomal markers in the rat. Four series of RDA [restriction enzymes, BamHI and HindIII; subtraction of ACI/N (ACI) amplicon from BUF/Nac (BUF) amplicon and vice versa] yielded 131 polymorphic markers; 125 of these markers were mapped to all chromosomes except for chromosome X. This was done by using a mapping panel of 105 ACI x BUF F2 rats. To complement the relative paucity of chromosomal markers in the rat, genetically directed RDA, which allows isolation of polymorphic markers in the specific chromosomal region, was performed. By changing the F2 driver-DNA allele frequency around the region, four markers were isolated from the D1Ncc1 locus. Twenty-five of 27 RDA markers were informative regarding the dot blot analysis of amplicons, hybridizing only with tester amplicons. Dot blot analysis at a high density per unit of area made it possible to process a large number of samples. Quantitative trait loci can now be mapped in the rat genome by processing a large number of samples with RDA markers and then by isolating markers close to the loci of interest by genetically directed RDA. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8632989

  12. Fine-mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger, celiac disease risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine-mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQ alleles and observed five novel associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability. PMID:25894500

  13. Analysis of genetic stability of in vitro propagated potato microtubers using DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jagesh K; Chandel, Poonam; Gupta, Shruti; Gopal, Jai; Singh, B P; Bhardwaj, Vinay

    2013-10-01

    The genetic stability of in vitro propagated potato microtubers was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Microtubers were developed through in vitro from potato microplants using standardized protocols. The microtubers were conserved for 1 year under three different culture media and consequently microplants were regenerated for the DNA analyses. During the study, a total of 38 (10 RAPD, 11 ISSR, 12 SSR and 5 AFLP) primers produced a total of 407 (58 RAPD, 56 ISSR, 96 SSR and 197 AFLP) clear, distinct and reproducible amplicons. Cluster analysis revealed 100 % genetic similarity among the mother plant and its derivatives within the clusters by SSR, ISSR and RAPD analyses, whereas AFLP analysis revealed from 85 to 100 % genetic similarity. Dendrogram analysis based on the Jaccard's coefficient classified the genotypes into five clusters (I-V), each cluster consisting of mother plant and its derivatives. Principal component analysis (PCA) also plotted mother plant and its genotypes of each cluster together. Based on our results, it is concluded that AFLP is the best method followed by SSR, ISSR and RAPD to detect genetic stability of in vitro conserved potato microtubers. The in vitro conservation medium (T2) is a safe method for conservation of potato microtubers to produce true-to-type plans. PMID:24431528

  14. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit. PMID:22204023

  15. Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

  16. Genetic variability in spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), determined with microsatellite DNA markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, R.; Bowers, K.; Hensley, R.; Mobley, B.; Belouski, E.

    2007-01-01

    Variation in the allele frequencies of five microsatellite loci was surveyed in 1256 individual spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) obtained from 12 bays and estuaries from Laguna Madre, Texas, to Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to St. John's River on the Florida Atlantic Coast. Texas and Louisiana collection sites were resampled each year for two to four years (1998-2001). Genetic differentiation was observed. Spotted seatrout from Florida waters were strongly differentiated from spotted seatrout collected in Louisiana and Texas. The greatest genetic discontinuity was observed between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, and Charlotte Harbor seatrout were most similar to Atlantic Coast spotted seatrout. Texas and Louisiana samples were not strongly structured within the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and there was little evidence of temporal differentiation within bays. These findings are contrary to those of earlier analyses with allozymes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) where evidence of spatial differentiation was found for spotted seatrout resident on the Texas coast. The differences in genetic structure observed among these markers may reflect differences in response to selective pressure, or may be due to differences in underlying genetic processes.

  17. Mitochondrial genome sequencing and development of genetic markers for the detection of DNA of invasive bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) in environmental water samples from the United States.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Heather L; Edwards, Christine E; Guan, Xin; Carr, Matthew R; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Lance, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) pose a substantial threat to North American aquatic ecosystems. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material shed by organisms into their environment that can be detected by non-invasive sampling strategies and genetic assays, has gained recognition as a tool for tracking the invasion front of these species toward the Great Lakes. The goal of this study was to develop new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative (qPCR) markers for detection of these species in North American surface waters. We first generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 33 bighead and 29 silver carp individuals collected throughout their introduced range. These sequences were aligned with those from other common and closely related fish species from the Illinois River watershed to identify and design new species-specific markers for the detection of bighead and silver carp DNA in environmental water samples. We then tested these genetic markers in the laboratory for species-specificity and sensitivity. Newly developed markers performed well in field trials, did not have any false positive detections, and many markers had much higher detection rates and sensitivity compared to the markers currently used in eDNA surveillance programs. We also explored the use of multiple genetic markers to determine whether it would improve detection rates, results of which showed that using multiple highly sensitive markers should maximize detection rates in environmental samples. The new markers developed in this study greatly expand the number of species-specific genetic markers available to track the invasion front of bighead and silver carp and will improve the resolution of these assays. Additionally, the use of the qPCR markers developed in this study may reduce sample processing time and cost of eDNA monitoring for these species. PMID:25706532

  18. Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Development of Genetic Markers for the Detection of DNA of Invasive Bighead and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) in Environmental Water Samples from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, Heather L.; Edwards, Christine E.; Guan, Xin; Carr, Matthew R.; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Lance, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) pose a substantial threat to North American aquatic ecosystems. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material shed by organisms into their environment that can be detected by non-invasive sampling strategies and genetic assays, has gained recognition as a tool for tracking the invasion front of these species toward the Great Lakes. The goal of this study was to develop new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative (qPCR) markers for detection of these species in North American surface waters. We first generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 33 bighead and 29 silver carp individuals collected throughout their introduced range. These sequences were aligned with those from other common and closely related fish species from the Illinois River watershed to identify and design new species-specific markers for the detection of bighead and silver carp DNA in environmental water samples. We then tested these genetic markers in the laboratory for species-specificity and sensitivity. Newly developed markers performed well in field trials, did not have any false positive detections, and many markers had much higher detection rates and sensitivity compared to the markers currently used in eDNA surveillance programs. We also explored the use of multiple genetic markers to determine whether it would improve detection rates, results of which showed that using multiple highly sensitive markers should maximize detection rates in environmental samples. The new markers developed in this study greatly expand the number of species-specific genetic markers available to track the invasion front of bighead and silver carp and will improve the resolution of these assays. Additionally, the use of the qPCR markers developed in this study may reduce sample processing time and cost of eDNA monitoring for these species. PMID:25706532

  19. Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales, Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shenhui; Chong, Zhuo; Zhao, Fengjuan; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

    2013-05-01

    Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China. To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development, ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S. horneri. The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China. The percentage of polymorphic loci P % (ISSR, 99.44%; SRAP, 100.00%), Nei's genetic diversity H (ISSR, 0.107-0.199; SRAP, 0.100-0.153), and Shannon's information index I (ISSR, 0.157-0.291; SRAP, 0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations. Moreover, the high degree of gene differentiation G st (ISSR, 0.654; SRAP, 0.718) and low gene flow N m (ISSR, 0.265; SRAP, 0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation, possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation. The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices ( F st) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R =0.541 5, 0.541 8; P =0.005 0, 0.002 0 and R =0.728 6, 0.641 2; P =0.001 0, 0.001 0, respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception. Overall, the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation. The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S. horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

  20. Insights into intrathalline genetic diversity of the cosmopolitan lichen symbiotic green alga Trebouxia decolorans Ahmadjian using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Dal Grande, Francesco; Alors, David; Divakar, Pradeep K; Bálint, Miklós; Crespo, Ana; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-03-01

    Trebouxia decolorans is a widespread and common symbiotic green alga that is found in association with different species of lichen-forming fungi. By applying T. decolorans-specific microsatellite markers, we investigated the within-thallus diversity of T. decolorans in thalli of Xanthoria parietina and Anaptychia ciliaris. We found several algal strains in most of the thalli of both hosts. High genetic differentiation among thalli suggests that algal diversity is generated de novo via mutation in both fungal hosts. Rarefied allelic richness of the algae was higher in thalli of X. parietina. Our results indicate that in X. parietina intrathalline algal diversity is additionally created by environmental uptake of algae either at the start of the symbiotic association or during the lifetime of the thallus. This study indicates that promiscuous host-symbiont associations in lichen symbioses with Trebouxia spp. may be more common than currently recognized. PMID:24412431

  1. Technical note: Computing options for genetic evaluation with a large number of genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, S; Misztal, I

    2008-07-01

    Two simulated data sets and one commercial data set were used to evaluate computing options for models in which the effects attributable to QTL were fit as covariables. The simulated data sets included records on 24,000 animals for 10 traits. Data sets 1 and 2 were simulated with low and high correlations among traits, respectively. The model included an overall mean, 160 covariables as effects attributable to QTL, the random animal genetic effect, and the random residual effect. A commercial data set included records on approximately 110,000 animals for 11 growth, reproduction, and other traits. The model included the effects usually fitted for these traits as well as 116 covariables as effects attributable to QTL; models including the number of covariables varied by trait. Initial computing was by the BLUP90IOD program, which applies iterations on data by using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm with a diagonal preconditioner. Modifications included adding block preconditioners for effects attributable to QTL (BQ) and for traits (BT). With the simulated data sets and the original program, one-trait analyses without the covariables took 7 s, whereas the 10-trait analyses with the covariables took 15 min for a data set with low correlations and 1 h 40 m for a data set with high correlations. The BQ improved the convergence rate but increased the computing time. The BT decreased the computing time from 1.5 times (low correlations) to 7 times (high correlation) at a cost of greater memory requirements. For the commercial data and the complete model, computing took 10.3 h with the unmodified program and was reduced to 6 h with BT. Relative changes in computing time and convergence rate with the commercial data set were close to those of the simulated data set, with low correlations among the traits. The BQ decreased the number of rounds by less than expected. Genetic evaluation with a large number of effects attributable to QTL fit as covariables is

  2. A method for gene amplification and simultaneous deletion in Corynebacterium glutamicum genome without any genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Xia, Xiuhua; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous replacement of a given gene by a target gene, leaving no genetic markers, has been developed. The method is based on insertional inactivation and double-crossover homologous recombination. With this method, the lysC(T311I), fbp and ddh genes were inserted into Corynebacterium glutamicum genome, and the pck, alaT and avtA genes were deleted. Mobilizable plasmids with lysC(T311I), fbp and ddh cassettes and two homologous arms on the ends of pck, alaT and avtA were constructed, and then transformed into C. glutamicum. The target-expression cassettes were inserted in the genome via the first homologous recombination, and the genetic markers were removed via the second recombination. The target-transformants were sequentially screened from kanamycin-resistance and sucrose-resistance plates. The enzyme activities of transformants were stably maintained for 30 generations under non-selective culture conditions, suggesting that the integrated cassettes in host were successfully expressed and maintained as stable chromosomal insertions in C. glutamicum. The target-transformants were used to optimize the l-lysine production, showing that the productions were strongly increased because the selected genes were closely linked to l-lysine production. In short, this method can be used to construct amino acid high-producing strains with unmarked gene amplification and simultaneous deletion in genome. PMID:24613758

  3. Genetic diversity of Iranian honey bee (Apis mellifera meda Skorikow, 1829) populations based on ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, A; Mirmoayedi, A; Kahrizi, D; Zarei, L; Jamali, S

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee is one of the most important insects considering its role in agriculture,ecology and economy as a whole. In this study, the genetic diversity of different Iranian honey bee populations was evaluated using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. During May to September 2014, 108 young worker honey bees were collected from six different populations in 30 different geoclimatic locations from Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil provinces of Iran. DNA was extracted from the worker honey bees. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were measured. A set of ten primers were screened with the laboratory populations of honey bees. The number of fragments produced in the different honey bee populations varied from 3 to 10, varying within 150 to 1500 bp. The used ten ISSR primers generated 40 polymorphic fragments, and the average heterozygosity for each primer was 0.266. Maximum numbers of bands were recorded for primer A1. A dendrogram based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method generated two sub-clusters. Honey bee populations of Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan provinces were located in the first group. The second group included honey bee populations of Ardebil, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan provinces, but this group showed a close relationship with other populations. The results showed obviously the ability of the ISSR marker technique to detect the genetic diversity among the honey bee populations. PMID:27188735

  4. Detection of genetic diversity and selective gene introgression in coffee using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Castillo, C; Chalmers, K J; Waugh, R; Powell, W

    1994-03-01

    RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers generated by arbitary decamers have been successfully employed to detect genetic polymorphisms between coffee species and between Coffea arabica genotypes. The RAPD profiles were used to construct dendrograms and these were consistent with the known history and evolution of Coffea arabica. Material originating from Ethiopia and the arabica sub-groups - C. arabica var. typica and C. arabica var. bourbon - were clearly distinguished. RAPD analysis therefore reflects morphological differences between the sub-groups and the geographical origin of the coffee material. Species-specific amplification products were also identified, but, more importantly, amplification products specific to C. canephora were identified in two C. arabica genotypes, Rume Sudan and Catimor 5175. This diagnostic product is therefore indicative of interspecific gene flow in coffee and has biological implications for selective introgressive hybridisation in coffee. Our study demonstrates the power of the polymerase chain reaction technology for the generation of genetic markers for long-lived perennial tree and bush crops. PMID:24190527

  5. Analysis of genetic diversity identified by amplified fragment length polymorphism marker in hybrid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, M; Qidi, Z; Gaisheng, Z; Na, N; Huiyan, Z; Qunzhu, W

    2015-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were used to assess genetic diversity in 10 male sterile wheat crop lines (hetero-cytoplasm with the same nucleus) in relation to a restorer wheat line. These male sterile lines were evaluated using 64 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations, and 13 primers produced polymorphic bands, generating a total 682 fragments. Of the 682 fragments, 113 were polymorphic. The polymorphic information content and marker index values demonstrated the utility of the primer combinations used in the present study. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean and principal coordinate analysis of the genotypic data revealed clustering of accessions based on genetic relationships, and accessions were separated into 2 groups with their restorer line. Jaccard's similarity coefficient values suggested good variability among the male sterile lines, indicating their utility in breeding programs. The fallouts of analysis of molecular variance showed large within-group population variation, accounting for 77% of variation, while among-group comparison accounted for 23% of the total molecular variation, which was statistically significant. The molecular diversity observed in this study will be useful for selecting appropriate accessions for plant improvement and hybridization through molecular-breeding approaches and for developing suitable conservation strategies. PMID:26345825

  6. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation. PMID:25146979

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of Capparis spinosa L. populations by using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Xue, G P; Cheng, B; Wang, X; He, J; Liu, G H; Yang, W J

    2015-01-01

    Capparis spinosa L. is an important medicinal species in the Xinjiang Province of China. Ten natural populations of C. spinosa from 3 locations in North, Central, and South Xinjiang were studied using morphological trait inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure. In this study, the 10 ISSR primers produced 313 amplified DNA fragments, with 52% of fragments being polymorphic. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis indicated that 10 C. spinosa populations were clustered into 3 geographically distinct groups. The Nei gene of C. spinosa populations in different regions had Diversity and Shannon's information index ranges of 0.1312-0.2001 and 0.1004-0.1875, respectively. The 362 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the UPGMA cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 10 populations of C. spinosa were clustered into 3 geographically distinct groups. The results showed these genotypes have high genetic diversity, and can be used for an alternative breeding program. PMID:26662446

  8. Performance Assessment PCR-Based Assays Targeting Bacteroidales Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution▿

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Orin C.; White, Karen; Kelty, Catherine A.; Hayes, Sam; Sivaganesan, Mano; Jenkins, Michael; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous PCR-based assays available to characterize bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. The determination of which approaches are most suitable for field applications can be difficult because each assay targets a different gene, in many cases from different microorganisms, leading to variation in assay performance. We describe a performance evaluation of seven end-point PCR and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays reported to be associated with either ruminant or bovine feces. Each assay was tested against a reference collection of DNA extracts from 247 individual bovine fecal samples representing 11 different populations and 175 fecal DNA extracts from 24 different animal species. Bovine-associated genetic markers were broadly distributed among individual bovine samples ranging from 39 to 93%. Specificity levels of the assays spanned 47.4% to 100%. End-point PCR sensitivity also varied between assays and among different bovine populations. For qPCR assays, the abundance of each host-associated genetic marker was measured within each bovine population and compared to results of a qPCR assay targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences from Bacteroidales. Experiments indicate large discrepancies in the performance of bovine-associated assays across different bovine populations. Variability in assay performance between host populations suggests that the use of bovine microbial source-tracking applications will require a priori characterization at each watershed of interest. PMID:20061457

  9. Genetics of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and Efficacy of Associated SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepu; Sinha, B; Rai, V P; Singh, M N; Singh, D K; Kumar, R; Singh, A K

    2016-04-01

    Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW) disease caused by Fusarium udum was investigated in pigeonpea using four different long duration FW resistant genotypes viz., BDN-2004-1, BDN-2001-9, BWR-133 and IPA-234. Based on the F2 segregation pattern, FW resistance has been reported to be governed by one dominant gene in BDN-2004-1 and BDN-2001-9, two duplicate dominant genes in BWR-133 and two dominant complimentary genes in resistance source IPA-234. Further, the efficacy of six simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers namely, ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148, ASSR-229, ASSR-363 and ASSR-366 reported to be associated with FW resistance were also tested and concluded that markers ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148 will be used for screening of parental genotypes in pigeonpea FW resistance breeding programs. The information on genetics of FW resistance generated from this study would be used, to introgress FW resistance into susceptible but highly adopted cultivars through marker-assisted backcross breeding and in conventional breeding programs. PMID:27147929

  10. Genetics of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and Efficacy of Associated SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepu; Sinha, B.; Rai, V. P.; Singh, M. N.; Singh, D. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW) disease caused by Fusarium udum was investigated in pigeonpea using four different long duration FW resistant genotypes viz., BDN-2004-1, BDN-2001-9, BWR-133 and IPA-234. Based on the F2 segregation pattern, FW resistance has been reported to be governed by one dominant gene in BDN-2004-1 and BDN-2001-9, two duplicate dominant genes in BWR-133 and two dominant complimentary genes in resistance source IPA-234. Further, the efficacy of six simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers namely, ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148, ASSR-229, ASSR-363 and ASSR-366 reported to be associated with FW resistance were also tested and concluded that markers ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148 will be used for screening of parental genotypes in pigeonpea FW resistance breeding programs. The information on genetics of FW resistance generated from this study would be used, to introgress FW resistance into susceptible but highly adopted cultivars through marker-assisted backcross breeding and in conventional breeding programs. PMID:27147929

  11. Iberian red deer: paraphyletic nature at mtDNA but nuclear markers support its genetic identity.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Juan; Salinas, María; de Andrés, Damián; Pérez-González, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Red deer populations in the Iberian glacial refugium were the main source for postglacial recolonization and subspecific radiation in north-western Europe. However, the phylogenetic history of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and its relationships with northern European populations remain uncertain. Here, we study DNA sequences at the mitochondrial control region along with STR markers for over 680 specimens from all the main red deer populations in Spain and other west European areas. Our results from mitochondrial and genomic DNA show contrasting patterns, likely related to the nature of these types of DNA markers and their specific processes of change over time. The results, taken together, bring support to two distinct, cryptic maternal lineages for Iberian red deer that predated the last glacial maximum and that have maintained geographically well differentiated until present. Haplotype relationships show that only one of them contributed to the northern postglacial recolonization. However, allele frequencies of nuclear markers evidenced one main differentiation between Iberian and northern European subspecies although also supported the structure of both matrilines within Iberia. Thus, our findings reveal a paraphyletic nature for Iberian red deer but also its genetic identity and differentiation with respect to northern subspecies. Finally, we suggest that maintaining the singularity of Iberian red deer requires preventing not only restocking practices with red deer specimens belonging to other European populations but also translocations between both Iberian lineages. PMID:26843924

  12. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  13. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  14. Genetic diversity of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum using a RAPD marker.

    PubMed

    Nishat, Sayeda; Hamim, Islam; Khalil, M Ibrahim; Ali, Md Ayub; Hossain, Muhammed Ali; Meah, M Bahadur; Islam, Md Rashidul

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a destructive disease of many economically important crop species. A significant variation in wilt incidence and severity in eggplant and potato was observed among the growing areas surveyed. R. solanacearum isolates obtained both from eggplant and potato belong to biovar III, while isolates from eggplant belong to race 1 and isolates obtained from potato belong to race 3. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used as a tool for assessing genetic variation and relationship among seven isolate groups of R. solanacearum viz., RsB-1, RsB-2, RsB-3, RsP-1, RsP-2, RsP-3 and RsP-4, consisting in a total of 28 isolates. Out of the RAPD markers used, amplification with four decamer primers produced 70 bands with sizes ranging from 100 to 1400 bp. Out of 70 bands, 68 bands (97.06%) were polymorphic and two bands (2.94%) were monomorphic amongst the seven R. solanacearum isolates group. The Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) dendrogram constructed from Nei's genetic distance produced two main clusters of the seven isolates of R. solanacearum. The isolates RsB-1, RsB-2, RsB-3 and R-4 grouped in cluster І, while RsP-2, RsP-3 and RsP-4 grouped in cluster ІІ. The highest intra-variety similarity index (Si) was found in RsB-1 isolate (86.35%) and the lowest one in RsP-2 (56.59%). The results indicated that relatively higher and lower levels of genetic variation were found in RsP-3 and RsB-3, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation (G(st)) was 0.5487, reflecting the existence of a high level of genetic variations among seven isolates of R. solanacearum. Comparatively higher genetic distance (0.4293) and lower genetic identity (0.6510) were observed between RsB-2 and RsP-4 combinations. The lowest genetic distance (0.0357) and highest genetic identity (0.9650) were found in RsB-1 vs. RsB-2 pair. Thus, RAPD offers a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate

  15. Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Genetic Risk Models on the Basis of Established Genome-wide Association Markers: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B.; Rong, Shuang; Rong, Ying; Bowers, Katherine; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Liu, Liegang; Zhang, Cuilin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of genetic risk models based on risk loci identified and/or confirmed in genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through April 13, 2012, and published data relevant to the prediction of type 2 diabetes based on genome-wide association marker–based risk models (GRMs) were included. Of the 1,234 potentially relevant articles, 21 articles representing 23 studies were eligible for inclusion. The median area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) among eligible studies was 0.60 (range, 0.55–0.68), which did not differ appreciably by study design, sample size, participants’ race/ethnicity, or the number of genetic markers included in the GRMs. In addition, the AUCs for type 2 diabetes did not improve appreciably with the addition of genetic markers into conventional risk factor–based models (median AUC, 0.79 (range, 0.63–0.91) vs. median AUC, 0.78 (range, 0.63–0.90), respectively). A limited number of included studies used reclassification measures and yielded inconsistent results. In conclusion, GRMs showed a low predictive performance for risk of type 2 diabetes, irrespective of study design, participants’ race/ethnicity, and the number of genetic markers included. Moreover, the addition of genome-wide association markers into conventional risk models produced little improvement in predictive performance. PMID:24008910

  16. A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes.

    PubMed

    Harel-Beja, R; Tzuri, G; Portnoy, V; Lotan-Pompan, M; Lev, S; Cohen, S; Dai, N; Yeselson, L; Meir, A; Libhaber, S E; Avisar, E; Melame, T; van Koert, P; Verbakel, H; Hofstede, R; Volpin, H; Oliver, M; Fougedoire, A; Stalh, C; Fauve, J; Copes, B; Fei, Z; Giovannoni, J; Ori, N; Lewinsohn, E; Sherman, A; Burger, J; Tadmor, Y; Schaffer, A A; Katzir, N

    2010-08-01

    A genetic map of melon enriched for fruit traits was constructed, using a recombinant inbred (RI) population developed from a cross between representatives of the two subspecies of Cucumis melo L.: PI 414723 (subspecies agrestis) and 'Dulce' (subspecies melo). Phenotyping of 99 RI lines was conducted over three seasons in two locations in Israel and the US. The map includes 668 DNA markers (386 SSRs, 76 SNPs, six INDELs and 200 AFLPs), of which 160 were newly developed from fruit ESTs. These ESTs include candidate genes encoding for enzymes of sugar and carotenoid metabolic pathways that were cloned from melon cDNA or identified through mining of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative database (http://www.icugi.org/). The map covers 1,222 cM with an average of 2.672 cM between markers. In addition, a skeleton physical map was initiated and 29 melon BACs harboring fruit ESTs were localized to the 12 linkage groups of the map. Altogether, 44 fruit QTLs were identified: 25 confirming QTLs described using other populations and 19 newly described QTLs. The map includes QTLs for fruit sugar content, particularly sucrose, the major sugar affecting sweetness in melon fruit. Six QTLs interacting in an additive manner account for nearly all the difference in sugar content between the two genotypes. Three QTLs for fruit flesh color and carotenoid content were identified. Interestingly, no clear colocalization of QTLs for either sugar or carotenoid content was observed with over 40 genes encoding for enzymes involved in their metabolism. The RI population described here provides a useful resource for further genomics and metabolomics studies in melon, as well as useful markers for breeding for fruit quality. PMID:20401460

  17. Evaluation of insertion-deletion markers suitable for genetic diversity studies and marker-trait correlation analyses in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Meng, S; Yang, X L; Dang, P M; Cui, S L; Mu, G J; Chen, C Y; Liu, L F

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is one of the most important oil crops worldwide. We used insertion-deletion (InDel) markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated peanut. Fifty-four accessions from North China were genotyped using 48 InDel markers. The markers amplified 61 polymorphic loci with 1 to 8 alleles and an average of 2.6 alleles per marker. The polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.0364 to 0.9030, with an average of 0.5038. Population structure and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analyses suggested that all accessions could be divided into four clusters (A1-A4), using the NJ method. Likewise, four subpopulations (G1-G4) were identified using STRUCTURE analysis. A principal component analysis was also used and results concordant with the other analysis methods were found. A multi-linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that 13 InDel markers correlated with five measured agronomical traits. Our results will provide important information for future peanut molecular breeding and genetic research. PMID:27525935

  18. Performance comparison of genetic markers for high-throughput sequencing-based biodiversity assessment in complex communities.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Aibin; Bailey, Sarah A; Heath, Daniel D; Macisaac, Hugh J

    2014-09-01

    Metabarcode surveys of DNA extracted from environmental samples are increasingly popular for biodiversity assessment in natural communities. Such surveys rely heavily on robust genetic markers. Therefore, analysis of PCR efficiency and subsequent biodiversity estimation for different types of genetic markers and their corresponding primers is important. Here, we test the PCR efficiency and biodiversity recovery potential of three commonly used genetic markers - nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (mt16S) - using 454 pyrosequencing of a zooplankton community collected from Hamilton Harbour, Ontario. We found that biodiversity detection power and PCR efficiency varied widely among these markers. All tested primers for COI failed to provide high-quality PCR products for pyrosequencing, but newly designed primers for 18S and 16S passed all tests. Furthermore, multiple analyses based on large-scale pyrosequencing (i.e. 1/2 PicoTiter plate for each marker) showed that primers for 18S recover more (38 orders) groups than 16S (10 orders) across all taxa, and four vs. two orders and nine vs. six families for Crustacea. Our results showed that 18S, using newly designed primers, is an efficient and powerful tool for profiling biodiversity in largely unexplored communities, especially when amplification difficulties exist for mitochondrial markers such as COI. Universal primers for higher resolution markers such as COI are still needed to address the possible low resolution of 18S for species-level identification. PMID:24655333

  19. Genetic markers as a predictive tool based on statistics in medical practice: ethical considerations through the analysis of the use of HLA-B*27 in rheumatology in France

    PubMed Central

    Colineaux, Hélène; Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of genetic predictive markers in medical practice does not necessarily bear the same kind of medical and ethical consequences than that of genes directly involved in monogenic diseases. However, the French bioethics law framed in the same way the production and use of any genetic information. It seems therefore necessary to explore the practical and ethical context of the actual use of predictive markers in order to highlight their specific stakes. In this study, we document the uses of HLA-B*27, which are an interesting example of the multiple features of genetic predictive marker in general medical practice. Materials and Methods: The aims of this monocentric and qualitative study were to identify concrete and ethical issues of using the HLA-B*27 marker and the interests and limits of the legal framework as perceived by prescribers. In this regard, a thematic and descriptive analysis of five rheumatologists' semi-structured and face-to-face interviews was performed. Results: According to most of the interviewees, HLA-B*27 is an “overframed” test because they considered that this test is not really genetic or at least does not have the same nature as “classical genetic tests”; HLA-B*27 is not concerned by the ethical challenges of genetic test; the major ethics stake of this marker is not linked to its genetic nature but rather to the complexity of the probabilistic information. This study allows also showing that HLA-B*27, validated for a certain usage, may be used in different ways in practice. Discussion: This marker and its clinical uses underline the challenges of translating both statistical concepts and unifying legal framework in clinical practice. This study allows identifying some new aspects and stakes of genetics in medicine and shows the need of additional studies about the use of predictive genetic markers, in order to provide a better basis for decisions and legal framework regarding these practices. PMID:26528326

  20. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: Decision analysis comes through

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Pencina, Michael J.; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G. M.; Mol, Ben W.J.; Lindeman, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model. PMID:24825728

  1. Identification of Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution in Coastal Waters by Using Host-Specific 16S Ribosomal DNA Genetic Markers from Fecal Anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Anne E.; Field, Katharine G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new PCR-based method for distinguishing human and cow fecal contamination in coastal waters without culturing indicator organisms, and we show that the method can be used to track bacterial marker sequences in complex environments. We identified two human-specific genetic markers and five cow-specific genetic markers in fecal samples by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from members of the genus Bifidobacterium and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group and performing length heterogeneity PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Host-specific patterns suggested that there are species composition differences in the Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides-Prevotella populations of human and cow feces. The patterns were highly reproducible among different hosts belonging to the same species. Additionally, all host-specific genetic markers were detected in water samples collected from areas frequently contaminated with fecal pollution. Ease of detection and longer survival in water made Bacteroides-Prevotella indicators better than Bifidobacterium indicators. Fecal 16S rDNA sequences corresponding to our Bacteroides-Prevotella markers comprised closely related gene clusters, none of which exactly matched previously published Bacteroides or Prevotella sequences. Our method detected host-specific markers in water at pollutant concentrations of 2.8 × 10−5 to 2.8 × 10−7 g (dry weight) of feces/liter and 6.8 × 10−7 g (dry weight) of sewage/liter. Although our aim was to identify nonpoint sources of fecal contamination, the method described here should be widely applicable for monitoring spatial and temporal fluctuations in specific bacterial groups in natural environments. PMID:10742246

  2. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Detection of Genetic Variation between Goniozus Wasp Populations

    PubMed Central

    Khidr, Sahand K.; Hardy, Ian C.W.; Zaviezo, Tania; Mayes, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic markers reveal differences between genotypes according to the presence of alleles (the same or different) at target loci. Microsatellite markers are especially useful codominant markers that have been used in a wide range of studies to elucidate the population structure and dynamics of a range of organisms, including agriculturally beneficial insects such as parasitic wasps (parasitoids). In the present study, twelve primer pairs were designed for the south Asian , Goniozus nephantidis (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and 24 for its New World congener, Goniozus legneri Gordh, parasitoids of the larvae of the lepidopteran coconut pest Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Crytophasidae) and other lepidopteran pests, respectively, in order to investigate polymorphism within and between populations. The wasps fingerprinted were a total of 85 G. nephantidis and G. legneri, including individuals belonging to three putatively different strains of G. legneri. Annealing gradient tests (50–65°C) were conducted to study the quality of the PCR amplification across an annealing temperature gradient using a mixed genotype DNA template from each species separately. Seven primer pairs, which amplified clear products of approximately the expected size of G. nephantidis and 18 of G. legneri, were then selected for capillary analysis for fragment size determination on a Beckmann CEQ 8000. Neither G. nephantidis nor G. legneri were polymorphic within populations. However, there were six primer pairs that did show polymorphism between G. legneri populations that originated from different geographical areas within South America (Uruguay and Chile). Furthermore, one primer pair revealed diversity between the two strains collected within Chile. One of the markers was subsequently used to provide unbiased assessment of primary sex ratio in G. legneri. PMID:25373190

  3. Rhoptry protein 47 gene sequence: A potential novel genetic marker for population genetic studies of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Zhong-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Ning, Hong-Rui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, is able to infect many animal species and humans, and can cause toxoplasmosis of the host. In this study, we examined sequence variation in rhoptry protein 47 (ROP47) gene among T. gondii isolates originating from different hosts and geographical regions. The entire genome region of the ROP47 gene was amplified and sequenced, and phylogenetic relationship was reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ), based on the ROP47 gene sequences. The results of sequence alignments showed that all ROP47 gene sequences were 396 bp in length. There were 19 variable nucleotide positions in the coding region, resulted in 16 amino acid substitutions (12.21%) among all examined T. gondii strains and the existence of polymorphic restriction sites for endonucleases SacI and AflIII, allowing the differentiation of the three major clonal lineage types I, II and III by PCR-RFLP. Phylogenetic analysis of ROP47 gene sequences showed that three major clonal lineage types I, II and III were clustered differently, consistent with PCR-RFLP results. These results suggest that ROP47 gene sequence may represent a potential novel genetic marker for population genetic studies of T. gondii isolates. PMID:25862398

  4. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy. PMID:22707143

  5. Genetic diversity and identification of Chinese-grown pecan using ISSR and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Tao; Zhai, Min; Li, Yong-Rong; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Pecan is an important horticultural nut crop originally from North America and now widely cultivated in China for its high ecological, ornamental and economic value. Currently, there are over one hundred cultivars grown in China, including introduced American cultivars and Chinese seedling breeding cultivars. Molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of these cultivars and to identify the pedigrees of fine pecan plants with good characteristics and no cultivar-related data. A total of 77 samples grown in China were studied, including 14 introduced cultivars, 12 domestic seedling breeding cultivars, and 49 fine pecan plants with no cultivar data, together with Carya cathayensis and Juglans nigra. A total of 77 ISSR and 19 SSR primers were prescreened; 10 ISSR and eight SSR primers were selected, yielding a total of 94 amplified bands (100% polymorphic) in the range of 140-1,950 bp for the ISSR and 70 amplified bands (100% polymorphic) in the range of 50-350 bp for SSR markers. Genetic diversity analyses indicated Chinese-grown pecan cultivars and fine plants had significant diversity at the DNA level. The dengrograms constructed with ISSR, SSR or combined data were very similar, but showed very weak grouping association with morphological characters. However, the progeny were always grouped with the parents. The great diversity found among the Chinese cultivars and the interesting germplasm of the fine pecan plants analyzed in this study are very useful for increasing the diversity of the pecan gene pool. All 77 accessions in this study could be separated based on the ISSR and SSR fingerprints produced by one or more primers. The results of our study also showed that ISSR and SSR techniques were both suitable for genetic diversity analyses and the identification of pecan resources. PMID:22146370

  6. Insights into genetic diversity, parentage, and group composition of Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) off the west of Ireland based on nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, Luca; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Dillane, Eileen; Hoelzel, Alan R; Cross, Tom F; Rogan, Emer

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of stranding events and the application of molecular markers can be powerful tools to study cryptic biological aspects of delphinid species that occur mainly in open ocean habitat. In the present study, we investigated nuclear and mitochondrial genetic variability of Atlantic white-sided dolphins that stranded from 1990 to 2006 (n = 42) along the west coast of Ireland, using 8 microsatellite loci and 599 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Results from both classes of markers are concordant with the hypothesis of a large random-mating population of white-sided dolphins along the west coast of Ireland. In addition, the analyses of 2 live mass stranding events (19 and 5 individuals, respectively) revealed that dolphins within each group were mainly unrelated to each other, suggesting dispersal of both sexes from the natal group (i.e., no natal phylopatry). Parentage analyses allowed the identification of mother-offspring pairs but ruled out all adult males as possible fathers. In combination with data on age of individuals, these results confirmed previous knowledge on life-history parameters, with sexually mature females ranging between 11 and 15 years of age and an interbirth interval of at least 2 years. The present study provides novel information on population and group composition of Atlantic white-sided dolphins along the west coast of Ireland, where population and social structure of the species are still poorly understood. PMID:21059883

  7. Genetic Structure of the Endangered Plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) from the Zhoushan Archipelago Using RAPD Markers

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHONG-SHENG; AN, SHU-QING; LIU, HONG; LENG, XIN; ZHENG, JIAN-WEI; LIU, YU-HONG

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The Zhoushan archipelago is the largest archipelago in China. It separated from the mainland about 9000 years ago due to rising sea levels and climate change. Because of the long-term influences of human activities, the original forest vegetation on the large islands has been badly damaged and its plant diversity reduced. • Methods Levels and patterns of genetic diversity in 114 individuals from six natural populations and four cultivated populations of the insular endangered plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) on the Zhoushan archipelago were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. • Key Results A total of 99 discernible loci were obtained for all populations using ten primers, 50·5 % of which were polymorphic [percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) = 50·5 %]. Despite being a woody, long-lived, perennial, outcrossing and insect-pollinated plant, N. sericea exhibited low levels of genetic variation. The cultivated populations (PPB = 18·9 %, HE = 0·060, S = 0·092) were genetically less diverse than the natural populations (PPB = 23·1 %, HE = 0·082, S = 0·123). Based on analysis of molecular variance, a high degree of among-population differentiation was revealed for both natural (0·387) and cultivated populations (0·598). • Conclusions Removal of plants from the wild for horticulture purposes has eroded the level of genetic variation of N. sericea. Low levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population differentiation indicate that management strategies should include conservation of natural habitats occupied by all six wild populations, and sampling of germplasm resources from multiple seed sources. PMID:15546928

  8. DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Slankster, Eryn E.; Chase, Jillian M.; Jones, Lauren A.; Wendell, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a non-genic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology. PMID:22675329

  9. DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Slankster, Eryn E; Chase, Jillian M; Jones, Lauren A; Wendell, Douglas L

    2012-01-01

    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a non-genic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology. PMID:22675329

  10. Population genetic structure and demographic history of Atrina pectinata based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The pen shell, Atrina pectinata, is one of the commercial bivalves in East Asia and thought to be recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction and/or fishing pressure). Information on its population genetic structure is crucial for the conservation of A. pectinata. Considering its long pelagic larval duration and iteroparity with high fecundity, the genetic structure for A. pectinata could be expected to be weak at a fine scale. However, the unusual oceanography in the coasts of China and Korea suggests potential for restricted dispersal of pelagic larvae and geographical differentiation. In addition, environmental changes associated with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations on the East China Sea continental shelf may also have strongly influenced historical population demography and genetic diversity of marine organisms. Here, partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and seven microsatellite loci were used to estimate population genetic structure and demographic history of seven samples from Northern China coast and one sample from North Korea coast. Despite high levels of genetic diversity within samples, there was no genetic differentiation among samples from Northern China coast and low but significant genetic differentiation between some of the Chinese samples and the North Korean sample. A late Pleistocene population expansion, probably after the Last Glacial Maximum, was also demonstrated for A. pectinata samples. No recent genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the eight samples. We concluded that both historical recolonization (through population range expansion and demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene) and current gene flow (through larval dispersal) were responsible for the weak level of genetic structure detected in A. pectinata. PMID:24789175

  11. Population Genetic Structure and Demographic History of Atrina pectinata Based on Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The pen shell, Atrina pectinata, is one of the commercial bivalves in East Asia and thought to be recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction and/or fishing pressure). Information on its population genetic structure is crucial for the conservation of A. pectinata. Considering its long pelagic larval duration and iteroparity with high fecundity, the genetic structure for A. pectinata could be expected to be weak at a fine scale. However, the unusual oceanography in the coasts of China and Korea suggests potential for restricted dispersal of pelagic larvae and geographical differentiation. In addition, environmental changes associated with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations on the East China Sea continental shelf may also have strongly influenced historical population demography and genetic diversity of marine organisms. Here, partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and seven microsatellite loci were used to estimate population genetic structure and demographic history of seven samples from Northern China coast and one sample from North Korea coast. Despite high levels of genetic diversity within samples, there was no genetic differentiation among samples from Northern China coast and low but significant genetic differentiation between some of the Chinese samples and the North Korean sample. A late Pleistocene population expansion, probably after the Last Glacial Maximum, was also demonstrated for A. pectinata samples. No recent genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the eight samples. We concluded that both historical recolonization (through population range expansion and demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene) and current gene flow (through larval dispersal) were responsible for the weak level of genetic structure detected in A. pectinata. PMID:24789175

  12. [Genetic polymorphism of flax Linum usitatissimum based on use of molecular cytogenetic markers].

    PubMed

    Rachinskaia, O A; Lemesh, V A; Muravenko, O V; Iurkevich, O Iu; Guzenko, E V; Bol'sheva, N L; Bogdanova, M V; Samatadze, T E; Popov, K V; Malyshev, S V; Shostak, N G; Heller, K; Khotyleva, L V; Zelenin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Using a set of approaches based on the use of molecular cytogenetic markers (DAPI/C-banding, estimation of the total area of DAPI-positive regions in prophase nuclei, FISH with 26S and 5S rDNA probes) and the microsatellite (SSR-PCR) assay, we studied genomic polymorphism in 15 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties from different geographic regions belonging to three directions of selection (oil, fiber, and intermediate flaxes) and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. All individual chromosomes have been identified in the karyotypes of these varieties on the basis of the patterns of differential DAPI/C-banding and the distribution of 26S and 5S rDNA, and idiograms of the chromosomes have been generated. Unlike the oil flax varieties, the chromosomes in the karyotypes of the fiber flax varieties have, as a rule, pericentromeric and telomeric DAPI-positive bands of smaller size, but contain larger intercalary regions. Two chromosomal rearrangements (chromosome 3 inversions) were discovered in the variety Luna and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. In both these forms, no colocalization of 26S rDNA and 5S rDNA on the satellite chromosome was detected. The SSR assay with the use of 20 polymorphic pairs of primers revealed 22 polymorphic loci. Based on the SSR data, we analyzed genetic similarity of the flax forms studied and constructed a genetic similarity dendrogram. The genotypes studied here form three clusters. The oil varieties comprise an independent cluster. The genetically related fiber flax varieties Vita and Luna, as well as the landrace Lipinska XIII belonging to the intermediate type, proved to be closer to the oil varieties than the remaining fiber flax varieties. The results of the molecular chromosomal analysis in the fiber and oil flaxes confirm their very close genetic similarity. In spite of this, the combined use of the chromosomal and molecular markers has opened up unique possibilities for describing the genotypes of flax varieties and creating their genetic

  13. Determination of genetic relationships between evergreen azalea cultivars in China using AFLP markers*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Liao, Jin; Xia, Yi-ping; Teng, Yuan-wen

    2013-01-01

    Evergreen azaleas are among the most important ornamental shrubs in China. Today, there are probably over 300 cultivars preserved in different nurseries, but with little information available on the cultivar itself or relationships between cultivars. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were employed to determine the genetic relationships between evergreen azalea cultivars in China. One hundred and thirty genotypes collected from gardens and nurseries, including cultivars classified in the groups East, West, Hairy, and Summer, unknown cultivars, and close species, were analyzed using three primer pairs. A total of 408 polymorphic fragments were generated by AFLP reactions with an average of 136 fragments per primer pair. The average values of expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were 0.3395 and 0.5153, respectively. Genetic similarities were generated based on Dice coefficients, used to construct a neighbor joining tree, and bootstrapped for 100 replicates in Treecon V1.3b. Principal coordinate analysis (PCO) was performed based on Dice distances using NTSYS-pc software. The AFLP technique was useful for analyzing genetic diversity in evergreen azaleas. Cluster analysis revealed that cultivars in the West and Summer groups were quite distinct from other groups in the four-group classification system and that the East and Hairy groups should be redefined. PMID:23549847

  14. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-01-01

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species. PMID:26909989

  15. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALGERIAN POPULATION OF MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA WITH MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    PubMed

    Allioui, N; Siah, A; Randoux, B; Brinis, L; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P

    2015-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici, formerly Septoria tritici), the responsible for Septoria tritici blotch, is the most frequently occurring disease on wheat crops worldwide. The populations of this pathogen were previously characterized in several areas around the world, but not in Algeria so far. The present study aims thus at investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of M. graminicola in this country. One hundred and twenty monoconidial isolates of this fungus (60 from bread wheat and 60 from durum wheat) were collected during the 2012 growing season from five distinct geographical locations in Algeria. They were then fingerprinted using eight microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 6.25 alleles per locus. We found out a moderate gene diversity, a high genotype diversity (72% of unique haplotypes) and a low population differentiation within the population. Further analyses using both UPGMA and Bayesian clustering methods confirmed the lack of genetic structuration irrespective of geographical locations and host species. These findings are likely due to the frequent occurrence of sexual reproduction in the field, leading to genetic diversification and allele homogenization via wind born ascospores within the population. PMID:27141757

  16. Choosing the right molecular genetic markers for studying biodiversity: from molecular evolution to practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Chenuil, Anne; Anne, Chenuil

    2006-05-01

    The use of molecular genetic markers (MGMs) has become widespread among evolutionary biologists, and the methods of analysis of genetic data improve rapidly, yet an organized framework in which scientists can work is lacking. Elements of molecular evolution are summarized to explain the origin of variation at the DNA level, its measures, and the relationships linking genetic variability to the biological parameters of the studied organisms. MGM are defined by two components: the DNA region(s) screened, and the technique used to reveal its variation. Criteria of choice belong to three categories: (1) the level of variability, (2) the nature of the information (e.g. dominance vs. codominance, ploidy, ... ) which must be determined according to the biological question and (3) some practical criteria which mainly depend on the equipment of the laboratory and experience of the scientist. A three-step procedure is proposed for drawing up MGMs suitable to answer given biological questions, and compiled data are organized to guide the choice at each step: (1) choice, determined by the biological question, of the level of variability and of the criteria of the nature of information, (2) choice of the DNA region and (3) choice of the technique. PMID:16850217

  17. Use of genetic and physical mapping to locate the spinal muscular atrophy locus between two new highly polymorphic DNA markers

    SciTech Connect

    Clermont, O.; Burlet, P.; Burglen, L.; Lefebvre, S.; Pascal, F.; McPherson, J.; Wasmuth, J.J.; Cohen, D.; Le Paslier, D.; Weissenbach, J.

    1994-04-01

    The gene for autosomal recessive forms of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has recently been mapped to chromosome 5q13, within a 4-cM region between the blocks D5S465/D5S125 and MAP-1B/D5S112. The authors identified two new highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers - namely, AFM265wf5 (D5S629) and AFM281yh9 (D5S637) - which are the closest markers to the SMA locus. Multilocus analysis by the location-score method was used to establish the best estimate of the SMA gene location. The data suggest that the most likely location for SMA is between locus D5S629 and the block D5S637/D5S351/MAP-1B/D5S112/D5S357. Genetic analysis of inbred SMA families, based on homozygosity by descent and physical mapping using meta-YACs, gave additional information for the loci order as follows: cen-D5S6-D5S125/D5S465-D5S435-D5S629-SMA-D5S637-D5S351-MAP-1B/D5S112-D5S357-D5S39-tel. These data give the direction for bidirectional walking in order to clone this interval and isolate the SMA gene. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The suitability of restriction fragment length polymorphism markers for evaluating genetic diversity among and synteny between mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Severson, D W; Mori, A; Zhang, Y; Christensen, B M

    1994-04-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers derived from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were used in hybridizations to genomic DNA of the following mosquito species: Ae. albopictus, Ae. togoi, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex pipiens, and Anopheles gambiae. Interspecific hybridization with Ae. aegypti probes varied from 50% (An. gambiae) to 100% (Ae. albopictus) under high stringency conditions. We demonstrated the usefulness of using RFLP profiles to examine genetic diversity between mosquito populations; Ae. aegypti RFLP markers were used to examine genetic relatedness between 10 laboratory strains of Ae. aegypti as well as between nine populations representing four Cx. pipiens subspecies. These results indicate that many Ae. aegypti RFLP markers should have direct applicability in gaining a better understanding of genome structure in other mosquito species, including RFLP linkage mapping and determinations of genetic relatedness among field populations. PMID:7909414

  19. Evaluating the Influence of the Microsatellite Marker Set on the Genetic Structure Inferred in Pyrus communis L.

    PubMed Central

    Urrestarazu, Jorge; Royo, José B.; Santesteban, Luis G.; Miranda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprinting information can be used to elucidate in a robust manner the genetic structure of germplasm collections, allowing a more rational and fine assessment of genetic resources. Bayesian model-based approaches are nowadays majorly preferred to infer genetic structure, but it is still largely unresolved how marker sets should be built in order to obtain a robust inference. The objective was to evaluate, in Pyrus germplasm collections, the influence of the SSR marker set size on the genetic structure inferred, also evaluating the influence of the criterion used to select those markers. Inferences were performed considering an increasing number of SSR markers that ranged from just two up to 25, incorporated one at a time into the analysis. The influence of the number of SSR markers used was evaluated comparing the number of populations and the strength of the signal detected, and also the similarity of the genotype assignments to populations between analyses. In order to test if those results were influenced by the criterion used to select the SSRs, several choosing scenarios based on the discrimination power or the fixation index values of the SSRs were tested. Our results indicate that population structure could be inferred accurately once a certain SSR number threshold was reached, which depended on the underlying structure within the genotypes, but the method used to select the markers included on each set appeared not to be very relevant. The minimum number of SSRs required to provide robust structure inferences and adequate measurements of the differentiation, even when low differentiation levels exist within populations, was proved similar to that of the complete list of recommended markers for fingerprinting. When a SSR set size similar to the minimum marker sets recommended for fingerprinting it is used, only major divisions or moderate (FST>0.05) differentiation of the germplasm are detected. PMID:26382618

  20. Additional markers for the type I reactional states of borderline leprosy.

    PubMed

    Lazaro-Medina, A; Tianco, E A; Avila, J M

    1990-08-01

    The histological course of reaction in borderline leprosy has been described by Ridley and Radia. They are dermal edema, dilatation of the lymphatics, swelling of the granulomas, changes in the concentration and distribution of lymphocytes and giant cells, maturity of the histiocytes, and presence of neutrophils. New markers for the condition are spongiosis of the epidermal and follicular epithelium with exocytosis of mononuclear cells, parakeratosis, focal interface changes with occasional individual cell necrosis of keratinocytes, and lastly, follicular mucinosis. Recognition of this reaction is vital in the prevention of deformities secondary to nerve damage. PMID:2393071

  1. Molecular phylogeography of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) and genetic relationships with congeners using cytochrome b gene marker.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Song, Sze-Looi; Prasartvit, Anchana; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important emerging zoonotic parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in many parts of the world. To-date there is only a single study using mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene to determine its genetic structure in eight geographical localities in Thailand. The present study examined the molecular phylogeography of this rat lungworm and its phylogenetic relationship with congeners using CYTB gene marker. A total of 15 CYTB haplotypes was found in 37 sequences from 14 geographical localities (covering north, west, east, central and south regions) in Thailand. These CYTB haplotypes were distinct from those of A. cantonensis for China and Hawaii. In Thailand, some CYTB haplotypes appeared to be confined to specific geographical localities. The partial CYTB DNA nucleotide sequences separated unequivocally the A. cantonensis isolates of Thailand, China and Hawaii as well as the congeners Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, A. costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum, with A. malaysiensis grouped with A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis grouped with A. vasorum. Likewise the congeners of Metastrongylus and Onchocerca genera could also be clearly differentiated. The present study added two new definitive hosts (Bandicota savilei and Rattus losea) and three new localities (Mae Hong Son in the north, Tak in the west, and Phang Nga in the south) for A. malaysiensis in Thailand, indicating its wide occurrence in the country. Three CYTB haplotypes were found in the Thailand samples of A. malaysiensis. In addition to differentiation of congeners, CYTB gene marker could be used for determining the genetic diversity of a given population/taxon. PMID:25930187

  2. Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.

    PubMed

    Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250

  3. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers and Development of Sequence-Tagged Site Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection of the Sporeless Trait in the Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Jun; Obatake, Yasushi; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Fukumasa, Yukitaka; Matsumoto, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22210222

  4. [Analysis of genetic diversity of Russian regional populations based on common STR markers used in DNA identification].

    PubMed

    Pesik, V Yu; Fedunin, A A; Agdzhoyan, A T; Utevska, O M; Chukhraeva, M I; Evseeva, I V; Churnosov, M I; Lependina, I N; Bogunov, Yu V; Bogunova, A A; Ignashkin, M A; Yankovsky, N K; Balanovska, E V; Orekhov, V A; Balanovsky, O P

    2014-06-01

    We conducted the first genetic analysis of a wide a range of rural Russian populations in European Russia with a panel of common DNA markers commonly used in criminalistics genetic identification. We examined a total of 647 samples from indigenous ethnic Russian populations in Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Rostov, Ryazan, and Orel regions. We employed a multiplex genotyping kit, COrDIS Plus, to genotype Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci, which included the genetic marker panel officially recommended for DNA identification in the Russian Federation, the United States, and the European Union. In the course of our study, we created a database of allelic frequencies, examined the distribution of alleles and genotypes in seven rural Russian populations, and defined the genetic relationships between these populations. We found that, although multidimensional analysis indicated a difference between the Northern gene pool and the rest of the Russian European populations, a pairwise comparison using 19 STR markers among all populations did not reveal significant differences. This is in concordance with previous studies, which examined up to 12 STR markers of urban Russian populations. Therefore, the database of allelic frequencies created in this study can be applied for forensic examinations and DNA identification among the ethnic Russian population over European Russia. We also noted a decrease in the levels of heterozygosity in the northern Russian population compared to ethnic populations in southern and central Russia, which is consistent with trends identified previously using classical gene markers and analysis of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:25715463

  5. Exploring genetic variability within lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and across related legumes using a newly developed set of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Tilak R; Srivastava, Prem S; Abdin, M Z; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-09-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an economically important grain legume, yet the genetic and genomic resources remain largely uncharacterized and unexploited in this crop. Microsatellites have become markers of choice for crop improvement applications. Hence, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for lentil through the construction of genomic library enriched for GA/CT motifs. As a result 122 functional SSR primer pairs were developed from 151 microsatellite loci and validated in L. culinaris cv. Precoz. Thirty three SSR markers were utilized for the analysis of genetic relationships between cultivated and wild species of Lens and related legumes. A total of 123 alleles were amplified at 33 loci ranging from 2-5 alleles with an average of 3.73 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC) for all the loci ranged from 0.13 to 0.99 with an average of 0.66 per locus. Varied levels of cross genera transferability were obtained ranging from 69.70 % across Pisum sativum to 12.12 % across Vigna radiata. The UPGMA based dendrogram was able to establish the uniqueness of each genotype and grouped them into two major clusters clearly resolving the genetic relationships within lentil and related species. The new set of SSR markers reported here were efficient and highly polymorphic and would add to the existing repertoire of lentil SSR markers to be utilized in molecular breeding. Moreover, the improved knowledge about intra- and inter-specific genetic relationships would facilitate germplasm utilization for lentil improvement. PMID:24893599

  6. From phenotyping towards breeding strategies: using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers to improve meat quality in an endangered pig breed.

    PubMed

    Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S

    2015-06-01

    In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat

  7. [Analysis of genetic diversity on 9 wild stocks of taimen (Hucho taimen) by microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Kuang, You-Yi; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Yin, Jia-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Taimen (Hucho taimen) is a native fish species in China and it is in the state of endangerment. To explain clearly the genetic diversity and genetic structure, 9 wild populations of taimen were investigated using 20 microsatellite markers. The results showed that their observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0994 to 0.8882, the expected heterozygosity varied from 0.2005 to 0.8759, and the range of PIC index was from 0.3432 to 0.5261 while population from Huma River had low genetic diversity. Fst of matching group ranged from 0.0246 to 0.2333 (P <0.0001)and Nm varied among 0.8216 to 9.9292, which indicated that the genetic differentiation was remarkable among populations.The half/full-sib family tests detected a proportion of half/full-sib family groups varying among 27.78% to 90.91%, showing a high inbred pressure and a risk of bottlenecks experienced by most groups. The AMOVA results showed that the global Fst was 0.1081; the clustering result showed that individuals from Beiji tributary of Heilongjiang River clustered as one clade, all individuals from Huma River and Wusuli River clustered as one clade and all individuals from the upper reaches of the Heilongjiang River clustered as another clade. All these results indicated that the decrease of taimen resource has affected the gene exchange among their populations. In order to achieve full protection of taimen germplasm resources, we should put an end to the destructive fishing for taimen and promotegene exchange among their populations. PMID:22184017

  8. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

  9. Genome sequencing elucidates Sardinian genetic architecture and augments association analyses for lipid and blood inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Mulas, Antonella; Pistis, Giorgio; Steri, Maristella; Danjou, Fabrice; Kwong, Alan; Ortega del Vecchyo, Vicente Diego; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer; Pitzalis, Maristella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Tarrier, Brendan; Brennan, Christine; Uzzau, Sergio; Fuchsberger, Christian; Atzeni, Rossano; Reinier, Frederic; Berutti, Riccardo; Huang, Jie; Timpson, Nicholas J; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo; Malerba, Giovanni; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Kang, Hyun M.; Novembre, John; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2015-01-01

    We report ~17.6M genetic variants from whole-genome sequencing of 2,120 Sardinians; 22% are absent from prior sequencing-based compilations and enriched for predicted functional consequence. Furthermore, ~76K variants common in our sample (frequency >5%) are rare elsewhere (<0.5% in the 1000 Genomes Project). We assessed the impact of these variants on circulating lipid levels and five inflammatory biomarkers. Fourteen signals, including two major new loci, were observed for lipid levels, and 19, including two novel loci, for inflammatory markers. New associations would be missed in analyses based on 1000 Genomes data, underlining the advantages of large-scale sequencing in this founder population. PMID:26366554

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae) population genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sujii, P S; Inglis, P W; Ciampi, A Y; Solferini, V N; Azevedo, V C R

    2013-01-01

    Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and validated for Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut tree) population genetic studies. This species is a widespread monotypic Amazonian tree with high non-timber economic value. Unfortunately, Brazil nut production is currently less than 25% of historical production levels, because of extensive deforestation. All pairs of primers produced clearly interpretable and polymorphic bands. No linkage disequilibrium was observed in an analysis of 46 individuals from one population, three to seven alleles per locus were observed; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.378 to 0.978, with significant heterozygote excess for four loci. An analysis of individuals from two populations showed private alleles at all loci. These primer pairs will be useful for population studies, especially for comparing samples from different parts of the Amazon forest. PMID:24301788

  11. sesC as a genetic marker for easy identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis from other isolates.

    PubMed

    Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Van Ranst, Marc; Van Eldere, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the major concerns with respect to hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, a rapid and easy method to identify at species level S. epidermidis isolates out of a broad range of bacteria is necessary. Based on earlier studies, the sesC gene encoding a S. epidermidis surface protein revealed to be a highly conserved gene in this species. By means of an easy and inexpensive PCR assay, the presence of sesC was checked in 438 clinical staphylococcal isolates. Results showed that sesC is specifically present in all S. epidermidis. In conclusion, the sesC gene can be exploited as a genetic marker in order to distinguish S. epidermidis from other isolates. PMID:27259364

  12. Genome sequencing elucidates Sardinian genetic architecture and augments association analyses for lipid and blood inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Sidore, Carlo; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Porcu, Eleonora; Naitza, Silvia; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Mulas, Antonella; Pistis, Giorgio; Steri, Maristella; Danjou, Fabrice; Kwong, Alan; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Vicente Diego; Chiang, Charleston W K; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer; Pitzalis, Maristella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Tarrier, Brendan; Brennan, Christine; Uzzau, Sergio; Fuchsberger, Christian; Atzeni, Rossano; Reinier, Frederic; Berutti, Riccardo; Huang, Jie; Timpson, Nicholas J; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo; Malerba, Giovanni; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Kang, Hyun M; Novembre, John; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2015-11-01

    We report ∼17.6 million genetic variants from whole-genome sequencing of 2,120 Sardinians; 22% are absent from previous sequencing-based compilations and are enriched for predicted functional consequences. Furthermore, ∼76,000 variants common in our sample (frequency >5%) are rare elsewhere (<0.5% in the 1000 Genomes Project). We assessed the impact of these variants on circulating lipid levels and five inflammatory biomarkers. We observe 14 signals, including 2 major new loci, for lipid levels and 19 signals, including 2 new loci, for inflammatory markers. The new associations would have been missed in analyses based on 1000 Genomes Project data, underlining the advantages of large-scale sequencing in this founder population. PMID:26366554

  13. Estimation of Additive, Dominance, and Imprinting Genetic Variance Using Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Marcos S.; Bastiaansen, John W. M.; Janss, Luc; Knol, Egbert F.; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, exploration of genetic variance in humans, plants, and livestock species has been limited mostly to the use of additive effects estimated using pedigree data. However, with the development of dense panels of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the exploration of genetic variation of complex traits is moving from quantifying the resemblance between family members to the dissection of genetic variation at individual loci. With SNPs, we were able to quantify the contribution of additive, dominance, and imprinting variance to the total genetic variance by using a SNP regression method. The method was validated in simulated data and applied to three traits (number of teats, backfat, and lifetime daily gain) in three purebred pig populations. In simulated data, the estimates of additive, dominance, and imprinting variance were very close to the simulated values. In real data, dominance effects account for a substantial proportion of the total genetic variance (up to 44%) for these traits in these populations. The contribution of imprinting to the total phenotypic variance of the evaluated traits was relatively small (1–3%). Our results indicate a strong relationship between additive variance explained per chromosome and chromosome length, which has been described previously for other traits in other species. We also show that a similar linear relationship exists for dominance and imprinting variance. These novel results improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of the evaluated traits and shows promise to apply the SNP regression method to other traits and species, including human diseases. PMID:26438289

  14. Genetic Variability among Lucerne Cultivars Based on Biochemical (SDS-PAGE) and Morphological Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farshadfar, M.; Farshadfar, E.

    The present research was conducted to determine the genetic variability of 18 Lucerne cultivars, based on morphological and biochemical markers. The traits studied were plant height, tiller number, biomass, dry yield, dry yield/biomass, dry leaf/dry yield, macro and micro elements, crude protein, dry matter, crude fiber and ash percentage and SDS- PAGE in seed and leaf samples. Field experiments included 18 plots of two meter rows. Data based on morphological, chemical and SDS-PAGE markers were analyzed using SPSSWIN soft ware and the multivariate statistical procedures: cluster analysis (UPGMA), principal component. Analysis of analysis of variance and mean comparison for morphological traits reflected significant differences among genotypes. Genotype 13 and 15 had the greatest values for most traits. The Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV), Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) and Heritability (Hb) parameters for different characters raged from 12.49 to 26.58% for PCV, hence the GCV ranged from 6.84 to 18.84%. The greatest value of Hb was 0.94 for stem number. Lucerne genotypes could be classified, based on morphological traits, into four clusters and 94% of the variance among the genotypes was explained by two PCAs: Based on chemical traits they were classified into five groups and 73.492% of variance was explained by four principal components: Dry matter, protein, fiber, P, K, Na, Mg and Zn had higher variance. Genotypes based on the SDS-PAGE patterns all genotypes were classified into three clusters. The greatest genetic distance was between cultivar 10 and others, therefore they would be suitable parent in a breeding program.

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    PubMed

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  16. Resistance to Tellurite as a Selection Marker for Genetic Manipulations of Pseudomonas Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Romero, Juan M.; Diaz-Orejas, Ramon; De Lorenzo, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to the toxic compound potassium tellurite (Telr) has been employed as a selection marker built into a set of transposon vectors and broad-host-range plasmids tailored for genetic manipulations of Pseudomonas strains potentially destined for environmental release. In this study, the activated Telr determinants encoded by the cryptic telAB genes of plasmid RK2 were produced, along with the associated kilA gene, as DNA cassettes compatible with cognate vectors. In one case, the Telr determinants were assembled between the I and O ends of a suicide delivery vector for mini-Tn5 transposons. In another case, the kilA and telAB genes were combined with a minimal replicon derived from a variant of Pseudomonas plasmid pPS10, which is able to replicate in a variety of gram-negative hosts and is endowed with a modular collection of cloning and expression assets. Either in the plasmid or in the transposon vector, the Telr marker was combined with a 12-kb DNA segment of plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 encoding the upper TOL pathway enzymes. This allowed construction of antibiotic resistance-free but selectable P. putida strains with the ability to grow on toluene as the sole carbon source through an ortho-cleavage catabolic pathway. PMID:9758838

  17. Immunohistochemical Markers of Soft Tissue Tumors: Pathologic Diagnosis, Genetic Contributions, and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Parham, David M

    2015-01-01

    After ~30 years of widespread usage, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become a standard method of diagnosis for surgical pathology. Because of the plethora of diagnoses and often subtle nature of diagnostic criteria, IHC finds particular utility in soft tissue tumors. The use of progressively small amounts of tissue for diagnosis highlights the importance of this method. The sensitivity and crispness of IHC stains have progressively improved with the advent of new techniques. Traditionally, IHC detects cell-typic markers that characterize cell phenotypes, such as chromogranin for neuroectodermal tissue, myogenin for skeletal muscle, and cytokeratin for epithelium. However, the advent of genetic discoveries have led to IHC testing for detection of fusion gene products or overexpressed oncogenes associated with deletions and mutations. Proliferation-based markers such as Ki-67 can also be used for prognosis and grading, but more standardization is needed. Development of monoclonal antibody-based pharmaceuticals, such as imatinib or crizotinib, holds the promise of tailored anticancer therapy. IHC thus has assumed importance not only for diagnosis but also for guidance of personalized medicine. PMID:26549970

  18. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C; Snelling, W M

    2015-02-01

    Flight speed is a predictive indicator of cattle temperament and is associated with feed efficiency phenotypes. Genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with selection of calmer animals with improved economic value. A preliminary genome-wide association study determined chromosomal regions on BTA9, and 17 were associated with flight speed. The genes quaking (QKI), glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 (GRIA2) and glycine receptor β (GLRB) were identified in these regions as potential functional candidates. Beef steers (n = 1057) were genotyped with SNPs located within and flanking these genes. One SNP located near QKI and one near GRIA2 were nominally associated with flight speed (P ≤ 0.05) although neither was significant after Bonferroni correction. Several studies have shown a correlation between flight speed and feed intake or gain; therefore, we also analyzed SNPs on BTA6:38-39 Mb known to be associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) for association with flight speed. Several SNPs on BTA6 were associated with flight speed (P ≤ 0.005), and three were significant after Bonferroni correction. These results suggest that the genes tested are unlikely to contribute to flight speed variation for our cattle population, but SNPs on BTA6 associated with ADG and ADFI may influence temperament. Use of these markers to select for economically important feed efficiency phenotypes may produce cattle with more desirable temperaments. PMID:25515066

  19. Genetic variation in a wild population of the 'sleep' passion fruit (Passiflora setacea) based on molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Santos, E S L; Conceição, L D H C S; Cardoso-Silva, C B; Pereira, A S; Oliveira, A C; Corrêa, R X

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular genetic diversity of most Passiflora species. We used RAPD markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of 24 genotypes of the 'sleep' passion fruit (Passiflora setacea). Twelve primers generated 95 markers, 88% of which were polymorphic. The genetic distance estimated by the complement of the Dice index ranged from 0.29 (among accessions Ps-G1 and Ps-G13) to 0.69 (among accessions Ps-G21 and Ps-G23). Genotype grouping based on the UPGMA algorithm showed considerable variability among genotypes. We conclude that P. setacea has a broad genetic base that could be exploited in breeding programs. PMID:22576831

  20. Contrasting soil fungal community responses to experimental nitrogen addition using the large subunit rRNA taxonomic marker and cellobiohydrolase I functional marker.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Balasch, Monica M; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2014-09-01

    Human activities have resulted in increased nitrogen inputs into terrestrial ecosystems, but the impact of nitrogen on ecosystem function, such as nutrient cycling, will depend at least in part on the response of soil fungal communities. We examined the response of soil fungi to experimental nitrogen addition in a loblolly pine forest (North Carolina, USA) using a taxonomic marker (large subunit rDNA, LSU) and a functional marker involved in a critical step of cellulose degradation (cellobiohydrolase, cbhI) at five time points that spanned fourteen months. Sampling date had no impact on fungal community richness or composition for either gene. Based on the LSU, nitrogen addition led to increased fungal community richness, reduced relative abundance of fungi in the phylum Basidiomycota and altered community composition; however, similar shifts were not observed with cbhI. Fungal community dissimilarity of the LSU and cbhI genes was significantly correlated in the ambient plots, but not in nitrogen-amended plots, suggesting either functional redundancy of fungi with the cbhI gene or shifts in other functional groups in response to nitrogen addition. To determine whether sequence similarity of cbhI could be predicted based on taxonomic relatedness of fungi, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of publically available cbhI sequences from known isolates and found that for a subset of isolates, similar cbhI genes were found within distantly related fungal taxa. Together, these findings suggest that taxonomic shifts in the total fungal community do not necessarily result in changes in the functional diversity of fungi. PMID:25039479

  1. Genetic Variability and Geographic Diversity of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Populations from the Midwest Using Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Narain, Ralph B; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Kamble, Shripat T

    2015-07-01

    With the recent global resurgence of the bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), there is a need to better understand its biology, ecology, and ability to establish populations. Bed bugs are domestic pests that feed mainly on mammalian blood. Although bed bugs have not been implicated as vectors of pathogens, their biting activity inflicts severe insomnia and allergic reactions. Moreover, they have recently developed resistance to various insecticides, which requires further molecular research to determine genetic variation and appropriate interventions. Population dynamics, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance of 10 populations from the Midwest were analyzed in this study. The bed bug samples collected by pest control companies were genotyped using eight species-specific microsatellite markers. Results showed all eight markers were polymorphic, with 8-16 alleles per locus, suggesting high genetic diversity. The FST values were >0.25, signifying pronounced genetic differentiation. The G-test results also indicated high genetic differentiation among populations. The frequency of the most common allele across all eight loci was 0.42. The coefficient of relatedness between each of the populations was >0.5, indicative of sibling or parent-offspring relationships, while the FIS and its confidence interval values were statistically insignificant within the populations tested. The populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly because of high heterozygosity. The genetic distance analysis using a neighbor-joining tree showed that the populations from Kansas City, MO, were genetically separate from most of those from Nebraska, indicating a geographic pattern of genetic structure. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of using microsatellite markers to study bed bugs population structure, thereby improving our understanding of bed bug population dynamics in the Midwest. Overall, this study showed a high genetic diversity and identified several

  2. [Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1999-04-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people

  3. Massive Sorghum Collection Genotyped with SSR Markers to Enhance Use of Global Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Chantereau, Jacques; Deu, Monique; Gardes, Laetitia; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Rami, Jean-François; Rivallan, Ronan; Li, Yu; Lu, Ping; Wang, Tianyu; Folkertsma, Rolf T.; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Hash, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Large ex situ collections require approaches for sampling manageable amounts of germplasm for in-depth characterization and use. We present here a large diversity survey in sorghum with 3367 accessions and 41 reference nuclear SSR markers. Of 19 alleles on average per locus, the largest numbers of alleles were concentrated in central and eastern Africa. Cultivated sorghum appeared structured according to geographic regions and race within region. A total of 13 groups of variable size were distinguished. The peripheral groups in western Africa, southern Africa and eastern Asia were the most homogeneous and clearly differentiated. Except for Kafir, there was little correspondence between races and marker-based groups. Bicolor, Caudatum, Durra and Guinea types were each dispersed in three groups or more. Races should therefore better be referred to as morphotypes. Wild and weedy accessions were very diverse and scattered among cultivated samples, reinforcing the idea that large gene-flow exists between the different compartments. Our study provides an entry to global sorghum germplasm collections. Our reference marker kit can serve to aggregate additional studies and enhance international collaboration. We propose a core reference set in order to facilitate integrated phenotyping experiments towards refined functional understanding of sorghum diversity. PMID:23565161

  4. Genetic Linkage Maps of Eucalyptus Grandis and Eucalyptus Urophylla Using a Pseudo-Testcross: Mapping Strategy and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Sederoff, R.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a ``two-way pseudo-testcross'' mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F(1) progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, θ = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support >/=1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organism. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  5. Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Uroshlev, Leonid A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Koroban, Nadezda V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Guzenko, Elena V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Savilova, Anastasya M.; Rachinskaia, Olga A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Muravenko, Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity of Laeliinae (Orchidaceae) in the State of Sergipe using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Santos, M S; Blank, A F; Rabbani, A R C; Silva-Mann, R; Santos, J B; Costa, A S; Menezes, T S A

    2016-01-01

    The Orchidaceae represent one of the largest and most diverse families on the planet. However, this family is constantly threatened by predators and by the advancement of urban centers over its natural habitats. The objective of this study was to use inter-simple sequence repeat markers to evaluate the genetic diversity between orchid accessions of the Laeliinae subtribe, which comprise part of the Orchidaceae study collection at the Department of Agronomic Engineering of the Federal University of Sergipe. DNA was extracted from each specimen by using an adapted 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide protocol. Similarity between individuals was calculated using the Jaccard method. Clustering was carried out by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method, with resampling and 10,000 bootstraps. Eighty-seven fragments were obtained, all of which were polymorphic, revealing high variability between accessions. The mean similarity was 35.77% between Encyclia sp individuals, and 35.90% between specimens of Cattleya tigrina. For Epidendrum secundum, a relationship between geographic and genetic distances was observed, and the accession collected in the southern part of the State of Sergipe (Serra de Itabaiana National Park) was more divergent than that of the other parts of the state. The data generated in this study will guide further research aimed at the ex situ conservation of these materials. PMID:27323130

  7. Limitations to estimating bacterial cross-speciestransmission using genetic and genomic markers: inferencesfrom simulation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julio Andre, Benavides; Cross, Paul C.; Luikart, Gordon; Scott, Creel

    2014-01-01

    Cross-species transmission (CST) of bacterial pathogens has major implications for human health, livestock, and wildlife management because it determines whether control actions in one species may have subsequent effects on other potential host species. The study of bacterial transmission has benefitted from methods measuring two types of genetic variation: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unclear whether these data can distinguish between different epidemiological scenarios. We used a simulation model with two host species and known transmission rates (within and between species) to evaluate the utility of these markers for inferring CST. We found that CST estimates are biased for a wide range of parameters when based on VNTRs and a most parsimonious reconstructed phylogeny. However, estimations of CST rates lower than 5% can be achieved with relatively low bias using as low as 250 SNPs. CST estimates are sensitive to several parameters, including the number of mutations accumulated since introduction, stochasticity, the genetic difference of strains introduced, and the sampling effort. Our results suggest that, even with whole-genome sequences, unbiased estimates of CST will be difficult when sampling is limited, mutation rates are low, or for pathogens that were recently introduced.

  8. Genetic markers for antioxidant capacity in a reef-building coral

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Young K.; Lundgren, Petra; Lutz, Adrian; Raina, Jean-Baptiste; Howells, Emily J.; Paley, Allison S.; Willis, Bette L.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The current lack of understanding of the genetic basis underlying environmental stress tolerance in reef-building corals impairs the development of new management approaches to confronting the global demise of coral reefs. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), an approximately 51% decline in coral cover occurred over the period 1985–2012. We conducted a gene-by-environment association analysis across 12° latitude on the GBR, as well as both in situ and laboratory genotype-by-phenotype association analyses. These analyses allowed us to identify alleles at two genetic loci that account for differences in environmental stress tolerance and antioxidant capacity in the common coral Acropora millepora. The effect size for antioxidant capacity was considerable and biologically relevant (32.5 and 14.6% for the two loci). Antioxidant capacity is a critical component of stress tolerance because a multitude of environmental stressors cause increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Our findings provide the first step toward the development of novel coral reef management approaches, such as spatial mapping of stress tolerance for use in marine protected area design, identification of stress-tolerant colonies for assisted migration, and marker-assisted selective breeding to create more tolerant genotypes for restoration of denuded reefs. PMID:27386515

  9. Genetic analysis of attenuation markers of cold-adapted X-31 influenza live vaccine donor strain.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yo Han; Jung, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Byun, Young Ho; Yang, Seung Won; Seong, Baik Lin

    2016-03-01

    Cold-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) have been considered as a safe prophylactic measure to prevent influenza virus infections. The safety of a CAIV depends largely on genetic markers that confer specific attenuation phenotypes. Previous studies with other CAIVs reported that polymerase genes were primarily responsible for the attenuation. Here, we analyzed the genetic mutations and their phenotypic contribution in the X-31 ca strain, a recently developed alternative CAIV donor strain. During the cold-adaptation of its parental X-31 virus, various numbers of sequence changes were accumulated in all six internal genes. Phenotypic analysis with single-gene and multiple-gene reassortant viruses suggests that NP gene makes the largest contribution to the cold-adapted (ca) and temperature-sensitive (ts) characters, while the remaining other internal genes also impart attenuation characters with varying degrees. A balanced contribution of all internal genes to the attenuation suggests that X-31 ca could serve as an ideal master donor strain for CAIVs preventing influenza epidemics and pandemics. PMID:26851733

  10. The life of the gay gene: from hypothetical genetic marker to social reality.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The gay gene was first identified in 1993 as a correlation between the genetic marker Xq28 and gay male sexuality. The results of this original study were never replicated, and the biological reality of such an entity remains hypothetical. However, despite such tenuous provenance, the gay gene has persisted as a reference in science news, popular science writings, and in press releases and editorials about biomedical research. An examination of the life of the gay gene in U.K. news media demonstrates that the gay gene has become an assumed back-story to genetic sexuality research over time, and that the critique of its very existence has been diminished. Latterly, the gay gene has entered into the online biomedical databases of the 21st century with the same pattern of persistence and diminishing critique. This article draws on an analysis of the U.K. press and online databases to represent the process through which the address of the gay gene has shifted and become an index of biomedicalization. The consequent unmooring of the gay gene from accountability and accuracy demonstrates that the organization of biomedical databases could benefit from greater cross-disciplinary attention. PMID:22720828

  11. Genetic markers for antioxidant capacity in a reef-building coral.

    PubMed

    Jin, Young K; Lundgren, Petra; Lutz, Adrian; Raina, Jean-Baptiste; Howells, Emily J; Paley, Allison S; Willis, Bette L; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2016-05-01

    The current lack of understanding of the genetic basis underlying environmental stress tolerance in reef-building corals impairs the development of new management approaches to confronting the global demise of coral reefs. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), an approximately 51% decline in coral cover occurred over the period 1985-2012. We conducted a gene-by-environment association analysis across 12° latitude on the GBR, as well as both in situ and laboratory genotype-by-phenotype association analyses. These analyses allowed us to identify alleles at two genetic loci that account for differences in environmental stress tolerance and antioxidant capacity in the common coral Acropora millepora. The effect size for antioxidant capacity was considerable and biologically relevant (32.5 and 14.6% for the two loci). Antioxidant capacity is a critical component of stress tolerance because a multitude of environmental stressors cause increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Our findings provide the first step toward the development of novel coral reef management approaches, such as spatial mapping of stress tolerance for use in marine protected area design, identification of stress-tolerant colonies for assisted migration, and marker-assisted selective breeding to create more tolerant genotypes for restoration of denuded reefs. PMID:27386515

  12. Genetic introgression and species boundary of two geographically overlapping pine species revealed by molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

  13. Retrotransposon-based molecular markers for analysis of genetic diversity within the Genus Linum.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Lakunina, Valentina A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Speranskaya, Anna S; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Koroban, Nadezda V; Amosova, Alexandra V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Guzenko, Elena V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Savilova, Anastasya M; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Muravenko, Olga V

    2014-01-01

    SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

  14. Genetic markers for PTSD risk and resilience among survivors of the World Trade Center attacks.

    PubMed

    Sarapas, Casey; Cai, Guiqing; Bierer, Linda M; Golier, Julia A; Galea, Sandro; Ising, Marcus; Rein, Theo; Schmeidler, James; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported the differential expression of 17 probe sets in survivors of the 9/11 attacks with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to similarly exposed survivors with no lifetime PTSD. The current study presents an expanded analysis of these subjects, including genotype at FKBP5, a modulator of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity. It includes data from additional subjects who developed PTSD following 9/11 but then recovered, distinguishing expression profiles associated with risk for developing PTSD, resilience, and symptom recovery. 40 Caucasians (20 with and 20 without PTSD, matched for exposure, age, and gender) were selected from a population-representative sample of persons exposed to the 9/11 attacks from which longitudinal data had been collected in four previous waves. Whole blood gene expression and cortisol levels were obtained and genome-wide gene expression was analyzed. 25 probe sets were differentially expressed in PTSD. Identified genes were generally involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, signal transduction, or in brain and immune cell function. STAT5B, a direct inhibitor of GR, and nuclear factor I/A, both showed reduced expression in PTSD. Comparison of lifetime versus current PTSD identified overlapping genes with altered expression suggesting enduring markers, while some markers present only in current PTSD may reflect state measures. As a follow-up, direct comparisons of expression in current PTSD, lifetime-only PTSD, and control groups identified FKBP5 and MHC Class II as state markers, and also identified several trait markers. An analysis of indirect effects revealed that homozygosity for any of 4 PTSD risk-related polymorphisms at FKBP5 predicted FKBP5 expression, which mediated indirect effects of genotype on plasma cortisol and PTSD severity. PMID:21508514

  15. Genetic Diversity of Five Local Swedish Chicken Breeds Detected by Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Abiye Shenkut; Mikko, Sofia; Johansson, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of 110 local Swedish chickens derived from five breeds (Gotlandshöna, Hedemorahöna, Öländsk dvärghöna, Skånsk blommehöna, and Bohuslän- Dals svarthöna, in the rest of the paper the shorter name Svarthöna is used) using 24 microsatellite markers. In total, one hundred thirteen alleles were detected in all populations, with a mean of 4.7 alleles per locus. For the five chicken breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.225 to 0.408 and from 0.231 to 0.515, with the lowest scores for the Svarthöna and the highest scores for the Skånsk blommehöna breeds, respectively. Similarly, the average within breed molecular kinship varied from 0.496 to 0.745, showing high coancestry, with Skånsk blommehöna having the lowest and Svarthöna the highest coancestry. Furthermore, all breeds showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Across the five breeds, the global heterozygosity deficit (FIT) was 0.545, population differentiation index (FST) was 0.440, and the global inbreeding of individuals within breed (FIS) was 0.187. The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed two main clusters, with Hedemorahöna and Öländsk dvärghöna breeds in one cluster, and Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds in the second cluster leaving the Skånsk blommehöna in the middle. Based on the results of the STRUCTURE analysis, the most likely number of clustering of the five breeds was at K = 4, with Hedemorahöna, Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds forming their own distinct clusters, while Öländsk dvärghöna and Skånsk blommehöna breeds clustered together. Losses in the overall genetic diversity of local Swedish chickens due to breeds extinction varied from -1.46% to -6.723%. The results

  16. Genetic biodiversity of Italian olives (Olea europaea) germplasm analyzed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

  17. [Markers for non-invasive molecular genetic diagnosis of oncourological diseases].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlenko, D S; Perepechin, D V; Apolikhin, O I; Efremov, G D; Sivkov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is accumulated mass of data on the molecular-genetic disorders in prostate cancer (PCa), bladder cancer (BC) and renal cancer (RC). Tumor cells in these diseases are present in the urine sediment; their number is sufficient for molecular genetic analysis that makes possible the development of noninvasive diagnosis of oncourological diseases. A characteristic feature of PCa includes the overexpression of the PCA3 gene; assay kit Progensa™ to quantify such overexpression has been developed; approximately 50% of tumors express a TMPRSS2-ERG chimeric oncogene. Combined analysis of PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG allows to detect PCa with a diagnostic accuracy of 84%, which is significantly higher than that of prostate specific antigen test. As a potential markers of BC, there are somatic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, TERT genes in urine sediment, which are found in this disease with a frequency of about 60, 30 and 50%, respectively. The basis of the test system for DNA diagnosis of BC in urine sediment may include a definition of a combination of mutations in these genes with microsatellite instability. Aberrant methylation of the 5'-regulatory regions of tumor suppressor genes, integrated in the panel, also is considered as a tool in the diagnosis of RC (VHL, RASSF1, RARB2, CDH1), PCa (GSTP1, PTGS2, LGALS3) and BC (RASSF1, APC, SFRP2) after standardization of panels of loci investigated, sample preparation methods, bisulfite conversion, and the design of primers and probes. Thus, a test systems for molecular genetic diagnosis of oncourological diseases in urine sediment are currently available or may be developed in the near future. PMID:25807773

  18. Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

  19. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    PubMed

    Smýkal, P; Bačová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M

    2011-05-01

    Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics. PMID:21293839

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variant at HVI region as a candidate of genetic markers of type 2 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumilar, Gun Gun; Purnamasari, Yunita; Setiadi, Rahmat

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maternally inherited. mtDNA mutations which can contribute to the excess of maternal inheritance of type 2 diabetes. Due to the high mutation rate, one of the areas in the mtDNA that is often associated with the disease is the hypervariable region I (HVI). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the genetic variants of human mtDNA HVI that related to the type 2 diabetes in four samples that were taken from four generations in one lineage. Steps being taken include the lyses of hair follicles, amplification of mtDNA HVI fragment using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), detection of PCR products through agarose gel electrophoresis technique, the measurement of the concentration of mtDNA using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, determination of the nucleotide sequence via direct sequencing method and analysis of the sequencing results using SeqMan DNASTAR program. Based on the comparison between nucleotide sequence of samples and revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) obtained six same mutations that these are C16147T, T16189C, C16193del, T16127C, A16235G, and A16293C. After comparing the data obtained to the secondary data from Mitomap and NCBI, it were found that two mutations, T16189C and T16217C, become candidates as genetic markers of type 2 diabetes even the mutations were found also in the generations of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. The results of this study are expected to give contribution to the collection of human mtDNA database of genetic variants that associated to metabolic diseases, so that in the future it can be utilized in various fields, especially in medicine.

  1. Assessment of Genetic Markers for Tracking the Sources of Human Wastewater Associated Escherichia coli in Environmental Waters.

    PubMed

    Warish, Ahmed; Triplett, Cheryl; Gomi, Ryota; Gyawali, Pradip; Hodgers, Leonie; Toze, Simon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the performance characteristics (host-specificity and -sensitivity) of four human wastewater-associated Escherichia coli (E. coli) genetic markers (H8, H12, H14, and H24) in 10 target (human) and nontarget (cat, cattle, deer, dog, emu, goat, horse, kangaroo, and possum) host groups in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The overall host-sensitivity values of the tested markers in human wastewater samples were 1.0 (all human wastewater samples contained the E. coli genetic markers). The overall host-specificity values of these markers to differentiate between human and animal host groups were 0.94, 0.85, 0.72, and 0.57 for H8, H12, H24, and H14, respectively. Based on the higher host-specificity values, H8 and H12 markers were chosen for a validation environmental study. The prevalence of the H8 and H12 markers was determined among human wastewater E. coli isolates collected from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Among the 97 isolates tested, 44 (45%) and 14 (14%) were positive for the H8 and H12 markers, respectively. A total of 307 E. coli isolates were tested from environmental water samples collected in Brisbane, of which 7% and 20% were also positive for the H8 and H12 markers, respectively. Based on our results, we recommend that these markers could be useful when it is important to identify the source(s) of E. coli (whether they originated from human wastewater or not) in environmental waters. PMID:26151092

  2. Genetic interactions contribute less than additive effects to quantitative trait variation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Kotenko, Iulia; Sadhu, Meru J.; Treusch, Sebastian; Albert, Frank W.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping studies of quantitative traits typically focus on detecting loci that contribute additively to trait variation. Genetic interactions are often proposed as a contributing factor to trait variation, but the relative contribution of interactions to trait variation is a subject of debate. Here we use a very large cross between two yeast strains to accurately estimate the fraction of phenotypic variance due to pairwise QTL–QTL interactions for 20 quantitative traits. We find that this fraction is 9% on average, substantially less than the contribution of additive QTL (43%). Statistically significant QTL–QTL pairs typically have small individual effect sizes, but collectively explain 40% of the pairwise interaction variance. We show that pairwise interaction variance is largely explained by pairs of loci at least one of which has a significant additive effect. These results refine our understanding of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and help guide future mapping studies. PMID:26537231

  3. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity and Molecular Marker-Trait Association Analysis for High Temperature Stress Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Saumya Ranjan; Sahoo, Ambika; Mohapatra, Sudipti; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Mahender, Anumalla; Meher, Jitandriya; Anandan, Annamalai

    2016-01-01

    Rice exhibits enormous genetic diversity, population structure and molecular marker-traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance to high temperature stress. A set of breeding lines and landraces representing 240 germplasm lines were studied. Based on spikelet fertility percent under high temperature, tolerant genotypes were broadly classified into four classes. Genetic diversity indicated a moderate level of genetic base of the population for the trait studied. Wright’s F statistic estimates showed a deviation of Hardy-Weinberg expectation in the population. The analysis of molecular variance revealed 25 percent variation between population, 61 percent among individuals and 14 percent within individuals in the set. The STRUCTURE analysis categorized the entire population into three sub-populations and suggested that most of the landraces in each sub-population had a common primary ancestor with few admix individuals. The composition of materials in the panel showed the presence of many QTLs representing the entire genome for the expression of tolerance. The strongly associated marker RM547 tagged with spikelet fertility under stress and the markers like RM228, RM205, RM247, RM242, INDEL3 and RM314 indirectly controlling the high temperature stress tolerance were detected through both mixed linear model and general linear model TASSEL analysis. These markers can be deployed as a resource for marker-assisted breeding program of high temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27494320

  4. Ricebase: a breeding and genetics platform for rice, integrating individual molecular markers, pedigrees and whole-genome-based data

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J. D.; Baldo, A. M.; Mueller, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ricebase (http://ricebase.org) is an integrative genomic database for rice (Oryza sativa) with an emphasis on combining datasets in a way that maintains the key links between past and current genetic studies. Ricebase includes DNA sequence data, gene annotations, nucleotide variation data and molecular marker fragment size data. Rice research has benefited from early adoption and extensive use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers; however, the majority of rice SSR markers were developed prior to the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. Interpretation of new research using SNPs in the context of literature citing SSRs requires a common coordinate system. A new pipeline, using a stepwise relaxation of stringency, was used to map SSR primers onto the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. The SSR markers and experimentally assayed amplicon sizes are presented in a relational database with a web-based front end, and are available as a track loaded in a genome browser with links connecting the browser and database. The combined capabilities of Ricebase link genetic markers, genome context, allele states across rice germplasm and potentially user curated phenotypic interpretations as a community resource for genetic discovery and breeding in rice. PMID:27515824

  5. Utilization of RAPD markers to assess genetic diversity of wild populations of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium).

    PubMed

    Lim, Wansang; Mudge, Kenneth W; Weston, Leslie A

    2007-01-01

    The Catskill Mountains of New York State are an important source of wild-collected American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) and, increasingly, of woods-cultivated ginseng. The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 9 different wild ginseng populations in and adjacent to the Catskill Mountain region of New York State and to compare these to wild populations from other states including Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and one cultivated population from Wisconsin. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate the genetic distance among samples from the 15 populations. Pooled DNA from 10 plants of each of 8 New York populations was initially screened with 64 random primers; subsequently, the 15 primers that exhibited the greatest number of reproducible polymorphic markers were selected for further experimentation. Gel electrophoresis with the selected 15 primers produced 124 highly reproducible polymorphic bands. The ratio of discordant bands to total bands scored was used to estimate the genetic distance within and among populations. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) of the relation matrix showed distinctly separate clusters between New York and non-New York populations, indicating separation between these two groupings. The MDS analysis was confirmed using pooled chi-square tests for fragment homogeneity. This study shows that RAPD markers can be used as population-specific markers for Panax quinquefolium, and may eventually be utilized as markers for ginsenoside assessment. PMID:17315311

  6. Ricebase: a breeding and genetics platform for rice, integrating individual molecular markers, pedigrees and whole-genome-based data.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J D; Baldo, A M; Mueller, L A

    2016-01-01

    Ricebase (http://ricebase.org) is an integrative genomic database for rice (Oryza sativa) with an emphasis on combining datasets in a way that maintains the key links between past and current genetic studies. Ricebase includes DNA sequence data, gene annotations, nucleotide variation data and molecular marker fragment size data. Rice research has benefited from early adoption and extensive use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers; however, the majority of rice SSR markers were developed prior to the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. Interpretation of new research using SNPs in the context of literature citing SSRs requires a common coordinate system. A new pipeline, using a stepwise relaxation of stringency, was used to map SSR primers onto the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. The SSR markers and experimentally assayed amplicon sizes are presented in a relational database with a web-based front end, and are available as a track loaded in a genome browser with links connecting the browser and database. The combined capabilities of Ricebase link genetic markers, genome context, allele states across rice germplasm and potentially user curated phenotypic interpretations as a community resource for genetic discovery and breeding in rice. PMID:27515824

  7. A sequence-based genetic map of Medicago truncatula and comparison of marker colinearity with M. sativa.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Dongjin; Uhm, Taesik; Limpens, Eric; Lim, Hyunju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kalo, Peter; Penmetsa, R Varma; Seres, Andrea; Kulikova, Olga; Roe, Bruce A; Bisseling, Ton; Kiss, Gyorgy B; Cook, Douglas R

    2004-01-01

    A core genetic map of the legume Medicago truncatula has been established by analyzing the segregation of 288 sequence-characterized genetic markers in an F(2) population composed of 93 individuals. These molecular markers correspond to 141 ESTs, 80 BAC end sequence tags, and 67 resistance gene analogs, covering 513 cM. In the case of EST-based markers we used an intron-targeted marker strategy with primers designed to anneal in conserved exon regions and to amplify across intron regions. Polymorphisms were significantly more frequent in intron vs. exon regions, thus providing an efficient mechanism to map transcribed genes. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis produced eight well-resolved linkage groups, which have been previously correlated with eight chromosomes by means of FISH with mapped BAC clones. We anticipated that mapping of conserved coding regions would have utility for comparative mapping among legumes; thus 60 of the EST-based primer pairs were designed to amplify orthologous sequences across a range of legume species. As an initial test of this strategy, we used primers designed against M. truncatula exon sequences to rapidly map genes in M. sativa. The resulting comparative map, which includes 68 bridging markers, indicates that the two Medicago genomes are highly similar and establishes the basis for a Medicago composite map. PMID:15082563

  8. High-density genetic and physical mapping of DNA markers near the X-linked Alport syndrome locus: definition and use of flanking polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Barker, D F; Fain, P R; Goldgar, D E; Dietz-Band, J N; Turco, A E; Kashtan, C E; Gregory, M C; Tryggvason, K; Skolnick, M H; Atkin, C L

    1991-12-01

    To refine the genetic and physical mapping of the locus for Alport syndrome (ATS), 22 X-chromosome restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers that fall between Xq21.3 and Xq25 were tested for genetic linkage with the disease and also mapped with respect to a series of physical breakpoints in this region. The location of the COL4A5 gene, which has recently been shown to be mutated in at least some families with Alport syndrome, was determined with respect to the same physical breakpoints. Two large Utah kindreds were included in the genetic studies, kindreds P and C, with 125 and 63 potentially informative meioses, respectively. Both kindreds have essentially identical nephritis; however, kindred P has sensorineural hearing loss associated with the nephritis, while kindred C does not. A mutation in COL4A5 has been demonstrated for kindred P, but no change in this gene has yet been detected for kindred C. Twelve informative probes did not recombine with the disease locus in either kindred (theta = 0.0, with combined lod scores for the two kindreds ranging from 7.7 to 30.0). The closest markers that could be demonstrated to flank the disease locus were the same for each kindred and thus the locations of the mutations causing the two disease phenotypes are not distinguishable at the current level of genetic resolution. The flanking markers are also useful for the resolution of questionable diagnoses and allow accurate estimates for these families of the rate of sporadic hematuria in noncarrier females (7%) and the penetrance of hematuria for carrier females (93%). PMID:1684566

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity and pedigree within crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity was estimated for 93 crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars (51 L. indica cultivars, 5 L. fauriei cultivars, and 37 interspecific hybrids) using 78 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR loci were highly variable among the cultivars, detecting an average of 6.6 alleles per l...

  10. Using microsatellite DNA markers to determine the genetic identity of parental clones used in the Louisiana sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane propagates asexually through vegetative cuttings. To validate the genetic identity of sugarcane clones during shipping and handling, we produced molecular fingerprints based on 21 microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers for 116 Louisiana parental clones that were included in the crossing program...

  11. Genetic diversity and relationship among faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm entries as revealed by TRAP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and relationship among 151 world-wide collected faba bean (Vicia faba L.) entries (137 accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA, two commercial varieties and 12 elite cultivars and advanced breedi...

  12. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) for assessing genetic diversity and marker-trait associations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.) germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of crop diversity held in genebanks is dependent on knowledge of useful traits including those identified genotypically. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and relationship among a sample of 263 chickpea landrace germplasm ...

  13. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  14. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  15. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from the mango (Mangiferaindica) transcriptome for mapping and estimation of genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of resources for genomic studies in Mangifera indica (mango) will allow marker-assisted selection and identification of genetically diverse germplasm, greatly aiding mango breeding programs. We report here a first step in developing such resources, our identification of thousands una...

  16. Efficient marker-free recovery of custom genetic modifications with CRISPR/Cas9 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Bell, Ryan T; Fu, Becky X H; Artiles, Karen L; Hartman, Phil S; Fire, Andrew Z

    2014-11-01

    Facilitated by recent advances using CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing technologies now permit custom genetic modifications in a wide variety of organisms. Ideally, modified animals could be both efficiently made and easily identified with minimal initial screening and without introducing exogenous sequence at the locus of interest or marker mutations elsewhere. To this end, we describe a coconversion strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9 in which screening for a dominant phenotypic oligonucleotide-templated conversion event at one locus can be used to enrich for custom modifications at another unlinked locus. After the desired mutation is identified among the F1 progeny heterozygous for the dominant marker mutation, F2 animals that have lost the marker mutation are picked to obtain the desired mutation in an unmarked genetic background. We have developed such a coconversion strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans, using a number of dominant phenotypic markers. Examining the coconversion at a second (unselected) locus of interest in the marked F1 animals, we observed that 14-84% of screened animals showed homologous recombination. By reconstituting the unmarked background through segregation of the dominant marker mutation at each step, we show that custom modification events can be carried out recursively, enabling multiple mutant animals to be made. While our initial choice of a coconversion marker [rol-6(su1006)] was readily applicable in a single round of coconversion, the genetic properties of this locus were not optimal in that CRISPR-mediated deletion mutations at the unselected rol-6 locus can render a fraction of coconverted strains recalcitrant to further rounds of similar mutagenesis. An optimal marker in this sense would provide phenotypic distinctions between the desired mutant/+ class and alternative +/+, mutant/null, null/null, and null/+ genotypes. Reviewing dominant alleles from classical C. elegans genetics, we identified one mutation in dpy-10 and one mutation in

  17. Isolation and characterization of genomic microsatellite markers for small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) for utility in genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Cyriac, Anu; Paul, Ritto; Anupama, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Sheeja, T E; Nirmal Babu, K; Parthasarathy, V A

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellite markers in small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) were developed using the selective hybridization enrichment method. A total of 140 microsatellite repeats were identified from 270 clones. Primers were designed for 58 microsatellites and 44 primer pairs amplified products of expected size in cardamom. These markers were used for studying the diversity of 20 important small cardamom genotypes, and six markers were found to be polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 with an average of 3.6 per locus. Polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 based on dominant scoring. The two markers ECM 47a and ECMG 28 generated specific banding patterns for the genotypes MCC7 (Pink tiller) and APG434 (MA18) respectively. Dendrogram illustrated the genetic similarity between different genotypes of Kerala and Karnataka regions. It differentiated the closely related genotypes and released varieties into separate groups. Principal coordinate analysis revealed PV1 and ICRI 1 as the most divergent genotypes. The study demonstrated that these markers are informative and can be further utilized for generating reliable molecular data for assisting the crop improvement of small cardamom. Cross generic transferability (71.4 %) of the developed primers proved that they are useful for phylogenetic studies in the family Zingiberaceae. This is the first report of de novo isolation, characterisation and utilization of microsatellite markers for the genetic diversity analysis of small cardamom. PMID:27436913

  18. Analysis of a Detailed Genetic Linkage Map of Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce) Constructed from RFLP and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kesseli, R. V.; Paran, I.; Michelmore, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed genetic map has been constructed from the F(2) population of a single intraspecific cross of Lactuca sativa (n = 9). It comprises 319 loci, including 152 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 130 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 7 isozyme, 19 disease resistance, and 11 morphological markers. Thirteen major, four minor linkage groups and several unlinked markers are identified for this genome which is estimated to be approximately 1950 cM. RFLP and RAPD markers show similar distributions throughout the genome and identified similar levels of polymorphism. RAPD loci were much quicker to identify but more difficult to order. Procedures for generating accurate genetic maps and their limitations are described. PMID:7912217

  19. Induction, by thymidylate stress, of genetic recombination as evidenced by deletion of a transferred genetic marker in mouse FM3A cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ayusawa, D.; Koyama, H.; Shimizu, K.; Kaneda, S.; Takeishi, K.; Seno, T.

    1986-10-01

    Studies were made on the genetic consequences of methotrexate-directed thymidylate stress, focusing attention on a human thymidylate synthase gene that was introduced as a heterologous genetic marker into mouse thymidylate synthase-negative mutant cells. Thymidylate stress induced thymidylate synthase-negative segregants with concomitant loss of human thymidylate synthase activity with frequencies 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the uninduced spontaneous level in some but not all transformant lines. Induction of the segregants was suppressed almost completely by cycloheximide and partially by caffeine. Thymidylate stress did not, however, induce mutations, as determined by measuring resistance to ouabain or 6-thioguanine. Thymidylate synthase-negative segregants were also induced by other means such as bromodeoxyuridine treatment and X-ray irradiation. In each of the synthase-negative segregants induced by thymidylate stress, a DNA segment including almost the whole coding region of the transferred human thymidylate synthase gene was deleted in a very specific manner, as shown by Southern blot analysis with a human Alu sequence and a human thymidylate synthase cDNA as probes. In the segregants that emerged spontaneously at low frequency, the entire transferred genetic marker was lost. In the segregants induced by X-ray irradiation, structural alterations of the genetic marker were random. These results show that thymidylate stress is a physiological factor that provokes the instability of this exogenously incorporated DNA in some specific manner and produces nonrandom genetic recombination in mammalian cells.

  20. Genetic Mapping of Brain Plasticity Across Development in Williams Syndrome: ERP Markers of Face and Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Mills, D. L.; Dai, L.; Fishman, I.; Yam, A.; Appelbaum, L. G.; Galaburda, A.; Bellugi, U.; Korenberg, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    In Williams Syndrome (WS), a known genetic deletion results in atypical brain function with strengths in face and language processing. We examined how genetic influences on brain activity change with development. In three studies, ERPs from large samples of children, adolescents, and adults with the full genetic deletion for WS were compared to typically developing controls, and two adults with partial deletions for WS. Studies 1 and 2 identified ERP markers of brain plasticity in WS across development. Study 3 suggested that in adults with partial deletions for WS, specific genes may be differentially implicated in face and language processing. PMID:24219698

  1. Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are early onset neurodevelopmental syndromes typified by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, accompanied by restricted and repetitive behaviors. While rare and especially de novo genetic variation are known to affect liability, whether common genetic polymorphism plays a substantial role is an open question and the relative contribution of genes and environment is contentious. It is probable that the relative contributions of rare and common variation, as well as environment, differs between ASD families having only a single affected individual (simplex) versus multiplex families who have two or more affected individuals. Methods By using quantitative genetics techniques and the contrast of ASD subjects to controls, we estimate what portion of liability can be explained by additive genetic effects, known as narrow-sense heritability. We evaluate relatives of ASD subjects using the same methods to evaluate the assumptions of the additive model and partition families by simplex/multiplex status to determine how heritability changes with status. Results By analyzing common variation throughout the genome, we show that common genetic polymorphism exerts substantial additive genetic effects on ASD liability and that simplex/multiplex family status has an impact on the identified composition of that risk. As a fraction of the total variation in liability, the estimated narrow-sense heritability exceeds 60% for ASD individuals from multiplex families and is approximately 40% for simplex families. By analyzing parents, unaffected siblings and alleles not transmitted from parents to their affected children, we conclude that the data for simplex ASD families follow the expectation for additive models closely. The data from multiplex families deviate somewhat from an additive model, possibly due to parental assortative mating. Conclusions Our results, when viewed in the context of results from genome

  2. [Genetic variability and differentiation of three Russian populations of yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis as revealed by nuclear markers].

    PubMed

    Khrisanfova, G G; Kharchevnikov, D A; Popov, I O; Zinov'eva, S V; Semenova, S K

    2008-05-01

    Genetic variability of yellow potato cyst nematode G. rostochiensis from three Russian populations (Karelia, Vladimir oblast, and Moscow oblast) was investigated using two types of nuclear markers. Using RAPD markers identified with the help of six random primers (P-29, OPA-10, OPT-14, OPA-11, OPB-11, and OPH-20), it was possible to distinguish Karelian population from the group consisting of the populations from two adjacent regions (Moscow oblast and Vladimir oblast). Based on the combined matrix, containing 294 RAPD fragments, dendrogram of genetic differences was constructed, and the indices of genetic divergence and partition (P, H, and G(st)), as well as the gene flow indices N(m) between the nematode samples examined, were calculated. The dendrogram structure, genetic diversity indices, and variations of genetic distances between single individuals in each population from Karelia and Central Russia pointed to genetic isolation and higher genetic diversity of the nematodes from Karelia. Based on polymorphism of rDNA first intergenic spacer ITS1, attribution of all populations examined to the species G. rostochiensis was proved. Small variations of the ITS1 sequence in different geographic populations of nematodes from different regions of the species world range did not allow isolation of separate groups within the species. Possible factors (including interregional transportations of seed potato) affecting nematode population structure in Russia are discussed. PMID:18672794

  3. Development of novel SCAR markers for genetic characterization of Lonicera japonica from high GC-RAMP-PCR and DNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Li, J; Qiu, Y M; Wei, C L; Yang, L Q; Fu, J J

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were further developed from high-GC primer RAMP-PCR-amplified fragments from Lonicera japonica DNA by molecular cloning. The four DNA fragments from three high-GC primers (FY-27, FY-28, and FY-29) were successfully cloned into a pGM-T vector. The positive clones were sequenced; their names, sizes, and GenBank numbers were JYHGC1-1, 345 bp, KJ620024; YJHGC2-1, 388 bp, KJ620025; JYHGC7-2, 1036 bp, KJ620026; and JYHGC6-2, 715 bp, KJ620027, respectively. Four novel SCAR markers were developed by designing specific primers, optimizing conditions, and PCR validation. The developed SCAR markers were used for the genetic authentication of L. japonica from its substitutes. This technique provides another means of developing DNA markers for the characterization and authentication of various organisms including medicinal plants and their substitutes. PMID:27173286

  4. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  5. Classical swine fever virus marker vaccine strain CP7_E2alf: genetic stability in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Dräger, Carolin; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Recently, CP7_E2alf (SuvaxynCSF Marker), a live marker vaccine against classical swine fever virus, was licensed through the European Medicines Agency. For application of such a genetically engineered virus under field conditions, knowledge about its genetic stability is essential. Here, we report on stability studies that were conducted to assess and compare the mutation rate of CP7_E2alf in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analyses upon passaging confirmed the high stability of CP7_E2alf, and no recombination events were observed in the experimental setup. The data obtained in this study confirm the genetic stability of CP7_E2alf as an important safety component. PMID:26392285

  6. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  7. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, C

    1987-01-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction. PMID:3319549

  8. Association of cancer stem cell markers genetic variants with gallbladder cancer susceptibility, prognosis, and survival.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anu; Gupta, Annapurna; Rastogi, Neeraj; Agrawal, Sushma; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Vijay; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-02-01

    Genes important to stem cell progression have been involved in the genetics and clinical outcome of cancers. We investigated germ line variants in cancer stem cell (CSC) genes to predict susceptibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy treatment in gallbladder cancer (GBC) patients. In this study, we assessed the effect of SNPs in CSC genes (surface markers CD44, ALCAM, EpCAM, CD133) and (molecular markers NANOG, SOX-2, LIN-28A, ALDH1A1, OCT-4) with GBC susceptibility and prognosis. Total 610 GBC patients and 250 controls were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP, ARMS-PCR, and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Chemotoxicity graded 2-4 in 200 patients and tumor response was recorded in 140 patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Differences in genotype and haplotype frequency distributions were calculated by binary logistic regression. Gene-gene interaction model was analyzed by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR). Overall survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and multivariate Cox-proportional methods. ALCAM Ars1157Crs10511244 (P = 0.0035) haplotype was significantly associated with GBC susceptibility. In GMDR analysis, ALCAM rs1157G>A, EpCAM rs1126497T>C emerged as best significant interaction model with GBC susceptibility and ALDH1A1 rs13959T>G with increased risk of grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. SOX-2 rs11915160A>C, OCT-4 rs3130932T>G, and NANOG rs11055786T>C were found best gene-gene interaction model for predicting response to NACT. In both Cox-proportional and recursive partitioning ALCAM rs1157GA+AA genotype showed higher mortality and hazard ratio. ALCAM gene polymorphisms associated with GBC susceptibility and survival while OCT-4, SOX-2, and NANOG variants showed an interactive role with treatment response. PMID:26318430

  9. Genetic Differentiation and Efficient Sex-specific Marker Development of a Pair of Y- and X-linked Markers in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Cheng; Mei, Jie; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Pf62-Y and Pf62-X is a pair of allelic Y chromosome-linked and X chromosome-linked markers, and have been used to identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females for commercial production of all-male populations in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). However, the SCAR primers used previously have only two nucleotide difference, which restricts the wide utility because of nucleotide polymorphism. In this study, a continuous 8102 bp Pf62-Y sequence and a 5362 bp Pf62-X sequence have been cloned by genome walking, and significant genetic differentiation has been revealed between the corresponding X and Y chromosome allele sequences. Moreover, three pairs of primers were designed to efficiently identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females in an artificial breeding population, and to distinguish XY males and XX females in various wild populations. Together, the three new sex-specific genetic markers develop a highly stable and efficient method for genetic sex identification and sex control application in sustainable aquaculture of all-male yellow catfish. PMID:24250249

  10. Genetic differentiation and efficient sex-specific marker development of a pair of Y- and X-linked markers in yellow catfish.

    PubMed

    Dan, Cheng; Mei, Jie; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Pf62-Y and Pf62-X is a pair of allelic Y chromosome-linked and X chromosome-linked markers, and have been used to identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females for commercial production of all-male populations in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). However, the SCAR primers used previously have only two nucleotide difference, which restricts the wide utility because of nucleotide polymorphism. In this study, a continuous 8102 bp Pf62-Y sequence and a 5362 bp Pf62-X sequence have been cloned by genome walking, and significant genetic differentiation has been revealed between the corresponding X and Y chromosome allele sequences. Moreover, three pairs of primers were designed to efficiently identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females in an artificial breeding population, and to distinguish XY males and XX females in various wild populations. Together, the three new sex-specific genetic markers develop a highly stable and efficient method for genetic sex identification and sex control application in sustainable aquaculture of all-male yellow catfish. PMID:24250249

  11. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    PubMed

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource. PMID:27173238

  12. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  13. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 146.122 Section 146.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access...

  14. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  15. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information. 2590.702-1 Section 2590.702-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Health...

  16. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  17. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T...

  18. Genetic Markers in Biological Fluids for Aging-Related Major Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavira, S.A.; Fernández, T.; Nicolini, H.; Diaz-Cintra, S.; Prado-Alcalá, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders. PMID:25731625

  19. Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X B; Jianlin, H; Wang, G; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diagnostic marker-based analysis reveals cattle-specific mtDNA and/or autosomal microsatellite allele introgression in 127 yak individuals from 22 populations. The mean level of cattle admixture across the populations, calculated using allelic information at 17 autosomal microsatellite loci, remains relatively low (mYcattle = 2.66 ± 0.53% and Qcattle = 0.69 ± 2.58%), although it varies a lot across populations as well as among individuals within population. Although the level of cattle admixture shows a clear geographical structure, with higher levels of admixture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Mongolian and Russian regions, and lower levels in the Himalayan and Pamir Plateau region, our results indicate that the level of cattle admixture is not significantly correlated with the altitude across geographical regions as well as within geographical region. Although yak-cattle hybridization is primarily driven to produce F1 hybrids, our results show that the subsequent gene flow between yak and cattle took place and has affected contemporary genetic make-up of domestic yak. To protect yak genetic integrity, hybridization between yak and cattle should be tightly controlled. PMID:19917041

  20. Genetic markers in biological fluids for aging-related major neurocognitive disorder.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, S A; Fernandez, T; Nicolini, H; Diaz-Cintra, S; Prado-Alcala, R A

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer' s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders. PMID:25731625

  1. Extensive dispersal of Roanoke logperch (Percina rex) inferred from genetic marker data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul; Hallerman, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal ecology of most stream fishes is poorly characterised, complicating conservation efforts for these species. We used microsatellite DNA marker data to characterise dispersal patterns and effective population size (Ne) for a population of Roanoke logperchPercina rex, an endangered darter (Percidae). Juveniles and candidate parents were sampled for 2 years at sites throughout the Roanoke River watershed. Dispersal was inferred via genetic assignment tests (ATs), pedigree reconstruction (PR) and estimation of lifetime dispersal distance under a genetic isolation-by-distance model. Estimates of Ne varied from 105 to 1218 individuals, depending on the estimation method. Based on PR, polygamy was frequent in parents of both sexes, with individuals spawning with an average of 2.4 mates. The sample contained 61 half-sibling pairs, but only one parent–offspring pair and no full-sib pairs, which limited our ability to discriminate natal dispersal of juveniles from breeding dispersal of their parents between spawning events. Nonetheless, all methods indicated extensive dispersal. The AT indicated unrestricted dispersal among sites ≤15 km apart, while siblings inferred by the PR were captured an average of 14 km and up to 55 km apart. Model-based estimates of median lifetime dispersal distance (6–24 km, depending on assumptions) bracketed AT and PR estimates, indicating that widely dispersed individuals do, on average, contribute to gene flow. Extensive dispersal of P. rex suggests that darters and other small benthic stream fishes may be unexpectedly mobile. Monitoring and management activities for such populations should encompass entire watersheds to fully capture population dynamics.

  2. Nevus Anemicus As an Additional Diagnostic Marker of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Vaassen, Pia; Rosenbaum, Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) can be established when at least two out of seven defined clinical findings are present. However, a definite clinical diagnosis may be challenging, especially in young children. Therefore, we tried to identify additional clinical signs suggestive of NF1. We observed that nevi anemici (NA) occur with increased frequency in NF1 patients. To establish NA as an additional diagnostic criterion for NF1 we evaluated their exact frequency in children potentially affected by NF1. During a 6-month period we examined 100 NF1 patients and documented patients' age and sex as well as presence, location, and characteristic features of NA. We were able to show that NA are present in 28% of NF1 patients, which is well above the 5% prevalence of NA in the general population. It is not known why NA appear with increased frequency in NF1. We hypothesize that an imbalance between α- and β-adrenergic receptors, resulting in increased α-adrenergic vasoconstriction might be the underlying cause of NF1-associated NA. Based on our own observations and previously published studies, we propose that NA in children with suspected NF1 might facilitate definite diagnosis and improve clinical management. PMID:27019377

  3. Polysaccharides as a marker for detection of corn sugar syrup addition in honey.

    PubMed

    Megherbi, Mehdi; Herbreteau, Bernard; Faure, René; Salvador, Arnaud

    2009-03-25

    Honey is a natural product of high quality. However, because of its limited production and of its relatively high price, some beekeepers or unscrupulous traders do not hesitate to modify and falsify this natural product in order to try to increase its market value. Then, these involved falsification practices, for example intentional addition of cheap sugar syrup to honeys, are sometimes difficult to detect. An effective and simple analytical method is proposed in order to detect adulteration in honey by analysis of polysaccharide profiles. Samples were previously treated with reversed-phase solid phase extraction first to remove monosaccharides and small oligosaccharides and second to concentrate simultaneously traces of polysaccharides. A chromatographic separation using anion exchange stationary phase and pulse amperometric detection was further performed. Polysaccharide fingerprints (degree of polymerization from 11 to 17) were shown to be present in laboratory doped samples, and not detectable or present at very low concentrations in the authentic honey samples. Application to acacia, mountain polyfloral and polyfloral honeys enabled readily the detection of fraud resulting from deliberate addition of 1% of corn syrup. PMID:19243098

  4. A genetic linkage map of marine shrimp Penaeus ( Fenneropenaeus) chinensis based on AFLP, SSR, and RAPD markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Qingyin; Li, Jian; Liu, Ping; He, Yuying

    2010-07-01

    The Chinese shrimp Penaeus ( Fenneropaeneus) chinensis is an important species in marine fishery and aquaculture in China. A female Chinese shrimp Penaeus ( Fenneropaeneus) chinensis was captured from west coast of the Korean peninsula and mated with a “Yellow Sea No. 1” male to produce the first filial generation (F1) 100 F2 full-sib progeny from brother-sister crosses between F1 families was used for the mapping study. A genetic linkage map of the Chinese shrimp was constructed, based on 354 markers, including 300 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, 42 microsatellite (SSR) markers, and 12 randomly amplified polymorphism (RAPD) markers. Forty-seven linkage groups (LGs) were identified. The total map length was 4 580.5 cM, with an average spacing of 11.3 cM, covering 75.8% of the estimated genome size. The construction of this genetic linkage map was part of a genetic breeding program. This linkage map will contribute to the discovery of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in Chinese shrimp.

  5. Genome-wide identification of novel genetic markers from RNA sequencing assembly of diverse Aegilops tauschii accessions.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Ryo; Yoshida, Kentaro; Motoi, Yuka; Sato, Kazuhiro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2016-08-01

    The wild species in the Triticeae tribe are tremendous resources for crop breeding due to their abundant natural variation. However, their huge and highly repetitive genomes have hindered the establishment of physical maps and the completeness of their genome sequences. To develop molecular markers for the efficient utilization of their valuable traits while avoiding their genome complexity, we assembled RNA sequences of ten representative accessions of Aegilops tauschii, the progenitor of the wheat D genome, and estimated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (indels). The deduced unigenes were anchored to the chromosomes of Ae. tauschii and barley. The SNPs and indels in the anchored unigenes, covering entire chromosomes, were sufficient for linkage map construction, even in combinations between the genetically closest accessions. Interestingly, the resolution of SNP and indel distribution on barley chromosomes was slightly higher than on Ae. tauschii chromosomes. Since barley chromosomes are regarded as virtual chromosomes of Triticeae species, our strategy allows capture of genetic markers arranged on the chromosomes in order based on the conserved synteny. The resolution of these genetic markers will be comparable to that of the Ae. tauschii whose draft genome sequence is available. Our procedure should be applicable to marker development for Triticeae species, which have no draft sequences available. PMID:27142109

  6. Genetic analysis of a local population of Oryza glumaepatula using SSR markers: implications for management and conservation programs.

    PubMed

    de Campos Vaz, Ana Rosa; de Oliveira Borba, Tereza Cristina; Brondani, Claudio; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; de Oliveira Camargo, Graziela Silvia; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires; Filho, José Alexandre Felizola Diniz; Brondani, Rosana Pereira Vianello

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge of natural diversity and population structures of wild species, which might be related to cultivated species, is fundamental for conservation and breeding purposes. In this study, a genetic characterization of a large population of Oryza glumaepatula, occurring in a 10 km(2) area located at Tamengo Basin (Paraguay River, Brazil), was performed using SSR markers. This population is annually dragged from the river to permit navigation; one goal of this study was to examine the impact of this removal on genetic variability. From 18 polymorphic SSR markers, a total of 190 alleles were detected in a sample of 126 individuals, with an average of 10.3 alleles/locus, and a H(e) of 0.67. The five QTL-related markers showed an average H(e) value of 0.56, while the remaining 13 markers detected an average estimate of 0.70. An apparent outcrossing rate of 30%, a high proportion of alleles at low frequencies (56%), and the presence of exclusive alleles (9.5%) were found, with strong evidence of the establishment of individuals from different populations upstream in the Paraguay River. For conservation purposes, the river drag has no effect on the population. However, periodical seed collection from the Corumbá population can preserve part of the genetic variability present in upstream populations reducing the need for upriver collecting expeditions. PMID:19636802

  7. Development of novel microsatellite DNA markers by cross-amplification and analysis of genetic variation in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen; Li, Wei; Tan, Yuanqing; Lu, Jing; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Taiyun; Dong, Gang; Zeng, Lin

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to establish microsatellite loci for the Mongolian gerbil based on mouse microsatellite DNA sequences and to investigate genetic variation in the laboratory gerbil (Capital Medical University, CMU) and 2 wild gerbil populations (from Yin Chuan city [YIN] and the Hohehot Municipality [HOH]). In total, 536 mouse microsatellite markers were chosen to identify polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in the gerbil by cross-amplification. Of these markers, 313 (58.39%) have been discretely amplified from the CMU laboratory gerbil and been sequenced. Of the 313 sequenced markers, 130 were confirmed as simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in the gerbil. In total, 6 of those newly identified loci plus 6 identified in previous reports were used to estimate the genetic polymorphism for 30 laboratory gerbils and 54 wild gerbils (27 each of the HOH and YIN groups). A total of 29 alleles were observed in the 3 populations, and 11 of 12 loci (91.67%) are polymorphic markers. Nei's standard genetic distances of 0.0592 (CMU vs. HOH) and 0.1033 (CMU vs. YIN) were observed. The averages of observed versus expected heterozygosity are 0.5231/0.4008, 0.5051/0.3882, and 0.4825/0.3665 for the YIN, HOH, and CMU populations, respectively. These results show that cross-amplification using mouse microsatellite primers is an efficient way to identify gerbil SSR loci. By using these 12 selected markers, we have demonstrated that genetic variation level within the CMU population is higher than that has been reported previously and are comparable with the levels found in 2 wild populations. PMID:20525768

  8. Measuring the genetic diversity of Arabian Oryx using microsatellite markers: implication for captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A; Shobrak, Mohammad; Homaidan, Ali A Al; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Farhan, Ahmad H Al

    2010-04-01

    Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) is an endangered antelope that is being protected by captive breeding programs. However, the long term success of these programs mainly depends on the prudent use of molecular information for conservation management. We have used an array of seven microsatellite loci to examine the molecular diversity in a representative population of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced Arabian oryx. The locus-wise mean observed heterozygosity (0.601) was found to be comparatively higher than the mean expected heterozygosity (0.565). The specimen-wise observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.143 to 1.00 with an average of 0.60 whereas the mean d(2) varied from 0.57 to 1023.428 with an average value of 223.357. The results of Shannon information index (I = 0.898) also indicated a high level of within population genetic diversity. The average gene flow was 0.298, ranging between 0.204 and 0.424 for different loci. In conclusion, the information about the extent of heterozygosity, allelic diversity and inbreeding/outbreeding depression using microsatellite markers could be of potential relevance for the management of captive breeding programs for the conservation of Arabian oryx. PMID:20558900

  9. rmpM gene as a genetic marker for human bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Dash, S K; Sharma, M; Khare, S; Kumar, A

    2012-01-01

    Meningitis is a bacterial, viral or fungal infection of the protective membrane meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. Viral and other forms of meningitis are mild and get cured within one or two week without any treatment. Whereas, bacterial meningitis can prove lethal if not being diagnosed or treated in time. Meningitis is a contagious infection and can spread from one person to another through coughing, sneezing or close contact. Usually the disease is diagnosed from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the patients using culture, PCR, immunological and biochemical tests. All these methods suffer from one or more limitations. Our lab has developed a quick PCR based detection of Neisseria meningitidis (bacterial meningitis) directly from the patient CSF samples using specific primers of virulent rmpM gene. The overall analysis completes in 80 min for confirmation of the disease. Amplicon of 308 bp of rmpM gene does not show homology with other organisms and can be used as a genetic marker for human bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis. PMID:23273188

  10. Genetic identification of bucktooth parrotfish Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes, 1840) (Labridae, Scarinae) by chromosomal and molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Paim, Fabilene Gomes; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Sampaio, Iracilda; de Mello Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Diniz, Débora

    2014-01-01

    Parrotfishes (Labridae, Scarinae) comprise a large marine fish group of difficult identification, particularly during juvenile phase when the typical morphology and coloration of adults are absent. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test cytogenetic markers and DNA barcoding in the identification of bucktooth parrtotfish Sparisoma radians from the northeastern coast of Brazil. Sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) confirmed all studied samples as S. radians, and all showed high similarity (99–100%) with Caribbean populations. The karyotype of this species was divergent from most marine Perciformes, being composed of 2n = 46 chromosomes. These consisted of a large number of metacentric and submetacentric pairs with small amounts of heterochromatin and GC-rich single nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) not syntenic to 5S rDNA clusters. These are the first data about DNA barcoding in parrotfish from the Brazilian province and the first refined chromosomal analysis in Scarinae, providing useful data to a reliable genetic identification of S. radians. PMID:25505839

  11. Transcriptome sequencing of field pea and faba bean for discovery and validation of SSR genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) are cool-season grain legume species that provide rich sources of food for humans and fodder for livestock. To date, both species have been relative 'genomic orphans' due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. A significant enrichment of genomic resources is consequently required in order to understand the genetic architecture of important agronomic traits, and to support germplasm enhancement, genetic diversity, population structure and demographic studies. Results cDNA samples obtained from various tissue types of specific field pea and faba bean genotypes were sequenced using 454 Roche GS FLX Titanium technology. A total of 720,324 and 304,680 reads for field pea and faba bean, respectively, were de novo assembled to generate sets of 70,682 and 60,440 unigenes. Consensus sequences were compared against the genome of the model legume species Medicago truncatula Gaertn., as well as that of the more distantly related, but better-characterised genome of Arabidopsis thaliana L.. In comparison to M. truncatula coding sequences, 11,737 and 10,179 unique hits were obtained from field pea and faba bean. Totals of 22,057 field pea and 18,052 faba bean unigenes were subsequently annotated from GenBank. Comparison to the genome of soybean (Glycine max L.) resulted in 19,451 unique hits for field pea and 16,497 unique hits for faba bean, corresponding to c. 35% and 30% of the known gene space, respectively. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from consensus sequences, and totals of 2,397 and 802 primer pairs were designed for field pea and faba bean. Subsets of 96 EST-SSR markers were screened for validation across modest panels of field pea and faba bean cultivars, as well as related non-domesticated species. For field pea, 86 primer pairs successfully obtained amplification products from one or more template genotypes, of which 59

  12. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Asmare D; Admassu, Belayneh; Belew, Derbew; Yesuf, Mohammed; Njuguna, Joyce; Kyalo, Martina; Ghimire, Sita R

    2016-01-01

    Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for citrus plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 163 isolates from four different geographical regions of Ethiopia. These loci produced a total of 118 alleles with an average of 5.13 alleles per microsatellite marker. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.104 to 0.597 with an average of 0.371. The average observed heterozygosity across all loci varied from 0.046 to 0.058. The gene diversity among the loci ranged from 0.106 to 0.664. Unweighted Neighbor-joining and population structure analysis grouped these 163 isolates into three major groups. The clusters were not according to the geographic origin of the isolates. Analysis of molecular variance showed 85% of the total variation within populations and only 5% among populations. There was low genetic differentiation in the total populations (FST = 0.049) as evidenced by high level of gene flow estimate (Nm = 4.8 per generation) among populations. The results show that Ethiopian C. gloeosporioides populations are generally characterized by a low level of genetic diversity. The newly developed microsatellite markers were useful in analyzing the genetic diversity and population structure of the C. gloeosporioides populations. Information obtained from this study could be useful as a base to design strategies for better management of leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus in Ethiopia. PMID:26978654

  13. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Moges, Asmare D.; Admassu, Belayneh; Belew, Derbew; Yesuf, Mohammed; Njuguna, Joyce; Kyalo, Martina; Ghimire, Sita R.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for citrus plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 163 isolates from four different geographical regions of Ethiopia. These loci produced a total of 118 alleles with an average of 5.13 alleles per microsatellite marker. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.104 to 0.597 with an average of 0.371. The average observed heterozygosity across all loci varied from 0.046 to 0.058. The gene diversity among the loci ranged from 0.106 to 0.664. Unweighted Neighbor-joining and population structure analysis grouped these 163 isolates into three major groups. The clusters were not according to the geographic origin of the isolates. Analysis of molecular variance showed 85% of the total variation within populations and only 5% among populations. There was low genetic differentiation in the total populations (FST = 0.049) as evidenced by high level of gene flow estimate (Nm = 4.8 per generation) among populations. The results show that Ethiopian C. gloeosporioides populations are generally characterized by a low level of genetic diversity. The newly developed microsatellite markers were useful in analyzing the genetic diversity and population structure of the C. gloeosporioides populations. Information obtained from this study could be useful as a base to design strategies for better management of leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus in Ethiopia. PMID:26978654

  14. Estimation of Pairwise Identity by Descent From Dense Genetic Marker Data in a Population Sample of Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    I present a new approach for calculating probabilities of identity by descent for pairs of haplotypes. The approach is based on a joint hidden Markov model for haplotype frequencies and identity by descent (IBD). This model allows for linkage disequilibrium, and the method can be applied to very dense marker data. The method has high power for detecting IBD tracts of genetic length of 1 cM, with the use of sufficiently dense markers. This enables detection of pairwise IBD between haplotypes from individuals whose most recent common ancestor lived up to 50 generations ago. PMID:18430938

  15. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  16. Genetic markers of pigmentation are novel risk loci for uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Robert; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Rai, Karan; Pilarski, Robert; Martinez, Carlos N; Rendleman, Justin; Kazlow, Esther; Nagdimov, Khagay; Osman, Iman; Klein, Robert J; Davidorf, Frederick H; Cebulla, Colleen M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Kirchhoff, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    While the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of uveal melanoma (UM) has been strongly suggested, the genetic susceptibility to UM is currently vastly unexplored. Due to shared epidemiological risk factors between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and UM, in this study we have selected 28 SNPs identified as risk variants in previous genome-wide association studies on CM or CM-related host phenotypes (such as pigmentation and eye color) and tested them for association with UM risk. By logistic regression analysis of 272 UM cases and 1782 controls using an additive model, we identified five variants significantly associated with UM risk, all passing adjustment for multiple testing. The three most significantly associated variants rs12913832 (OR = 0.529, 95% CI 0.415-0.673; p = 8.47E-08), rs1129038 (OR = 0.533, 95% CI 0.419-0.678; p = 1.19E-07) and rs916977 (OR = 0.465, 95% CI 0.339-0.637; p = 3.04E-07) are correlated (r(2) > 0.5) and map at 15q12 in the region of HERC2/OCA2, which determines eye-color in the human population. Our data provides first evidence that the genetic factors associated with pigmentation traits are risk loci of UM susceptibility. PMID:27499155

  17. Genetic markers of pigmentation are novel risk loci for uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Rai, Karan; Pilarski, Robert; Martinez, Carlos N.; Rendleman, Justin; Kazlow, Esther; Nagdimov, Khagay; Osman, Iman; Klein, Robert J.; Davidorf , Frederick H.; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Kirchhoff , Tomas

    2016-01-01

    While the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of uveal melanoma (UM) has been strongly suggested, the genetic susceptibility to UM is currently vastly unexplored. Due to shared epidemiological risk factors between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and UM, in this study we have selected 28 SNPs identified as risk variants in previous genome-wide association studies on CM or CM-related host phenotypes (such as pigmentation and eye color) and tested them for association with UM risk. By logistic regression analysis of 272 UM cases and 1782 controls using an additive model, we identified five variants significantly associated with UM risk, all passing adjustment for multiple testing. The three most significantly associated variants rs12913832 (OR = 0.529, 95% CI 0.415–0.673; p = 8.47E-08), rs1129038 (OR = 0.533, 95% CI 0.419–0.678; p = 1.19E-07) and rs916977 (OR = 0.465, 95% CI 0.339–0.637; p = 3.04E-07) are correlated (r2 > 0.5) and map at 15q12 in the region of HERC2/OCA2, which determines eye-color in the human population. Our data provides first evidence that the genetic factors associated with pigmentatio